Geskiedenis Podcasts

Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Thunderbolt) 'Jack'

Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Thunderbolt) 'Jack'

Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Thunderbolt) 'Jack'

Inleiding en ontwikkeling
Diensrekord
Variante
Spesifikasies J2M3

Inleiding en ontwikkeling

Die Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Thunderbolt) 'Jack' was 'n land-gebaseerde onderskepter wat klem gelê het op prestasie en beskerming van vlieëniers eerder as wendbaarheid, en wat vir die Japannese vloot van groot waarde sou gewees het as sy gevegsdebuut tot 1944 uitgestel was.

Werk aan die J2M het eintlik begin in Oktober 1938, toe Mitsubishi en die Japannese vloot die idee begin bespreek het om 'n land-onderskepper te vervaardig om saam met die meer manoeuvreerbare vegvliegtuie te werk. Op die oomblik was Mitsubishi besig om die A6M Zero te ontwikkel, en die werk aan die nuwe konsep was dus traag. Die amptelike 14-Shi-spesifikasie daarvan verskyn eers in September 1939, en die eerste prototipe was eers in 1942 gereed.

Die spesifikasie vereis dat 'n kanon-gewapende enkelsitplek-interceptor, met 'n topsnelheid van 373mph op 19,685ft, nie meer as 5 minute 30 sekondes sou neem om 6000m te bereik nie, met 'n uithouvermoë van slegs 45 minute, en dit sou pantser hê agter die vlieëniersitplek bedek. Dit was in teenstelling met die Zero, waar manoeuvreerbaarheid en reikwydte as belangriker as beskerming beskou is.

Jiro Horikoshi, hoof van die ontwerpspan wat aan die J2M gewerk het, was beperk in sy keuse van enjins. Uiteindelik besluit hy om die 1,430 pk Mitsubishi Kasei, 'n veertien-silinder radiaal, te gebruik, alhoewel die meeste van die beste vegters van 1939-40 inlynmotors gebruik het. Hierdie enjin het 'n groot frontarea, en in 'n poging om die weerstand te verminder, is dit via 'n verlengingsas aan die skroef gekoppel. 'N Ventilator wat deur die lug gedryf word, het koel lug op die enjin gerig, en die hele opstelling was in 'n tapse kap. Die enjin was dus baie verder agter in die romp as op die meeste vliegtuie met radiale motors, en die neus was baie meer vaartbelyn.

Die werk aan die J2M vorder stadig, met die meeste moeite met die A6M Zero. Die prototipe is eers in Februarie 1942 voltooi, en sy eerste vlug was eers op 20 Maart 1942. In hierdie stadium was die vliegtuig teleurstellend. Sy werkverrigting was nie so goed soos verwag nie, die skuins voorruit verminder die sigbaarheid, die landingsrat was problematies en die Kasei 13 -enjin en die as was onbetroubaar.

Die meeste probleme is op die J2M2 opgelos. Die Kasei 13 -enjin is vervang met 'n Kasei 23a, wat die waaierverkoelingstelsel ingebou het. Hierdeur kon die kuip in lengte verminder word, wat die sigbaarheid verbeter. Dit was die eerste Japannese enjin wat water-metanol-inspuiting gebruik het, wat 'n verbetering in prestasie gebied het, maar 'n paar vertragings veroorsaak het. Die ongewilde voorruit is ook verwyder en is vervang met 'n optiese plat koeëlvaste skerm.

Diensrekord

Die produksie van die J2M was so traag as wat die ontwikkeling daarvan was. Slegs veertien was teen Maart 1943 voltooi. Dit is eers aan die laat somer van 1943 aan 'n operasionele eenheid uitgereik, en slegs 141 vliegtuie is tussen Maart 1943 en Maart 1944 vervaardig. In Junie 1944 het die vloot besluit om die Kawanishi Shinden aan te neem as die belangrikste land-gebaseerde onderskepter, maar om die J2M in produksie te hou totdat die Mitsubishi A7M Reppu gereed was om in diens te tree (hierdie vliegtuig, wat ontwerp is om die A6M Zero te vervang, het skaars aan die einde van die oorlog in produksie gekom).

Uiteindelik is ses eenhede met die J2M toegerus. 'N Klein aantal het die Filippyne bereik, waar hulle tydens 1944 'n onsuksesvolle gevegsdebuut gemaak het. Die J2M was meer suksesvol as 'n bomwerper -vernietiger oor Japan, waar sy klimtempo, vlieënierbeskerming en 20mm bewapening tot sy reg kom. 'N Aantal vliegtuie het 'n skuins gemonteerde 20 mm -kanon gekry wat op die J2M4 getoets is, soortgelyk aan die' jazz -musiek' -installasie wat die Duitsers gebruik het.

Variante

Die verskillende variante van die J2M toon die kompleksiteit van die benamingstelsel van die Japanse vloot aan. Die bekende letter-/ getalkodes beweeg in volgorde van die J2M1 -prototipe na die voorgestelde J2M7, maar dit lyk asof die modelgetalle in die teenoorgestelde rigting beweeg (na die Model 11 J2M2 en Model 21 J2M3), van die Model 23 J2M7 na die Model 34 J2M4. In die modelnommer is die eerste nommer die vliegtuigweergawe, die tweede nommer die enjin, dus die J2M2 was die eerste vliegtuigraamwerk, eerste enjin, die J2M3 die tweede vliegtuigraamwerk, eerste enjin. Die J2M4 is iets van 'n anomalie, met die derde weergawe van die vliegtuigraamwerk, maar die vierde verskillende enjin, wat daarop dui dat daar reeds planne was vir die derde enjin, wat op die J2M5 verskyn het. Vermoedelik is 'n tweede enjintipe 'n kode gegee, maar dit word nie gebruik op vliegtuie wat 'n J2M -benaming ontvang het nie.

J2M1

Die benaming J2M1 is gegee aan die prototipe weergawe, met die onbevredigende Kasei 13 -enjin. Drie is gebou voordat die verbeterde J2M2 verskyn het. Die J2M1 was gewapen met twee .303in -masjiengewere in die romp en twee 20mm Type 99 Model 2 -kanon in die vlerke.

J2M2 Model 11

Die J2M2 Model 11 was die eerste produksieweergawe van die vliegtuig. Mitsubishi het 155 J2M2's gebou, en dit was die enigste produksieweergawes wat twee 7,7 mm -masjiengewere en twee 20 mm -kanonne gedra het. Die J2M2 het die Kasei 23a veertien-silinder radiale enjin gebruik, in die plek van die Kasei 13. Die voorruit is ook aangepas.

J2M3 Model 21

Die H2M3 Model 21 was die eerste weergawe wat heeltemal gewapen was met 'n 20 mm -kanon. Die masjiengewere wat met die romp gemonteer is, is verwyder en die vleuel is aangepas om vier kanonne te dra - twee Type 99 Model 2 -kanonne met uitsteeklike snuitjies en twee Type 99 Model 1 -kanonne wat heeltemal binne die vlerke was. Die J2M3 is eers langs die J2M2 vervaardig, maar dit het dit gou op die produksielyn vervang. Mitsubishi het 260 J2M3's vervaardig, net meer as die helfte van hul hele produksie van 476 vliegtuie.

J2M3a Model 21a

Die J2M3a was soortgelyk aan die J2M3, maar met die stadiger afvuur van Model 1 -kanon vervang deur twee Model 2 -kanonne wat in peule onder die vlerke gedra is. Slegs 21 is gebou.

J2M4 Model 34

Die J2M4 Model 34 het 'n turbo-aangejaagde MK4R-C Kasei 23c-enjin gekry, met die turbo-aanjaer agter die kajuit (wat wyer gemaak is). Dit het die hoogte waarop die enjin sy nominale drywing kon lewer, verdubbel, van 15.750ft tot 30.185ft. Die J2M4 het 'n ekstra skuins 20 mm-kanon afgevuur wat geïnstalleer is vir gebruik teen hoogvliegende Amerikaanse B-29-bomwerpers. Twee prototipes is voltooi, maar die turbo-aanjaer was lastig en daar is geen verdere vliegtuie van hierdie tipe vervaardig nie.

