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Standbeeld met twee koppe van Ain Ghazal

Standbeeld met twee koppe van Ain Ghazal


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Intellektuele reuse oor menslike oorsprong

Ek het 'n lang vergelykende analise gedoen van die Cayce -materiaal, die literatuur van Rudolph Steiner, die Rosicrucian's, die Vrymesselaars, die teosofe, Plato, sowel as wêreldwye inheemse mondelinge tradisies, mites en legendes. Wat na vore gekom het, was so onverwags as bisar.

Feitlik al die bronne beweer dat Homo sapiens lank gelede op bonatuurlike wyse geskep is op die verlore kontinent Atlantis, wat eens in die Atlantiese Oseaan bestaan ​​het. 'N Kontinent wat as deel van sy bevolkingsreuse en klein mense bestaan ​​het. Daar word beweer dat langlewende androgyne skeppergode wat soms beskryf word as die besit van ses vingers of tone, die mensdom gebore het. Daar word beweer dat Atlantis ongeveer 12 000 jaar gelede uiteindelik deur 'n groot vloed vernietig is en daar word gesê dat oorlewendes die kunste van beskawing na Egipte, die Amerikas en verskeie ander plekke in die nasleep daarvan gebring het. Cayce onthul die volgende in die lees van 364-11:

'Gee 'n paar besonderhede oor die fisiognomie, gewoontes, gebruike en kostuums van die mense van Atlantis gedurende die tydperk net voor die eerste vernietiging.' Dit het baie groottes aangeneem wat die gestalte betref, van die wat die midget genoem kan word tot die REUSE - want daar was reuse in die aarde op daardie dae, mans so lank soos (wat vandag genoem sou word) tien tot twaalf voet in statuur , en deurgaans goed in verhouding. (1)

Rudolph Steiner het ook die volgende te sê aangaande hierdie inwoners van Atlantis: 'Alles wat na' reuse 'in legendes verwys, is absoluut gebaseer op kennis van die waarheid. [Ons] voel dat dit uit die geestelik -wetenskaplike oogpunt absoluut korrek is dat die reuse dom is en die dwerge baie slim is. ” (2) Literatuur van die geheime samelewing, mondelinge tradisies en godsdienstige dokumente soos die Bybel verklaar ook die bestaan ​​van antieke reuse.

Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), stigter van die Steiner School of education system ( Publieke domein )


'N Eerste blik in die Louvre Abu Dhabi

Alhoewel dit 7.500 ton weeg, blyk dit dat die koepel wat op die Louvre Abu Dhabi sit, dryf. Sy poreuse struktuur, bestaande uit 7 850 unieke aluminiumsterre en die vervaardiging van die baie aangehaalde kwadraat van lig, en wat neerkom op die 55 glansende wit geboue daaronder, is 'n argitektoniese meesterstuk. Dit is ontwerp deur Jean Nouvel en is die eerste kunswerk wat 'n besoeker aan die nuwe museum teëkom, en dit is niks minder as asemrowend nie.

Binne is die inhoud en samestelling net so indrukwekkend, met 'n radikale voorstelling wat die kategorieë wat museumgangers ken, oplos en voorwerpe uit soortgelyke tydperke, maar uit verskillende geografiese gebiede vertoon om die ooreenkomste van menslike ervaring te onderstreep. Dit is om hierdie rede dat die Louvre Abu Dhabi geprys word as die wêreld se eerste universele museum. Dit is 'n problematiese term wat wyd oop is vir kritiek, maar om deur die galerysale te gaan en kunsvoorwerpe van verskillende kulturele oorsprong in dieselfde ruimte te sien, dien om 'n wêreldwye verhaal te skep.

Jean Francois Charnier, die wetenskaplike direkteur van die instelling, wat toesig hou oor die kuratoriale span, beskryf die museum en inhoud van die museum as uiteengesit in 12 hoofstukke. Die literêre verwysing is relevant, want elke keer as 'n besoeker van die een saal na die volgende skuif, is dit asof 'n nuwe geskiedenisblad omgedraai word. Op hierdie manier stel die museum 'n gladde reis van die prehistoriese eeue tot vandag toe in kaart.

Die hele ervaring word saamgevat in die eerste kamer, genaamd die Grand Vestibule, wat dien as 'n proloog en 'n mikrokosmos vir die res van die museum. Die ligbadkamer met kenmerkende vloerpatrone wat mariene kaarte uitbeeld en 'n kronkelende lyn van die kuslyn van die VAE, is ontwerp om die besoeker aan te moedig om soos 'n maritieme ontdekkingsreisiger te voel, metafories uitgespoel aan die oewers van Abu Dhabi en op die punt staan ​​om in te gaan 'n dapper nuwe wêreld.

Binne hierdie groot inleidingsruimte is nege hoekige glaskaste met groepe van drie soortgelyke voorwerpe uit verre beskawings. 'N Antieke Egiptiese beeldjie van die godin Isis wat haar seun Horus verpleeg, staan ​​byvoorbeeld langs 'n Middeleeuse Franse beeldhouwerk van die Maagd en die Kind en 'n 19de -eeuse kraamfiguur uit die Kongo -kultuur van Yombe en mdashall wat die liefde van 'n moeder vir haar kind toon. Ander gevalle bevat biddende figure, goue maskers, watervalle en mans te perd. Die etikette is insiggewend sonder om didakties te wees.

Die Louvre Abu Dhabi is nie 'n plek waar ons dinge verduidelik nie, het Charnier gesê. & ldquo Ons wil besoekers net vrae aan hulself stel en dan die daaropvolgende 12 hoofstukke soos 'n oop boek ondersoek en die antwoorde probeer vind. & rdquo

Die vier onderling verbonde vleuels van die museum omskryf steeds die verhaal van die menslike beskawing wat omstreeks 8 000 v.C. begin toe gemeenskappe eers begin vestig het. Die eerste stuk wat 'n besoeker sien, is 'n monumentale standbeeld met twee koppe, wat in Jordanië en rsquos Ain Ghazal ontdek is en dateer uit 6500 v.C. Dit staan ​​op ooghoogte en is pragtig verlig en heeltemal oortuigend. Die vreemde vorm daarvan word herhaal in ander vitrines met stukke uit antieke Ciprus en Mesopotamië, en onmiddellik word hierdie onverklaarbare karakter met twee koppe nog interessanter.

Die groot sale van die tweede en derde galerye bevat voorbeelde van die wêreld se eerste groot moondhede. 'N Indrukwekkende figuur van Ramses II, farao van Egipte, is aan die een kant geflankeer met 'n standbeeld van Gudea, die heerser van die staat Lagash in die suide van Mesopotamië, en aan die ander kant deur 'n borswapen wat die heersers van die Bronstydperk in Europa gedra het. Agter hulle, in die volgende saal, herinner die glimmende marmerfigure van antieke Griekeland ons aan 'n toekoms wat nog gevorm moet word. Verder staan ​​'n tweede-eeuse staande Bodhisattva uit Gandhara in Pakistan langs 'n Romeinse redenaar uit dieselfde tydperk. Die wedstryd is verstommend. Beide standbeelde, van merkwaardige grootte en vorm, toon duidelike invloede uit die antieke Griekeland in die voue van hul klere.

