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Hoe Ierland 'Fallen Women' in slawe verander het

Hoe Ierland 'Fallen Women' in slawe verander het

Toe die Sisters of Our Lady of Charity besluit het om grond wat hulle in Dublin, Ierland besit, in 1992 te verkoop om hul skuld te betaal, het die nonne die regte prosedures gevolg. Hulle het amptenare versoek om toestemming om die lyke van vroue wat in die begraafplaas begrawe is, in hul wasgoed in Donnybrook te skuif, wat tussen 1837 en 1992 as 'n werkhuis en 'n huis vir 'gevalle vroue' gedien het.

Maar die begraafplaas by Donnybrook was geen gewone rusplek nie: dit was 'n massagraf. Binne was die lyke van talle onbekende vroue: die ongedokumenteerde, onversorgde gevangenes van een van Ierland se berugte Magdalene-wasserye. Hulle lewens - en later hul dood - was in geheimhouding gehul.

Vir meer as twee eeue is vroue in Ierland na instellings soos Donnybrook gestuur as 'n straf omdat hulle seks buite die huwelik gehad het. Ongetroude moeders, flirterige vroue en ander wat as ongeskik vir die samelewing beskou word, moes maande of jare onder streng toesig van nonne werk, soms selfs lewenslank.

Toe die massagraf by Donnybrook ontdek word, het die 155 ongemerkte grafte 'n skandaal aangeraak wat die omvang en gruwels van die Magdalene -wasserye blootgelê het. Terwyl vroue na vore kom om hul ervarings oor die aanhouding in beperkende werkhuise te deel, reageer die Ierse publiek met verontwaardiging.

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Toe die Magdalena-beweging in die middel van die 18de eeu die eerste keer posvat, word die veldtog om 'gevalle vroue' aan die werk te sit, ondersteun deur beide die Katolieke en Protestantse kerke, met vroue wat kort termyn in die asiel dien met die doel om te rehabiliteer. Deur die jare het die wasserye van Magdalena - vernoem na die Bybelse figuur Maria Magdalena - egter hoofsaaklik Katolieke instellings geword, en die tydperk het al hoe langer geword. Vroue wat daarheen gestuur is, word dikwels daarvan beskuldig dat hulle 'hulself verlos' deur kantwerk, naaldwerk of wasgoed te doen.

Alhoewel die meeste inwoners nie aan enige misdaad skuldig bevind is nie, was die omstandighede binne die tronk. "Verlossing kan soms 'n verskeidenheid dwangmaatreëls insluit, insluitend geskeerde koppe, institusionele uniforms, brood- en waterdiëte, beperkte besoeke, korrespondensie onder toesig, eensame opsluiting en selfs geseling", skryf historikus Helen J. Self.

Ierland se eerste sodanige instelling, die Magdalen Asylum for Penitent Females in Dublin, is in 1765 deur die Protestantse Kerk van Ierland gestig. Destyds was daar kommer dat prostitusie in Ierse stede toeneem en dat "eiesinnige" vroue wat verlei is, seks buite die huwelik gehad het of buite die huwelik swanger geraak het, was vatbaar vir prostituut. Gou het ouers hul ongetroude dogters na die instellings begin stuur om hul swangerskappe te verberg.

Aanvanklik het 'n meerderheid vroue vrywillig die instellings betree en meerjarige terme gedien waarin hulle 'n 'agbare' beroep aangeleer het. Die idee was dat hulle hierdie vaardighede sou gebruik om geld te verdien nadat hulle vrygelaat is; hul werk het die instelling ondersteun terwyl hulle daar was.

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Maar mettertyd het die instellings meer soos gevangenisse gelyk, met baie verskillende groepe vroue wat deur die stelsel gelei is, soms deur die Ierse regering. Daar is gevangenes ingevoer uit psigiatriese instellings en gevangenisse, vroue met spesiale behoeftes, slagoffers van verkragting en seksuele aanranding, swanger tieners wat deur hul ouers daarheen gestuur is, en meisies wat as te flirterig of aanloklik vir mans beskou word. Ander was daar sonder duidelike rede. Alhoewel die instellings deur Katolieke bevele bestuur is, is dit ondersteun deur die Ierse regering, wat geld na die stelsel gestuur het in ruil vir wasgoeddienste.

Nonne regeer straffeloos die wasserye, slaan soms gevangenes en handhaaf streng stilswye. 'U het nie geweet wanneer die volgende slae kom nie,' het Mary Smith in 'n mondelinge geskiedenis gesê.

Smith is in die wasgoed van Sundays Well in Cork opgesluit nadat hy verkrag is; nonne het vir haar gesê dit was "ingeval sy swanger word." Toe sy daar was, moes sy haar hare sny en 'n nuwe naam aanneem. Sy is nie toegelaat om te praat nie, en sy kry terugbreekwerk in die wassery, waar nonne haar gereeld geslaan het vir geringe oortredings en haar gedwing het om in die koue te slaap. As gevolg van die trauma wat sy opgedoen het, onthou Smith nie presies hoe lank sy in Sondags Well deurgebring het nie. 'Vir my het dit soos my leeftyd gevoel,' het sy gesê.

Smith was nie alleen nie. Dikwels is vroue se name van hulle gestroop; hulle word met syfers of as 'kind' of 'boetvaardig' genoem. Sommige gevangenes - dikwels weeskinders of slagoffers van verkragting of mishandeling - het 'n leeftyd daar gebly; ander het ontsnap en is na die instellings teruggebring.

'N Ander oorlewende, Marina Gambold, is deur haar plaaslike priester in 'n wassery geplaas. Sy onthou dat sy gedwing is om van die vloer af te eet nadat sy 'n koppie gebreek het en vir 'n geringe oortreding buite die koue toegesluit was. 'Ek werk in die wasgoed van agtuur in die oggend tot ongeveer sesuur die aand', het sy in 2013 aan die BBC gesê. '

Sommige swanger vroue is na huise vir ongetroude moeders oorgeplaas, waar hulle gebaar het en tydelik saam met hul babas gewoon het en in dieselfde omstandighede as dié van die wasserye gewerk het. Babas is gewoonlik van hul moeders geneem en aan ander gesinne oorhandig. In een van die berugste huise, die Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home in Tuam, is talle babas dood. In 2014 is oorblyfsels van minstens 796 babas in 'n septiese tenk in die huis se erf gevind; die fasiliteit word nog ondersoek om die verhaal van wat daar gebeur het, te rekonstrueer.

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Hoe het so 'n misbruikstelsel 231 jaar in Ierland bestaan? Om mee te begin, was die gesprek oor harde behandeling by die Magdalene -wasserye en moedershuise geneig om deur die publiek afgemaak te word, aangesien die instellings deur godsdienstige bevele bestuur is. Oorlewendes wat ander vertel het wat hulle deurgemaak het, is dikwels skaam of geïgnoreer. Ander vroue was te skaam om oor hul verlede te praat en het nooit iemand van hul ervarings vertel nie. Besonderhede oor sowel die gevangenes as hul lewens is skaars.

Die ramings van die aantal vroue wat deur die Ierse Magdalene -wasserye gegaan het, wissel, en die meeste godsdienstige ordes het geweier om argiefinligting aan ondersoekers en historici te verskaf. Daar word vermoed dat tot 300 000 vroue in totaal deur die wasserye gegaan het, minstens 10 000 daarvan sedert 1922. Maar ten spyte van 'n groot aantal oorlewendes, was die wasserye tot in die negentigerjare onbetwis.

Toe besluit die Sisters of Our Lady of Charity om 'n deel van die grond in 1992 te verkoop. Hulle het aansoek gedoen om 133 lyke uit ongemerkte grafte op die erf te laat skuif, maar die oorskot van 155 mense is gevind. Toe joernaliste verneem dat daar slegs 75 doodsertifikate bestaan, het geskrikte gemeenskapslede uitgeroep om meer inligting. Die non het verduidelik dat daar 'n administratiewe fout was, al die oorskot veras en in 'n ander massagraf begrawe.