J2M5 Model 33

Die J2M5 was 'n tweede poging om die hoëvlakprestasie van die vliegtuig te verbeter. Dit gebruik dieselfde vliegtuigraamwerk as die J2M4, maar word aangedryf deur 'n MK4U-A Kasei 26a-enjin met 'n drie-trap meganiese aanjaer. Vier en dertig is gebou.

J2M5a Model 33a

Die J2M5a sou gewapen gewees het met vier 20mm Type 99 Model 2 -kanon van 20 mm. Nie een is gebou nie.

J2M6 Model 31

Die enkele prototipe J2M6 was gebaseer op die J2M3, maar met 'n nuwe koepelkajuit. Die benaming Model 31 dui daarop dat produksieweergawes die romp van die J2M4 sou gebruik het.

J2M7 Model 23

Die J2M7 sou 'n weergawe van die J2M3 gewees het, maar gebruik die Kasei 26a met sy drie-fase meganiese aanjaer. Nie een is gebou nie.

J2M7a Model 23a

Die J2M7a sou soortgelyk wees aan die J2M7, maar met vier Type 99 Model 2 -kanonne. Nie een is gebou nie.

Modelle

Model 11

J2M2

Kasei 23a

Model 21

J2M3

Kasei 23a

Model 21A

J2M3a

Model 23

J2M7

Kasei 26a

Model 23a

J2M7a

Kasei 26a

Model 31

J2M6

Model 31a

J2M6a

Model 33

J2M5

Kasei 26a

Model 33A

J2M5a

Model 34

J2M4

Kasei 23c

Spesifikasies J2M3
Enjin: Mitsubishi MK4R Kasei 23a radiale enjin
Krag: 1.820 pk
Bemanning: 1
Vleuel span: 35ft 5.25in
Lengte: 32ft 7,75in
Hoogte: 12ft 11.5in
Leeg gewig: 5,423 lb
Maksimum opstyggewig: 8,695 pond
Maksimum spoed: 370 km / h op 19 360 voet
Diensplafon: 38,385 voet
Reikwydte: 655 myl
Bewapening: Vier kanonne van 20 mm
Bomlading: Twee bomme van 132 lb


Mitsubishi J2M

Die Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (雷電, "Lightning Bolt") is 'n enkelmotorige gevegsvliegtuig op die grond wat deur die Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebruik is. Die geallieerde verslagdoeningsnaam was "Jack".

J2M Raiden
Profielweergawe van 'n Mitsubishi J2M Raiden
Rol Vegvliegtuie
Vervaardiger Mitsubishi
Eerste vlug 20 Maart 1942
Inleiding Desember 1942
Afgetree Augustus 1945
Primêre gebruiker Keiserlike Japanse vloot
Nommer gebou 621


Geskiedenis

Die J2M is in 1939 deur Jiro Hirikoshi ontwerp. 14 prototipes is teen Februarie 1942 gebou, en dit vlieg eers op Maart 16020, 1942.#911 ] As gevolg van enjinprobleme wat opgelos moes word, het die Raiden egter het eers in 1943 diens begin doen en eers in 1944 gevegte gesien.  

'N Paar gevange Raidens in Britse kleure.

Die J2M is gebruik as 'n land-onderskepper om die geallieerde bombardemente op die Japannese eilande teen te werk. Dit was baie effektief teen die B-29 Superfortress met sy 20 mm kanonne en hoë klimspoed. Verskeie is ook na die Filippyne ontplooi. 'N Totaal van 476 is gebou, maar dit was nie genoeg om die aanvalle op die Japannese Ryk te stop nie. Die J2M is in Augustus 1945 afgetree, na 'n skietstilstand tussen Geallieerde en Japanse magte. Ώ ] 'n Paar is gevange geneem deur Britse en Amerikaanse magte, en slegs een - J2M3 -reeks 3014, gevang deur Amerikaanse magte by Atsugi ΐ ] - het tot vandag toe oorleef. Dit word tans vertoon in die Planes of Fame Museum in Chino, Kalifornië, en#913 ] op die merke van die 302ste Kokutai. ΐ ]


Mitsubishi J2M Raiden / Jack [ / heading: aaaaaa]

Geskiedenis en ontwikkeling:

Die bevel van die Japannese vlootlugmag (海軍 航空 本部 Kaigun Kōkū Hombu) in September 1939 het die ministerie spesifikasie 14 -Shi uitgereik waarin u u vereistes vir 'n heeltemal nuwe tipe vliegtuig - die oorloopstraal - uitstuur. Hierdie vegter sou uitsluitlik vanaf landbase werk. 'N Taktiese vegter moet in staat wees om vinnig op te klim en vinnig te vlug om die wapens te vang en daarna kanonbewapening om vyandelike bomwerpers te vernietig. Op die oomblik was die vrylating van sulke vereistes in die Japannese vlootlugmag tot 'n revolusionêre stap. In die bevel was Kaigun Kōkū Hombu 'n baie sterk groep senior offisiere wat slegs die bou van 'n uiters vindingryke vliegtuig met 'n lang afstand bevorder het, 'n tipiese verteenwoordiger van die tenk van so 'n konsep was aan boord van Zero. In die nuwe formuleringsvereistes is die hoofklem egter integendeel gelê op die heeltemal verskillende eienskappe van die oorlooptenk, die vereiste prestasie en vuurkrag.
In April die volgende jaar is die spesifikasies gespesifiseer en nuut aangevra, bv. die effektiewe wapenrusting van die vlieëniersitplek, ook in die tegniese vereistes, word weerspieël in die Japannese nuusinligting oor die komende en nuut vervaardigde Amerikaanse bomwerpers. Die tegniese afdeling Kaigun Kōkū Hombu vir die opstel van vereistes is ook gebruik deur my eie ervaring van gevegte in China.

Hierdie aangepaste tegniese spesifikasies beantwoord die onderneming 三菱 重工業 - Mitsubishi Jūkōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha (hierna Mitsubishi genoem), en die projek het begin werk vir haar 'n suksesvolle hoofontwerperingenieur Jiró Hirokoshi, wie se span ook ingedeel is Mijiró Takahashi en Ishitoshi Sone en net Takashashi later die leiding van die ontwerpspan oorgeneem, omdat Jiró Hirokoshi nogal besig was met die ontwikkeling van die Zero. 'N Nuwe projek is in die fabriek gemerk as M-20, maar die werk het nie vinnig gevorder nie omdat die onderskeper nie die nodige prioriteit gehad het nie. Amptenare van die vloot was goedgekeur om 'n projek van metaalvliegtuie in te dien, en aangesien die belangrikste kenmerk hoë spoed en klim moet wees, was om die nuwe masjien met die čtrnáctiválcový-lugverkoelde enjin Mitsubishi MK4C-A Kasei 13 te bestuur, met 'n verplasing van 42,1 l en met 'n aanvangsvermoë van 1 430 perdekrag. Motor aangedrewe trojlistou propeller met veranderlike toonhoogte met konstante snelheid. Hierdie tipe kragtoevoer was beide kragtig, maar ook taamlik omvangryk, en volgens die ontwerpingenieurs was dit eerder net kapotován. Op vrtulovém was die as 'n waaier wat die gedwonge afkoeling gehelp het. Die ingediende projek is byna sonder kommentaar goedgekeur, en daarom het Mitsubishi toegetree tot die bou van prototipes, maar steeds met lae prioriteit.

Die vliegtuig bevat nuwe vliegtuie, waarvan die eerste prototipe tot 20. in Maart 1942 opgestyg het, was nie sleg nie, maar dit was 'n heeltemal nuwe soort en dus, heel logies, is die aanpassings uitgevoer en sommige was redelik fundamenteel, aangepas was die meganika van die onderstel, toe sukkel die ontwerperspan met die oorverhitting van die enjin, dit was die belasting vir sy stywe kapotování en ook die toegang van koel lug was nou. 'N Afsonderlike hoofstuk vir die eerste masjiene was 'n slegte uitsig tydens die aanvang en tydens die landing, hier het die vlieëniers die dimensionele enjin gehaat wat byna geen uitsig op die aanloopbaan moontlik gemaak het nie, en ook die voorkant van 'n klein en lae vlieënier van die omslag. Verder belemmer dit die uitsig sterk. Problematies was die outomatiese aanpassing van die aanval van die lemme, werk glad en die algehele betroubaarheid van hierdie toestel was beperk. Die aandrywingseenheid het ook aan vibrasies gely. Die vleuel is modern gebruik, met 'n profiel wat laminaire lugvloei moontlik maak, en verder toegerus met kleppe, wat die wendbaarheid van die vliegtuig verbeter. In die vlerke was twee dvacetimilimetrové kanonne die Type 99-1 Model 3, hierdie kanonne is aangevul deur 'n paar masjiengeweer Type 97 kaliber van 7,7 millimeter wat bo die enjin gestoor is. Die prototipes (daar is altesaam agt gebou), was laer as die berekende prestasie. Die eerste drie masjiene, wat die maritieme lugmag was, word as die J1M1 met gevegte namens die Raiden (Thunderbolt) word bereken tussen die prototipes en u prototipes wat ooreenstem.

