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Charles Edward Stuart, die Young Pretender (1720-1788)

Charles Edward Stuart, die Young Pretender (1720-1788)

Charles Edward Stuart, die Young Pretender (1720-1788)

Oudste seun van James Edward Stuart, die Ou Pretender, gebore in ballingskap in Rome. Hulle aanspraak is deur die Franse ondersteun as deel van die Oorlog van die Oostenrykse opvolging, en Charles is gestuur om hul beoogde inval in 1743 te beveel. Die jaar daarna is 'n groot inval -vloot voorberei, maar die Engelse vloot het hom verhinder om Duinkerke te verlaat. . Uiteindelik, in die somer van 1745, bereik Charles Skotland en land saam met sewe vriende op die Hebrides en begin die Tweede Jakobitiese Opstand. Hy was baie meer suksesvol as wat sy vader in 1715 was, en nadat hy Edinburgh verower het, marsjeer hy diep in Engeland, berei Derby voor sy eie manne en die gebrek aan ondersteuning in Engeland dwing hom om terug te keer na Skotland. Teen hierdie tydperk dreig die hertog van Cumberland met 'n leër wat gedeeltelik afkomstig was van troepe wat in Nederland gedien het, Charles, en uiteindelik word hy gevang by Culloden (16 April 1746), en sy leër verslaan en eindig sy opstand. Hy kon ontsnap uit gevangenskap, en ondanks 'n groot beloning kon hy na Frankryk ontsnap. Hy was hoogmoedig, avontuurlustig, aantreklik en was in staat om entoesiasme en lojaliteit onder sy ondersteuners te wek, en die mite van 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' het 'n blywende aantrekkingskrag gehad. Na die mislukking van die '45 het hy die meeste van sy oorblywende ondersteuners vervreem, met sy dronk gedrag en die res van sy lewe in ballingskap deurgebring en in Rome gesterf.

Stuart, Charles Edward

Stuart, Charles Edward (1720 �), die ‘Young Pretender ’. Oudste seun van James Francis Edward Stuart, die seun en erfgenaam van die ballingskap Jakobus II en VII, Charles was die Jakobitiese prins van Wallis. Hy is in Desember 1720 in Rome gebore vir James en sy tiener Poolse vrou Clementina Sobieska. 'N Ander seun, Henry Stuart, is in 1725 uit hierdie onstabiele huwelik gebore. Charles was 'n robuuste en moedswillige kind, wat nominaal vir 'n oorlog gebloei is deur 'n paar dae op 13 -jarige ouderdom teen die beleg van Gaeta teenwoordig te wees.

Vroeg in 1744 vertrek hy uit Italië na Frankryk met sy vader se opdrag as prinsregent, nadat hy ontbied is om 'n voorgestelde Franse inval in Engeland te vergesel. Dit is gekanselleer. In Julie 1745 seil Charles na Skotland om 'n rebellie in die Hoogland te maak, met die hoop om Franse hulp aan te wakker. Totale selfvertroue, plus 'n beperkte begrip van die werklikheid en die uitstaande generaalskap van Lord George Murray, het hom deur 'n verowering van Skotland gedra en na Derby marsjeer, wat hom 'n held gemaak het. Sy wegkruipertyd ná sy nederlaag by Culloden het hom by romantici aangemoedig as ‘ Bonnie Prince Charlie ’. Tog was hy 'n verleentheid vir Lodewyk XV (wat vrede gesoek het) by sy terugkeer na Frankryk, waaruit hy verdryf moes word. Die res van sy lewe was 'n uitgerekte anti-klimaks, vol mislukte verhoudings en alkoholisme. Hy sterf in 1788 in Rome.

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JOHN CANNON "Stuart, Charles Edward." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 1 Junie 2021 & lt https://www.encyclopedia.com & gt.

JOHN CANNON "Stuart, Charles Edward." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Ontvang op 01 Junie 2021 van Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/stuart-charles-edward

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Inhoud

Die woord "pretender" is geskep deur 'n -er aan die einde van die werkwoord voorgee. Hierdie woord is afgelei van Middel -Engels voorgee, uit Ou Frans voorgee, en uiteindelik uit Latyn praetendō (om 'n eis voor te lê). [6] Die Franse en Latynse woorde het geen pejoratiewe konnotasie nie. [7]

Antieke Rome ken baie pretenders aan die ampte wat die titel van Romeinse keiser uitmaak, veral tydens die krisis van die derde eeu.

Dit word gewoonlik die dertig tiranne genoem, wat 'n verwysing was na die dertig tiranne van Athene ongeveer vyfhonderd jaar tevore, hoewel die vergelyking twyfelagtig is, en die Romeine aparte aspirante was, nie (soos die Atheners was) 'n komitee vir openbare veiligheid . Die Loeb -vertaling van die toepaslike hoofstuk van die Augustaanse geskiedenis verteenwoordig dus die Latyn triginta tiranni deur "Thirty Pretenders" om hierdie kunsmatige en verwarrende parallel te vermy. Nie almal is daarna oorweeg nie voorgee verskeie was eintlik daarin geslaag om vir 'n kort tydperk keiser te word, ten minste in 'n deel van die ryk.

Bisantynse Ryk Redigeer

Omstrede opvolgings na die Romeinse (Bisantynse) Ryk het lank by Konstantinopel voortgeduur. Die ernstigste, na die val van Konstantinopel tot die Vierde Kruistog in 1204 en die uiteindelike herstel daarvan deur Michael VIII Palaiologos, was daar drie Bisantynse opvolgerstate, wat elkeen beweer dat hulle die Romeinse Ryk was, en verskeie Latynse eisers (insluitend die Republiek van Venesië en die huise van Montferrat en Courtenay) aan die Latynse Ryk wat die Kruisvaarders in die plek daarvan opgerig het. Soms is sommige van hierdie state en titels aan verskeie eise onderwerp.

Cypriotiese voorgee Redigeer

Na die nederlaag en dood van koning James III, koning van Ciprus in 1474, het sy jonger en buite -egtelike broer, Eugène Matteo de Lusignan, ook styl d'Arménie (oorlede 1523) na Sicilië, daarna na Malta. Hy word erken as die regmatige erfgenaam van die trone van Ciprus, Armenië, Jerusalem en Antiochië, hoewel hy nooit ernstige pogings aangewend het om die aansprake na te streef nie. Die titel "Barone de Baccari" is in 1508 vir Jacques Matteo (sewe Eugene Matteo) d'Armenia geskep, met die res vir ewig aan sy nageslag. [8] Eugene, buite -egtelike seun van koning Jacques II van Ciprus, het, toe sy familie in ballingskap was, eers na Napels gegaan, daarna Sicilië, daarna op Malta gevestig en met 'n Siciliaanse erfgenaam getrou, Donna Paola Mazzara ('n afstammeling van die koninklike huis van Aragon van Sicilië en Aragon), met probleem. [9]

Moderne Griekeland Edit

Die aanspraakmaker op die troon van die laaste Griekse koninkryk is Konstantyn II, wat as koning geheers het van 1964 tot 1973. Hy behoort aan die Huis van Sleeswyk-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, die senior tak van die Huis van Oldenburg. Sy aangewese erfgenaam is sy seun Pavlos, kroonprins van Griekeland.

Die totstandkoming van die Eerste Republiek en die teregstelling van Lodewyk XVI in 1793 het daartoe gelei dat die seun van die koning voorgee dat hy die afgeskafte troon was, wat as Louis XVII genoem is. Aangesien Lodewyk XVII 'n kind was en deur die rewolusionêres in Parys gevange gehou is, verklaar sy oom, die Comte de Provence, homself as regent in die naam van sy neef. Nadat Lodewyk XVII in 1795 gesterf het, het die Comte de Provence self voorgee soos Louis XVIII.

Louis XVIII is in 1814 op die troon herstel, en is opgevolg deur sy broer Charles X in 1824. [10] Charles X is egter deur die Julie -rewolusie in ballingskap gedwing. Charles X en sy seun, Louis-Antoine, hertog van Angoulême, afstand doen van hul eise ten gunste van Charles se kleinseun, Henri, graaf van Chambord, maar hul neef, die hertog van Orléans, 'n afstammeling van Louis XIV se jonger broer, het die troon as Louis Philippe I, koning van die Franse.