Afgesien van die hoofweg, is daar verskillende sykamers wat toegewy is aan enkele kunstenaars of temas. In die een word die werk van Rodin saamgestel met soortgelyke beelde uit antieke Rome. In 'n ander is kopieë van die Torah, die Bybel, die Koran en Sutras uit Indië gehuisves in 'n verduisterde kamer met swart mure waarop goue teks die inhoud daarvan verduidelik. Die ervaring is daarop gemik om die spiritualiteit van die Skrif op te wek en dien ook as 'n simbool vir die hele gebou as 'n plek waarmee ons die mensdom in 'n nuwe lig kan stel. & Rdquo

Later sale bring hulde aan nog meer wêreldwye beskawings wat ons deur die Asiatiese handelsroetes van die sewende eeu en die goue era van kuns en wetenskappe in die Islamitiese wêreld tussen die agtste en tiende eeu neem, sowel as die Portugese seevaarders wat die kuslyne van Afrika en die Indiese Oseaan in die 15de eeu.

Die galery met die titel World in Perspective, stel die Renaissance bekend La Belle Ferroniere (1495 en ndash99), een van slegs 15 Leonardo da Vinci -olieverfskilderye wat bestaan, en bevat ook Francesco Primaticcio en brons van rsquos Apollo Belvedere (1541 & ndash43), geleen van die paleis van Fontainebleau in Frankryk, sowel as Titian & rsquos Venesiaanse meesterstuk, Vrou met 'n spieël (ongeveer 1515).

Die voortgesette verhouding tussen die museum en die rsquos met 13 Franse instellings moet ongetwyfeld erkenning kry vir die skouspelagtige aanbieding, en in elke ruimte kan aansienlike lenings gevind word. In die laaste drie galerye, wat die 18de, 19de en 20ste eeu dek, het Claude Monet & rsquos Gare St. Lazare (1877) word langsaan vertoon Die Rooi Rots (1895) deur Paul C & eacutezanne sowel as James McNeill Whistler & rsquos Rangskikking in grys en swart No.1 (1871) of Whistler& rsquos Moeder soos dit meer liefdevol bekend is.

Daar is baie moeite gedoen om deurlopende skakels oor kontinente te maak. 'N Meditatiewe Mark Rothko -skildery hang langs 'n kleurblokstuk van Sayed Haider Raza en 'n Alexander Calder -selfoon is langs 'n beeldhou van Saloua Raouda Choucair geplaas en beweging en vorm verken.

Die museum sluit af met 'n kontemporêre werkkamer wat losweg verband hou met die tema identiteit en gebied. Hulle draai om 'n glansende kandelaarbeeld van 23 voet lank deur Ai Weiwei. Die fontein van lig (2007), geïnspireer deur Tatlin se voorgestelde monument vir die Kommunistiese Internasionale, is broos sowel as weelderig. Visueel verwys dit ook na die Toring van Babel, die Bybelse mite oor waarom die wêreld verdeel is in verskillende gemeenskappe wat verskillende tale praat. Is dit moontlik dat 'n museum van hierdie omvang nuwe maniere van kommunikasie kan voorstel om deur die verdeeldheid tussen taal en kultuur te sny?

Dit is die Louvre Abu Dhabi & rsquos -eis. Wanneer die deure op 11 November oopgaan, sal die publiek besluit.


Blaai deur die millennia by die nuwe Jordan Museum in Amman

By die nuwe Jordaan-museum kan besoekers kyk na 'n dubbelkop-gipsbeeld wat dateer uit 7500 vC. Hulle kan ook die ou, met 'n steen gekerfde sterretekens, Romeinse kolomme en 'n replika van 'n Moabitiese swart basaltsteen bewonder met 'n opskrif van die negende eeu vC, wat die oorwinning van die Moabitiese koning Mesha oor Israel vier.

As hulle belangstel in begrafnispraktyke, kan hulle mensvormige kleikiste sien, en as hulle meer wil weet oor omstrede historiese dokumente, kan hulle 'n gebied besoek wat toegewy is aan die Dooie See-rolle-leer-, papirus- en koperdokumente wat 'n paar van die oudste kopieë van Bybelse boeke, gesange en gebede.

Die museum, die grootste in die land op byna 10 000 vierkante meter, is die tuiste van argeologiese artefakte en kulturele uitstallings wat strek oor die Steentydperk, die Bronstydperk, die Ystertydperk, die klassieke en laat -oudheid tot die Islamitiese tydperk en die moderne Jordaan. Dit bevat ook dierebene wat 1,5 miljoen jaar terug dateer.

Die museum, wat stukke geleen uit die Departement van Oudhede vertoon, het in Januarie verlede jaar 'n sagte opening gehad.

Die groot opening is in afwagting van die regering se goedkeuring van die kaartjiesisteem en die voltooiing van die werk op die tweede verdieping, wat toegewy is aan die Islamitiese era en die moderne Jordaan.

Terwyl ander museums regoor die land fokus op die geskiedenis van die onmiddellike omgewing, wil die Jordan Museum die verhaal van die land as geheel vertel.

"Die uniekheid daarvan sou die verhaal van die land Jordanië en sy mense deur die tyd uitbeeld", het Sharifa Nofa Bint Nasser, die direkteur van die museum, aan The Review gesê. 'Ons sien daarna uit om die storieverteller van Jordanië te word.

'Dit is ook 'n kulturele toeristebestemming vir Jordaniërs wat hulle help om weer met hul verlede kontak te maak en hul kulturele identiteit te verstaan ​​en te respekteer. Ons wil hê dit moet 'n spilpunt vir gesinne word. ”

Die museum is geleë in die middestad van Rman Al Ayn, Amman, waar die Romeinse ruïnes plaasvind waar kulturele geleenthede gehou word.

Die nuwe kompleks bied ook buiteluguitstallings, lesingsale, 'n biblioteek, 'n bewaringsentrum en 'n gebied wat toegewy is aan kinderaktiwiteite.

Hoogtepunte van die museum is 'n versameling gipsbeelde met rietrame wat dateer uit 7500 vC. Hulle is ontdek tydens 'n gesamentlike Amerikaans-Jordaanse ekspedisie op die prehistoriese terrein van 'Ain Ghazal, in die noordooste van Amman, in die 1980's. Die terrein was eens 'n dorp waar boere, jagters en veewagters tussen 7200 vC en 5000 vC gewoon het.

'Dit was nie duidelik of mense destyds hierdie standbeelde aanbid het nie, maar ons weet dat daar gesofistikeerde tegnieke gebruik is. Dit was 'n deurbraak dat mense destyds nuwe materiaal kon uitdink deur kalk te verbrand, 'sê Yosha Alamri, een van die kurators van die museum.

Besoekers kan ook kleivorme sien vir die giet van kopervate en gereedskap wat dateer uit 5000-3600 vC, toe die metaal vir die eerste keer gebruik is.

Uit dieselfde tydperk is ook die oorblyfsels van babas wat in pottebakke begrawe is, wat onder die vloere van hul ouerhuise begrawe is. "Dit is nog onduidelik of die kruik die baarmoeder simboliseer, of 'n gerieflike kis wat onder die vloer begrawe is om die oorledene naby die gesin te hou, of dat die weer te sleg was vir 'n buitelugbegrafnis," het Alamri gesê.