Die ontdekking het die wasserye van Magdalena van 'n oop geheim verander na nuus op die voorblad. Skielik het vroue begin getuig oor hul ervarings by die instellings en die Ierse regering onder druk geplaas om die Katolieke Kerk aanspreeklik te hou en sake by die Verenigde Nasies vir menseregteskendings te vervolg. Binnekort het die VN die Vatikaan aangemoedig om die saak te ondersoek en te verklaar dat "meisies [by die wasserye] hul identiteit, opvoeding en dikwels voedsel en noodsaaklike medisyne beroof word en dat hulle 'n swyeverpligting opgelê en verbied is om kontak met die buitewêreld. ”

Terwyl die Katolieke Kerk geswyg het, het die Ierse regering 'n verslag gepubliseer wat erkenning gee aan uitgebreide betrokkenheid van die regering by die wasserye en die diepe wreedheid van die instellings. In 2013 het die president van Ierland by die Magdalene -vroue om verskoning gevra en 'n vergoedingsfonds aangekondig. Die godsdienstige groepe wat die wasserye bestuur het, het egter geweier om by te dra tot die fonds en het navorsers van die hand gewys op soek na meer inligting oor die wasserye.

Gedeeltelik as gevolg van die herrie rondom die ontdekking van die massagraf, het die laaste Magdalene -wasgoed uiteindelik in 1996 gesluit. Dit was die tuiste van 40 vroue, die meeste bejaardes en baie met ontwikkelingsgestremdhede. Nege het geen bekende familielede gehad nie; almal het besluit om by die nonne te bly.

Alhoewel Smith daarin geslaag het om haar eie lewe te herwin, verstaan ​​sy die skade wat institusionalisering op lang termyn kan aanrig. 'My liggaam het in 'n skulp geraak toe ek daarheen gegaan het. Toe die deur toe was, was my lewe verby, ”onthou Smith in haar mondelinge geskiedenis. 'U sien al hierdie vroue daar, en u weet dat u soos hulle sal eindig en die res van u lewe sielkundig beskadig sal word.


Herinner ons aan Afrika se ontstellende verhaal van sy eerste slawe - The Arabs –, terwyl die Britse afskaffing van slawehandel herdenk word

Die 25ste Maart is, soos gewoonlik, herdenk toe Brittanje sy slawehandel amptelik in 1807 afgeskaf het. Maar hoeveel onthou dat Arabiese slawe die eerste en laaste in die moderne tyd miljoene Afrikane as slawe uit die kontinent was ? En dat Arabiese slawe meer Afrikaanse vroue bo mans verkies het? Ons besoek ons ​​argiewe weer vir hierdie insiggewende herinnering deur George Pavlu.

In sy boek, Slawe en Slawerny, wat in 1998 gepubliseer is, definieer die Britse skrywer Duncan Clarke slawerny as "die vermindering van medemense tot die wettige status van losgoed, sodat hulle gekoop en verkoop kan word as goedere". Dit is in wese wat die Arabiere en die Europeërs aan Afrikaners gedoen het om die versending van miljoene Afrikane as slawe na verre lande in Asië (veral die Midde-Ooste) en die Amerikas te regverdig.

'Die Afrikaanse slawehandel, sekerlik een van die mees tragiese en verontrustendste episodes in die geskiedenis van die mensdom,' skryf Clarke, 'het sy oorsprong gehad in die ingryping van magte uit die beskawings wat in die streke van die Middellandse See ontwikkel het - vandag se Europa en die Midde-Ooste-in die arena van die meer gefragmenteerde beskawings van Afrika suid van die Sahara.

'Afrika het eeue voor die ontdekking van die Amerikas 'n bron van slawe geword vir die kulture van die Middellandse See -wêreld, maar dit was die ontdekking en die gevolglike verskuiwing van fokus na die Atlantiese Oseaan wat die kulminerende plofbare groei in slawerny met so 'n tragiese effek veroorsaak het. ”

Slawerny was eintlik 'n sentrale kenmerk van die lewe in die Mediterreense wêreld, veral in Mesopotamië, antieke Egipte, Griekeland, die keiserlike Rome en die Islamitiese samelewings in die Midde -Ooste en Noord -Afrika.

Toe, tussen 1600 en 1800, is nog 1,4 miljoen Afrikane deur die Arabiere verskeep. Die 19de eeu was die hoogste punt in die Arabiese handel waar 12 000 Afrikane elke jaar verskeep is. Die totale syfer vir die 19de eeu alleen was 1,2 miljoen slawe van Arabië.

“Die belangrikste bron van slawe in die Middeleeuse Europa”, toon Clarke se navorsing, “was die kus van Bosnië aan die oostelike oewer van die Adriatiese See. Die woord 'slaaf' en sy verwante in die meeste moderne Europese tale is self afgelei van 'sclavus' wat 'slaaf' beteken, die etniese naam vir die inwoners van hierdie streek …

“Om verskeie redes, waaronder die hardheid van die terrein en endemiese oorlogvoering onder plaaslike stamme, was Bosnië die gerieflikste en langdurigste van hierdie slawe-verskaffende streke. Ongeag watter geslag 'n tydelike oorhand gekry het, was altyd bereid om sy gevange teenstanders te verkoop in ruil vir die goedere van die Middellandse See op die markte van die antieke geromaniseerde stad Ragusa (vandag Dubrovnik). Van daar af is Slawiërs deur Venetiaanse handelaars as slawe gestuur om nuwe markte in die Islamitiese wêreld te voorsien. ”

So, "vir die Islamitiese wêreld", vervolg Clarke, "was Slawiërs die belangrikste bron van slawe in die ongeveer 250 jaar tussen die nederlaag tydens die slag van Poitiers in 732 nC wat die konsolidasie van hul dramatiese verowerings in Noord -Afrika en die Iberiese skiereiland, wat die vloei van oorlogsgevangenes verminder en die uitbreiding van die invoer van swart Afrikane oor die Sahara vanaf ongeveer 1000 nC. ”

Die handel in slawe het geëindig toe die Ottomaanse Turkse die streek in 1463 verower het. verkennings aan die Wes -Afrikaanse kus wat die tweede en verwoestendste roete sou oopmaak vir die uitbuiting van Afrikaners as slawe. ”

Dit is moeilik om syfers oor die Arabiese slawehandel in Afrika te kry, maar die historikus Paul Lovejoy skat dat ongeveer 9,85 miljoen Afrikane as slawe na Arabië en in klein getalle na die Indiese subkontinent gestuur is. Lovejoy breek sy syfers soos volg op:

Tussen 650 en 1600 nC is gemiddeld 5 000 Afrikane deur die Arabiere verskeep. Dit maak 'n rowwe totaal van 7,25 miljoen.

Toe, tussen 1600 en 1800, is nog 1,4 miljoen Afrikane deur die Arabiere verskeep. Die 19de eeu was die hoogste punt in die Arabiese handel waar 12 000 Afrikane elke jaar verskeep is. Die totale syfer vir die 19de eeu alleen was 1,2 miljoen slawe van Arabië.

Die getalle spel

Wat getalle betref, is Arabië se 9,85 miljoen dus nie ver agter die konserwatiewe skatting van byna 12 miljoen Afrika -slagoffers van die Atlantiese slawehandel nie. Sommige Afrikaanse historici verwerp hierdie syfers egter omdat hulle te laag is. Hulle stel voor dat meer as 50 miljoen Afrikane alleen tydens die Atlantiese handel gestuur is.

Volgens Lovejoy is nog 4,1 miljoen Afrikane oor die Rooi See na die Persiese Golf en Indië gestuur. "Hierdie handel, ook met die uitsondering van 'n mate van Portugese betrokkenheid op die gebied van Mosambiek, en die Franse uitvoer uit die 18de en 19de eeu na eilande onder hulle beheer in die Indiese Oseaan, is grootliks deur Moslems uitgevoer," voeg Duncan Clarke by.

Gedurende die 19de eeu het die Omani -Arabiese heersers van Zanzibar honderdduisende Afrikaanse slawe gestuur om op naeltjieplantasies op die eiland te werk. Dit was hierdie handel wat Europa en Amerika soveel bevrediging verskaf het, nadat hulle hul eie handel in Afrikaanse slawe afgeskaf het, om die goddeloosheid van die Arabiese slawe te beklemtoon wat Afrikane tot in die eerste dekades van die 20ste eeu bly verslaaf het. Tot vandag toe werk Arabiese slawe nog steeds in Soedan en Mauritanië en koop en verkoop hulle swart Afrikane.