Vir die grootste deel van die monargie in Julie was die legitimiste, soos ondersteuners van die ballingskap van die senior ballingskap bekend gestaan ​​het, onseker oor wie hulle sou ondersteun. Sommige het geglo dat die abdikasie van Charles en sy seun wettig was, en erken die jong Chambord as koning, terwyl ander beweer dat abdikasie in Frankryk ongrondwetlik was van die ancien régime, en het eers Charles X en daarna Louis-Antoine herken tot laasgenoemde se dood in 1844. By sy oom se dood het Chambord die kroon geëis, maar het in ballingskap geleef en na sy dood in 1883 die direkte manlike lyn van Louis XV. uitgesterf het.

In 1848 word Louis Philippe self deur die Februarie -rewolusie omvergewerp en die troon afsit ten gunste van sy jong kleinseun, Philippe, Comte de Paris. Daar is egter 'n republiek uitgeroep, wat Parys, net soos sy neef Chambord, net 'n voorgee van 'n nie -bestaande kroon gelaat het. [10] Oor die volgende dekades was daar verskeie pogings tot 'n sogenaamde 'samesmelting', om beide groepe monargiste te verenig ter ondersteuning van die kinderlose Chambord as koning, wat die graaf van Parys as sy erfgenaam sou erken. Hierdie pogings het in die 1850's misluk, maar na die totstandkoming van die Derde Republiek in 1870, toe 'n royalistiese meerderheid in die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes verkies is, word samesmelting weer die monargistiese strategie. As gevolg hiervan het die graaf van Parys in 1873 sy eie bod vir die troon teruggetrek en Chambord erken as 'n wettige voorgee van die Franse kroon. [10] Ten spyte van hierdie oënskynlike eenheid onder royalistiese magte, sou die herstel van die monargie nie wees nie, maar Chambord wou nie die Tricolor -vlag aanvaar nie, wat hom vir die meeste Fransmanne as 'n konstitusionele koning onaanvaarbaar gemaak het. [10] Die monargiste het gehoop dat hulle na die dood van Chambord die Orléanistiese kandidaat kon verenig en kroon. Maar Chambord het tot 1883 geleef, terwyl die koninklikes van Frankryk teen 1877 hul meerderheid in die parlement verloor het.

Teen 1883 aanvaar die meerderheid Franse monargiste die graaf van Parys as die regmatige voorgee van die Franse troon. [10] 'n Minderheid reaksionêre, die sg Blancs d'Espagne ("Spaanse blankes"), het die steun van die Huis van Orléans weerhou en in plaas daarvan Juan, graaf van Montizon, die Carlist -voorgee van die Spaanse troon, gekies wat ook toevallig die senior manlike afstammeling van Louis XIV was. [10]

Die argumente is aan die een kant dat Louis XIV se jonger kleinseun, Philip de Bourbon, hertog van Anjou afstand gedoen het van enige toekomstige aanspraak op die Franse troon toe hy Frankryk verlaat om koning te word van Spanje as Philip V in 1700 (die afstanddoening is internasionaal bekragtig deur die Verdrag van Utrecht), wat die hertogte van Orléans oënskynlik as erfgename van die troon van Frankryk verlaat het in geval van uitsterwing van afstammelinge van Louis XIV se oudste kleinseun Louis, hertog van Bourgondië, wat plaasgevind het in 1883. [10] Aan die ander kant, Die afstanddoening van Anjou word as ongeldig beskou, want voor die revolusie was dit 'n fundamentele beginsel van die Franse monargie dat die kroon nooit afgewyk kon word van die regmatige (senior line) erfgenaam van Hugh Capet nie. [10] Alhoewel die Orléans na 1873 vrywillig was om hul mededingende aanspraak op die troon uit te stel, word beweer dat die regisidale stem van hul voorvader Philippe Égalité in 1789 en die gebruik van Louis Philippe in 1830 alle troonregte vir die troon uitgeskakel het Orléans tak. [10] Die skeuring het tot vandag toe voortgeduur, met ondersteuners van die senior lyn wat die titel "Legitimist" teruggeëis het, en laat hul teenstanders royaliste weer bekend staan ​​as "Orléanists". Die huidige verteenwoordiger van die senior lyn is Louis Alphonse, hertog van Anjou, die senior wettige afstammeling van Hugh Capet (en van Philip V d'Anjou van Spanje) wat in Spanje gebore en getoë is. Die Orléanist-lyn, wat teruggekeer het om in Frankryk te woon toe die verbodswet in 1950 herroep is, word verteenwoordig deur prins Jean, hertog van Vendôme, senior afstammeling van koning Louis Philippe.

Benewens hierdie twee aansprake op die historiese koninklike troon van Frankryk, was daar ook voorgee vir die keiserlike troon van Frankryk, eers geskep deur Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804 en herskep deur sy neef keiser Napoleon III in 1852 (afgeskaf 1870). Hierdie eis word vandag betwis tussen Jean-Christophe, prins Napoléon en sy eie vader, die selfversekerde republikeinse prins Charles Napoléon (wat as gevolg van 'n nie-dinastiese herhuwelik uitgesluit word), albei afstammelinge van Napoleon I se jongste broer, Jérôme Bonaparte.

Daar is baie debat oor wie die wettige erfgenaam van die Russiese troon is, en die bittere geskil in die gesin self. [11] Groothertogin Maria Vladimirovna word deur sommige as die wettige erfgenaam beskou. [12] Sy is die enigste kind van groothertog Vladimir wat in 1992 oorlede is, 'n agterkleinseun van tsaar Alexander II, wat sommige as die laaste manlike dinastie van die Huis Romanov beskou het. Sommige van haar teenstanders meen dat sy nie in aanmerking kom om die troon op te eis nie, omdat sy uit 'n huwelik gebore is wat as morganaties beskou sou word onder die monargie van Rusland, wat in 1917 afgeskaf is. [11] Ander weerstaan ​​haar om redes soortgelyk aan dié van die anti- Orleanistiese rede: haar grootvader se vermeende ontrouheid en dinastiese ambisie word beskou as die verwydering van enige regte wat andersins aan haar tak van die voormalige dinastie kon behoort.

Nog ander beweer dat die beperkende, pre-revolusionêre huweliksreëls van die Romanofs niemand agterlaat wat daarop aanspraak kan maak dat hy die erfgenaam van die dinastie is nie. Ander erken Nicholas Romanov, prins van Rusland as familiehoof, [13] 'n afstammeling van keiser Nicholas I en die verkose president van die Romanov Family Association, wat bestaan ​​uit die meeste lewende manlike afstammelinge van die Romanov keisers. Nie hy of sy jonger broer, prins Dimitri Romanov, het seuns gehad nie en sedert hul dood is daar geen nuwe eise deur hierdie tak aangevoer nie.

Anna Anderson het probeer bewys dat sy die hertogin Anastasia Nikolaevna van Rusland was, die verlore dogter van Nicholas II, maar DNA -toetsing op haar oorskot het uiteindelik bewys dat sy 'n nabootser was. [14] Alhoewel sy nie die troon geëis het nie, op sigselfAangesien vroue nie op die Russiese troon kon slaag nie, solank enige manlike dinastie oorleef het, het sy meer bekend geword as enige van die verskillende Romanov -aanspraakmakers op die troon. [14]

Prins Karl Emich van Leiningen (gebore 1952), wat hom in 2013 tot die Oosterse Ortodoksie bekeer het, [15] is die jongste pretender op die Russiese troon onder die naam van prins Nikolai Kirillovich van Leiningen. Hy is die kleinseun van groothertogin Maria Cyrillovna van Rusland, (suster van Vladimir, en tante van Maria Vladimirovna), en agterkleinseun van Cyril Vladimirovich, groothertog van Rusland. Die Monargistiese Party van Rusland ondersteun prins Nikolai as die erfgenaam van die Russiese troon, aangesien hulle van mening is dat Maria Vladimirovna Romanova en Nicholas Romanov nie dinasties is nie. [15] Begin 2014 verklaar Nikolai Kirilovich homself Keiser Nikolaas III (opvolger van Nicholas II).

In 2007 trou Nicholas met gravin Isabelle von und zu Egloffstein en het in 2010 'n seun, Emich.