Aan die einde van die toer kom besoekers 'n gebied binne waar die Dooie See -rolle en die potte waarin hulle gehou is, vertoon word. Die dokumente dateer uit die derde eeu vC tot die eerste eeu nC.

Die boekrolle is eers deur 'n Palestynse herder ontdek terwyl hy sy diere in 1947 laat wei het, 'n jaar voordat die Arabies-Israeliese oorlog uitgebreek het.

Die herder het sewe verkoop aan oudheidsverkopers en ander is na die Verenigde State gesmokkel en verkoop, volgens 'n dokument by die museum.

Die herder het die oorblywende rolle se skuilplek geheim gehou, maar twee jaar later het 'n Jordaanse weermagoffisier dit in hul gebreekte potte gevind. Hy het argeoloë by die Palestynse argeologiese museum vertel van sy ontdekking, wat gelei het tot opgrawings en die ontdekking van boekrolle in 11 grotte.

Twee van hulle is buitengewoon seldsame koperplaatopskrifte wat plekke identifiseer waar versteekte goud- en silwer skatte vermoedelik begrawe word.

'Diegene wat die boekrolle gelees het, het na die skatte gesoek, maar hulle kon dit nie vind nie. Is daar enige skatte? Ons weet nie, ”het Alamri gesê.


Bibliografie

Belfer-Cohen A. en Goring-Morris A.N.
2011 Refleksies oor neolithiseringsprosesse. Jacques Cauvin: Die regte man vir die seisoen. Paleorient 37.1: 89-99.

Mithen S.
2004 Van Ohalo tot Çatalhöyük: Die ontwikkeling van godsdienstigheid tydens die vroeë voorgeskiedenis van Wes-Asië, 20 000-7000 vC. In H. Whitehouse en L.H. Martin (red.), Theorizing Religions Past: 17-43. New York: Altamira Press.

Ornan T.
2009 In the Likeness of Man: Reflections on the antropocentric perception of the divine in Mesopotamian art. In B. Nevling Porter (red.), What is a God? : 93-152. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns.

Schmandt-Besserat D.
1996 Hoe skryfwerk gekom het. Austin: Die Universiteit van Texas Press.

Schmidt K.
2011 Góbekli Tepe. In M. Ozdogan, N. Basgelen en P. Kuniholm, (red.), The Neolithic in Turkey: 41- 83. Istanbul: Archeology and Art Publications.


Bybelse argeologiese toets 2

Primêre begrafnis:
-persoon begrawe kort na die dood met alle vlees nog vasgemaak sodat hul skelet na die begrafnis verwoord bly
-kan uitgestrek of in fetale posisie gevind word
-goeie aanduidings dat hulle in die onmiddellike omgewing van die gesin gewoon het

SEKONDARYRE BEGRAFNIS:
-individueel laat verval, dan word sagte vlees verwyder
soms word die primêre begrafnis herbesoek om vleis te verwyder
-kan die liggaam op 'n oppervlak lê en voëls/insekte toelaat om die skelet te ontvlees, dan kan hulle die materiaal weer bymekaarmaak
-soms tot 12 individue: familieplotte, miskien begrawe na katastrofes
-ochre: ysteroksied (roes) wat in knoppies in klip kan vorm, 'n natuurlike pigment wat geraamtes aangetref word met oker ('n simboliese betekenis soortgelyk aan bloos wat die liggaam versier)

lynverfde erdewerk:
-lynverfde amphoriskos
-borsels bymekaarmaak en daarmee skilder
-lyk ietwat soortgelyk aan amforas
geslote vate: miskien olie met parfuum
-tipies gevind in grafte
-omphalos -bakkies: woord beteken naeltjie, klein stote wat u kan help om die bak vas te hou
-kanne met hoë lushandvatsels
-EB I -teepot: nooit tee gehou nie, maar in dieselfde vorm; die teepot het 'n mesopotamiese invloed
-bewys van baie beweging/migrasie/invloed

Sjeik Muhsein:
-sirkel van verdediging, probeer om hulself te beskerm

Sjeik Awad:
-banke: nie om te sit nie, maar om kos/bakke op te sit
-sirkelvormig

Sekhemhet muurreliëf, Wadi Magharah:
Egiptenare wat in Sinai belangstel, in turkoois belangstel
-Egiptenare het muursnywerk gemaak wat die farao's wys wat dit gestuur het
Egiptiese turkoois -mynbou in Wadi Magharah, Sinai
-verdedigende strukture: hoog waar myners gewoon het
-die Asiaties verslaan: die wit kroon van Bo -Egipte dra en die rooi kroon van die onderste Egipte
-Sekhemhet identifiseer met 'n dier, het 'n stert: hy beskryf homself as 'n god


Wat word in die man-bags oorgedra?

'N Ander oortuigende aspek van hierdie raaisel is dat baie van hierdie androgyne skeppergode wêreldwyd uitgebeeld word met vreemde "man-bags". Graham Hancock, skrywer van Fingerprints of The Gods, het ons ingelig oor 'n moontlike oordrag van tegnologie van oorlewendes van 'n antieke ramp en beklemtoon dat hierdie kunstenaars en wetenskap van die beskawing dikwels mansakke dra. Teorieë is volop in die poging om te verduidelik wat dit is, maar wat bekend is, is dat dit oor 'n groot geografiese gebied voorkom, wat verband hou met Androgyne, bonatuurlike vloedoorlewendes van 'n verdrinkte kontinent. So, wie was hierdie wesens en waar kom hulle vandaan?

Androgyniese Babiloniese man-vis-godheid Oannes wat die geheimsinnige "man tas" dra. (Skrywer verskaf)

Kom ons kyk na 'n paar van hierdie goddelike gode wat na die groot vloed opgedaag het. Oannes was 'n androgyne Babiloniese mensvis-godheid wat die mansak dra, in 'The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, Series A: Cuneiform Texts', maak H. V. Hilprecht 'n opvallende aanspraak. 'Hierdie androgyne natuur, hierdie vermoë om uit homself, sy eie ego te ontstaan, hierdie selfbestaan ​​is inherent aan elke god van die Sumeriërs. Alle Sumeriese gode is androgine. ” (6)

Androgyne demi-god Quetzalcoatl, nakomelinge van die Androgyne Ometeotl, dra 'n manstas op die Olmec-terrein van La Venta 1800 v.C. (Skrywer verskaf)

Oorkant die oseaan in Mexiko, Quetzalcoatl, word die demi-god nakomelinge van die androgyne wese Ometeotl uitgebeeld op die Olmec-terrein van La Venta (1800 vC) met 'n manstas.

Die legendariese Viracocha, 'n ander androgyne god, is bekend vir sy aktiwiteite na die vloed in Suid-Amerika. Dikwels uitgebeeld as 'n bebaarde reus, kom hy van 'n verlore kontinent in die Atlantiese Oseaan en versprei gevorderde en ongekende wysheid. Vreemd genoeg word hy 'die skuim van die see' genoem, net soos die legendariese Cucullain in Ierland was. Daar word beweer dat Cucullain sewe vingers en tone het (u hoef nie verder as Wikipedia te waag om die feit te ontdek nie) en kom uit 'n verlore gevorderde beskawing in die middel van die Atlantiese Oseaan. Waar albei hierdie bonatuurlike wesens skuim van die see genoem het omdat hulle gevorderde metaalvaartuie gehad het wat die golwe laat draai en ontsag by die inheemse mense geïnspireer het? In die nasleep van hierdie wesens het wonderlik komplekse beskawings en klipwerk ontstaan. In Suid -Amerika, Sumerië en nadat androgyne Thoth na Egipte gekom het, verskyn gou 'n paar van die ongelooflikste en mees gesofistikeerde beskawings ter wêreld. Daar word wyd berig dat die Androgyne Thoth afkomstig was uit Atlantis in esoteriese kringe, hy was ook bekend as Hermes Trismegistus, Hermafrodiet is Hermes + Aphrodite.