David Livingstone, die Britse sendeling/reisiger/ontdekkingsreisiger, was so ontsteld oor die manier waarop die Arabiere hul Afrikaanse slawe behandel het dat hy in 1870 teruggeskryf het:

'In minder as wat ek nodig het om daaroor te praat, het hierdie ongelukkige wesens - 84 van hulle, die dorpie waar ons was, binnegedring. Sommige van hulle, die oudste, was vroue van 20 tot 22 jaar oud, en daar was jongmense van 18 tot 19 jaar, maar die oorgrote meerderheid bestaan ​​uit seuns en dogters van 7 tot 14 of 15 jaar oud.

'' N Verskrikliker toneel as hierdie mans, vroue en kinders, ek dink nie ek het ooit teëgekom nie. Om te sê dat hulle uitgeteer is, sal jou nie 'n idee gee van wat mense onder sekere omstandighede kan ondergaan nie. 'Elkeen van hulle het sy nek in 'n groot gevurkte stok, wat 30 tot 40 pond weeg, en vyf of ses voet lank, met 'n vurk aan die einde daarvan gesny waar die takke van 'n boom uitsprei. 'Die vroue was vasgemaak met basstringe, wat in alle opsigte die wreedste is om mee vasgemaak te word. Natuurlik is hulle sag en soepel wanneer hulle eers van die bome afgestroop word, maar 'n paar uur in die son maak hulle omtrent net so hard soos die yster ronde verpakkingskaste. Die kindertjies is met 'n riem vasgemaak aan hul ma's. 'Terwyl ons langs die pad loop wat hierdie slawe afgelê het, het ek 'n plek in die bosse gekry waar 'n arme vrou die vorige dag nie kon ophou nie en dit waarskynlik sou verhinder, deur die byl van een afgekap van hierdie slawebestuurders. 'Ons het verder gegaan en 'n kant gesien waar 'n kind lê. Dit is onlangs gebore, en sy ma kon dit nie van swakheid en uitputting weerhou nie, so die slawehandelaar het hierdie baba by sy voete gevat en sy brein teen een van die bome gestamp en daar ingegooi. ”

Dit was die wreedheid wat die Arabiere aan die Afrikaners gebied het. Net soos die Atlantiese handel, was die "middelste gang" van die Arabiese handel net so aaklig en skrikwekkend. Die “middelste gang” beskryf die aangrypende reis van etlike maande van die weskus van Afrika na die Amerikas waartydens miljoene Afrikane, verpak soos sardientjies in die slaweskepe, gesterf het van dors, honger, rowwe see en soms as gevolg van die wreedheid wat hulle veroorsaak het die Europese slawe.

David Livingstone, die Britse sendeling/reisiger/ontdekkingsreisiger, was so ontsteld oor die manier waarop die Arabiere met hul Afrikaanse slawe omgegaan het dat hy in 1870 by die huis geskryf het: 'In minder as wat ek nodig het om daaroor te praat, het hierdie ongelukkige wesens - 84 van hulle, gegaan op pad na die dorp waar ons was. Sommige van hulle, die oudste, was vroue van 20 tot 22 jaar oud, en daar was jongmense van 18 tot 19, maar die oorgrote meerderheid bestaan ​​uit seuns en meisies van 7 tot 14 of 15 jaar oud.

In die Arabiese handel was die dreigement oor die Sahara, in been- en nekkettings, en soos Livingstone hierbo beskryf, nekke in groot gevurkte stokke en hande vasgemaak met basstringe veral hard vir die Afrikaanse slawe.

Duncan Clarke sê: "Die swaarkry van hierdie lang optogte oor die woestyn was aansienlik, en baie later het reisigers gerapporteer dat die roetes beklee was met die uitgedroogte geraamtes van diegene wat op die pad voor uitputting en dors beswyk het."

Die Arabiese slawe het nie net hul Afrika -gevangenes na Arabië getrek nie, maar ook soms aan Europese slawe verkoop.

In die moderne tyd spruit die gewilde beeld van slawerny in Afrika uit die visie van 'n gekwelde man wat ly onder die wimpers van onophoudelike arbeid op 'n suikerplantasie van die "nuwe wêreld". Tog lê die werklike gesig van diensbaarheid die fokus in die gedwonge migrasie van miljoene meisies en jong vroue oor die Sahara en die Horing van Afrika na die instellings van Islamitiese byvrou.

Waarom hulle vroue verkies het

Terwyl dit in die Europese "New W or ld" was, is die maat van 'n man se gestalte uitgebeeld en gekalibreer op die fisiese dimensies van die ryk wat gebaseer is op die senings van gedwonge manlike arbeid, in die Islamitiese Ooste was rykdom 'n weerspieëling van prestige, jong meisies die vat van manlike hubr is, die matte van manlike plesiergrond, die smeebare materiaal wat volgens die wil van die meester gevorm moet word.

Dus, vrouenslawe in die Arabiese wêreld, word dikwels verander in byvroue wat in harems woon, en selde as vroue, terwyl hul kinders vry word. 'N Groot aantal slawe en jong seuns is gekastreer en verander in eunugs wat die harems waak. Kastrasie was 'n besonder wrede operasie met 'n oorlewingsyfer van slegs 10%.

'Die gesamentlike effek van al hierdie faktore', sê Duncan Clarke, 'was 'n bestendige vraag na slawe in die hele Islamitiese wêreld, met 'n voorbladverhaal van oorloë, aanvalle of aankope langs die grense met nie-Islamitiese streke. Alhoewel sommige van hierdie slawe uit Rusland, die Balkan en Sentraal-Asië afkomstig was, het swart Afrikaners die belangrikste bron geword van die voortdurende uitbreiding van Islamitiese regimes in Afrika suid van die Sahara.

So indringend was die praktyk van slawerny in die ekonomiese, politieke, demografiese, kulturele, sosiale en godsdienstige lewe van Afrika en het dit vir soveel eeue voortgeduur, dat hoewel die gevolge daarvan geografies en tydelik in intensiteit verskil, slawerny-afstande in omvang en omvang enige enkele of kombinasie van rampe-natuurlik of deur die mens, wat op die vasteland neergedaal het.

Dus, vrouenslawe in die Arabiese wêreld, word dikwels verander in byvroue wat in harems woon, en selde as vroue, terwyl hul kinders vry word. 'N Groot aantal slawe en jong seuns is gekastreer en verander in eunugs wat die harems waak. Kastrasie was 'n besonder wrede operasie met 'n oorlewingsyfer van slegs 10%.

Slawerny het ongetwyfeld die bevolkingsgroei in Afrika nagegaan en gevolglik geweldige druk op geslag en huweliksverhoudings geplaas gedurende die drie kritieke eeue van Europese uitbreiding na wêreldoorheersing.

In hierdie opsig het die vroulik-georiënteerde Arabiese slawehandel, hoewel dit nie gemotiveer of uitgevoer is met ekonomiese voordele as hoofdoel nie, veel groter demografiese skade en gevolglik groter ekonomiese agteruitgang veroorsaak, met sy oormatige stropery van die voortplantingspotensiaal van die geoesde gebiede.

Die impak op Afrika

Geen mense is leë latte waarop onnodige ellendes ingeskryf kan word en geen rekenskap daarvan verwag nie. Die Arabiese slawehandel het lank voor die Islamitiese verowering van Afrika begin, op 'n relatief lae vlak gebly in vergelyking met die Atlantiese slawehandel, en het nie onwettig geword of afgeskaf nie, en is tot lank gehandhaaf na die kolonisering van Afrika. Die Arabiese handel is eers in 1935 in Ethiopië verbied om internasionale steun te kry teen die Italiaanse inval.

In die Atlantiese handel het die slawe hoofsaaklik van die weskus van Afrika gekom met 'n verhouding tussen twee en een. In die Arabiese handel was die slawe uitsluitlik afkomstig van die Savannah en die Horing van Afrika, en het hulle vroue bo mannetjies bevoordeel in 'n verhouding wat naby drie-tot-een was.

Toe slawerny in die Swartsee -gebied (die tradisionele bron van die beste vroulike slawe vir die Arabiese mark) opdroog, het dit 'n nog groter vraag na Ethiopiese "rooi" slawe veroorsaak, veral die Galla en Oromo vanweë hul onbetwiste skoonheid en gewillige seksuele temperament.