Ander masjiene is reeds in die weergawe van J2M2 11, hierdie weergawe was toegerus met 'n kragtiger enjin MK4R-A Kasei 23a, wat tydens die opstart van die reeds soliede werkverrigting van 1 800 pk toegerus is en 'n vier-lomp propeller (lisensie VDM) met konstante snelheid aangedryf het. Hierdie enjin het die as van die waaier verkort en dit het daarin geslaag om ongewenste trillings te verwyder, maar nie heeltemal nie - om die werkverrigting van die enjin te verhoog, was dit toegerus met 'n toestel vir die inspuiting van die mengsel van water en metanol in die kompressor. Ongelukkig was dit die nog onrypgemaakte toestel; as gevolg van die gebruik daarvan het die motor se spoed verhoog, dit wil sê die einde van die lemme was op die gebied van klanksnelheid, en hierdie verskynsel veroorsaak dan gevaarlike trillings wat oorgedra word na die hele enjin (hierdie enjintipe is gebruik vir die volgende weergawe van die J2M3, J2M3a, J2M6 en J2M6a). Verder is die brandstofstelsel van die vliegtuig aangepas. Die enjinkap was korter en meer oop, wat die vloei van koel lug verhoog het. Die nuwe weergawe van Raidenu het dieselfde wapens as die vorige J1M1. Die eerste vliegtuig van hierdie weergawe, Raidenu, het in Oktober 1942 gevlieg, en later hierdie maand het hulle 'n reeksproduksie begin, maar dit was 'n baie, baie, baie stadige pas en gedurende die daaropvolgende vyf maande is slegs 14 vliegtuie voltooi! Die situasie het net geleidelik verander en teen Februarie 1944 is ongeveer 155 vliegtuie van hierdie weergawe vervaardig. Die fabriek in Nagoya was baie besig met die vervaardiging van broodnodige Zer en moeilik om na beskikbare produksievermoë vir Raideny te soek. Hierdie situasie het die Kaigun Kōkū Hombu op sy beurt genoodsaak om die houding teenoor die privaat aktiwiteit van die onderneming te verander 川西 航空 機 株式会社 - Kawanishi Kōkūki Kabushiki Kaisha en het een van haar prototipe van die oorloopvliegtuie geneem vir toetsing en daarna vir die hulp van vlootspesialiste en die vrylating van finansies ontstaan ​​die vegter N1K Shiden.

'N Ander weergawe van die Raidenu was die algemeenste en verskyn presies 'n jaar na die vorige, dit wil sê in Oktober 1943. Is gemerk as J2M3 21 en u kan die veranderinge kenmerk, wat hoofsaaklik verband hou met die beglazing van die kajuit, die voorruit van die gelyke koeëlvaste glas, maar hy sien. 'N Ander verandering het 'n vliegtuigwapening ondergaan-die masjiengewere van die romp is verwyder, maar in elke helfte van die vleuel was daar 'n paar kragtige kanonne Type 99-2 Model 4 met 'n voorraad van 210 rondtes ammunisie en die Type 99-1 Model 4 190 granate*. Daar was nog 'n munisipale afdelingsvariant J2M3a 21A Ko, wat alle wapens van dieselfde tipe moet bevat - kanonne Tipe 99-2 Model 4, hierdie variant is vervaardig in 'n klein aantal (blykbaar 21 vliegtuie), en die produksie het Raideny -weergawe van die J2M3 in die totale aantal 281 stuk (260 + 21). Bestuurders hou steeds verband met swak visie, veral tydens die aanvang en tydens die landing. Die vlieëniers, wat die Raideny of Reisen oorgesteek het, het skaars die handigheid, of eerder die gemak van hinderlaagvegters, verduur, maar as Raiden dit vergelyk het Shidenem (N1K1-J) Raiden vermoedelik as die wenner uitgekom het.

'N Ander weergawe, was hierdie keer nogal 'n eksperimentele Raiden J2M4 32 Hierdie weergawe is waarskynlik slegs in twee prototipes gebou, afkomstig van die ander Raidenů-verskillende tipe enjin Kasei 23c MK4R-C. Hierdie enjin was turbo -enjins en elk van die twee prototipes het 'n kompressor van 'n ander vervaardiger gebruik. Die motorverrigting was egter soortgelyk, maar die belangrikste was - albei die oorlog was net so onbetroubaar en onvolwasse vir operasionele ontplooiing. Die produksie van die kompressor is baie uitdagend na die metallurgiese en masjienproduksie, dat dit in Japan nie moontlik was om 100% funksionele aanjaers te vervaardig nie. As die kompressor egter werk, is die turbo -enjin soos volg op 'n hoogte van 9 200 m, 1 440 perdekrag en die prestasie van hierdie Raidenu uitstekend. In sommige bronne word gesê dat dit aangepas is en 'n paar ander Raidenů, noem die een wat so behandel is (ek het nie die moontlikheid om dit te verifieer nie). 'N Ewe belangrike realiteit was egter die feit dat ingenieurs daarin geslaag het om die romp te verander (dws sny) sodat hulle ten minste 'n vlugaansig verbeter en nie net vorentoe nie, maar ook agteruit. Die eerste prototipe wat in die vlerke van die vier kanonne gedra is, en die ander een was omtrent twee vlerkies verlig.

Die romp, wat ten minste gedeeltelik daarin geslaag word om die uitsig te verbeter, word onvervuld gelaat en in plaas van die turbocompressors-enjin is 'n nuwe Kasei-enjin op groot hoogte geïnstalleer in weergawe 26a (MK4U-4), wat effektief 'n meganiese kompressor was en by 'n hoogte van 7 200 meter was nog steeds prestasie 1 310 perde, deur by die romp aan te sluit en die enjin die vinnigste weergawe vorm Raidenu J2M5 33. Hierdie weergawe was op 'n hoogte van 6 600 m, 'n maksimum spoed van 615 km/uur en op 'n hoogte van 8 000 m was dit steeds baie ordentlike 603 km/h. die eerste vliegtuig van hierdie weergawe vlieg in Mei 1944, maar die produksie duur tot Junie 1945, omdat dit nie 'n enjin met 'n třírychlostním -kompressor was nie. 'N Kenmerkende kenmerk van hierdie weergawe is die kleiner oliekoeler onder die enjin en hoe meer die kajuit uitsteek. Daar bestaan ​​twee variante van die munisipale afdelings, sowel as met die ouer vega J2M3. Een vliegtuig van hierdie weergawe was gewapen met 'n paar heeltemal nuwe třicetimilimetrových kanonne Tik 5 , hierdie kanonne is aangevul deur 'n paar van die gewone twintigerjare, maar die Type 99-1 Model 4, ek kon nie agterkom of hierdie aangepaste vliegtuig anders gekenmerk is nie. Die weergawe van die J2M5 was regtig kragtig, maar tot nadeel van die Japanse vlootmag, is dit slegs in klein hoeveelhede gelewer - 43 vliegtuie.

'N Aangepaste romp met 'n beter uitsig en die ouer enjin Kasei 23a MK4R-A (dws met 'n groter oliekoeler) saam met die bewapening van twee kanonne Tipe 99-1 Model 4, en twee meer kragtige Type-99 Model 4, dan was dit Raiden J2M6 31 en as die bewapening slegs uit vier kanonne tipe 99-2 Model 4 bestaan ​​het, dan was dit 'n variant van die J2M6a 31A. Net die numeriese aanduiding van die Amerikaanse model deur Japannese vlootvliegtuie sal u vertel dat dit oor die derde aanpassingsvliegtuig was, en weer, die enjin word eers in 'n ry gebruik. Hierdie weergawe is parallel met die vorige weergawe vervaardig, maar die aantal vervaardigde vliegtuie is nie bekend nie, maar was beslis kort (blykbaar die twee vliegtuie).