Herm -standbeeld met twee koppe, Athene. (Skrywer verskaf)

As 'n bykomende bewys van die gesofistikeerdheid van antieke Sumer, laat ons ons tot 'n merkwaardige onlangse ontdekking wend. Soos berig in die Guardian 24 Augustus 2017 (7) is 'n ou Babiloniese tablet na 100 jaar finaal ontsyfer deur 'n span van New South Wales in Sydney. Uit die artikel,

"Wiskundiges redeneer al die grootste deel van 'n eeu oor die interpretasie van die tablet bekend as Plimpton 322 , sedert die New Yorkse uitgewer George Plimpton dit in die dertigerjare aan die Universiteit van Columbia nagelaat het as deel van 'n groot versameling. Hy het dit gekoop van Edgar Banks, 'n diplomaat, oudheidshandelaar en flambojante amateur -argeoloog wat gesê het dat hy die karakter van Indiana Jones geïnspireer het - sy prestasies was onder meer die beklimming van Mount Ararat in 'n onsuksesvolle poging om Noah's Ark te vind - wat dit in die suide van Irak opgegrawe het vroeg in die 20ste eeu. Mansfield, wat sy navorsing saam met sy kollega Norman Wildberger gepubliseer het in die tydskrif Historia Mathematica , sê hoewel wiskundiges al dekades lank verstaan ​​dat die tablet toon dat die stelling lank voor Pythagoras was, was daar geen ooreenkoms oor die beoogde gebruik van die tablet nie. 'Tot dusver was die groot raaisel die doel daarvan - waarom die ou skrifgeleerdes die komplekse taak uitgevoer het om die getalle op die tablet te genereer en te sorteer. Ons navorsing toon aan dat Plimpton 322 die vorms van reghoekige driehoeke beskryf deur gebruik te maak van 'n nuwe soort trigonometrie gebaseer op verhoudings, nie hoeke en sirkels nie. Dit is 'n fassinerende wiskundige werk wat ongetwyfeld genie toon. ”

'Die tablet bevat nie net die oudste trigonometriese tabel ter wêreld nie, dit is ook die enigste akkurate trigonometriese tabel vanweë die baie verskillende Babiloniese benadering tot rekenkunde en meetkunde. Dit beteken dat dit baie relevant is vir ons moderne wêreld. Babiloniese wiskunde was al meer as 3000 jaar uit die mode, maar dit het moontlike praktiese toepassings in landmeting, rekenaargrafika en opvoeding. Dit is 'n seldsame voorbeeld van die antieke wêreld wat ons iets nuuts geleer het. ”

Dit alles stel die vraag: het die androgyne manstas wat Oannes dra, hierdie gesofistikeerde inligting in die ou tyd deurgegee? Dit voeg ook brandstof by die vraag waarom Sumeriërs 'n basis 12 -stelsel eerder as 'n basis 10 -stelsel gebruik het. Kan hierdie antieke raaisel maklik verklaar word deur die feit dat hierdie beskaffers ses vingers in plaas van vyf gehad het, soos voorheen voorgestel is? Dit bring ons by 'n ander merkwaardige spesifieke eienskap wat verband hou met die bonatuurlike antieke, ses vingers en tone. Die Bybelse aanhaling aangaande die Reus van Gath is voorheen gegee met verwysing na die Ain Ghazal -standbeelde, maar daar is baie meer aan hierdie verhaal.

Gekapte reuse-sestandvoetspoor, eiland Tarawa. (Bron, The Footprints of Tarawa, I.G. Turbott, Colonial Administration Service, Volume 38, 1949.)

Die wêreld is besaai met ou beelde, kerfwerk en rotstekeninge met ses vingers en tone. Van geïsoleerde Stille Oseaan -eilande tot talle Amerikaanse state tot lande wat wêreldwyd genoem word. Selfs Edgar Cayce berig oor 'n hoë wese met ses vingers met die naam Muzuen wat na die Gobi -woestyn gereis het vanaf die verlore Stille Oseaan -kontinent in 9 026 v.C. (8)

Utah, Petroglief met ses vingers en vingers. (Bron James Q. Jacobs Rock Art Pages)

Die esoteriese oortuiging is dat ses vingers en tone 'n eienskap was wat toegeskryf word aan antieke bonatuurlike androgyne gode en hul nageslag, 'n eienskap wat uiteindelik verlaat is vir die vyfvingerige homo sapiens van vandag. Miskien is dit die rede waarom die Bybelse Adam met ses vingers in Jan Van Scorel se skildery uit 1540 uitgebeeld word.

Houtsnywerk met ses tone Illinois. Bron, rekords van antieke wedrenne in die Mississippi -vallei, Wm. McAdams, bladsy 42, 1887.

Cayce se beskrywing van Muzuen, met die lees van 877-10, beskryf hom as ses voet lank, blou oë, hare donkergoud, hande met ses vingers, laat my dadelik dink aan die onlangs ontdekte Kaukasiese Tarim Basin Mummies wat in China gevind is, waarvan baie rooi is en blonde hare, blou oë en is tussen ses voet en ses voet ses sentimeter lank.

Adam met ses vingers, Jan Van Scorel, 1540. Detail van Adam se linkerhand (Bron, renaissance-in-art.org, Skrywer verskaf)

Androgyne skeppergode, vreemde wesens met mensesakke, verregaande klipwerk, opvallend soortgelyke ikonografie en die mooiste deel is dat al die bronne wat ek van Edgar Cayce tot die Rosicrucian's en Plato genoem het, almal dieselfde werklikheid rapporteer. Is dit nie die moeite werd om te ondersoek nie? Ek sê natuurlik dat dit so is en ek is nie alleen nie; baie ander navorsers is al dekades lank op die spoor van hierdie raaisels en nou lyk dit asof hierdie idees van naderby begin kyk.

Hierdie alternatiewe geskiedenisbeskouing maak sin van al die vreemde en mitologiese tradisies van die wêreld, waar ons huidige wetenskaplike paradigma niks hiervan aanspreek nie en ons in die duister laat met die wanpersepsie dat ons voorouers bygelowig, onlogies en kranksinnig was. Behalwe dat die tragedies van die verbranding van die Biblioteek van Alexandrië en die Maya -kodeks vernietig is, lyk dit asof die moderne wetenskap duisende jare se wettige bewyse in die vorm van mites, legendes, godsdienstige dokumente, mondelinge tradisies en geheime genootskapliteratuur weggegooi het. Hoe meer ek grawe, hoe meer neig ek na die antieke wêreld wat deur Edgar Cayce en ander beskryf word as die meer waarskynlike werklikheid. Ek glo beslis nie dat daar 'n waarheid is oor die idee van akademiese sameswerings nie, maar die menslike natuur en die drakoniese effek van gevestigde oriëntasies rondom bestaande paradigmas maak dit 'n opdraande stryd om nuwe idees te vestig.