En hoewel die Europeërs 'n hoër prys vir slawe as vroue betaal het, was die omgekeerde die geval met die Arabiere. Terwyl die slawe in die Europese/Nuwe Wêreld veral voordeel getrek het uit manlike arbeid, het die Arabiere voordeel getrek uit seksuele bevrediging/reproduktiewe potensiaal. (Die nageslag van die vakbond tussen die Islamitiese meester en die slawe is vry gebore uit respek vir die kind se Islamitiese vaderskap. Enige nageslag van die Atlantiese handel is in slawerny gebore).

“Die wette van Islam”, soos die historikus Hugh Thomas getuig, “was in sekere opsigte gunstiger ten opsigte van slawerny as dié van Rome. Slawe moenie behandel word asof hulle diere is nie. Slawe en vrymanne was gelyk uit die oogpunt van God. Die meester het nie lewens- en doodsmag oor sy slawe -eiendom gehad nie. ”

Maar vir die Afrikaners wat oor die Rooi See gestuur is, het die 'goedaardige' Islamitiese wette min troos gebring - hulle was nog steeds slawe van Islamitiese meesters wat onbelemmerde seksuele toegang tot hulle gehad het (as hulle vroulik was) of gekastreer en in eunuchs verander het (as hulle mans).

Die uiteensetting van hierdie geslagsprofiel van die onderskeie slaweklasse in die Atlantiese/Nuwe Wêreld en die Arabiese/Oosterse wêreld verklaar die groot en sigbare bevolking van Afrikaanse oorsprong in die Nuwe Wêreld, waar seksuele verhoudings tussen wit en swart die uitsondering was Die Arabiese wêreld waar misbruik die gewoonte was, het die slawehandel min sigbare spore nagelaat.

Waar word die afstammelinge van die Afrikaanse slawe na Arabië/Ooste gestuur? Daar is geen groot konsentrasies daarvan nie, nêrens in die Midde -Ooste of Asië nie.

Vyf jaar gelede het 'n Britse TV -dokumentêr gewys hoe swak die afstammelinge van Afrikaanse slawe in Pakistan deur die owerhede behandel word. Die rassediskriminasie was so erg dat een van die afstammelinge van Afrika op kamera vertel het dat hulle, selfs in sport, nie gekies is om Pakistan op nasionale en internasionale vlak te verteenwoordig nie, ongeag hoe goed hulle is.

Afname in bevolking

Die demografiese uitwerking van Arabiese slawerny op die bronbevolking (die wat agterbly) kan nie oor die hoof gesien word nie, en spesifiek as die tasbare gevolge vir die vrugbaarheid van Afrika as gevolg van die sterk verminderde vrouegetalle in ag geneem word.

Om oorlewing te verseker, het die Afrikaners in die oesgebiede 'n verskeidenheid maatskaplike maatreëls getref, wat in die praktyk so ekstreem was as wat die omstandighede vereis het. Dit het hoofsaaklik gegaan oor die seksuele suiwerheid van die bevolking se oorblywende vroulike voortplantingsvoorraad, asook die versnelling van die vroulike voortplantingsvermoë.

Alhoewel die aantal slawe wat per jaar uit die Savannah en die Horing per jaar uitgevoer word, baie kleiner was as die getalle wat aan die weskus in die Atlantiese handel verkry is, was die proporsionele impak van die oorblywende populasies op die rand van die Savanna/Horn baie erger.

Die Arabiese handel bereik 'n totaal van miskien 5-8% van die bronpopulasies en soos vroeër genoem-aangesien die aandeel vroue wat geoes is buitengewoon hoog was, het dit 'n massiewe oorskot mannetjies in die nie-geoesde bevolking tot gevolg gehad. Gevolglik het die gebied demografiese stagnasie ondergaan wat grens aan agteruitgang.

In 1600 was die swart Afrikaanse bevolking ongeveer 50 miljoen - ongeveer 30% van die gesamentlike bevolking van die Nuwe Wêreld, Europa, die Midde -Ooste en Noord -Afrika. Teen 1800 het die bevolking gedaal tot 20% van die totaal. In 1900, aan die einde van die slawehandel, het die bevolking van Afrika nog verder gedaal tot net meer as 10% van die totaal - die bevolking het nou so in duie gestort dat dit die arbeidsintensiewe landbouproduksie van die vasteland negatief sou beïnvloed.

Terwyl die bevolking van Europa en Asië jaarliks ​​toegeneem het, het Afrika se bevolking dramaties afgeneem as gevolg van die oormatige stropery deur die slawe, beide Arabies en Europeërs.

In Arabië kon die slaweklas (hoofsaaklik vroulik), anders as die slaweklas van die Nuwe Wêreld, homself nooit as 'n afsonderlike sosiale entiteit handhaaf nie - hoofsaaklik as gevolg van misvorming. Dit het 'n nog groter vraag na meer en meer nuwe vroulike slawe geskep, en tesame met die gereelde natuurrampe van droogte en hongersnood in die Savannah/Horn, het baie Afrikaanse gesinne hul jong meisies aan slawerny gebied as 'n laaste hoop op oorlewing. Daar is baie verhale oor lang rye van honderde meisies, hoofsaaklik Oromos uit Ethiopië, wat oor die Horing na die Rooi See loop en slawerny soek.

Ontneem van ideologie, ritueel en die Afrikaanse ritueel tot volwassenheid en sosiale lidmaatskap, was vroulike slawe buitengewoon kwesbaar vir bekering tot Islam (die voordele van ontslag ter syde). Manumission beskryf 'n kind wat uit 'n vroulike slaaf gebore is, en 'n vrye Islamitiese vader word dus vry gebore.

Vir die bevolking wat in Afrika bly, is daar bespiegelings oor watter veranderinge die trauma van slawerny aan die Afrika -denke kan veroorsaak het. Die ervaring van die skielike wending van die noodlot ('n algemene ervaring wanneer dit gekonfronteer word met die voortdurende bedreiging van slawe) was geneig om alle pogings tot langtermynbeplanning stelselmatig te ondermyn, bo die konstante behoefte om verlore lede te vervang.

Ontneem van ideologie, ritueel en die Afrikaanse ritueel tot volwassenheid en sosiale lidmaatskap, was vroulike slawe buitengewoon kwesbaar vir bekering tot Islam (die voordele van ontslag ter syde). Manumission beskryf 'n kind wat uit 'n vroulike slaaf gebore is, en 'n vrye Islamitiese vader word dus vry gebore.

Dit is 'n fout om die blote voortbestaan ​​van Afrika gelyk te stel aan kulturele of sosiale of ekonomiese stagnasie, want die slawehandel het eeue lank so 'n groot aantal tragies onderling verbonde rampe in die lewens van elke Afrikaan besoek dat hulle hulself in die "rasse" herinnering ”aan die vasteland en sy mense, veral vroue, dat dit slegs met tyd en vriendelikheid uit die psige van Afrika verwyder kan word.

Soos een kommentator dit stel: “Kan dit waar wees dat die korrosiewe gevolge van vier eeue se handel in mense, met die versoeking, die ingeboude opportunisme, die vermindering van mense tot 'n kontantwaarde, sy siklusse van wraak en sy onvermydelike fisieke brutaliteit, het u blywende gebreke in die Afrikaanse denkpatroon en aksie ingebou? ”


Ek is verkoop in seksuele slawerny

'N Paar weke gelede klim Megan Stephens op 'n bus in 'n bruisende middestad in die noorde van Engeland. 'N Man sit oorkant die gang van haar af. Hy het 'n sonbril gedra en 'n snor gehad. Vir 'n aaklige oomblik het sy gedink sy herken hom.

'Ek het net verstar en my stop gemis,' sê Megan. 'Ek het my telefoon as 'n spieël gebruik om te sien of dit hy was. Ek was regtig paranoïes. ”

Die man in die bus het presies dieselfde kenmerke as iemand uit haar verlede. As gevolg van wat daardie persoon aan Megan gedoen het, mag ek nie haar regte naam gebruik of beskryf waar sy woon nie. Ek kan jou vertel dat sy 25 is. Anders as dit, het sy my gevra om geen besonderhede te noem wat haar anonimiteit kan ondermyn nie.

Elke dag van Megan word gevorm deur die vrees dat sy ontdek sal word en dat haar ware identiteit onthul sal word. Dit is omdat Megan 11 jaar gelede, op 14 -jarige ouderdom, in die seksbedryf verhandel is.