Engeland, Skotland en Ierland Wysig

Na die teregstelling deur Engeland van die Stuart King Charles I in 1649, word sy seun Charles II in Skotland (waar hy in 1651 gekroon is) en Ierland as koning uitgeroep, maar die twee lande is deur Engelse magte binnegeval en onder die Statebond van Engeland geannekseer. Oliver Cromwell in 1653. So was Charles II van 1649 tot 1660 tot die herstel van 1660 op die troon van Engeland, en het hy die koning van Skotte en koning van Ierland verban/afgesit, 1653 tot 1660. Hy sterf in 1685 en sy broer James II en VII op die troon gekom. Hy het hom tot Katolisisme bekeer, maar dit het eers kommer geword toe sy tweede vrou 'n seun baar wat sy twee Protestantse dogters sou voorafgaan. James is dus afgedank deur sy oudste dogter en sy skoonseun (wat ook sy neef, seun van sy suster Mary was) tydens die Glorious Revolution in Desember 1688, en is deur hul onderskeie parlemente formeel die Engelse en Skotse trone aangebied maand later - wat nog 1688 in Engeland was (waar Oujaarsdag 25 Maart tot 1752 was), maar reeds 1689 in Skotland was (wat 1 Januarie as Oujaarsdag in 1600 aangeneem het). James het verskeie pogings aangewend om die troon te herwin voor sy dood in 1701, waarvan die belangrikste 'n poging was wat hy met Ierse steun gedoen het - die land wat nog nie toegetree het tot die opvolging van William en Mary nie - wat gelei het tot die Slag van die Boyne en die Slag van Aughrim, en die weg gebaan vir die daaropvolgende opstandings (of rebellies) van Jakobiete. Dit was 'n reeks opstande of oorloë tussen 1688 en 1746 waarin ondersteuners van James, sy seun ("The Old Pretender") en kleinseun ("The Young Pretender") probeer het om sy direkte manlike troon op die troon te herstel.

    , die Rooms -Katolieke seun van die afgesette Jakobus II en VII, is deur die Wet op Skikking 1701 van die opvolging van die troon belet. en Ierland, soos Jakobus III, tot met sy dood in 1766. In Jakobitiese terme het die parlementswette (van Engeland of Skotland) na 1688 (insluitend die Uniehandelinge) nie die vereiste koninklike instemming van die wettige Jakobitiese monarg ontvang nie en, was dus sonder regsgevolge. James was verantwoordelik vir 'n aantal sameswerings en opstand, veral in die Hoogland van Skotland. Die opvallendste was die Jakobitiese opgang van 1715–16. ("Bonnie Prince Charlie"), Die oudste seun van James Francis en die toekomstige Charles III, wat in sy vader se naam die laaste groot Jakobitiese rebellie gelei het, die Jacobiet-opgang van 1745–46. Hy sterf in 1788 sonder 'n wettige probleem. (veral bekend as die Kardinaal-hertog van York), die jonger broer van Charles Edward en 'n Rooms-Katolieke kardinaal, wat die aanspraak op die troon aangeneem het as die toekomstige Henry IX van Engeland, hoewel hy die laaste Jakobitiese erfgenaam was om dit in die openbaar te doen. Hy sterf in 1807 ongetroud.

Na 1807 het die lyn van Jakobus VII en II uitgesterf. Die Jakobiete het na die mislukking van die opstand in 1745 opgehou om baie politieke betekenis te hê, en die beweging het in wese heeltemal slapend geraak na Henry se dood. Genealogies was die volgende mees senior lyn vir die Engelse en Skotse trone deur James II se jongste suster, Henriette Anne, wie se dogter in die House of Savoy getrou het. In 'n baie beperkte mate dat Jakobitisme die dood van kardinaal York oorleef het, het hulle die bewerings van hierdie lyn ondersteun. Die huidige verteenwoordiger daarvan is Franz, hertog van Beiere, hoewel hy self nie die titel opeis nie, maar sy sekretaris het eenmaal aangekondig dat "HRM (sic) baie tevrede is om 'n Prins van Beiere te wees".

Ander troonvertrekkers het ingesluit:

    (omstreeks 1477 - omstreeks 1525) was 'n voorganger van die troon van Engeland. Sy aanspraak op Edward Plantagenet, 17de graaf van Warwick in 1487, bedreig die nuut gevestigde bewind van koning Henry VII (regeer 1485–1509). Dit was net na The Wars of the Roses. Hy was maar net 'n seuntjie, maar is gebruik om die Koninkryk te probeer oorneem. , 'n Vlaming wat beweer het Richard van Shrewsbury, hertog van York, te wees en twee keer probeer het om Engeland binne te val en die troon in die laat 15de eeu te verower.

Wallis Redigeer

Owain Glyndŵr (1349–1416) is waarskynlik die bekendste Walliese voorgee, hoewel dit afhang van die bron van inligting of hy 'n pretender of prins van Wallis was. Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, wat in 1282 oorlede is, was die enigste prins van Wallis wie se status as heerser formeel deur die Engelse kroon erken is, hoewel drie van die vier mans wat die troon van Gwynedd opgeëis het tussen die aanvaarding van die titel deur Owain Gwynedd in die 1160's en die verlies van Walliese onafhanklikheid in 1283 gebruik ook die titel of soortgelyke. Madog ap Llywelyn het die titel ook kortliks gebruik tydens sy opstand van 1294–95. Sedert 1301 word die titel van Prins van Wallis gegee aan die oudste lewende seun van die koning of koningin Regnant van Engeland (daarna van Groot -Brittanje, 1707, en van die Verenigde Koninkryk, 1801). Die woord “lewe” is belangrik. By die dood van Arthur, prins van Wallis, belê Henry VII sy tweede seun, die toekomstige Henry VIII, met die titel. Die titel is egter nie outomaties nie, maar versmelt in die kroon wanneer 'n prins sterf of die troon toetree, en moet deur die soewerein oorgedra word.

Tog is dit Glyndŵr wat baie onthou as die laaste inheemse prins van Wallis. Hy is inderdaad op 16 September 1400 deur sy ondersteuners tot Prins van Wallis uitgeroep, en sy opstand in die strewe na Walliese onafhanklikheid is eers in 1409 deur Henry IV vernietig. Later sou een van Glyndŵr se neefs, Owain Tudor, egter trou met die weduwee van Henry V, en hul kleinseun sou Henry VII word, van wie die huidige Britse monarg afstam (deur sy dogter Margaret Tudor, wat met James IV van Skotland getroud is).

Die verskillende klein koninkryke wat saamgekom het tot wat vandag bekend staan ​​as die Prinsdom Wallis, het elkeen hul eie koninklike dinastie gehad. Die belangrikste van hierdie gebiede was Gwynedd, Powys en Deheubarth. Na 878 eis die heersende dinastieë in hierdie koninkryke elkeen afstammeling van die seuns van Rhodri Mawr wat hulle verower het of andersins hul trone behaal het tydens sy bewind. Merfyn Frych, die vader van Rhodri Mawr, het aan bewind gekom in Gwynedd omdat die inheemse dinastie, bekend as die Huis van Cunedda verval het. Merfyn was afstammelinge van koninklikes deur sy eie vader Gwriad en het voorouers geëis onder die heersers van Britse Rheged (veral Llywarch Hen). Dit is deur alle koninkryke van Wallis erken na die tyd van Rhodri Mawr dat die huis van Gwynedd (bekend as die House of Aberffraw) senior was en dat elkeen hulde moes bring aan die koning van Gwynedd. Na die bewind van Owain ap Gruffudd van Gwynedd het die koninkryk begin saamsmelt met die konsep van 'n Prinsdom van Wallis. Dit is besef deur Owain se afstammeling Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in 1267. Dit sou nie duur nie en hierdie nuwe Wallis is deur Engeland binnegeval en ontmantel tussen 1277 en 1284. Al die afstammelinge van Llywelyn "die laaste" en sy broers is óf gevange geneem óf gedood .

Die sake van Ierse pretenders is nogal ingewikkelder vanweë die aard van die koningskap in Ierland voor die Normandiese oorname van 1171. In Ierland en vroeg-Gaeliese Skotland was die opvolging van koningskap verkieslik, dikwels (indien nie gewoonlik) per wedstryd, volgens na 'n stelsel bekend as Tanistry.