Reeds vanaf die weergawe toe was J2M7 23, wat die romp van die ouer J2M3 was, maar met die motor Kasei 26a en selfs hier behoort daar twee variante van die munisipaliteit te wees, 23 en 23A.

Daar moet nog melding gemaak word van die nie-standaardaanpassing Raidenů, wat wapensmede vanaf 302 uitgevoer is. Kōkūtai, hierdie eenheid was onder bevel van ons die bekende "vader van die nagvegters" 海軍 大佐 Kaigun Daisa (kaptein) Yasuna Kozonó**, wat skuins vasgestelde kanonne in die romp van al die vliegtuie wat hierdie eenheid in sy arsenaal gehad het, gemonteer het. Hierdie aanpassing word aangedui deur en sy Raideny, terug in die kajuit van die vlieënier was in die linker helfte van die geïnstalleerde een geweer die Type 99-1 Model 3 met bubnovým tydskrif vir 100 rondes. Japannese bronne noem nie of dit 'n bomwerper was wat net hierdie geweer afgeskiet het nie. Dit is egter duidelik dat die vlieëniers van hierdie eenheid nie die mees ervare vegters was nie, omdat hulle meestal vlieëniers van die ontbinde eenhede van die bomwerpers en die vloot van die vliegtuig was, maar selfs hier was daar verskeie vegvliegtuie soos (海軍 中尉Kaigun Chūi) luitenant Sadaki Akamatsu (27 kills), (海軍 大尉 Kaigun Dai) kaptein-luitenant Chitoshi Isozaki (12), (兵曹 長 Hikō Heisōchō) vlag Ioshio Nakamura (9) (海軍 中尉 Kaigun Chūi) luitenant Sachio Endó (8) . Vlieëniers van hierdie eenheid was baie suksesvol in die stryd met Superfortressy, maar uiteindelik was hulle so en het hulle die Amerikaanse numeriese oorheersing van vloot- en weermagvegters vernietig.

Krygsbedrywighede:

Die eerste eenheid, wat Raideny dit aan die einde van die jaar 1943 by u oplaai ingesluit het, was 381. Kōkūtai, in Februarie 1944, het in sy arsenaal behalwe die gewone vegters A6M5a Reisen ook 10 Raidenů in weergawe J2M2, in die stryd teen hierdie eenheid getref gedurende die daaropvolgende maande, vanaf 'n basis Balikpapan in Borneo vanaf die basis Raikan op Celebesu. Die taak van 381. Kōkūtai was die verdediging van die olievelde in Borneo. Hierdie eenheid is nog in die lente van 1944 herorganiseer en die hele Raideny is gekonsentreer op 602. Hikōtai, wat saam met sy Raideny vanaf 'n basis in Kendari bedryf het. Vlieëniers van hierdie eenheid het deelgeneem aan die suksesse van September gedurende die hele 381. Kōkūtai, toe die Amerikaners 19 Liberatorů en minder as tien vegters Lightning en Thunderbolt verloor het. Amerikaners as gevolg van die aansienlike verliese van bomwerpervliegtuie het daarna die aantal meegaande vegters verhoog, as gevolg van hierdie maatreël het die verliese aan die Japannese kant aansienlik toegeneem en moes die daaglikse aanvalle J1N1 Gekko heeltemal teruggetrek word. Die einde van die jaar Raideny 602. Hikōtai kry gevegte oor die Filippyne, toe vzlétaly van die basis Nichols Field. In April 1945 was die hele 381. Kōkūtai teruggetrek om aanvulling en opleiding op kraam -eilande. 'N Ander eenheid met 'n Raideny in sy arsenaal was 301. Kōkūtai, naamlik die 601. Hikōtai, waar hulle Raideny was, ten minste aanvanklik gekonsentreer. Hierdie eenheid het 'n basis naby Nagoya gehad, in die gevegte het sy 316 getref. Hikōtai oor Iwo Jimou en na verliese is ek geskuif en 602. Hikōtai, sy vlieëniers, egter op Iwo Jima, het hulle eerder Reiseny geneem, wat hulle meer vertrou het. Gedurende 'n enkele maand was alles 301. Kōkūtai heeltemal en byna heeltemal verwoes, het hulle daarvoor gesorg, die Amerikaanse vlootvegters, wat die Japannese veelvuldige numeriese superioriteit gehad het. 'N Ander eenheid met 'n Raideny in die staat was 302,332. Kōkūtai wat eers saam met hulle 'n vlootbasis in Kur beskerm en later vanaf die lughawe in Naruo die groot stede Kobe en Osaka beskerm. Vlieëniers van hierdie eenheid, u Raideny en Reiseny, het baie suksesvol geveg teen nalétávajícím Superfortress - waarskynlik die suksesvolste vegter van hierdie eenheid was (海軍 中尉 Kaigun Chūi) luitenant Susumu Ishihara (16 kills). Raideny was toegerus met die 352. Kōkūtai, wat baie suksesvol ingegryp het in die gevegte oor die stede Nagasaki, Sasebó en Ómura, het sy gevegsaktiwiteite geëindig in die gevegte oor Okinawa. 'N Interessante groep was 'n spesiale eenheid Tatsumaki-tai, 'n eenheid wat gevorm is deur die lede en Raideny twee Kōkūtai en 20 Raidenů uit die 302. Kōkūtai en 16 van hulle was uit 332. Kōkūtai. Die taak van hierdie eenheid was hoofsaaklik die stryd teen Superfortressům, wat tussen 26 April en 10 Mei 1945 vanaf die lughawe na Kanoya bedryf is, die vyand het aansienlike verliese aangerig, maar uiteindelik het hierdie eenheid opgehou bestaan ​​omdat die vlieëniers het nie lugwaardige masjiene nie. In klein hoeveelhede (tot 5 vliegtuie) was Raideny in hierdie eenhede: 256. Kōkūtai, 1001. Kōkūtai, 2081. Kōkūtai, Yokosuka Kōkūtai, Yotabe Kōkūtai, Genzan Kōkūtai, Tainan Kōkūtai, Kónoike Kōkūtō.

Gradering:

As hy 'n Raiden-bestuurder was deur 'n ervare vlieënier, wat voordeel kon trek uit sy sterkpunte, sou die goeie vliegtuig, wat die respek van die geallieerde vlieëniers gewen het, die volgende B-24 Liberator selfs nog kragtiger en duursamer in gevaar stel B-29 SuperFortressy. Sulke vegters was nie baie in Japan nie, daarom was die eenhede met Raideny hoofsaaklik toegewys aan die lugverdediging van Japan. Teen die maritieme Hellcatům en Corsairům kan Raiden met vrymoedigheid opstaan ​​as dit deur 'n ervare vlieënier bestuur word, en die weermagjagter P-38 Lightning en P-47 Thunderbolt kan bestuur, alhoewel Thunderbolt veral die moeiliker was, P-51 Mustang was Raidenu superior in alle opsigte.

Vlieëniers wat voorheen na die behendige en ligte Reisenech gevlieg het, baie keer met 'n swaar en bo alles minder vaardige Raidenem, kon hulle dit nie hanteer nie en verkies die vaardige Reiseny (voorbeeld 301. Kōkūtai), aan die ander kant, die vlieëniers van die 302 .. Kōkūtai, wat voorheen met die bomwerpers en die plovákovými -masjien gevlieg het, kom u sonder vooroordeel na u Raidenům en het die prestasies by u gehad. Onder die onbetwisbare voordele van Raidenů het spoed, klimtempo, diensplafon en natuurlik effektiewe bewapening aan die ander kant gely as gevolg van sulke oorloopvliegtuie. Die meeste vlieëniers het die slegte siening gekritiseer, die ontwerpers moet probeer om dit te verbeter, maar so 'n aangepaste Raidenů, daar is nie veel nie; 'n ander probleem was die vibrasie van die enjin, oor die wat ek vroeër geskryf het, kortom - as u die volle krag van die enjin, rozvibrovaly die skokgolf van die einde van die lemme oor die hele enjin. In vergelyking met ander vlootvegters het Raiden 'n klein reeks, laat ons weggaan van hierdie vergelyking van die Reisen, wat uiterste was, maar 'n groter reikafstand Šiden en Šiden-Kai, maar beide weergawes van Šideny het meer die karakter van 'n universele vliegtuig gehad, terwyl Raiden is van die begin af ontwikkel en gebou as 'n lokvalvegter, sy taktiek moet die beginsel van "slaan en hardloop" wees, want die vlugte was toegerus met ekstra tenks met 'n inhoud van 250, 300 en 400 liter. Teen die einde van die oorlog het nog swakere vakmanskap by die swakhede gekom.