Hopelik sal hierdie inligting die leser so ingrypend vind soos ek, en u sal oop wees vir oënskynlik ketterse idees oor die verlede. Kom saam met my by die Edgar Cayce Ancient Mysteries-konferensie op 6 Oktober in Virginia Beach, Virginia, die Origins-konferensie op 4 November in Londen of by die Awake and Empowered Expo in Detroit op 10-12 November terwyl ek die Lost World of Edgar Cayce bespreek .

Bo -prent: Dubbelkoppige androgene Herm -beeld, Athene. Bron, Wikipedia (outeur verskaf)


Die godin uit Anatolië


Toe The Goddess from Anatolia deur Mellaart, Hirsch en Balpinar laat in 1989 gepubliseer word, het die prutende, vyf jaar lange Çatal Hüyük-kontroversie aan die kook gekom. Die karakter van die debat oor James Mellaart se Neolitiese Anatoliese kilim -hipotese het skielik verander. Dit het skielik gefokus op die geloofwaardigheid van 44 verrassende nuwe tekeninge van “ herboude ” muurskilderye. Komplekse kwessies, soos ontwerpverspreiding en historiese kontinuïteit, het irrelevant geword.
Die Çatal Hüyük -ruk wat in die laat 1980's en vroeë 1990's en vroeë 1990's in die matte -gemeenskap ontstaan ​​het, was onmoontlik om te ignoreer, en ek het twee verwante artikels in Oriental Rug Review gepubliseer. Die opdatering hieronder is die tweede opskrif van die redakteur vir die uitgawe van Desember 1992/Januarie 1993 (Vol. XIII, nr. 2). Die vorige artikel, met 'n gedetailleerde ondersoek van twyfelagtige “ -konstruksies, ” word afsonderlik geplaas. 'N Paar illustrasies is by elkeen gevoeg. Ek wil 'n bietjie agtergrond gee oor hierdie geskil en 'n opsomming gee van die faktore wat daartoe gelei het dat ek daarby betrokke was.
Die godin uit Anatolië


JERICHO, AIN GHAZAL, ASLANTEPE EN ANDER BAIE OU DORPE EN DORPE

Asikli Hoyuk is tussen 10 700 en 9 300 jaar gelede beset. Daar vind argeoloë een baie groot gebou omring deur klein beskeie geboue. 'N Argeoloog wat daar gewerk het, het aan U.S. News and World Report gesê:' Baie meer tyd en moeite is ingegee in die groot gebou, en dit is moontlik die vroegste fisiese bewys van sosiale verdeeldheid op pad na prinse en kleinboere. '

Op die nabygeleë 9000 jaar oue terrein van Nevali Cori, 'n plek aan die Eufraat in die suidooste van Turkye, is die geboue reghoekig en het spasies tussen hulle, wat volgens argeoloë kan probeer om privaatheid te skep. Daar is ook geboue met gespesialiseerde funksies. Een daarvan is gebruik vir kook. 'N Ander een was 'n werkswinkel om vuurwerktuie te maak. 'N Ander een was vol menslike beeldjies. Nevali Cori het bewys gelewer van rituele geboue en 40 huise wat uit 10 800 en 9 600 jaar gelede gedateer is. Einkorn koring, tweekorrelige koring, ertjies en lensies is hier verbou. In die wonings is menslike en dierlike beeldjies gevind.

Nemrik, Qermez Dere en M’lefaat is een van die oudste dorpe ter wêreld. Geleë in die noorde van Irak en gedateer omstreeks 8000 v.C., bevat dit bewyse van vroeë landbou en makmaak van diere.

Kategorieë met verwante artikels op hierdie webwerf: Eerste dorpe, vroeë landbou en brons, koper en laat-steentydperk (33 artikels) factsanddetails.com Moderne mense 400,000-20,000 jaar gelede (35 artikels) factsanddetails.com Mesopotamiese geskiedenis en godsdiens (35 artikels) ) factsanddetails.com Mesopotamiese kultuur en lewe (38 artikels) factsanddetails.com

Webwerwe en bronne oor die geskiedenis: Wikipedia -artikel oor Prehistorie Wikipedia Early Humans elibrary.sd71.bc.ca/subject_resources Prehistoric Art witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHprehistoric Evolution of Modern Humans anthro.palomar.edu Webwerwe en hulpbronne van vroeë landbou en mak diere: Britannica britannica.com/ Wikipedia -artikel History of Agriculture Wikipedia History of Food and Agriculture museum.agropolis Wikipedia -artikel Animal Domestication Wikipedia Cattle Domestication geochembio.com Food Timeline, History of Food foodtimeline.org Food and History teacheroz.com/food Iceman Photscan iceman. eurac.edu/ Otzi Amptelike webwerf iceman.it

Argeologie Nuus en hulpbronne: Anthropology.net anthropology.net: bedien die aanlyn gemeenskap wat geïnteresseerd is in antropologie en argeologie archaeologica.org archaeologica.org is 'n goeie bron vir argeologiese nuus en inligting. Argeologie in Europa archeurope.com bevat opvoedkundige hulpbronne, oorspronklike materiaal oor baie argeologiese onderwerpe en het inligting oor argeologiese gebeure, studiereise, uitstappies en argeologiese kursusse, skakels na webwerwe en artikels Archeology magazine archaeology.org het argeologiese nuus en artikels en is 'n publikasie van die Archaeological Institute of America Archeology News Network archaeologynewsnetwork is 'n nie-winsgewende, aanlyn-oop, pro-gemeenskapsnuuswebwerf oor argeologie British Archaeology magazine british-archaeology-magazine is 'n uitstekende bron gepubliseer deur die Council for British Archeology Current Archeology tydskrif archaeology.co.uk word vervaardig deur die voorste argeologiese tydskrif in die Verenigde Koninkryk HeritageDaily heritagedaily.com is 'n aanlyn tydskrif vir erfenis en argeologie, wat die nuutste nuus en nuwe ontdekkings beklemtoon Livescience livescience.com/: algemene wetenskaplike webwerf met baie argeologiese inhoud en nuus. Past Horizons: aanlyn tydskrifblad wat argeologie en erfenisnuus dek, asook nuus oor ander wetenskaplike terreine. bevat artikels oor voorgeskiedenis Best of History-webwerwe besthistorysites.net is 'n goeie bron vir skakels na ander webwerwe Essential Humanities essential-humanities.net: bied inligting oor geskiedenis en kunsgeskiedenis, insluitend afdelings Prehistorie

Jerigo

Jerigo - die Bybelse stad Josua, trompette en valmure - word deur sommige as die oudste stad ter wêreld beskou. Gestig rondom 7.500 v.C. in 'n dorre vallei 600 voet onder seespieël in Palestina naby die Dooie See., was die ou Jerigo die tuiste van 2000 tot 3000 mense wat oorleef het op plante wat in 'n vrugbare gebied rondom 'n oase gedy het. Daar is koringstamme en gars en obsidiaanse gereedskap ontdek wat van elders afkomstig is. Ancient Jericho had an elaborate system of walls, towers and moats. The circular wall that surrounded the settlement had a circumference of about 200 meters and was four meters high. The wall in turn was surrounded by a 30-foot-wide, 10-foot-deep moat. The technology used to build them was virtually the same as those used in medieval castles. [Source: "History of Warfare" by John Keegan, Vintage Books]

Located near a permanent spring a few miles west of the Jordan River and excavated by Kathleen Kenyon, Jericho is certainly one of the world’s oldest fortified settlement but whether it qualifies as a city is a matter of some debate. There are indications of settlement after 9000 B.C.. This settlement grew to city-like status by 7000 B.C. The archaeological site is situated in the plain of the Jordan Valley two kilometers northwest of modern Jericho city. It is a large artificial mound, rising 21 meters high and covering an area of about one acre.