Die hoë koning van Ierland (Ard Rí) was in wese 'n seremoniële, federale heerser, wat slegs daadwerklike mag uitgeoefen het binne die koninkryk wat sy dinastiese setel was. As gevolg van die opvolgingswette kan daar nie 'n voorgee van hierdie titel wees in die sin dat dit normaalweg verstaan ​​word nie. Vanaf die 5de eeu het die koningskap geneig om binne die dinastie van die Uí Néill te bly totdat Brian Boru van Munster die beheer oor 'n groot deel van Ierland van Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill in 1002 afgeskaf het. Na sy dood in 1014 en dié van Máel Sechnaill in 1022, het die stryd om oorheersing het gelei tot Normandiese ingryping van Henry II van Engeland in 1171.

Daar was later pogings deur Ierse heersers wat teen die Normandiërs geveg het om die Hoë Koningskap te laat herleef, soos in 1258 toe Brian Ua Néill van Cenel Eoghan so erken is, in 1262 toe die kroon aangebied is aan Haakon IV van Noorweë en in 1315 toe 'n aanbod aangebied is gemaak aan die Skotse Edward Bruce. Die titel het effektief in die steek gelaat. Afgesien van die kroningseed, is die titel nie eers deur die Kings of England gebruik nie, wat elkeen homself gestileer het Heer van Ierland. In 1542 noem Henry VIII homself 'koning van Ierland'.

Sommige Ierse rebelle bespreek die offer van die Ierse troon aan prins Joachim van Pruise (seun van Kaiser Wilhelm II) voor die Paasfees 1916. [16] [17] Na die mislukking van die opstand was die royaliste 'n minderheid onder die rebelle, en daarom is die aanbod nooit gemaak nie. [ aanhaling nodig ] Volgens Hugo O'Donnell, 7de hertog van Tetuan, het Éamon de Valera die idee van 'n Ierse monargie met sy oupagrootjie Juan O'Donnell geopper. [18]

Cem Sultan, die oudste van die seuns van Mehmet die Veroweraar wat tydens sy bewind gebore is, het na die dood van sy vader die Sultanaat geëis; hy is maande later in die geveg verslaan deur sy oudste broer (by geboorte) Bayezid II. Hy vlug na die eiland Rhodes, uiteindelik na die pouslike state. Sy afstammelinge het sy regte geëis totdat Malta die Ottomane in die 16de eeu verslaan het. Nadat die Ottomaanse Ryk afgeskaf is en die Republiek van Turkye aan bewind gekom het, het die opeenvolgende hoofde van die Ottomaanse familie die troon van die Turkse ryk geëis. Die laaste voorgee vir die keiserlike huis van Osman is Harun Osman, sedert 18 Januarie 2021.

Die keisers van Ethiopië het die titel "Koning van Sion" gehad deur hul aanspraak op afstamming uit die Bybelse Huis van Dawid deur sy seun koning Salomo. Menelik II het die gebruik van hierdie titel laat vaar. Die Ethiopiese keisers het voortgegaan om die eerbewys van 'Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Juda' te gebruik totdat die monargie geëindig het met die val van keiser Haile Selassie in 1974.

Sedert die val van die koninkryk van Jerusalem, het baie Europese heersers beweer dat hulle die regmatige erfgenaam is. Nie een hiervan het egter eintlik oor 'n deel van die voormalige Koninkryk geheers nie. Tans is daar verskeie moontlike Europese eisers op grond van die erfenis van die titel. Nie een van die eisers het mag oor die gebied van die voormalige Koninkryk nie. Sien die artikel Kings of Jerusalem vir 'n lys van moontlike eisers.

Japan Redigeer

In die veertiende eeu het twee reëls van die keiserlike stam, die Northern Court en Southern Court, die troon opgeëis. [19] Hulle wedywering is in 1392 opgelos: terwyl elke keiser van die Suidelike Hof wat voor 1392 op die troon was, as wettig verklaar is, is die troon bepaal deur keiser Go-Komatsu van die Noordelike Hof en sy opvolgers.

Sedert 1911 het die Japannese regering verklaar dat die suidelike eisers eintlik die regmatige keisers was, ondanks die feit dat alle daaropvolgende keisers, waaronder die destydse keiser Meiji, van die Noordelike Hof afstam, met die rede dat die Suidelike Hof die besit van die Drie Heilige Skatte behou het en sodoende tot bekering gekom het die keisers van die voormalige Noordelike hof tot blote pretenders. Met ander woorde, ses voormalige keisers van die Noordelike Hof is sedertdien eerder as voorgee beskou. As gevolg van hierdie kompromie is die huidige Japannese keiserlike familie afstammelinge van die keiser van die Noordelike Hof.

Kumazawa Hiromichi daag keiser Hirohito in die openbaar uit en betwis die legitimiteit van sy bloedlyn. [20] Kumazawa beweer dat hy die 19de direkte afstammeling is van keiser Go-Kameyama, [21] die laaste keiser van die Suidelike Hof.

Singapore Edit

Sultan Hussein Shah van Johor het die gebied van Singapoer in die 19de eeu aan die Britte afgestaan, maar hul afstammelinge het in die voormalige koninklike paleis gewoon totdat hulle deur die regering verdryf is. Hulle leef nou in die duisternis. [22]

'N Aantal individue beweer dat hulle ontheemde monarge of erfgename is wat onder ietwat geheimsinnige omstandighede verdwyn of gesterf het:

  • Bertrand van Rais (of Ray), wat beweer dat hy Baldwin I van Konstantinopel was, wat beweer het dat hy Edward Plantagenet, 17de graaf van Warwick was, wat beweer het dat hy Richard van Shrewsbury, 1ste hertog van York, was wat beweer dat hy Peter III van Rusland was , het eintlik amper 'n jaar as tsaar van Rusland geheers voordat hy in 'n oproer dood is

Daar was ook individue wat beweer dat hulle afstammelinge van koninklikes is:


Inleiding tot die Jakobitiese saak

As seun van die eiser en erfgenaam van die troon van Groot -Brittanje, is Charles opgewek om te glo in sy goddelike reg op 'n absolute monargie. Dit was sy lewensdoel om na die troon van Skotland, Ierland en Engeland te klim, en dit was die oortuiging wat uiteindelik tot die nederlaag van die sogenaamde Young Pretender gelei het, omdat sy begeerte om Londen te verower nadat hy Edinburgh beveilig het, sy krimpende troepe en voorrade uitgeput het. in die winter van 1745.

Om die troon terug te kry, het James en Charles ondersteuning van 'n kragtige bondgenoot nodig gehad. Na die dood van Lodewyk XIV in 1715 het Frankryk sy steun aan die Jakobitiese saak herroep, maar in 1744, met die Oostenrykse opvolgingsoorlog wat oor die hele kontinent stry, het James daarin geslaag om finansiering, soldate en skepe van die Franse te bekom om na Skotland te vorder. . Terselfdertyd het die bejaarde James die 23-jarige Charles Prince Regent die naam gegee om die kroon terug te neem.


Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender (1720-1788) - Geskiedenis

Olieverf op doek, Prins Charles Edward Stuart 'The Young Pretender ' (1720-1788) deur Cosmo Alexander (Aberdeen 1724-Edinburgh 1772), 1749. 'n Halflengte portret in swart pantser teen 'n groen hang. Charles Edward Stuart, in die volksmond bekend as Bonnie Prince Charlie, was die seun van die 'Old Pretender ', prins James Francis Edward, en die kleinseun van die verbanne koning James VII en II, wat in 1688 omvergewerp is. In 1745, om op 24 -jarige ouderdom beland hy in Skotland, vasbeslote om die troon te herwin. Ondanks die feit dat hy sy Highland -leër tot in die suide na Derby geneem het, het die rebellie van Charles in 'n nederlaag geëindig in die Slag van Culloden in 1746. Hy het na Frankryk ontsnap en die res van sy lewe in ballingskap gebly.