Volgens die Verenigde Nasies was sy een van 'n geskatte 2,4 miljoen mense regoor die wêreld wat te eniger tyd slagoffers van mensehandel is, waarvan 80% as seksuele slawe uitgebuit word. Een vrou kan 'n handelaar tussen £ 500 en £ 1,000 per week verdien en kan gedwing word om seks te hê met verskeie vennote op 'n enkele dag. Megan beweer egter dat sy elke dag 'n soortgelyke syfer aan haar misbruikers gemaak het.

Die man wat Megan vlugtig in die bus sien, herinner haar aan een van haar handelaars: 'Ek het meer bang gevoel as wat ek gedink het ek sou wees', sê sy. 'Ek was in 'n bus vol mense in die middel van die stad en ek was baie bang. Absoluut verskrik. ” Dit was nie hy nie.

Die storie van Megan is skrikwekkend. Dit is 'n verhaal van hoe 'n kwesbare tienermeisie op vakansie in Griekeland saam met haar ma in die seksbedryf verhandel is en ses jaar as 'n prostituut deurgebring het - in bordele, op die strate, in slordige hotelkamers - voordat sy uiteindelik uit 'n lewe van meedoënlose fisiese en seksuele mishandeling. Dit is skrikwekkend, nie net weens die sadistiese geweld wat sy verduur het nie, maar ook oor hoe maklik sy in hierdie spiraal van verdorwenheid kon glip en hoe moeilik sy dit kon vind om uit te kom.

'U hele identiteit word beroof,' sê Megan. 'Tensy u in daardie posisie was, kan u nie verstaan ​​nie.'

Ons ontmoet mekaar in 'n beige hotel, gekies vir gemak en die gebrek aan kenmerke. Ons is hier om te praat oor Megan se memoires, Gekoop en verkoop, wat vervaardig is met die hulp van 'n spookskrywer.

Die spookskrywer, 'n vriendelike vrou genaamd Jane, sit by ons om gerusstelling te bied.

Buite is dit donker en reën. Megan drink 'n koppie kitskoffie terwyl sy praat. As sy praat, lyk haar woorde nuuskierig los van die algehele neutraliteit van haar gedrag. It feels as though I am looking at her through a pane of glass – her eyes are veiled, the lines of her face set deliberately not to show too much emotion. There is a dissonance between what she is saying and the way she is saying it, almost as though the only way she can get the sentences out is to be as calm and matter-of-fact as possible.

Megan says writing the book was “therapeutic” and helped her rediscover her voice. In a different life, she would have liked to have studied English literature at university.

“When I came out of it [the sex trade] I couldn’t speak to anyone,” Megan says. “I had no confidence. I flinched when someone shouted. I’ve been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder by a psychologist who talks about how I disassociate from my past. For me, it’s like it happened to someone else.”

Megan had a troubled upbringing. Her parents divorced when she was four and both her father and mother had problems with alcohol. Her childhood was chaotic and punctuated by fights: “I was never taught boundaries or rules or life skills.” At the age of 14, she went on holiday with her mother to Greece. She remembers, at the time, being “desperate to be loved”.

So when, on the first night away in a local bar in a seaside town, Megan caught the eye of Jak, a handsome Albanian man, and he started paying her attention, she responded. Within days she felt herself to be in love. Within weeks Megan had persuaded her mother not to return to England and had set up house with her new boyfriend.

Athens by night: Megan’s trafficker moved her to the capital where she was forced to have sex with many men every day. Photograph: Alamy

Why did her mother allow it? Megan shrugs. “She was not a well person back then.”

In the book Megan recounts how her mother had also struck up a relationship with a local bar owner. Greece seemed to offer them both the opportunity to start again. Her mother moved in with the bar owner Megan moved in with Jak.

“When we left England we left our lives, really,” Megan says. “There was nothing left behind for us.”

Jak, dark-haired and dark-eyed, was attentive and kind at first, despite the language barrier which meant that neither of them could communicate beyond a few words. By her own admission, Megan was deeply naive.

“He treated me so well,” she says now. “I just believed him. I loved him and he loved me pretty much instantly. He was charming, really.”

But as time went on, this “charm” turned into control. Jak’s moods could shift without warning. He started talking about how his mother was ill with cancer and how the family needed more money for treatment. He told Megan he dreamed of having children with her, of living in a nice, big house in the future. In order to make that happen, he explained, they would have to move to Athens, where his cousins could get them café work. Megan agreed, even though it meant leaving her mother behind.

But the café work turned out to be something else entirely, and once they got to Athens, Megan found herself at the mercy of a network of pimps and traffickers. At first she wasn’t sure what was happening. It was only when Jak gave her a cardboard box and deposited her outside an office building telling her to deliver it to a man on the top floor that she began to suspect something was awry: “I remember shaking and stumbling up the stairs, because something felt odd.”

A man opened the door to her, took her into a small, windowless room with a single bed. At the foot of the bed was a video camera mounted on a tripod.

“And that was it,” Megan says now. “He… just… raped me, really. He was filming it and I was paralysed, because I was really shocked.”

Afterwards, with blood on the bedsheets, the man gave her a wad of €50 notes. As Megan was leaving, she saw the cardboard box she had been asked to deliver contained several packets of condoms. It was the first time she had ever had sex.

What, I wonder, would the Megan sitting in front of me today say to that scared teenage version of herself if she had the chance?

“I don’t know… ‘Get out, you stupid girl’?” she says, phrasing it as a question. “I still blame myself. I’m struggling with it. I’ve got quite a lot of anger at myself.”

But Megan didn’t get out. She began having sex with strangers for money – up to eight “clients” a day. She was in love with Jak, she says, and would “do anything for him”. He made her think that escort work was the only way to raise enough money for them to be together. He would shower her with affection one minute and, the next, humiliate her in public. If she said she wanted to stop, he would threaten to kill her mother. Gradually her confidence was eroded to the point of no return. She was utterly reliant on Jak and his network of underworld associates for everything: clothes, food, transport.

For a while she was a streetwalker in Italy (“That was horrible… I was scared of the other women as well as the clients. They were very, very tough characters”) and then she was forced to work in a series of brothels where men would pay €20 for a grubby, two-minute encounter. “It was just the way they operated,” Megan says. “They [the men] were queuing up outside. There were 10 to 15 rooms in the same place and it’s just… literally, you don’t stop… If I did 40 to 50 people, that would be nothing. It wasn’t enough.”

On one particular night, she says she had sex with 110 men before being violently sick. The owner of that brothel closed up early when he saw how ill she was. “I thought that was decent of him,” Megan writes, “which shows just how distorted my sense of normality had become.”

In the book Megan’s narrative seems to exist outside normal chronology. She was in a mental fog for much of it. She was ill – underweight and exhausted. She contracted syphilis and salmonella six times. And if she misbehaved, there was violent retribution – on one occasion, she was punched in the face by Jak and dragged across the floor by the roof of her mouth. “Things like that happened all the time,” she says blankly. “I can taste the blood even now.”

At some point, Jak left and handed her over to another pimp called Christoph, who moved her around wherever the work might be – from hotel to brothel to private apartment. All the time her captors told Megan to send postcards to her mother (who was still living with the bar owner in Greece) telling her she was working in a café and happy with her new life in Athens. She agreed because she felt helpless and didn’t want to put her mother in danger. She was also ashamed.

“These traffickers are really, really clever,” Megan says. “I want people to understand it’s not as easy as getting up and leaving. I should have got up and gone, but I didn’t because of the mental power they had over me. It is really powerful. It’s actually like they’ve taken over what identity you have and turned you into their property, a thing to be controlled. Robotic is the right word.”

This seems incredible, especially when Megan writes in the book that she helped a Polish girl escape by asking a rich client to book her a plane ticket back home. She says it simply never occurred to her to do the same for herself. Her own sense of worth had been diminished to such an extent that she no longer knew her own mind. And she was still only a teenager. She had been given no chance to grow into an adult capable of making her own decisions.

‘I don’t value sex at all. I think it’s horrible’: Megan on the legacy of being trafficked. Photograph: Alamy

Megan was picked up a few times by the police, but was too frightened to tell them the truth in case they were in league with her abusers. She didn’t trust authority. “I was so, so paranoid,” she says. “At that point, I was scared of being killed.”