In 7000 B.C., Jericho encompassed of about eight to ten acres and was home to estimated two to three thousand people. It was inhabited by people who depended on collecting wild seeds for food. It is appears that they did not plant seeds, but harvested wild grains using scythes with flint edges and straight bone handles and used stone mortars with handles for grinding them. Some people lived in caves, while others occupied primitive villages with round huts made from sun-dried bricks. They buried their dead with jewelry in graves made out of rock.

The early inhabitants of Jericho dug out canals to bring water from nearby sources to where they lived and perhaps to irrigate land with wild plants they harvested for food. They constructed huge two-meter-thick walls around their villages. Inside the main fortified settlement was a circular stone tower, nine meters in diameter, and ten meters high, built for protection and requiring thousands of man hours to build. The people of ancient Jericho practiced the domestication of animals, and weaving mats, as well as animal hunting, and perhaps, agriculture. They used spears and flint-capped arrows. They also used hatchets to cut tree branches. Some inhabitants expanded from their settlements in search of new homes outside their boundaries.

Jericho’s first inhabitants, a people called the Natufians, practiced barley cultivation. Pre-Biblical Jericho had an elaborate system of walls, towers and moats by 7,500 B.C. . Thirty-foot-high stone observation tower required thousands of man hours to build. The original walls of Jericho appear to have been built for flood control rather defensive purposes. Another surprising thing about Jericho is that no pottery or baked clay bricks have been found. The excavations go quite deep. Teen 3000 v.C. the Jericho Valley was a major wine-producing area.

The Archeological Museum of Jordan has a stunning collection of 9,000-year-old sculptured heads from Jericho. Consisting of on an actual skull with plaster skin and sea shell eyes, each head is different. Some archeologists claim they were sealed "spirit" traps," designed to keep the soul from wandering around.

History of Tell es-Sultan (Ancient Jericho)

According to UNESCO: “Tell es-Sultan, the ancient city of Jericho, is the lowest (258 m below sea level) and the oldest town on earth. It grew up around a perennial spring, Ain es-Sultan, in an area of fertile alluvial soil which attracted hunter-gatherer groups to settle down, and to start a process of plant and animal domestication. Archaeological excavations carried out in the mid-20th century evidenced 23 layers of ancient civilizations at the site. The earliest remains date back to the Natufian period, 10th-8th millennia BC. By the 8th millennium B.C. Jericho became a big fortified town surrounded by a stone wall supported by a massive round tower. These are the earliest urban fortifications known in the world, later several times replaced. Their early date took the history of urbanity and domestication back several millennia at the time of their discovery in the 1950s. The Neolithic population ofJerichodeveloped a complex society where house construction, crafts, such as weaving and matting, and mythological and social conception of burial and religion were practiced. The Neolithic houses were built with dried mud bricks: the initial round shape of their construction developed into the rectangular form. [Source: UNESCO ==]

“During the Early Bronze Age, Tell es-Sultan was a fortified town and one of the most flourishing Canaanite City-States in Palestine. It lasted more than a thousand years before being demolished by nomadic groups in the last centuries of the second millennium BC. Afterwards, the site was rebuilt again at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, and surrounded by a mud brick wall that lasted until 1580 BC, when it was violently destroyed by fire. However,Jerichowas probably scantily re-occupied in the late Bronze Age, since few remains of this period were found. Throughout the Iron Ages, Tell es-Sultan was re-occupied again, especially in the 7th century BC, a phase which lasted until the end of Iron Age II (586 BC). Thereafter, the tell was no longer occupied, although Byzantine remains were found on its eastern side close to the spring of Ain es-Sultan. The surrounding area, however, today’s Jerichoand environs, was continuously occupied in a fluctuating history over the last two and a half millennia. ==

“Numerous religious events and beliefs are associated with the site and area. For example, the spring of Ain es-Sultan is biblically called Elisha’s spring, in which the prophet (Elisha) made the water atJerichohealthy. Luke narrates that Jesus visitedJerichomore than once on one such occasion (19:1.4), “Jesus enteredJerichoand was passing through it. Now a man named Zacchaeus was trying to get a look at Jesus, but being a short man he could not see over the crowd. So he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him”. High above the site, perched on the cliff facing the west, is the monastery of the Mount of Temptation, traditionally built at or close to the place where Jesus, fasting for 40 days after his baptism, was offered by Satan the kingdom of the world in exchange for his homage. ==

“The archaeological methodology applied to make these discoveries is also regionally significant. It involved the use at Tell es-Sultan of techniques associated with the English archaeologist, Mortimer Wheeler, developed by him in the 1930s and passed on to his associates and students such as Kathleen Kenyon. She followed his precepts at Tell es-Sultan with large, deep, horizontal trenches designed to expose stratigraphy rather than merely find ‘remains’ or objects. Thus the wall and tower, and indeed the evidence of domestication, were found in a secure cultural and chronological context. The well-preserved trenches remain as witnesses to the development of archaeological research methods inPalestine. Visitors can still see some of the layers in which lies the history of the tell. ==

Jerf el Ahmar

Jerf el-Ahmar, an 11,600-year-old site on the Euphrates River in northern Syria, contains a structure with an enormous 30-foot-in-diameter room. In the room is a bench with friezes of triangles. Believed to have been a meeting place built with collective labor, it seems plausible that it once sat at the center of a town. The site has also yielded evidence of ritual beheading, and cultivation and milling of grains, crossbreeding of crops such peas and lentils and the domestication of aurochs (wild oxen).

Trevor Watkins of the University of Edinburgh wrote: “There are at least three other early aceramic Neolithic settlement sites in the Euphrates valley in north Syria, contemporary with Jerf el Ahmar, that possessed similar buildings. They are large, circular, subterranean structures within the settlement, though each has distinctive features. The most distinctive is the circular structure of massive mudbrick that is emerging at Dja’de el Mughara. The building has massive internal buttresses, or stub-walls, whose mud-plastered surfaces are revealing painted, polychrome, rectilinear designs. These communal buildings clearly involved great investment of labour and the coordination of the skills and efforts of many of the community. [Source: Trevor Watkins, University of Edinburgh,“Household, Community and Social Landscape: Maintaining Social Memory in the Early Neolithic of Southwest Asia”, proceedings of the International Workshop, Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II (14th –18th March 2011)” in Kiel January 2012 /+]

“It appears that the structures (those where the investigations and analysis have progressed sufficiently to inform us) were in use for a long time, though we as yet have no information as to what took place within them. It is a reasonable inference that their construction, maintenance, modification and repeated use served to perpetuate collective memory, something that will be pursued later. Even more remarkable are two sites that have the superficial appearance of settlements, but were central places to which many people came from a number of communities for specific purposes. /+

Ain Ghazal and Its Other Worldly Figures and Games

Ain Ghazal, an archeological site in Amman, Jordan was one of the largest population centers in the Middle East (three times larger than Jericho) from 7200 to 5000 B.C., a period in human history when sem-nomadic hunters and gathers were adapting to farming and animals herding and organizing themselves into cities. Ain Ghazal means

Ain Ghazal covers about 30 acres. The people were farmers and hunters and gatherers. They used stone tools and weapons and made clay figures and vessels. They lived in multi-room houses with stone walls and timber roof beams and cooking hearths. Plaster with decorations covered the walls and floors. They are meat and milk products from goats, grew wheat barely, lentils, peas and chickpeas, hunted wild cattle, boar and gazelles and gathered wild plants, almonds, figs and pistachios.