Verskeie Raidenů is deur die geallieerde vlieëniers getoets, volledige toetse is uitgevoer na die oorgawe van Japan. Geallieerde toetsvlieëniers het die Raideny bevestigend beoordeel en die enjin word uitgebeeld as 'n "lawaaierige" met goed opgeloste verkoeling.



Verduidelikende aantekeninge:
*Lugkanonne van die tipe 99-1 en tipe 99-2 was verskillende wapens, die vervaardiging daarvan is parallel uitgevoer met behulp van heeltemal ander ammunisie. Kanonne Tipe 99-1 (Tipe 99 Mark 1 Model x) het 'n korter vat, minder muilsnelheid, koeëls met minder gewig, maar 'n hoër vuurtempo. Kanonne Type 99-2 (Type 99 Mark 2 Model x) was kragtiger danksy 'n hoër snuitsnelheid, 'n hoër gewig van die granaat, maar afbreek is 'n klein trap. Beide tipes gewere het 'n basis in die Switserse gewere. Oirlikon kanon tipe 99-1 was 'n gewysigde kopie van 'n kanon FF-F en tipe 99-2 kom uit 'n kanon FFL. Die regte op hul gelisensieerde produksie van die Japannese is in 1937 gekoop.

** Ig 大佐 Kaigun Daisa (kaptein) Yasuna Kozonó is baie instrumenteel in die vorming en ontwikkeling van die nagvegters Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko.
.


    • 256ste Kōkūtai November 1944 - Desember 1945
    • 301ste Kōkūtai Februarie 1944 - Julie 1945
    • 302ste Kōkūtai Maart 1945 - Augustus 1945
    • 332ste Kōkūtai Augustus 1944 - Augustus 1945
    • 352ste Kōkūtai Augustus 1944 - Augustus 1945
    • 381ste Kōkūtai -einde 1943 - April 1945
    • Yokosuka Kōkūtai
    • Yatabe Kōkūtai
    • Genzan Kōkūtai
    • Tainan Kōkūtai
    • Konoike Kōkūtai
    • Chushi Kōkūtai

    'N Oorlewende J2M word uitgestal in die Planes of Fame -museum in Chino, Kalifornië.


    Hasegawa 1/32 Mitsubishi J2M3 Raiden 'Jack' Type 21

    Hierdie nuwe stel, wat 'n paar jaar gelede in die Verenigde Koninkryk vrygestel is, verteenwoordig 'n pragtig gevormde voorbeeld van die pugnacious interceptor van Japan en verteenwoordig 'n kwantumsprong in kwaliteit en akkuraatheid in vergelyking met die enigste vorige 1:32 kit van die tipe: Revell se vroeë 70's kit wat lank nie meer vervaardig is nie.

    Raidens het oor die algemeen die standaard liggrys en donkergroen Imperial Japanese Navy-kleure, en die uitdaging wat ek aan my gestel het, was om iets tussen die soms te verweerde modelle van Japannese vliegtuie op skoue en die taamlik vae kleure van die vliegtuig se plan te kry. . Foto's van Raidens wys wel dat verf afskeur - maar dit is gewoonlik redelik subtiel en beperk tot vleuelwortels en verwyderbare panele. So dit was wat ek wou probeer vasvang-saam met die ikoniese weerligstraalmerke wat verskaf is vir die eerste opsie in die stel: 352-20 van die 352ste Naval Flying Group, gebaseer in Omura in Maart 1945 en gevlieg deur Lt JG Yoshihiro Aoki.

    Hier is hoe ons te werk gegaan het:

    Vleuelstruktuur

    Die kit is tipies Hasegawa in benadering, heerlik eenvoudig sonder foefies, pragtig gevorm en baie akkuraat. Dit volg op 'n ontwikkelende neiging in grootskaalse vliegtuigmodelle deurdat dit vlerkspane en interne skote verskaf om sterkte toe te voeg en, in teorie, 'n briesie in die regte rigting te gee. Ek wou dit graag toets en as 'n eerste stap die aanbevole bouvolgorde verlaat om die vleuel te monteer.

    Voordat u met die spars begin, is daar 'n bietjie vetterigheid nodig-maak die gate aan die onderkant van die buikbak oop met 'n klein bietjie in 'n speldskroef en maak die gate vir die vlerkkanon op die boonste oppervlaktes oop. Daar is ook 'n middelste gedeelte wat by die ratkaste gevoeg moet word, en dit was 'n bietjie skoonmaak nodig om penmerke te verwyder voordat dit vasgemaak word.

    Die middelste 'boks' het vinnig en presies bymekaargekom en perfek in lyn gebring met die liggings in die vleuel. Die 'buitenste' stutte het ook aangebring en die onderste vleuel wat daaruit voortgebring is, is oornag opsy gesit sodat alles kan verhard.

    Stuurkajuit

    With recent builds I’ve started to take a leaf out of many armour modellers’ books and do a lot of assembly before painting. In this way the main sections were built up separately before painting: floor, panel, side section and rear deck.

    These assemblies were then sprayed with a slightly tweaked Xtracrylix Interior Green (XA1117 – the closest match to the original I had to hand) before giving a couple of light coats of Quikshine to seal in the green and provide a base for the instrument decals and weathering. The kit instrument decals were used and, after a few coats of MicroSol, they conformed beautifully to the moulded detail.

    After a couple of days to dry edges of various panels and components was carefully highlighted with a 5/0 brush and MrHobby ‘MrMetalcolor’ chrome silver. A day later, after picking out details in other colours (throttle levers, joystick etc.), the various sections were given a light wash using Flory Models’ black wash to bring out a little more depth prior to a layer of Xtracrylix matt varnish. Straight from the box I think the cockpit works well – the only thing added was a set of belts from one of the Eduard sets.

    Prop and Engine Prep

    The kit provides alternative prop blades - narrow, or broad chord - depending upon version modelled and the separate blades are attached to the central hub with nice positive location.

    A feature of the full size aeroplane, and an impressive moulding in the kit, the cowl needs a simple mod before progressing: removal of the cowl gun troughs not applicable to this version. The kit provides simple pugs that were bonded in place and left for a few days before sanding back.

    As the engine is pretty well hidden I chose the simple route and simply assembled as per instructions and painted with Alclad Aluminium followed by a wash of Tamiya smoke. You could, of course, go to town on this by adding things like ignition harnesses, but, unless you open it all up, you really won’t be able to see anything!

    Airframe

    Like the wings, Hasegawa supply a neat set of internal bulkheads that fit inside the fuselage and later act as alignment points for the wings. In the photo below you can see them fitted to the starboard fuselage half using Revell Contacta Professional glue to allow a little ‘movement’ time (the stuff in the blue plastic bottle with needle applicator). Alignment across the fuselage halves was ensured by placing the other fuselage half in position as the glue went off.

    Hasegawa provide detail parts for the rear section of canopy behind the cockpit, with two differing types of top ‘structure’ section. Having selected the appropriate one it was a simple task to open out the holes using a pin vise.

    With the cockpit inserted in place and the fuselage halves joined, it was time to add the tailplane. Typically simple Hasegawa approach here with interlocking halves to ensure everything straight (below). Fit of parts, as with the rest of the kit, was exceptional with very little filler needed anywhere!

    I mentioned the interlocking bulkheads/wing spars and this is clearly illustrated in the photo below. Fit was a little tight but perfect, although I have read builds where some trimming was needed so take care and dry fit before applying any adhesive.