Inhoud

Charles is gebore in Palazzo Muti, Rome, Italië, op 20 Desember 1720, [4], waar sy vader deur pous Clement XI 'n woonplek gekry het. Hy het amper sy hele kinderjare in Rome en Bologna deurgebring. Hy was die seun van die Ou Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart, seun van die verbanne Stuart King James II en VII, en Maria Clementina Sobieska, die kleindogter van John III Sobieski, die bekendste vir die oorwinning oor die Ottomaanse Turke in die Slag van 1683 van Wene. [5]

Charles Edward het 'n bevoorregte kinderjare in Rome gehad, waar hy in 'n liefdevolle, maar argumentatiewe gesin grootgemaak is. As die wettige erfgename van die trone van Engeland, Skotland en Ierland - volgens die opvolging van Jakobiete - het sy gesin met trots gevoel en in die goddelike reg van konings geglo. [6]

Charles Edward se oupa, James II van Engeland en Ierland en VII van Skotland, regeer die lande van 1685 tot 1688. [4] Hy is afgedank toe die parlement die Nederlandse protestant William III en sy vrou, prinses Mary, die oudste dogter van King James, genooi het om vervang hom in die Revolusie van 1688. Baie Protestante, waaronder 'n aantal prominente parlementslede, was bekommerd dat King James daarop gemik was om Engeland terug te keer na die Katolieke groep. Sedert die ballingskap van Jakobus, het die "Jacobite Cause" daarna gestreef om die Stuarts terug te keer na die trone van Engeland en Skotland, wat in 1603 verenig was onder James VI en I, met die parlemente wat by die Acts of Union in 1707 aangesluit het Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje. Charles Edward het 'n groot rol gespeel in die strewe na hierdie doel. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 1734 het Charles Edward die Franse en Spaanse beleg van Gaeta waargeneem, sy eerste blootstelling aan oorlog. Sy vader het daarin geslaag om die hernieude steun van die Franse regering in 1744 te verkry, waarna Charles Edward na Frankryk gereis het met die uitsluitlike doel om 'n Franse leër te beveel wat hy sou lei tydens 'n inval in Engeland. Die inval het nooit gerealiseer nie, aangesien die invalsvloot deur 'n storm versprei is. Teen die tyd dat die vloot hergroepeer het, besef die Britse vloot die afleiding wat hulle mislei het en hervat hulle posisie in die kanaal. [7] Charles Edward was onverskrokke vasbeslote om sy soeke na die herstel van die Stuarts voort te sit. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In Desember 1743 noem Charles se pa hom Prins Regent, wat hom die gesag gee om in sy naam op te tree. Hy het 'n Frans-gesteunde opstand gelei 18 maande later met die bedoeling om sy pa op die trone van Engeland en Skotland te plaas. Hy het fondse ingesamel om die Elisabeth, 'n ou krygsman van 66 gewere, en die Du Teillay (soms genoem Doutelle), 'n 16-geweer privaat wat hom en sewe metgeselle op 23 Julie 1745 suksesvol by Eriskay laat beland het. Hy het gehoop op ondersteuning van 'n Franse vloot, maar dit is erg beskadig deur storms en hy moes 'n leër in Skotland oprig. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Many Highland clans, both Catholic and Protestant, still supported the Jacobite cause, and Charles hoped for a warm welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain. He raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan and gathered a force large enough to enable him to march on Edinburgh. Lord Provost Archibald Stewart controlled the city, which quickly surrendered. Allan Ramsay painted a portrait of Charles while he was in Edinburgh, [8] which survived in the collection of the Earl of Wemyss at Gosford House and, as of 2016 [update] , was on display at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. [9]

On 21 September 1745, Charles defeated the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans, led by General Sir John Cope, and their disastrous defence against the Jacobites is immortalised in the song "Johnnie Cope". By November, Charles was marching south at the head of approximately 6,000 men. Having taken Carlisle, his army progressed as far as Swarkestone Bridge in Derbyshire. Here, despite Charles's objections, his council decided to return to Scotland, given the lack of English and French support and rumours that large government forces were being amassed. The Jacobites marched north once more, winning the Battle of Falkirk Muir, but they were later pursued by George II's son Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, who caught up with them at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Charles ignored the advice of general Lord George Murray and chose to fight on flat, open, marshy ground where his forces would be exposed to superior government firepower. He commanded his army from a position behind his lines, where he could not see what was happening. He hoped that Cumberland's army would attack first, and he had his men stand exposed to the British Royal artillery. Seeing the error in this, he quickly ordered an attack, but his messenger was killed before the order could be delivered. The Jacobite attack was uncoordinated, charging into withering musket fire and grapeshot fired from the cannons, and it met with little success. [ aanhaling nodig ]

The Jacobites broke through the bayonets of the redcoats in one place, but they were shot down by a second line of soldiers, and the survivors fled. Cumberland's troops allegedly committed a number of atrocities as they hunted for the defeated Jacobite soldiers, earning him the title "the Butcher" from the Highlanders. Murray managed to lead a group of Jacobites to Ruthven, intending to continue the fight. Charles thought that he was betrayed, however, and decided to abandon the Jacobite cause. James, the Chevalier de Johnstone, acted as aide-de-camp for Murray during the campaign and briefly for Charles himself, and he provided a first-hand account of these events in his "Memoir of the Rebellion 1745–1746". [ aanhaling nodig ]

Charles's subsequent flight is commemorated in "The Skye Boat Song" by Sir Harold Edwin Boulton and the Irish song "Mo Ghile Mear" by Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill. He hid in the moors of Scotland, always barely ahead of the government forces. Many Highlanders aided him, and none of them betrayed him for the £30,000 reward. [10] Charles was assisted by supporters such as pilot Donald Macleod of Galtrigill, Captain Con O'Neill who took him to Benbecula, [11] and Flora MacDonald who helped him escape to the Isle of Skye by taking him in a boat disguised as her maid "Betty Burke". [12] [13] He ultimately evaded capture and left the country aboard the French frigate L'Heureux, arriving in France in September. The Prince's Cairn marks the traditional spot on the shores of Loch nan Uamh in Lochaber from which he made his final departure from Scotland. With the Jacobite cause lost, Charles spent the remainder of his life on the continent, except for one secret visit to London. [ aanhaling nodig ]

While back in France, Charles had numerous affairs the one with his first cousin Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne, wife of Jules, Prince of Guéméné, resulted in a short-lived son Charles (1748–1749). In 1748, he was expelled from France under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the War of the Austrian Succession. [14]

Charles lived for several years in exile with his Scottish mistress, Clementina Walkinshaw, whom he met, and may have begun a relationship with, during the 1745 rebellion. In 1753, the couple had a daughter, Charlotte. Charles's inability to cope with the collapse of the cause led to his problem with alcohol, and mother and daughter left Charles with his father James's connivance. Charlotte went on to have three illegitimate children with Ferdinand, an ecclesiastical member of the Rohan family. Their only son was Charles Edward Stuart, Count Roehenstart. Clementina was suspected by many of Charles's supporters of being a spy planted by the Hanoverian government of Great Britain. [15]

After his defeat, Charles indicated to the remaining supporters of the Jacobite cause in England that, accepting the impossibility of his recovering the English and Scots crowns while he remained a Roman Catholic, he was willing to commit himself to reigning as a Protestant. [16] Accordingly, he visited London incognito in 1750 and conformed to the Protestant faith by receiving Anglican communion, likely at one of the remaining non-juring chapels. Bishop Robert Gordon, a staunch Jacobite whose house in Theobald's Row was one of Charles's safe-houses for the visit, is the most likely to have celebrated the communion, and a chapel in Gray's Inn was suggested as the venue as early as 1788 [Gentleman's Magazine, 1788]. This rebutted David Hume's suggestion that it was a church in the Strand. [17]

In 1759, at the height of the Seven Years' War, Charles was summoned to a meeting in Paris with the French foreign minister, the Duc De Choiseul. [18] Charles failed to make a good impression, being argumentative and idealistic in his expectations. Choiseul was planning a full-scale invasion of England, involving upwards of 100,000 men [19] —to which he hoped to add a number of Jacobites led by Charles. However, he was so little impressed with Charles, he dismissed the prospect of Jacobite assistance. [20] The French invasion, which was Charles's last realistic chance to recover the British throne for the Stuart dynasty, was ultimately thwarted by naval defeats at Quiberon Bay and Lagos.