Mysterious human figures unearthed at Ain Ghazal, are among the oldest human statues ever found. Made of lime plaster and dating back to 7000 B.C., the figures were about 3½ feet tall and have bitumen accented eyes and look like aliens from outerspace. Scholars believe they played a ceremonial role and may have been images of gods or heros.

The figures were discovered 1985 by the driver of a bulldozers clearing the way for a road. The statues were made of delicate materials’so delicate they whole site was unearthed and shipped to a Smithsonian laboratory where the figures it took ten years to assemble the figures.

The figures come in two types: full figures and busts. Both types were made by forming plaster over a skeleton made of bundles of reed wrapped in twine. Facial features were probably made by hand with simple tools made of bone, wood or stone. The plaster technology that was used was fairly advanced and required heating limestone to temperatures if 600̊ to 900̊C

Archeologists working in Ain Ghazal found what they say may be the world’s oldest known game. The game board, a limestone slab, has two sets of circular depressions and bears a striking resemblance to games played in the Middle East today with counting stones. The slab was found in a house, and because it seemed to serve no utilitarian or ceremonial function archeologists concluded it most likely was a game board. [National Geographic Geographica, February 1990].

Jordan’s Earliest Buildings

Some of the earliest evidence of prehistoric architecture has been found in the Jordanian desert.In 2012, archaeologists said they had found Jordan’s earliest buildings, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago. Cambridge University reported: “Archaeologists working in eastern Jordan have announced the discovery of 20,000-year-old hut structures, the earliest yet found in the Kingdom. The finding suggests that the area was once intensively occupied and that the origins of architecture in the region date back twenty millennia, before the emergence of agriculture. The research, published 15 February, 2012 in PLoS One by a joint British, Danish, American and Jordanian team, describes huts that hunter-gatherers used as long-term residences and suggests that many behaviours that have been associated with later cultures and communities, such as a growing attachment to a location and a far-reaching social network, existed up to 10,000 years earlier. [Source:Cambridge University, February 18, 2012]

“Excavations at the site of Kharaneh IV are providing archaeologists with a new perspective on how humans lived 20,000 years ago. Although the area is starkly dry and barren today, during the last Ice Age the deserts of Jordan were in bloom, with rivers, streams, and seasonal lakes and ponds providing a rich environment for hunter-gatherers to settle in. “What we witness at the site of Kharaneh IV in the Jordanian desert is an enormous concentration of people in one place,” explained Dr Jay Stock from the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Cambridge and co-author of the article. “People lived here for considerable periods of time when these huts were built. They exchanged objects with other groups in the region and even buried their dead at the site. These activities precede the settlements associated with the emergence of agriculture, which replaced hunting and gathering later on. At Kharaneh IV we have been able to document similar behaviour a full 10,000 years before agriculture appears on the scene.”

The archaeologists spent three seasons excavating at the large open-air site covering two hectares. They recovered hundreds of thousands of stone tools, animal bones and other finds from Kharaneh IV, which today appears as little more than a mound 3 meters high rising above the desert landscape. Based on the size and density of the site, the researchers had long suspected that Kharaneh IV was frequented by large numbers of people for long periods of time these latest findings now confirm their theory. “It may not look very impressive to the untrained eye, but it is one of the densest and largest Palaeolithic open-air sites in the region,” said Dr Lisa Maher, from the University of California, Berkeley, who spearheads the excavations. “The stone tools and animal bone vastly exceed the amounts recovered from most other sites of this time period in southwest Asia.” In addition, the team also recovered rarer items, such as shell beads, bones with regularly incised lines and a fragment of limestone with geometric carved patterns.

“So far, the team has fully excavated two huts but there may be several more hidden beneath the desert’s sands. “They’re not large by any means. They measure about 2–3 meters in maximum length and were dug into the ground. The walls and roof were made of brush wood, which then burnt and collapsed leaving dark coloured marks,” described Dr Tobias Richter from the University of Copenhagen and one of the project’s co-directors. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the hut is between 19,300 and 18,600 years old. Although a team of archaeologists working at Ohalo II on the shore of the Sea of Galilee (Israel) in 1989 found the region’s oldest hut structures, which date from 23,000 years ago, the team working at the Kharaneh IV site believe their discovery is no less significant, as Dr Maher explained: “Inside the huts, we found intentionally burnt piles of gazelle horn cores, clumps of red ochre pigment and a cache of hundreds of pierced marine shells. These shell beads were brought to the site from the Mediterranean and Red Sea over 250 kilometers away, showing that people were very well linked to regional social networks and exchanged items across considerable distances.”

Arslantepe

Arslantepe, a remote site near the town of Malatya and the source of the Euphrates River in southeastern Turkey, is regarded as one of the world’s oldest large towns. It was first settled around 4,250 B.C.. Among the firsts found found there the first known palace, the first known sword (cast from an alloy of copper and arsenic) and the first toothed locks opened with a key (similar to locks still used in parts of Africa and the Middle East). There are also tombs with evidence of what seems to be human sacrifice.

The palace at Arslantepe contains some of the world’s oldest and best preserved ancient wall paintings. They were made on plastered walls and consist of stylized representations of humans and animals. An ancient painters palette consisting of a flat stone with hollowed-out depressions for paint was found here. The evidence for human sacrifice is grave for a man in his 30s of 40s who was buried with three girls and boy in their teens who showed signs of being treated violently.

When Arslantepe was first settled in 4250 B.C., the social system seemed to be fairly egalitarian in that all the dwellings dated to this period seemed pretty much the same. In 4000 B.C. a fairly large temple was built. It also seemed to play a role in storing grain and distributing food. Thousand of storage jar and some measuring tools have been found inside. Later the first locks were used to lock storage rooms containing grain. As society developed, labor became more specialized and stratified with an elite class that ruled over the others. The first palace was built around 2500 B.C.

Tell Hamoukar

Tell Hamoukar is an interesting site, dated to 3500 B.C., in eastern Syria near the border of Iraq and Turkey. With a central city covering 16 hectares, it is as highly developed as sites in southern Iraq such as Uruk and Nippur and seems to debunk the theories that ancient civilization developed in southern Iraq and spread northward and westward. Instead Tell Hamoukar is offered as proof that several advanced ancient civilizations developed simultaneously in different parts of the Middle East. [Source: Natural History magazine, Clemens Reichel of the Oriental Institute of Chicago]

Excavations indicate that Tell Hamoukar was first inhabited around 4000 B.C. perhaps as early as 4500 B.C. By around 3700 B.C. is covered at least 13 hectares and displayed signs of an advanced civilization: a 2.5-meter-high, 3.4 -meter-wide defensive wall, large scale bread making and meat cooking, a wide array of cylinder seals, presumably used to mark goods. Many seals were used to secure baskets and other containers of commodities.