    Kap

    With the airframe together, photo 16, it was time to look at that huge canopy that’s such a distinctive feature of the Raiden. The canopy in this kit is simply beautifully done – thin and totally free of distortion – and provides alternative rear sections to facilitate open or closed canopies. These rear sections fit beautifully and simply has a run of black permanent marker run around their edges prior to installing and bonding with a little Plastic Weld run into the seams.

    With these sections masked using Tamiya tape and a nice fresh blade it was time to add the armoured glass section and gunsight, before masking the main glazings and fitting the windshield.

    Finally - before priming - we mustn’t forget that the inside of the canopy framing should be in the interior colour - so this has been applied to the outside as a ‘first prime’.

    Priming

    With beautifully delicate surface details I was keen not to overdo it with the primer. On this project I used my faithful Halfords grey primer applied in two thin coats with very few blemishes needing attention.

    As the project was to feature a certain amount of chipping in he final finish the model was given a light coat of Tamiya silver from their spray can range followed by a couple of coats of Quikshine to seal the finish from the paint layers to come.

    Verf

    Now we can start to have some FUN!

    The main colours of Imperial Navy Grey, Green and black anti-dazzle area where airbrushed using old jars of Modelmaster Enamel - first time using enamels for a camouflage finish in years but decision based upon two useful benefits. Firstly - I like the colour matches - purely from a subjective view of course and secondly because it’s a different material to the underlying acrylics and those that will follow - making the weathering process easier.

    With the main colours on and allowed to dry - out with the tape again and the yellow leading edges were added.

    Weathering – Paint Chipping

    With the silver undercoating we could now start to chip back the exterior finish referring to photo’s of the original and trying not to overdo it. Primary weapons of choice were a new scalpel blade and a pan scourer ‘liberated’ from the kitchen. Technique wise there’s little to add to the photo’s - were simply replicating surface abrasion in miniature!

    With primary weathering completed - time for a coat of clear gloss ready for the decals - again using Quickshine.

    Merkies

    As mentioned at the beginning this was to be a straight from the box build and the decals proved to be well up to the standard of the rest of the kit with good colour and spot on registration. With a little Micro Sol applied they snuggled down beautifully over the detail when left overnight and, once dry, where carefully ‘chipped’ in places using a sharp scalpel blade.

    With another coat of gloss varnish the model was put away for a few days to dry whilst some of the ‘twiddly bits’ were readied.

    Onderstel

    The kit supplied landing gear is beautifully rendered with solid attachments to the wings. The wheel hubs are separate from the tyres which makes preparation and painting a breeze. With the parts assembled and painted the shiny oleo sections were added using kitchen foil and all components then weathered with a little black oil paint.

    Surface Weathering

    With the decals dried and weathered it was time to pull out a little surface detail. I rather like oils for this and a dirty brown/black colour was mixed up using Winsor and Newton oils. Applied to the airframe using a stiff brush, the oils were allowed to settle for a few hours before polishing off as much as possible using kitchen paper - leaving just a touch visible in the panel lines. Photos 44, 45, 46 and 47.

    At this point the drop tank was added, having applied a few small dents to its nose, and a coat of matt varnish applied.

    Gear added it was time to add some oil stains, liquid leaks etc with more oil paint and very thinned acrylic varnish tinted with paint - and some dust around the wing roots and underneath using MiG Powders.

    Finished!

    This was a really refreshing build as the base kit is so good in my opinion. As to whether I’ve achieved the finished effect I was after - I think so - but will leave it to readers to judge as there are many different tastes and ‘schools’ in this hobby - especially when it comes to weathering aircraft models!

    Afsluiting

    Another beauty from Hasegawa I loved building this model and I suspect many others will too. The simple, no frills, breakdown and beautiful moulding quality means that the builder has the almost perfect canvass to paint and detail as they wish. I really like this formula - a lot. Anyone want a couple of old Revell Raidens I have in the stash? No, thought not!

    With Hasegawa releasing a number of important Japanese types in recent years is it too much to hope for a Kate, Val, Nick or Dinah? Maybe one day.

    Now - to another extreme - where did I put that Zoukei-Mura Skyraider?

    Materials Used

    • Photo Etch Belts – Eduard
    • Paints – Aeromaster IJN Grey and Green, other colours from Xtracrylix and Tamiya
    • Quikshine acrylic floor ‘wax’ - available in the UK from Lakeland
    • Tamiya masking tape
    • Winsor and Newton Oils and Acrylic Flow Enhancer
    • Plastic Weld Cement
    • Revell Contacta Professional and Filler

    Verwante inhoud

    This article was published on Thursday, December 12 2013 Last modified on Saturday, January 14 2017

    & kopieer grootskaalse vliegtuie 1999 en mdash2021. Alle handelsmerke en outeursregte word deur hul onderskeie eienaars besit. Liditems word deur die lid besit. Alle regte voorbehou.


    Mitsubishi J2M

    Die Mitsubishi J2M was a Japanese Interceptor aircraft that was used during World War II. It was designed and developed by Jiro Horikoshi.

    The first flight was on 20th March 1942. Production of the J2M2 began in October 1942. Because of technical problems, service entry was delayed to December 1943 at this time, development of the J2M3, a derivative with upgraded armament, had already begun. All in all 476 (including prototypes) aircraft were produced.

    The J2M Raiden (=Thunderbolt) recieved the allied codename "Jack" and was first used in 1944. But only at the end of the War the performance of the Raiden was realised. It was a at high altitude operating interceptor, that was first used against the American B-29 bombers, if they attacked at low level flight. It had an aerodynamical design and with its 20-mm machine guns it was able to break through the armor of the B-29. But with the capture of Iwo Jima, the B-29 were escorted by P-51 Mustang, so that the Raiden had to fight the Mustangs and from this point the AA guns and other Interceptors like the Kawasaki Ki-45 had to intercept the Superfortresses. The J2Ms, which defended Japan in 1944-1945 against the bombers of the USAAF, achieved 676 kills.


    Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Thunderbolt) 'Jack' - History


    Revell's 1/72 Do 17 Z-10 will be available online from Squadron.com

    Agtergrond

    The Mitsubishi J2M Raiden ("Thunderbolt") was a single-engine land-based fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in World War II. The Allied reporting name was "Jack". The J2M was designed by Jiro Horikoshi, creator of the A6M Zero, to meet the 14-Shi (14th year of the Showa reign, or 1939) official specification. It was to be a strictly local-defence interceptor, intended to counter the threat of high-altitude bomber raids, and thus relied on speed, climb performance, and armament at the expense of manoeuvrability. The J2M was a sleek, but stubby craft with its oversized Mitsubishi Kasei engine buried behind a long cowling, cooled by an intake fan and connected to the propeller with an extension shaft. The first few produced J2M2s were delivered to the development units in December 1942 but severe problems were encountered with the engines. Trials and improvements took almost a year and the first batch of the serial built J2M2 Model 11 was delivered to 381st K?k?tai in December 1943. Parallel with the J2M2, production of the J2M3 Raiden Model 21 started. The first J2M3s appeared in October 1943 but deliveries to combat units started at the beginning of February 1944.

    The Raiden made its combat debut in June 1944 during the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Several J2Ms operated from Guam and Saipan and a small number of aircraft were deployed to the Philippines. Later, some J2Ms were based in Chosen airfields, Genzan (Wonsan), Ranan (Nanam), Funei (Nuren), Rashin (Najin) and Konan under Genzan Ku, for defence of these areas and fighting against Soviet Naval Aviation units.

    Primarily designed to defend against the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the type was handicapped at high altitude by the lack of a turbocharger. However, its four-cannon armament supplied effective firepower and the use of dive and zoom tactics allowed it to score occasionally. Insufficient numbers and the American switch to night bombing in March 1945 limited its effectiveness.*

    * Edit Courtesy of Wikipedia

    FirstLook

    As you probably already knew, unless you live in a cave, this kit isn&rsquot a new release. In fact, this kit first hit the market in 2013, having been demoed at Scale Model World, Telford, in November 2012. I was then one of the ZM team who wore their voices out in showing the test-shot to many, many hundreds of people over that weekend, prior to its release a few months later. Despite this, I never actually reviewed this one, having skipped to the later Ho 229. I&rsquom also going to take advantage of the fact that it&rsquos possible that numerous looks at this kit may have prematurely died when Photobucket started to ransom its members and cut off external-linking.