Eventually she suffered a psychotic episode and was sectioned in a Greek hospital for three months. Cocooned from the outside world, she began to feel safe enough to confide in some of the staff about what had happened to her. They contacted Megan’s mother, who, in spite of living just hours away, said she had no idea about the kind of life her daughter had been living. The two were reunited shortly afterwards. What was that like?

“Really I was just zombified because I was on so much medication. I was emotional. All I wanted to do was go and drink, and I definitely didn’t want to talk about it.”

Megan and her mother returned to the UK. A doctor put her on Prozac. For a long time she struggled with everyday existence. She was scared of crowds. She jumped at loud noises. She couldn’t find the words to explain what she had been through. She turned to alcohol as a crutch. She spent too much money and had a series of bad relationships.

“Inside I still feel like a kid, a 10-year-old,” she says. “I struggle with sex. I do not know what ‘making love’ is. Just… it… that way… it…” she fumbles for the right word, “it just makes me feel so odd, so different and not normal. There are relationships I have been in where I’ve had to be drunk to let anyone see me naked or let them do what they want to me. I struggle to say no to sex because I thought that was all men wanted. I actually hate that. I don’t value it [sex] at all. I think it’s horrible.”

Eventually she found the confidence to get a job as a shop assistant, and she confided some of her story to a colleague, who notified an anti-trafficking charity. The charity got in touch with Megan. Within days she was in a safe house in London.

“After all the turmoil and chaos I had been used to,” she says, “it was like living in a calm, well-organised family home.”

Today Megan is cautiously rebuilding her life. She has ambitions to set up a charity of her own to help trafficking victims like herself. She is in therapy and has been alcohol-free for seven months. She has a group of trusted friends, made through her local church, and she is rebuilding her relationship with her mother.

Does Megan blame anyone for what she has been through?

There is a long pause. “I don’t want to sit here and say: ‘I blame my mum,’” she starts, uneasily. “I believe my upbringing could have been better and I should have been protected more as a child, but I understand why that wasn’t the case.”

It is interesting that she doesn’t immediately point the finger at her abusers and a sign, perhaps, of the complicated intermeshing of love and fear she experienced at the hands of the men who exploited her. She confesses that, shortly after returning to the UK, she called her former pimp, Christoph, “because I just… I actually felt in love with him, I did. I look back and it’s horrible. I felt trained into it.”

It is only recently that she has finally felt free from that mental imprisonment. And yet the young woman in front of me is still clearly damaged, existing at one defensive remove from her own past. She isn’t yet sure how to be, or what kind of person she is when she’s not living in a state of constant terror.

I ask Megan to try to describe herself in three words. She finds this difficult.

“Strong,” she starts, hesitantly. “I feel strong.” A pause. “Determined. Could that be one?” vra sy. I nod. “Yeah, and… hopeful,” she adds in a small voice. “That’s me.”


The Lost Children of Tuam

Ireland wanted to forget. But the dead don’t always stay buried.

On Tuesday afternoon, Ireland’s president, Michael D. Higgins, hosted a reception and gala dinner for survivors. But what moved Ms. Coppin most was the reception she met when her bus pulled up outside the site of the event.

“The crowd on the street was cheering us,” Ms. Coppin said. “We couldn’t believe it. Not just women, but men and children, too. It was wonderful — very emotional.”

Ms. Coppin left Ireland the first chance she got after leaving the laundry and made a new life for herself in England. There, overcoming the poor education she received in the industrial school, she eventually went to college and became an elementary schoolteacher. She met an English man and had two children.

“England was my savior, like many women who went there, or to different countries like America,” she said. “My choice was to get as far away as possible from Ireland.”

But the Ireland that Ms. Coppin left is a far cry from the one she encountered this week. Ms. Coppin was struck, she said, by the many young women who successfully came together — “so articulate and so educated” — to campaign for the repeal of Ireland’s constitutional ban on abortion.

She also noted the new willingness to confront the systemic practice of forced and illegal adoptions, often without records, which preserved an illusion of Catholic chastity while depriving unwed mothers of their children and children of their birth identities.

Despite the new mood of openness and acceptance, many of the Magdalene laundry survivors in Dublin this week were either too frail or too shy to talk about their experiences.

Norah Casey, a businesswoman and journalist who was one of the driving forces behind the event, said that more than half of those in attendance had come from abroad. Most were from Britain, and a few were from the United States and other countries.

“A lot of them didn’t even have passports to come here — they got the hell out of Ireland as soon as they could and never came back,” Ms. Casey said. “It is great to have them here, talking, but it is also very sad. I haven’t heard one of them say that life was good after they left the laundries. It got better, that’s all.”

Most of them have spent their lives trying to find parents and siblings or children who were taken from them, Ms. Casey said. Many don’t know who they really are.

“Magdalene asylums” were originally conceived by Christian churches in Western countries, including Britain and the United States, as charitable institutes to support “fallen women.”

In Ireland, the Magdalene institutions became associated primarily with the Catholic Church, and by the mid-20th century there were at least a dozen industrial laundries in the Republic of Ireland.

Some women were confined to the laundries for life and were forced to work long hours in poor conditions with bad food, no pay and little or no medical or educational support. The women and girls — even those who had come into the laundries directly from orphanages or “industrial schools” for juvenile detention — were told they should toil as penance for their sins.

In recent decades, the power of the church in Ireland has dwindled, in part because of a number of abuse scandals, not least among them the revelations of the suffering in the Magdalene laundries.


Uniform and clothing

Women prisoners selected for work at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, 1944. On arrival these women had their own clothes taken away and replaced by the smock uniform worn in the Nazi concentration camps. © 2011 Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority.

Original – A woman condemned to death in Mongolia is seen from the porthole of a crate inside which she is encumbered and left to die of starvation. (wikipedia)

Starving Mongolian Woman: This was published in National Geographic in 1913 by Stefan Passe. Mongolia was newly independent. A common punishment for criminals was being placed in a box like this in public possibly until starvation. (viralnova.com)

A sculpture in Mujibnagar, Dhaka depicts the tens of thousands of rapes of Bengali women by the Pakistani Military in 1971. (pinterest)

Simone Segouin, the 18 year old French Résistance fighter, French female collaborator punished by having her head shaved to publicly mark her, 1944.

The year of vengeance: How neighbours turned on each other and anarchy erupted in the aftermath of WWII

Humiliated: A French woman accused of sleeping with Germans has her head shaved by neighbors in a village near Marseilles

Humiliated: Her head shaved by angry neighbours, a tearful Corsican woman is stripped naked and taunted for consorting with German soldiers during their occupation
The truth is that World War II, which we remember as a great moral campaign, had wreaked incalculable damage on Europe’s ethical sensibilities. And in the desperate struggle for survival, many people would do whatever it took to get food and shelter.

In Allied-occupied Naples, the writer Norman Lewis watched as local women, their faces identifying them as ‘ordinary well-washed respectable shopping and gossiping housewives’, lined up to sell themselves to young American GIs for a few tins of food.

Another observer, the war correspondent Alan Moorehead, wrote that he had seen ‘the moral collapse’ of the Italian people, who had lost all pride in their ‘animal struggle for existence’.

Amid the trauma of war and occupation, the bounds of sexual decency had simply collapsed. In Holland one American soldier was propositioned by a 12-year-old girl. In Hungary scores of 13-year-old girls were admitted to hospital with venereal disease in Greece, doctors treated VD-infected girls as young as ten.

What was more, even in those countries liberated by the British and Americans, a deep tide of hatred swept through national life.

Everybody had come out of the war with somebody to hate.