Pretender Edit

In 1766, Charles's father died. Pope Clement XIII had recognised James as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland as "James III and VIII" but did not give Charles the same recognition however on 23 January, Charles moved into the Palazzo Muti which his father had lived in for over 40 years. [21]

In 1772 Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern. They lived first in Rome and in 1774 moved to Florence, where in 1777 he purchased for his residence the Palazzo di San Clemente, now known also in his memory as the Palazzo del Pretendente. In Florence he began to use the title "Count of Albany" as an alias. This title is frequently used for him in European publications his wife Louise is almost always called "Countess of Albany".

In 1780, Louise left Charles. She claimed that Charles had physically abused her this claim was generally believed by contemporaries. [22] At the time Louise was already involved in an adulterous relationship with the Italian poet Count Vittorio Alfieri. [22]

In 1783, Charles signed an act of legitimation for his illegitimate daughter Charlotte, born in 1753 to Clementina Walkinshaw (later known as Countess von Alberstrof). Charles also gave Charlotte the title "Duchess of Albany" in the peerage of Scotland and the style "Her Royal Highness", but these honours did not give Charlotte any right of succession to the throne. Charlotte lived with her father in Florence and Rome for the next five years. [ aanhaling nodig ]

John Hay Allen and Charles Stuart Allen, later known as John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart, revived the unsubstantiated claim that their father, Thomas Allen, was a legitimate son of Charles and Louise. [23]

Charles died in Rome of a stroke on 30 January 1788, aged 67. The death was stated by the cardinals to have been the following morning, as it was deemed unlucky to have him declared dead on the same date as his unfortunate great grandfather met his end on the scaffold at Whitehall. [24] He was first buried in Frascati Cathedral near Rome, where his brother Henry Benedict Stuart was bishop. At Henry's death in 1807, Charles's remains (except his heart) were moved to the crypt of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican where they were laid to rest next to those of his brother and his father and below the spot where the monument to the Royal Stuarts would later be erected. [25] His mother is also buried in St. Peter's Basilica. His heart remained in Frascati Cathedral, where it is contained in a small urn beneath the floor under a monument.

During his pretence as Prince of Wales, Charles claimed a coat of arms consisting of those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points. [26]


Five surprising facts about Charles Edward Stuart

Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie, if you insist) was born 300 years ago on 31 December, 1720 (New Style), in the Palazzo Muti complex in Rome. Why is this surprising? Because, although ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’ is one of the most recogisable names in UK history, featuring in the top Google search results for famous Scots, and Culloden Battlefield had 209,011 visitors in 2019 – numbers boosted by the TV series Outlander – and was struggling to cope with them all before lockdown began, there has been relatively little attention paid to the 300th anniversary of his birth.

It appears that Charles’s life before and after the Jacobite Rising of 1745–6 doesn’t attract the interest that the romantic story of the kilted Bonnie Prince and his ‘Highland army’, their defeat at Culloden and his escape though the Western Highlands and Isles does.

Though Charles wasn’t actually a Scot. His father was James Stuart, the English-born claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, known to his followers (Jacobites) as King James III and VIII and to his opponents as the Pretender.

In 1719 James married Maria Clementina Sobieska, a Polish princess, the granddaughter of Jan Sobieski III, the ‘hero king’ of Poland who defeated the Ottoman army at the siege of Vienna in 1683. Charles was born just over nine months later.

He was (at least) bilingual

Charles spoke English and Italian as his mother tongues. Italian is obvious he grew up in Rome. His father and most of the exiled court were English speakers, and James employed English governesses (effectively nannies) for the little Prince from when he was six months old. Four years later, Charles was put under the governorship of the Scot James Murray of Stormont and Sir Thomas Sheridan, of Anglo-Irish descent.

Actors portraying the Prince, as in Peter Watkins’s film Culloden and, to some extent, in Outlander, have given him a ‘European’-style accent, presumably to underline his non-British birth. But it’s unrealistic to imagine that his father would have had his heir brought up sounding like anything but an Englishman. And this is borne out by an eye-witness account of his arrival in Edinburgh on 12 September, 1745, from Andrew Henderson, an admirer of the Duke of Cumberland and thus not inclined to flatter the Stuart Prince: “His Speech was sly [quiet, soft], but very intelligible his Dialect was more upon the English than the Scottish Accent…”

Charles was fluent in French, too. It was, well, the lingua franca of Europe’s courts and a sign of elegance and breeding. And speaking French well was vital in his dealings with Louis XV of France and his ministers Charles’s best hope of financial and military aid was from the French.

He also had a Gaelic tutor, the bard Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair (Alexander MacDonald), an ardent Jacobite whose songs had helped rally supporters for the Prince’s cause before Charles arrived on the Scottish mainland in August 1745. He was one of the first to meet Charles and joined his army as a captain in Clanranald’s regiment.

One of his mistresses was (probably) guillotined

In 1747 Charles was the darling of Paris, but emotionally he was shattered. His bid to restore his father’s throne had been defeated, he was estranged from his family and his attempts to get Louis XV’s support for another rising failed again and again. Late that summer he was made welcome by the noble Rohan family, old friends of the Stuarts.

Marie Louise de La Tour d’Auvergne was the young wife of Jules de Rohan, Prince de Guéméné, and, through her mother, Maria Karolina (Charlotte) Sobieska, Duchesse de Bouillon, she was Charles’s first cousin. At the time she was recovering from smallpox. Charming, attractive – but fragile – the cousins fell passionately in love.

With Jules away fighting in the War of the Austrian Sucession, it was fairly easy for the lovers to meet. By October Marie Louise was pregnant, to Charles’s delight. But in late January, 1748, her father and mother-in-law confronted her: they knew about the affair and forced her to end it.

Charles and Marie Louise’s son, Charles Godefroi, was born on 28 July, 1748, but died five months later. After her double loss, Marie Louise lived a quiet life, spending her later years doing charitable work. But fate hadn’t finished with her. It appears that she was guillotined in 1793 and was buried at the Couvent des Feuillants in Paris.

He visited London in 1750

London had been Charles’s goal in 1745 until, at Derby on 5 December, his war council refused to march any further south. But he did visit London in 1750.

Accompanied by an English Jacobite, John Holker, Charles arrived in London on 16 September. He’d made the journey from France disguised and in strict secrecy. So secret was his trip that his hostess, Lady Primrose, wasn’t expecting him at her house in Essex St. But Ann Primrose, who’d had Flora MacDonald stay with her after Flora’s parole from prison in 1747, was more than capable of gathering 50 of Charles’s supporters to a meeting at a safe house.

To the gathered Jacobites, who included the Duke of Beaufort, the Earl of Westmorland and Dr William King of St Mary Hall, Oxford, Charles explained his need of 4,000 men to start a new rising he already had arms and ammunition prepared. But his audience proved no more enthusiastic about getting involved in actual fighting than most of them had been five years previously.

Still with the aim of winning the English Jacobites to his cause, Charles, who (unlike his father and brother) was never strongly attached to the Catholic faith, was received into the Church of England, possibly in a church near Lady Primrose’s house. Contrary to popular belief, he had more Protestant than Catholic supporters in 1745-6 it would have seemed a practical move to him.

There was little more to keep him in London. Charles and the Jacobite agent Colonel Brett went, as visitors to London do, to view the Tower of London but Charles was there less for the sights than to judge how well it could be assaulted. After an evening with Dr King, during which King’s servant mentioned how much the incognito visitor looked like “the busts of Prince Charles” he’d seen on sale, Charles left London on 22 September.

He had a daughter – and three secret grandchildren

On 29 October, 1753, Charles’s mistress, Clementina Walkinshaw, gave birth to a daughter, Charlotte, the only child of his to survive infancy. Clementina left Charles, by then an abusive alcoholic, in 1760 and she and her child lived in France, supported by a pension from James. Attempts at a reconciliation failed Charles couldn’t forgive Clementina for taking his daughter away.

In 1772, he married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern but the marriage was unhappy and produced no children. However, as Charlotte was Charles’s only living child, though illegitimate, she was to some extent his heir – though his brother, Henry, was next in the Jacobite line of line of succession. Charles refused her permission to find a husband perhaps he had some idea of her succeeding him, after all.

Unable to marry, Charlotte took a lover, Ferdinand de Rohan, who was Archbishop of Bordeaux – and the brother of Jules, Prince de Guéméné, Marie Louise’s husband. (The great families of Europe swam in a small, but active, gene pool.) Their doubly illicit relationship had to be kept secret. And so had their children, Marie Victoire Adelaide, Charlotte Maximilienne Amélie and Charles Edward. This was done so successfully – even Charles never knew about them – that all three disappeared from history until the 1950s, when two historians, the Taylers, found evidence of their existence.