    Zoukei-mura&rsquos J2M3 kit comes in a fairly sizeable and attractive box with a pretty atmospheric painting of a J2M3 diving back into night-time cloud cover after a strike on a B-29 Superfortress. Probably one of the most evocative contemporary images of the Raiden that I&rsquove seen. Congratulations to ZM for using that image. The box sides show various images of the test shot that is oh so familiar to this writer. That lid is also pretty airtight and takes some effort to remove. Inside, we have NINE sprues, moulded in light grey plastic, and TWO in clear. All sprues are separately bagged to prevent scuff damage, and to complete building materials, a single set of vinyl masks is included. ZM kits don&rsquot contain photo-etch parts as standard, with the idea being that the model can be built perfectly well without such extras. Lastly, a single decal sheet is included, as well as ZM&rsquos instruction manual with its historical and informative instructional content. Two plastic sprues are very fragile, and these are the parts which include the canopy glass and separate frames. To protect these further, the lower inside of the box has its own cardboard wrap that separates these from the rest of the parts. Looking at those parts, that was an essential move.

    Sometimes, I write reviews by looking at each individual sprue, but as this one is quite complex, I&rsquoll look at each area in turn, and the features/options available to the modeller.

    Construction starts in this area, with quite a remarkable representation of the Mitsubishi MK4R-A Kasei 23a 14-cylinder two-row radial engine that was the beast at the heart of this rather clunky looking aircraft. Both rows of cylinders are separate, with each row being supplied as halves. In line with ZM&rsquos quirky design policies. The inside of these parts has the pistons within. Of course, you won&rsquot see this when assembled, but it&rsquos a nice touch nonetheless. Pushrod rings, intake pipe and collector ring are also separate parts that will need careful alignment in order to progress to later stages. As the engine was sat further back in the nose, presumably to facilitate a correct centre of gravity and the semi-streamlined cowl, an extender shaft had to be fitted to the engine, and this is represented here, along with its housing.

    ZM has made some extensive and clever use of slide-moulding in this kit, with all of the eight separate exhaust pipes having hollow ends, saving you from having to work on these yourself. With these parts in place, you can start to fit the engine mount and the rather large mount cover, plus ancillary features, such as the carburettor, water injection pump, mixture adjustment valve and fuel injection pump, to name a few. Another real bonus with the tooling of this kit is the single piece main mounting bracket for the engine. Whereas other companies may tool a number of brackets to build this item (the new Revell 1/32 Fw 190A/F series, as an example), ZM has included this as a single part, meaning you won&rsquot have any tricky alignment problems that multipart assemblies can introduce.

    Parts are supplied to pose the cowl flaps open, as default. If you want to keep these closed, you will need to trim plastic from the actuator arms, as shown in the manual. The flaps themselves are moulded in both open and closed positions. Cowls can be left off the model, so you can display the engine. These have simplistic rivet divots on the outside, and no real representative internal detail.

    The four-bladed propeller also has some nice hidden detail within the spinner, in the shape of the main fastening nut and the prop pitch counterweights. A nice touch if you plan to pose this with the spinner removed.

    This really is an event with this kit, and also highlights just how spacious the cockpit of the Raiden was. This seems to have even more room than its American namesake, the Thunderbolt. The width of the cockpit floor is impressive! As with the engine, there is plenty of detail here that you also won&rsquot see, unless you start to build this as a cutaway model, such as the underfloor bulkhead, linkages, valves, CO2 and oxygen bottles, and the control stick linkages that are moulded onto the stick part itself.

    As for the office itself, two versions of the seat are offered, as they did in the later Ho 229. These are for a plain seat, and one moulded with belts in place. Before you think that the latter option is probably terrible, I can tell you it isn&rsquot. It&rsquos actually quite neat, and I used that option on my Ho 229 that I built for Military Illustrated Modeller. The cockpit is built around a solid and detailed floor, highly detailed sidewall frames, a rear bulkhead, and an instrument panel bulkhead. Other parts to cram into this area include a multipart seat adjustment shaft/leaver/support, rudder pedal bar, head rest, oil pump lever, oil pump, landing gear lever, instrument consoles, oxygen bottles, and various avionics panels that fit to the sidewall frames. In all, a very comprehensive effort. Two instrument panel options are given. One of these is the standard grey plastic one with moulded dial detail (yuck!) and the other is a clear panel with bare lenses. I would opt for the latter, and punch out the individual decals for the instruments, from the sheet supplied. A far better option.

    In order to maintain the finesse of the parts without pesky ejector pin marks, a series of small ejection points are moulded externally to some parts, and you&rsquoll need to clip these off and clean up any remains. This is same tried and tested system that is now seen on brands such as WNW, and indeed ZM put it to good use on the Ho 229 release, with its numerous tubular frames.

    With the tub complete, a forward firewall will fit to the cockpit, complete with a fuel tank and an oil tank. The completed engine assembly will eventually mount to this firewall. Another cockpit assembly area concerns the radio turtle deck behind the pilot. This includes the radio itself, rear bulkhead, roll bar and even the antenna which does appear to require installation as this stage. When I mentioned the clever use of slide-moulding, the radio set is an example of this, with the unit being moulded as two parts, and the joints being hidden around the edges of the unit. The moulding here allows for two faces to be moulded with full detail, at right angles to each other.

    Fuselage Interior and Exterior Detail

    Behind the cockpit, there is a vast area of emptiness that has been detailed with internal fuselage constructional elements, such as the tail wheel linkage. I&rsquom a little bit at a loss here as to why ZM didn&rsquot also include the elevator and rudder pushrods too. It makes sense if they are going to include the one supplied. Still, there&rsquos plenty of scope to do that if you wish to go that route. There are a few ejector pin marks inside the rear fuselage, and these look easy to remove, if you are that way inclined.

    With the fuselage assembled and the cockpit installed, there is a whole raft of detail underneath the cockpit floor, and this corresponds with detail that is fitted within the wing section. ZM has moulded the forward wing fillets as separate parts. Whilst I found this problematic on their Ta 152 kit, completed models of the Raiden show this to be a better fit. There are slots on the wing to allow correct placement of these parts.

    Externally, the fuselage is quite sparse, apart from neat panel line and port access detail, a &lsquola Hasegawa&rsquos style. I quite like a riveted surface and would look at adding this detail with a flush rivet tool. Japanese aircraft were known for their flaking paint, and of course, this would also centre around rivet lines, so these are a moet for me. MDC&rsquos flush rivet tool is perfect for this. The rudder is moulded separately to the fuselage, as are the elevators to the stabilisers. With a little bit of work, they could be made poseable too, by removing the square plug that they would fit together with. Please note that the lower, rear fuselage is also separate to the main fuselage, much in the same way that Airfix did their 1/24 Typhoon kit. This joins along a panel line, and from the finished thing, this appears to work very well. Internally, that lower part has the same internal, constructional details as the main parts.

    There are only two main wing parts full span single piece upper and single piece lower panels. Ailerons are separate parts, and the gun bays are moulded with the panels off, allowing you to pose them and display the detail within. Work begins by gluing in a full span main spar into the lower wing part, followed by a small series of ribs that form the lower part of the cockpit tub. More linkage detail is to be fitted, as well as port and starboard wing fuel tanks. Again, you&rsquoll not see the latter unless you cut panels away. The weapons bays are formed around more spar and rib details, along with some beautifully moulded Type 99 20mm machine guns. These have nicely detailed recoil springs etc and it wojld be a shame to close those bays up and ignore this detail. Of course, the guns also have their ammunition magazines and feed belts.

    Multipart wheel well walls help to create this area, along with a very nicely detailed gear bay roof that is moulded onto the underside of the top, full span wing panel. Before you can finally glue the upper and lower panels though, the oil cooler needs to be installed. Wing external detail is commensurate with the fuselage styling, and again will benefit from some work with a riveting tool.

    You will be able to pose the landing flaps too. They are moulded with a series of plugs that are suitable for the default af position, and you will need to snip them off for raised. The instructions have this the wrong way around, so beware. A correction sheet is included, but as this kit is now 4yrs old, I&rsquom surprised ZM hasn&rsquot corrected the manual itself.

    A very nifty bit of slide-moulding has been used to mould the machine gun ports into the upper wing panel. This negates having to use a separate leading edge insert for this purpose.