In northern Italy, some 20,000 people were summarily murdered by their own countrymen in the last weeks of the war. And in French town squares, women accused of sleeping with German soldiers were stripped and shaved, their breasts marked with swastikas while mobs of men stood and laughed. Yet even today, many Frenchmen pretend these appalling scenes never happened. (dailymail.co.uk)

American soldiers were almost as bad as the Russian soldiers when it came to exploiting German women during and after WW2

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, then a young captain in the Red Army and a committed opponent to such outrages, describes the entry of his regiment into East Prussia in January 1945: “Yes! For three weeks the war had been going on inside Germany and all of us knew very well that if the girls were German they could be raped and then shot. This was almost a combat distinction. (uncensoredhistory.blogspot.com)

LEPA SVETOZARA RADIĆ (1925–1943) WAS A PARTISAN EXECUTED AT THE AGE OF 17 FOR SHOOTING AT GERMAN SOLDIERS DURING WW2

FEMALE NAZI WAR HANGED

Ota Benga (1883-1916) was an African Congolese Pygmy, who was put on display in the monkey house at the Bronx Zoo in New York in1906

Congolese women reality: Shackled together, enslaved in their own homeland, held as hostages until their men returned with enough rubber to make King Leopold and the Belgium people rich beyond their wildest dreams. While impoverishing and enslaving the native people. (usslave.blogspot.com)

Belgian women who had collaborated with the Germans are shaved, tarred and feathered and forced to give a Nazi salute.

Islamic slavery enslaving the women and children of a number of Arabian tribes (Quraiza,Khaybar, Mustaliq and Hawazin etc.).

Mauritania is consistently ranked as the worst place in the world for slavery, with tens of thousands still trapped in total servitude across the country. ( mirage-a-trois.blogspot.com)

—“Hercegovinian woman”, a young housewife and mother carried away by Turkish troopers, her husband and baby lie dead at her feet Mention the word ‘slavery’, and it will immediately conjure up pictures of negroid cotton pickers and sad savages being marched in chains by Arab slave traders, but very little is ever said about the enslavement of white European Christians.—Read More:http://armeniansworld.com/?tag=white-slavery

This, it can reasonably be argued, merely proves how deep the brutalization went. But what about the Paphlagonian names Atotas in the Athenian silver mines, who claimed descent from one of the Trojan heroes and whose tomb inscription included the boast, ” No one could match me in skill”? The skill and artistry of slaves was to be seen everywhere, for they were not used only as crude labor in fields but were employed in the potteries and textile mills, on temples and other public buildings, to perform the most delicate work. The psychology of the slave in the ancient world was obviously more complicated than mere sullen resentment, at least under “normal” conditions. (madamepickwickartblog.com)

The Irish: The Forgotten White Slaves

Slave Auction, Jean Leon Jerome, 1866. Jews were the foremost entrepreneurs in the White Slave traffic, selling even young Jewesses as sex slaves along with abducted women ans children of other races. The girls were paraded naked before customers and always asked to open their mouth wide. Like horses, they had to let their teeth be inspected and tapped for soundness.

A prospective buyer on the Barbary Coast of North Africa carefully examining a female slave before bidding.

In all the great European cities, a certain type of prostitute was always to be found: exotic and semi-Asiatic in appearance. She was Jewish, and she was very much in demand. The word “Jewess” therefore entered the language as a loose synonym for “Jewish prostitute”.

When Keats refers to Jewish prostitutes in an unpublished poetic fragment quoted in a private letter (1819), he doesn’t call them “prostitutes”. He just calls them “Jewesses”. Hoekom? Because so many Jewesses was prostitutes that the two terms had virtually become interchangeable. “Nor in obscurèd purlieus would he seek / For curlèd Jewesses with ankles neat, / Who as they walk abroad make tinkling with their feet.” (darkmoon.me)

Jews had a monopoly on the slave trade. (deliberation.info)

Romanus Pontifex, issued on January 8, 1455, then sanctioned the purchase of black slaves from “the infidel”.

“… many Guineamen and other negroes, taken by force, and some by barter of unprohibited articles, or by other lawful contract of purchase, have been … converted to the Catholic faith, and it is hoped, by the help of divine mercy, that if such progress be continued with them, either those peoples will be converted to the faith or at least the souls of many of them will be gained for Christ.”

It most certainly was not “Christ” he was looking to “gain” those poor slaves for, nor did he give a fig for their “souls”.

It was power and money, plain and simple, that he was after. He was trying to shore up daardie faction of the Nesilim – the Catholics – and their insane world-domination plans.

It was also under Nicholas V, in 1452, that his Dominican Inquisitor Nicholas Jacquier“confirms” witchcraft as heresy in Flail Against the Heresy of Witchcraft thereby justifying European witchhunts. This began the burning of over 200,000 people over the next two hundred years – mostly women – on the charge of Heksery.

Slavery and burning witches began with this guy, he was the real thing – a slavemaster.

Nesilim nose – See book Scientology Roots, Chapter 5

The first African slaves arrived in Spain (Hispaniola) in 1501. By 1518, King Charles I of Spain approved the shipping of slaves directly from Africa as a trade.

Human slavery, despite all the flowery protestations of “humanism”, was the cornerstone of the fledgling British Empire. That term itself, British Empire, having been coined by slavemaster agent Dr. John Dee.

The first rumblings of what we call the Rise of the Slavemasters, had begun with Henry the VIII, Queen Elizabeth’s father. His was the House of Tudor, whom many considered had no rightful claim to the throne. Rightful, meaning as approved the Catholic Church, in other words. Henry accomplished many things during his reign, not the least was the breaking of the stranglehold that the Nesilim – the Holy Roman Empire – were exerting over what was termed “the world” – which was really just a small, obscure part of it. A few islands and some land on the continent.

The English, or “britons” all had their roots in the same race – a race which today we call “German”.

The English are the descendants of three Germanic tribes:

  • the Angles, who came from Angeln (in modern Germany): their whole nation emigrated to Britain, leaving their former land empty.
  • the Saxons, from Lower Saxony and
  • the Jutes, from the Jutland peninsula (Danish).

They, in turn, had been part of an emigration of the Nesilim, when they left their homeland of Nesa (modern Turkey), and settled first in Constantinople and then spreading to what is now Germany.

The name England (Old English: Engla land or Ængla land) originates from the first of the three tribes mentioned above. Their language, Anglo-Saxon or Old English, derived from West Germanic dialects. Anglo-Saxon was divided into four main dialects: West Saxon, Mercian, Northumbrian and Kentish.

After the Norman Conquest, their language changed into what is called Middle English, in the years leading up to the Rise of the Slavemasters.

This is the language we mostly find Dr. Dee having his “english” – as opposed to Latin – writings be in the form of.

All throughout this time period, what people refer to as “the Bible” was only in Latin, and very few people were even allowed to be taught this unnatural and invented language – a form of code – not dissimilar to the type of languages small children invent to speak to each other so that “grownups” don’t know what they are saying.

Note: There are no real records, of anyone using a language called Latin prior to the rise of the Holy Roman Empire. It is the invention of that empire, and the Catholic Church.

The use of this “special” language. This meant that priests and scholars could pretty much tell “the people” whatever they wanted as to what some book or tract said – or what God said even – and no one would be the wiser. That is how propaganda, (the word itself came from the Catholic Church) was handled voor the 16th century.

To this day, many subjects have their own “special language” – in some cases using this same Latin – this act as a sort of ‘insider knowledge’. A fact, and an exclusory practice, which is in no way unintentional. (mikemcclaughry.wordpress.com)

German soldiers march Polish women to be shot in the woods

MASS RAPE AND ABUSE OF FRENCH WOMEN BY AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN WWII

The American soldiers too violated women during WW2 especially French women. If the motivation for rape for Russian soldiers was revenge for what the German army and SS did in their country, the Americans come through with an even smaller halo. Their motivation for violating French women was pure hedonism. And the sad part is that the American institutions, the press and the army, too egged them on. Perhaps the aim was to motivate the American soldiers to go and fight the Germans.

The U.S. military has considered the issue of prostitution and rape as a way to establish a form of supremacy.Remember, in 1945, the United States emerged as a world power. It was also a time when France, humiliated, realized that she had lost its superpower status. Sex becomes a way ‘to ensure U.S. dominance on a secondary power.

Mass Rape Of Italian Women By French Colonial Soldiers In 1944

War is hell. And The Second World War was undiluted hell. More soever for women. We have dealt in some details of the mass rape of German women by the invading Red Army soldiers in 1945. Comparatively lesser known is the mass rape of Italian women by the French Colonial soldiers in 1944. These soldiers later continued with their nefarious deeds in Stuttgart, Germany in early 1945.

The allies kept silent on this as the soldiers doing this were allied soldiers.

The senseless, brutal atrocities that women suffered during WW2 has not been adequately chronicled. It remains one of the most pathetic chapters of the Armageddon.