After Charles’s marriage ended in 1784 she went to live with him in Florence. He legitimised Charlotte, creating her Duchess of Albany, the name by which Robert Burns referred to her in his song, The Bonie Lass of Albany. Charlotte nursed her father in his final years until his death in Rome on January 30, 1788. Charlotte died of liver cancer in 1789.

Frances Owen is editor of Historia. She has studied the Jacobite movement for a number of years and worked on a BBC Scotland series about Prince Charles Stuart’s escape after Culloden. She is the co-author of A Rebel Hand: Nicholas Delaney of 1798.

Read about Charles’s arrival in Scotland and the raising of the standard at Glenfinnan. And in Remembering Culloden Historia examines how, and why, we commemorate the battle, the battlefield, and those who fell.

Frank McLynn: Charles Edward Stuart (1988)
Murray Pittock: Jacobitism (1998), Culloden (2016)
Jacqueline Riding: Jacobites: A New History of the 󈧱 Rebellion (2017)

Charles Edward Stuart in Highland costume: via Wikipedia
His father, James Francis Edward Stuart, in the year of his marriage, 1719, by Francesco Trevisani: via Wikimedia
His mother, Maria Clementina Sobieska, companion portrait of 1719 by Francesco Trevisani: via Wikimedia
Portrait presumed to be Marie Louise de La Tour d’Auvergne, Princesse de Guéméné by Jean-Marc Nattier (1746): via Wikimedia
Prince Charles Edward Stuart by Allan Ramsay, 1745 (the ‘lost portrait’): via Wikimedia
Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany by Hugh Douglas Hamilton: via Wikimedia


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About Charles Edward Stuart "Bonnie Prince Charlie"

Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the exiled Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He is most commonly known in English and Scots as Bonnie Prince Charlie. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising of 1745, in which he led an insurrection to restore his family to the throne of Great Britain, which ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden that effectively ended the Jacobite cause. Jacobites supported the Stuart claim due to hopes for religious toleration for Roman Catholics and a belief in the divine right of kings. Charles's flight from Scotland after the uprising has rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure in some later representations.

Charles was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart who was in turn the son of James II and VII, who had been deposed in the Revolution of 1688. The Jacobite movement tried to restore the family to the throne. Charles' mother was James' Polish wife, Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702�, granddaughter of the Polish King, John III Sobieski). After his father's death Charles was recognised as Charles III by his supporters his opponents referred to him as The Young Pretender.

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart was born in Rome, Italy, where his father had been given a residence by Pope Clement XI. He spent almost all of his childhood in Rome and Bologna. In 1734 he participated in the French and Spanish siege of Gaeta this was his first exposure to a military battle.

In December 1743, Charles' father named him Prince Regent, giving him full authority to act in his name. Eighteen months later he led a rising to restore his father to his thrones. Charles raised funds to fit out two ships: the Elisabeth, an old man-of-war of sixty-six guns, and a small frigate of sixteen guns named the Doutelle (le Du Teillay) which successfully landed him with seven companions at Eriskay on 23 July 1745. Charles had hoped for support from a French fleet, but this was badly damaged by storms, and he was left to raise an army in Scotland.

The Jacobite cause was still supported by many Highland clans, both Catholic and Protestant, and the Catholic Charles hoped for a warm welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain, but there was no immediate response. Charles raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan and there raised a large enough force to enable him to march on the city of Edinburgh, which quickly surrendered. On 21 September 1745 he defeated the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans, and by November was marching south at the head of around 6,000 men. Having taken Carlisle, Charles' army progressed as far as Swarkestone Bridge in Derbyshire. Here, despite the objections of the Prince, the decision was taken by his council to return to Scotland, largely because of the almost complete lack of the support from English Jacobites that Charles had promised. By now he was pursued by King George II's son, the Duke of Cumberland, who caught up with him at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746.

Ignoring the advice of his best commander, Lord George Murray, Charles chose to fight on flat, open, marshy ground where his forces would be exposed to superior British firepower. Charles commanded his army from a position behind his lines, where he could not see what was happening. Hoping that Cumberland's army would attack first, he had his men stand exposed to Hanoverian artillery for twenty minutes before finally ordering an attack. The Jacobite attack, charging into the teeth of musket fire and grapeshot fired from the cannons, was uncoordinated and met little success. Only in one place did a group of Jacobites break through the bayonets of the redcoats, but they were shot down by a second line of soldiers, and the survivors fled. Cumberland's troops committed numerous atrocities as they hunted for the defeated Jacobite soldiers, earning him the title "the Butcher" from the Highlanders. Murray managed to lead a group of Jacobites to Ruthven, intending to continue the fight. However Charles, believing himself betrayed, had decided to abandon the Jacobite cause.

Bonnie Prince Charlie's subsequent flight has become the stuff of legend, and is commemorated in the popular folk song "The Skye Boat Song" (lyrics 1884, tune traditional) and also the old Irish song Bímse Buan ar Buairt Gach Ló by Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill. Assisted by loyal supporters such as Flora MacDonald who helped him escape pursuers on the Isle of Skye by taking him in a small boat disguised as her Irish maid, "Betty Burke," he evaded capture and left the country aboard the French frigate L'Heureux, arriving back in France in September. The cause of the Stuarts being lost, the remainder of his life was - with a brief exception - spent in exile.

Whilst back in France, Charles had numerous affairs the one with his first cousin Louise, wife of the Duke of Montbazon, resulted in a short-lived son Charles (1748�). He lived for several years in exile with his Scottish mistress, or common-law wife, Clementina Walkinshaw, whom he met, and may have begun a relationship with, whilst on the '45 campaign. In 1753 the couple had a daughter, Charlotte. Charles's inability to cope with the collapse of the cause led to his heavy drinking and mother and daughter left Charles with James' connivance. Charlotte went on to have three illegitimate children with Ferdinand, an ecclesiastical member of the de Rohan family.

After his defeat, Charles indicated to the remaining supporters of the Jacobite cause in England that, accepting the impossibility of his recovering the English and Scots crowns while he remained a Roman Catholic, he was willing to commit himself to reigning as a Protestant[citation needed]. Accordingly he visited London incognito in 1750 and conformed to the Protestant faith by receiving Anglican communion at the Church of St Mary-le-Strand, a noted centre of Anglican Jacobitism. On Charles's return to France he reverted to Catholic observance.

In 1766 Charles' father died. Until his death James had been recognised as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland by the Pope, as "James III and VIII". But Clement XIII decided not to give the same recognition to Charles.

In 1772 Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern. They lived first in Rome, but in 1774 moved to Florence where Charles first began to use the title "Count of Albany" as an alias. This title is frequently used for him in European publications his wife Louise is almost always called "Countess of Albany".

In 1780 Louise left Charles. She claimed that Charles had physically abused her this claim was generally believed by contemporaries in spite of the fact that Louise was already involved in an adulterous relationship with the Italian poet, Count Vittorio Alfieri, before she left Charles.

The claims by two nineteenth century charlatans, Charles and John Allen alias John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart, that their father Thomas Allen was a legitimate son of Charles and Louise, are without foundation.

In 1783 Charles signed an act of legitimation for his illegitimate daughter Charlotte, his child born in 1753 to Clementina Walkinshaw (later known as Countess von Alberstrof). Charles also gave Charlotte the title "Duchess of Albany" in the peerage of Scotland and the style "Her Royal Highness". But these honours did not give Charlotte any right to the succession to the throne. Charlotte lived with her father in Florence and Rome for the next five years.

Charles died in Rome on 31 January 1788. He was first buried in the Cathedral of Frascati, where his brother Henry Benedict Stuart was bishop. At Henry's death in 1807, Charles's remains were moved to the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican where they were laid to rest next to those of his brother and father. His mother is also buried in Saint Peter's Basilica. When the body of Charles Stuart was transferred to the Saint Peter's Basilica, his "praecordia" were left in Frascati Cathedral: a small urn encloses the heart of Charles, placed beneath the floor below the funerary monument.