The simplest seals had only simple markings. More elaborate ones had kissing bears, ducks and a leopard with 13 spots. Scholars believed that more elaborate seals were used by people of high status and indicate a hierarchically-ordered society. But as advanced as Tell Hamoukar and other places in the area were they are not regarded as advanced as those in southern Iraq, where writing developed.

Tell Hamoukar contains a 500-acre site with buildings with huge ovens, which offer evidence that people were making food for other people. The city seems to have been a manufacturing center for tools and blades that utilized obsidian supplies further north and supplied the tools throughout Mesopotamia to the south. Other sites being excavated in northern Syria include Tell Brak and Habuba Kabira, both of which appear ro be much larger than previously thought.

A team led by Clemens Reichel of the Oriental Institute of Chicago and Syrian Department of Antiquities have been excavating Tell Hamoukar since 1999.. Guillermo Algaze of the University of California, San Diego is an archaeologist that specialize in north-south relations in Mesopotamia.

Early Village-Like Sites in Israel, the Persian Gulf and Cyprus

Arrowheads found in Qatar in 1960 and ash from ancient campfires in Muscat found in 1983, both dated to around 6000 B.C., are the oldest examples of nomadic pastoralists living on the Arabian peninsula. Remains from Neolithic camps seems to indicate that the climate was wetter at that time and there was more food for grazing animals than today. Nomads are thought to have ranged between Iraq and Syria in the north a the Dhofar region of Oman in the south.

Shells and fishbone middens, dated to around 5000 B.C., found near Muscat is the earliest evidence of fishing communities along the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. Artifacts found at one of the middens (heaps of shells of marine life remains) included stone net sinkers, a necklace of shell, soapstone and limestone beads, finely-carved shell pendants. Graves contained human skeletons buried on beds of oyster shells or with sea turtle skulls. Analysis of the human remains turned up evidence of malaria and inbreeding. There was little evidence that they ate anything other than what they could take from the sea.

Trevor Watkins of the University of Edinburgh wrote: ““In Israel the site of Kfar HaHoresh dates to the later aceramic Neolithic, and it shares with southern Levantine settlement sites the burial of bodies, the retrieval of skulls, and, from the typical houses, the elaborate use of lime-plaster for making floor surfaces. However, there is no sign of everyday living at the site, though there is evidence of feasting episodes and the rectangles of lime-plaster floor are not part of roofed buildings. The site appears to have been devoted to rituals that are evidenced on settlements of the period in the region, but it is difficult to imagine why a “central place” site was needed for the exclusive performance of practices that were also practised within settlements.” [Source: Trevor Watkins, University of Edinburgh,“Household, Community and Social Landscape: Maintaining Social Memory in the Early Neolithic of Southwest Asia”, proceedings of the International Workshop, Socio-Environmental Dynamics over the Last 12,000 Years: The Creation of Landscapes II (14th –18th March 2011)” in Kiel January 2012 /+]

In 2016, the Cyprus' Antiquities Department, announced that archaeological digs have uncovered more than 20 round buildings in what is believed to be the east Mediterranean island's earliest known village that dates as far back as the 9th century B.C. The department said in a statement that excavationsin the Ayios Tychonas-Klimonas area near Cyprus' southern coast, also found domestic dogs and cats had already been introduced to Cyprus when the village was active 11,200 to 10,600 years ago. It said villagers hunted small wild boar and birds, but didn't produce pottery. Excavations directed by Francois Briois from France's School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences and Jean-Denis Vigne from France's National Center for Scientific Research-National Museum of Natural History found most buildings had built-in fire places. [Source: Associated Press, Jul 12, 2016]

Dolni Vestonice

Dolni Vestonice in Czech Republic, a site been dated to 27,000 B.C., has been called the world’s oldest village but most scholars argue is too small and too rudimentary to qualify as a village or town. In any case a number of important discoveries related to early man have been found there.

Dolni Vestonice is the site of the earliest known potter’s kiln. Carved and molded images of animals, women, strange engravings, personal ornaments, and decorated graves have been found scattered over several acres at the site. In the main hut, where the people ate and slept, two items were found: a goddess figurine made of fired clay and a small and cautiously carved portrait made from mammoth ivory of a woman whose face was drooped on one side. The goddess figurine is the oldest known baked clay figurine. On top of its head are holes which may have held grasses or herbs. The potter scratched two slits that stretched from the eyes to the chest which were thought to be the life-giving tears of the mother goddess. [Source: mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/sites/europe/dolni_vestonice]

Some of the sculpture may represent the first example of portraiture (representation of an actual person). One such figure, carved in mammoth ivory, is roughly three inches high. The subject appears to be a young man with heavy bone structure, thick, long hair reaching past his shoulders, and possibly the traces of a beard. Particle spectrometry analysis dated it to be around 29,000 years old. [Bron: Wikipedia]

The remains of a kiln was found on an encampment in a small, dry-hut, whose door faced towards the east. Scattered around the oven were many fragments of fired clay. Remains of clay animals, some stabbed as if hunted, and other pieces of blackened pottery still bear the fingerprints of the potter.

The archeological site of Dolni Vestonice was located on a swamp at the confluence of two rivers near the Moravian mountains near present-day the village of Dolni Vestonice. In 1986, the remains of three teenagers were discovered in a common grave dated to be around 27,650 years old. Two of the skeletons belonged to heavily built males while the third was judged to be a female based on its slender proportions. Archaeologists who examined her skeletal remains found evidence of a stroke or other illness which left her painfully crippled and her face deformed. The two males had died healthy, but remains of a thick wooden pole thrust through the hip of one of them suggests a violent death.

The female skeleton was ritualistically placed beneath a pair of mammoth scapulae, one leaning against the other. The bones and the earth surrounding it contained traces of red ocher, a flint spearhead had been placed near the skull and one hand held the body of a fox. This evidence indicates that this was the burial site of a shaman. This is regarded as the oldest evidence of female shamans.

Early African and American Villages

The remains of ancient settlements is particularly abundant in the Near East in part because the materials used to make them --- stones and mud-bricks --- preserve well while materials such as wood used in other areas deteriorates and doesn't leave behind lasting evidence.

"Generally the West African forest area was one of small groupings with strong ethnic ties," writes historian Henry Wilson. "The village integrated society, and all other large groupings, whether political or social, reflected this. The residential unit was the compound, consisting of a cluster of dwellings and storage huts, generally enclosed by a wall, where a man would live with his wife or wives, his children, and his younger brothers and their wives and children. [Source: "The Imperial Experience in Sub-Sahara Africa Since 1870" by Henry S. Wilson, University of Minnesota Press]

“A village was made up of an aggregate of compounds. Several such village conglomerates constituted a ward, which in turn formed part of a township. The township was headed by men who were related and thus formed a distinctive kin grouping. Political, social, and religious power was diffused among elders, the age-grade associations, and in certain cases, the secret societies." [Ibid]


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