In Italy about 60,000 women from ages 11 to 85 suffered in May 1944.

In Italy, Moroccan mercenaries fighting with the free French forces in 1943 fought under contract terms that included free license to rape and plunder in enemy territory.

“Mamma Ciociara”: The monument at Castro dei Volsci in memory of those Italian women who suffered

Many women in Italy were raped the Italian government later offered the victims a modest pension in an effort to compensate the women for their trauma.


THE LONG ROAD TO ABOLITION

■ In 1807, parliament passed the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, effective throughout the British empire.

■ It wasn’t until 1838 that slavery was abolished in British colonies through the Slavery Abolition Act, giving all slaves in the British empire their freedom

■ It is estimated about 12.5 million people were transported as slaves from Africa to the Americas and the Caribbean between the 16th century and 1807.

■ When the Slavery Abolition Act was passed, there were 46,000 slave owners in Britain, according to the Slave Compensation Commission, the government body established to evaluate the claims of the slave owners

■ British slave owners received a total of £20m (£16bn in today’s money) in compensation when slavery was abolished. Among those who received payouts were the ancestors of novelists George Orwell and Graham Greene.


These Religious Prisons Turned Orphans, Young Girls, and Pregnant Women into Slaves Inside Convent Walls

Interior of Magdalen Laundry in Dublin. Google Images.

5. A Mass Grave at &ldquoThe Home&rdquo in Tuam, County Galway, Ireland

Called &ldquoThe Home&rdquo by locals in Tuam, the Bon Secours order of nuns operated a mother and baby home in County Galway between 1921 and 1961. Unwed pregnant women harmed their families through shame that would prevent them from work and housing. If a family did not have money to send their daughters or sisters to England or America, they sent them to &ldquoThe Home,&rdquo a magdalen laundry. Inside the facility, the nuns provided food and shelter. After giving birth, the moms cared for their babies with assistance from orphaned girls and older inmates. Babies that survived infancy were adopted. Those that died were buried on property near &ldquoThe Home.&rdquo

As women suffered the trauma associated with giving up their child, they were forced to work in the laundry without pay. Many of the babies adopted from the facility were sent to America as a way to ensure that birth mothers would never find their babies. Between 1945 and 1965 over 2,220 Irish babies were adopted from the magdalen laundry. In 2014, an unmarked mass grave was found that contained over 700 dead infant and children buried without ceremony or in a coffin. Examiners determined that most of the dead succumbed to &ldquomalnutrition, measles, convulsions, tuberculosis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia.&rdquo


These Religious Prisons Turned Orphans, Young Girls, and Pregnant Women into Slaves Inside Convent Walls

Postcard of Gloucester Street Laundry, Dublin, Ireland. Folklore Project.

1. The Last Magdalen Laundry: The Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin

Until recently, the powerful conservative Catholic Church controlled almost every aspect of life in the Republic of Ireland. Any young woman that found herself pregnant and unmarried had committed the most dire of all sins. Bringing shame, family members often sent their pregnant sisters and daughters to a magdalen home. The Gloucester Street Laundry in Dublin housed around 100 unwed mothers at a time. Forced to repent for her sin, these young women were hidden away inside the walls of a commercial laundry. Nuns provided shelter and meager food allotments while forcing them to work in laundries while they adopted out the bastard children.

The convent owned trucks. Boys and young men drove the trucks to Dublin hotels, picked up soiled linens, and then delivered them to the Gloucester Street Laundry. The nuns made sure that there was not contact between the divers and the &ldquopenitents.&rdquo Historians believe that over 40% of the inmates at the laundry entered as unwed pregnant young women. Many inmates returned to life in Dublin and beyond, their babies long removed from their care. Others remained institutionalized for the rest of their life. The Gloucester Street Laundry shuttered good on 25 October 1996. At the time of closure the oldest female resident was 79.


Fact vs. Fiction

The Irish slave narrative is based on the misinterpretation of the history of indentured servitude, which is how many poor Europeans migrated to North America and the Caribbean in the early colonial period, historians said.

Without a doubt, life was bad for indentured servants. They were often treated brutally. Not all of them entered servitude willingly. Some were political prisoners. Some were children.

“I’m not saying it was pleasant or anything — it was the opposite — but it was a completely different category from slavery,” said Liam Hogan, a research librarian in Ireland who has spearheaded the debunking effort. “It was a transitory state.”

The legal differences between indentured servitude and chattel slavery were profound, according to Matthew Reilly, an archaeologist who studies Barbados. Unlike slaves, servants were considered legally human. Their servitude was based on a contract that limited their service to a finite period of time, usually about seven years, in exchange for passage to the colonies. They did not pass their unfree status on to descendants.

Contemporary accounts in Ireland sometimes referred to these people as slaves, Mr. Hogan said. That was true in the sense that any form of coerced labor can be described as slavery, from Ancient Rome to modern-day human trafficking. But in colonial America and the Caribbean, the word “slavery” had a specific legal meaning. Europeans, by definition, were not included in it.

“An indenture implies two people have entered into a contract with each other but slavery is not a contract,” said Leslie Harris, a professor of African-American history at Northwestern University. “It is often about being a prisoner of war or being bought or sold bodily as part of a trade. That is a critical distinction.”

Beeld

How Ireland Turned ‘Fallen Women’ Into Slaves - HISTORY

- Virginia General Assembly declaration, 1705


One of the places we have the clearest views of that "terrible transformation" is the colony of Virginia. In the early years of the colony, many Africans and poor whites -- most of the laborers came from the English working class -- stood on the same ground. Black and white women worked side-by-side in the fields. Black and white men who broke their servant contract were equally punished.
• Arrival of first Africans to Virginia Colony
• Africans in court
Anthony Johnson was a free black man who owned property in Virginia
All were indentured servants. During their time as servants, they were fed and housed. Afterwards, they would be given what were known as "freedom dues," which usually included a piece of land and supplies, including a gun. Black-skinned or white-skinned, they became free.

Historically, the English only enslaved non-Christians, and not, in particular, Africans. And the status of slave (Europeans had African slaves prior to the colonization of the Americas) was not one that was life-long. A slave could become free by converting to Christianity. The first Virginia colonists did not even think of themselves as "white" or use that word to describe themselves. They saw themselves as Christians or Englishmen, or in terms of their social class. They were nobility, gentry, artisans, or servants.
One of the few recorded histories of an African in America that we can glean from early court records is that of "Antonio the negro," as he was named in the 1625 Virginia census. He was brought to the colony in 1621. At this time, English and Colonial law did not define racial slavery the census calls him not a slave but a "servant." Later, Antonio changed his name to Anthony Johnson, married an African American servant named Mary, and they had four children. Mary and Anthony also became free, and he soon owned land and cattle and even indentured servants of his own. By 1650, Anthony was still one of only 400 Africans in the colony among nearly 19,000 settlers. In Johnson's own county, at least 20 African men and women were free, and 13 owned their own homes.
In 1640, the year Johnson purchased his first property, three servants fled a Virginia plantation. Caught and returned to their owner, two had their servitude extended four years. However, the third, a black man named John Punch, was sentenced to "serve his said master or his assigns for the time of his natural life." He was made a slave.
• Virginia recognizes slavery
• Virginia slave codes
• Colonial laws

Traditionally, Englishmen believed they had a right to enslave a non-Christian or a captive taken in a just war. Africans and Indians might fit one or both of these definitions. But what if they learned English and converted to the Protestant church? Should they be released from bondage and given "freedom dues?" What if, on the other hand, status were determined not by (changeable ) religious faith but by (unchangeable) skin color?

In 1670 Virginia seized Johnson's land.

This disorder that the indentured servant system had created made racial slavery to southern slaveholders much more attractive, because what were black slaves now? Well, they were a permanent dependent labor force, who could be defined as a people set apart. They were racially set apart. They were outsiders. They were strangers and in many ways throughout the world, slavery has taken root, especially where people are considered outsiders and can be put in a permanent status of slavery.

Also, the indentured servants, especially once freed, began to pose a threat to the property-owning elite. The colonial establishment had placed restrictions on available lands, creating unrest among newly freed indentured servants. In 1676, working class men burned down Jamestown, making indentured servitude look even less attractive to Virginia leaders. Also, servants moved on, forcing a need for costly replacements slaves, especially ones you could identify by skin color, could not move on and become free competitors.