Charles Edward Stuart

Although the Stuarts had lost the throne, the dynasty continued in the person of James II's son, James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766) and his sons, one of whom was Charles Edward Stuart is popularly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie (1720-1788), who pressed their rights to the succession to the thrones of Britain. On a hereditary basis, their claim was far superior to that of their Hanoverian cousins, but they were debarred from the throne by the Act of Succession, which forbade Catholics from succeeding.

The supporters of the exiled James Francis Edward Stuart became known as Jacobites from the Latin term Jacobus for James. Several attempts were made by them to regain the throne, most notably those of the 1715 and 1745 rebellions. They remained popular particularly in Scotland, the traditional homeland of the Stuarts.

The Royal Stuart dynasty finally became extinct in the male line in 1807, on the death of the last legitimate grandson of James II, Henry Stuart, a Roman Catholic Cardinal, known as Cardinal York, at Frascati, Italy.

The modern day heir to the Jacobite claim to the throne is Francis, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1931), who descends through Henrietta Anne, youngest daughter of Charles I.

Charles Edward Stuart as a boy

EARLY YEARS

Charles Edward Stuart or Bonnie Prince Charlie, as he was later to go down in history, was born at the Palazzo Muti in Rome on 31st December, 1720. The son of James Francis Edward Stuart and the Polish Princess Clementina Sobieski, he was baptised Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria.

Charles father, James, was the only surviving son of the Catholic King James II and VII, who died in exile in France, after his Protestant daughter, Mary II and her husband William III had taken the throne at the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Stuart descendants of James II had remained in exile since then, a thorn in the side of the Hanoverian dynasty which had eventually supplanted them on the throne of Britain.

Charles, who from the start Jacobite hopes rested upon, was an attractive and boisterous child on whom his parents doted. He was good with languages and was taught to speak English, Italian, French and Latin.

Charles experienced warfare for the first time at the siege of Gaeta, only fourteen at the time, he was reported to have conducted himself bravely when under fire. His parent's relationship had deteriorated over the years, his deeply religious mother spent long periods in unhealthy fasting and excessive devotions. Sadly, this undermined her health and Clementina died in 1735.

THE 1745 REBELLION

The tangled matter of the Austrian Succession resulted in war being declared between Britain and France in 1744, which raised Jacobite hopes that they might now acquire much-needed support from the French. Louis XV agreed that a diversionary Jacobite rebellion in England would be greatly advantageous to his cause. Accordingly, he assembled a fleet at Dunkirk, to where the young and enthusiastic Charles travelled incognito from Rome.

Charles Edward Stuart

Charles expedition set sail for England in March, 1744. They were met by a British fleet near Torbay, the Jacobite fleet was badly damaged and forced to return to France. Charles, greatly disappointed but unbowed, harboured a steely determination that the only way to regain the Stuart thrones was to get to Scotland and raise a rebellion himself. Along with a small band of followers he borrowed enough money to buy munitions, and acquired three ships, the Elizabeth, the Du Teillay, and La Doutelle.

When the impatient Charles' over-optimistic expedition finally put to sea, the Elizabeth was attacked by an English man-of-war and had to return to France. La Doutelle was forced to flee. Charles continued alone in the Du Teillay and landed on the Hebridean Island of Eriskay. He sent messages to the local clan chiefs making them aware of his presence and asking for support. Alexander MacDonald informed him that their support would not be forthcoming and advised him to go home. Charles replied famously "Sir I am come home, and I will entertain no notion of returning to that place whence I came, for that I am persuaded that my faithful Highlanders will stand by me."

The Du Teillay anchored the next morning at the remote sea loch of Loch nan Uamh. Further Highland chiefs came to see and admire the Prince, a handsome and dashing figure, but were similarly unenthusiastic of the chances of his expedition's success. Charles, characteristically refusing to accept defeat, persuaded some of them to join him in his rash venture, and solicited the support of the influential Cameron of Lochiel.

Glenfinnan

The standard of 'James III' was again raised in Scotland at Glenfinnan on Loch Shiel on 19th August 1745. This was the appointed rendezvous point for those of the clansmen who had promised to join the rebellion. After a three hour wait, during which he must have been on the brink of despair, the clans began to descend from the surrounding hills to join their Prince. It must have been an evocative and moving sight as the tartan-clad clans marched down from the hills to the rousing sound of the bagpipes.

The Hanoverian government in London placed a price on the head of the Young Pretender. Charles responded in defiance by offering the same amount for the capture of "the Elector of Hanover". The Jacobite army entered Perth on 4th September, and was joined there by Lord George Murray, the brother of the Duke of Athol and an experienced soldier, whom Charles appointed Commander of his army.

The army reached the outskirts of Edinburgh on the 16th of September and delivered an ultimatum to a deputation from the city. A second deputation arrived requesting time to discuss the ultimatum, which Charles suspected to be merely creating delays. As the deputation returned through the city gates, Lochiel and Murray rushed in with 900 troops, they were not offered resistance and Charles rode proudly into Edinburgh dressed in the Stuart tartan to rousing cheers from the populace. The capital of Scotland was now his. Edinburgh Castle alone held out for the Hanoverians.

Sir John Cope advanced with government forces to confront the Highland army. The Stuart Prince marched to meet him and the two armies faced each other at Preston pans on 21st September 1745. Charles' army, led by a local man who was familiar with the marshes which covered the area, made a daring approach on the enemy, under cover of darkness.

When dawn broke, a thick damp Scottish mist obscured the entire area, clinging to the ground, it concealed the two armies from each other. Taking them entirely by surprise, the Highlanders charged Cope's unprepared army. The government forces and Cope himself panicked and fled, thus distinguishing himself by becoming the first general to bear the news of his defeat. This victory unfortunately instilled in the overconfident and naturally high spirited Charles the mistaken belief that his Highlanders were an invincible fighting force.

Charles Edward Stuart

The Prince held court at Edinburgh, taking up residence at Holyrood House, the Palace of his Stewart ancestors and wrote triumphantly of his victory to his father in Rome. He remained in Edinburgh for six weeks, flirting with the people of Edinburgh, the ladies especially, were much taken by the young Stuart Prince, who cut a dashing figure in his highland dress. On Charles' prompting, the decision was reached for the army to advance into England.

Lord George Murray

The Jacobite strategy was to split their army into a two-pronged advance which re-met by the walls of Carlisle. The border town was placed under siege and capitulated to the Jacobites on 17th November. They continued to Preston, and despite appalling weather conditions, reached Manchester, where they gathered a small number of recruits, which formed the Manchester Regiment, but to their dismay, the English did not rush in large numbers to join his rash venture, as Charles had anticipated they would. On 5th December the Jacobites reached Derby, a few days march from London. Here matters began to go awry for Charles.

His sources informed him that in back in Edinburgh, the Castle garrison had received reinforcements which had plundered the city, and that William, Duke of Cumberland, the vastly obese younger son of the Hanoverian King George II, was on the move to meet him with a force of around 10,000 troops.

Jacobite commanders, in London, but 150 miles away, panic had gripped the city, the streets were empty and people rushed to withdraw their savings from the banks. It was rumoured that George II himself had packed his bags in preparation to leave for his native Hanover before the ranks of the wild and savage Highlanders descended on the city.

At the resulting Council of War, Prince Charles argued passionately and at length in favour of proceeding with the march on London. Murray, of a more cautious frame of mind, was concerned about the vulnerability of their position and urgently counselled a return to Scotland. In the resultant vote, Charles, to his utter fury, was overruled.

The army turned despondently back to Scotland, which had a detrimental effect on its morale, the strong-headed Charles himself took the decision with bad grace and spent days sulking over it. Leaving a garrison at Carlisle Castle, later to be utterly annihilated, they reached Glasgow on Christmas Day, 1745.

The government forces under General Hawley were met in battle on a moor to the south-west of Falkirk on 17th January, 1746, where the Jacobites triumphed. The Prince then made his biggest blunder of the campaign, weeks were wasted in a fruitless and futile attempt to besiege Stirling Castle. Charles stubbornly ignored the advice of the more experienced Murray and most of his chiefs, let the army rest and recuperate over the winter.

On 16th April, Charles came to the fatal and foolish decision to lead his now ragged and exhausted army to meet Cumberland's highly disciplined and well-provisioned forces at the fateful field of Culloden.


Kyk die video: Charles Edward Stuart (Oktober 2021).