    No provision is made for a model with a retracted gear, so if this is what you want, you will need to do some work. I think the one thing that annoys me here is that the wheels aren&rsquot weighted. Not a problem really, but if you wanted them weighted, you&rsquod need to fork out more money for their own resin wheel set. Wheels are moulded as halves, complete with separate hubs.

    The struts are crisply moulded as single pieces, with a two-part oleo scissor to attach. Brake cables are also supplied, and the undercarriage doors are superbly detailed. Wheel door actuators are supplied for the inboard doors, with clean and positive placements provided for these.

    Two options are provided here. A standard set of clear parts are included, whereby you mask the panels as per usual, and then paint. The other contains the glass and separate frames, which are incredibly fragile.

    This is quite an attractive proposition, but I still feel you would need to mask the canopy as normal, as it&rsquos pretty common to fit the glass before you paint the airframe. I&rsquoll have to work out how I approach this.

    If you want to pose the canopy in a closed position, then the standard canopy parts supply a single piece hood and rear canopy for this purpose.

    This option isn&rsquot available in the separate glass/frame style.

    A single sheet of green vinyl is supplied, with sharply cut masks for the canopy only (traditional style), and not the wheel hubs. That&rsquos a shame. My experience of this masking material from other ZM kits is that you really need to make sure it&rsquos firmly applied as it can lift in places.

    All decals for the two schemes are printed on a single sheet. These seem to either be in-house, or from somewhere in Japan maybe. They certainly aren&rsquot Cartograf. I find ZM&rsquos decals to be a little disappointing in that they have poorly defined details and are fairly thick. That applies here too, although they aren&rsquot unusable. Maybe think of doing the markings with aftermarket decals or masks.

    Stencil and instrument details are also included here. The two schemes on offer are the same as those in the Hasegawa kit, so nothing original in the slightest. Thankfully, separate numbers are included to change the serial for one of the options. These two schemes are:

    J2M3 Jack, 352nd Naval Air Group, 3rd Divisional Officer Lt. JG Yoshihiro Aoki, March 1945, Ohmura AB, Nagasaki

    J2M3 Jack, 302nd Naval Air Group, 2nd Divisional Officer Lt. Susumo Ito, April 1945, Atsugi AB, Kanagawa

    ZM has their own style of manual, in the same way that WNW has their specific approach. For ZM, it&rsquos all about educating the modeller as to the internals of the aircraft, and the design. A history of the J2M3 is included, followed by a treatise on the Raiden, along with a sort of X-ray of the aircraft. Each chapter deals with a specific constructional section of the model, with more SWS explanations throughout, along with some superb illustration that should make assembly straightforward. Colour references are made throughout for both Gunze and Vallejo paints.

    The last pages are taken over with the two schemes, printed in colour. These are rather dark and murky in places, but easy to overcome. Decal placements suffer a little from the gloom too, so use any references you have. A parts plan is also included.

    Afsluiting

    Has this kit withstood the last 4 years in terms of approach? Yes, without a doubt.

    This is most certainly the best J2M3 in any scale, and most certainly in 1/32. Some details are quirky, but that&rsquos the name of the game when it comes to Zoukei-mura&rsquos SWS approach. I think that the engineering approach to this is sensible, and a little novel in places. This certainly isn&rsquot a perfect kit, but can jy name one that is?

    I&rsquom a little disappointed about the lack of weighted wheels, especially for a premium product, and the rather substandard decals. However, this is still a gem of a kit, and one I&rsquod been chasing down for a little while now.

    I really can&rsquot wait to crack this one open and commit some glue and paint.

    My sincere thanks to Duncan at BlackMike Models for getting this out to me so quickly. To purchase, head over to their webwerf.


    Ontwikkeling

    During the China Incident (Sino-Japanese war) the Navy had sustained some damage from Chinese bomber groups as they didn't have any dedicated interceptors at the time, for this reason the Navy put out multiple specifications for planes to deal with threats which the Chinese made clear to the Navy. For bombers specifically they specified for a strictly local-defense interceptor known as the 14-Shi Interceptor which stated the following:

    Mitsubishi was the only to respond to this specification and put Jiro Horikoshi and his team in charge just after they finished work on the 12-Shi Carrier Fighter (A6M).

    But as far development went, arose teething development problems stemming from the Kasei 23 engine cooling system and the landing gear led to a slowdown in development and especially production. From excessive vibrations from the engine, poor landing gear design got Lt. Hoashi Takumi killed in a test flight.

    Even with the many issues in development, Mitsubishi pushed the J2M into mass production without even having it formally adopted by the Navy in September of 1943, problems were still present, and its specifications weren't as projected in reality, output was lower than expected, and electrical faults still haunt the landing gear. These low output problems at high altitude were being resolved with a new specification dubbed under the 14-Shi Kai Interceptor* which resulted in the J2M4 with as engine the Kasei 23c having the requested performance and allowed for the J2M's further development. Its last variants within the J2M family were bolstering the Kasei 26a engine and resulted in the J2M5 and J2M7's (which were J2M3 fuselages with the new engine). All these new variants and new engines boosted its performance, but electrical malfunctions were never truly solved.

    The Raiden was officially adopted by the Navy in October of 1944, 5 years after the issued request.

    The J2M4 in-game (J2M4 Kai) isn't a separate variant of the J2M4 as the Kai stems from 14-Shi Kai

    Combat History

    The first few produced J2M2s were delivered to the development units in December 1942, but the troublesome amount of engine problems still held it back from mass production. Troubleshooting almost took a year, and the first batch of the serial built J2M2 Model 11 could be delivered to 381st Kōkūtai in December of 1943. Parallel with the J2M2, production of the J2M3 Model 21 started, which would appear in October of 1943, but deliveries to combat units only started at the beginning of February of 1944.

    Die Raiden made its combat debut in June 1944 during the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Several J2Ms operated from Guam and Saipan, and a small number of aircraft were deployed to the Philippines. Later, some J2Ms were based in Chosen airfields, Yokosuka, Yatabe, Genzan, Tainan, Konoike and Chushi for defence and fighting against potential Soviet threats and units.

    Primarily designed to intercept bombers like the Boeing B-29 Superfortress which became very common near the end of the war. The early J2Ms were handicapped at high altitude by the lack of a turbocharger, even though its four-cannon armament supplied effective firepower, and the use of dive and zoom tactics allowed it to score occasionally.

    J2Ms took part in one of the final aerial combats of the Second World War when four Raidens, accompanied by eight Mitsubishi A6M Nul, all belonging to the 302nd Kokutai, intercepted a formation of USN F6F Hellcats from the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-10) during the morning of 15 August 1945 over the Kanto Plain. In the engagement that took place only two hours before Japan officially announced its surrender, four Hellcats were lost along with two Raidens and two Nuls.


    Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Jack)

    The Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (雷電, "Thunderbolt") was a single-engined land-based fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in World War II. The Allied reporting name was "Jack". The J2M was designed by Jiro Horikoshi, creator of the A6M Zero, to meet the 14-Shi (14th year of the Showa reign, or 1939) official specification. It was to be a strictly local-defense interceptor, intended to counter the threat of high-altitude bomber raids, and thus relied on speed, climb performance, and armament at the expense of manoeuvrability. The J2M was a sleek, but stubby craft with its over-sized Mitsubishi Kasei engine buried behind a long cowling, cooled by an intake fan and connected to the propeller with an extension shaft.
    .
    Primarily designed to defend against the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the lack of a turbocharger handicapped the aircraft at high altitude. However, its four-cannon armament supplied effective firepower and the use of dive and zoom tactics allowed it to score occasionally. Insufficient numbers and the American switch to night bombing in March 1945 limited its effectiveness.

    Two captured J2Ms were U.S. Technical Air Intelligence Command (TAIC) tested using 92 octane fuel plus methanol, with the J2M2 (Jack11) achieving a speed of 655 km/h (407 mph) at 5,520 m (17,400 ft),[2] and J2M3 (Jack21) achieving a speed of 671 km/h (417 mph) at 4,980 m (16,600 ft).

    Bemanning: een, vlieënier
    Length: 9.70 m (32 ft 8 in)
    Wingspan: 10.80 m (35 ft 5 in)
    Height: 3.81 m (13 ft 0 in)
    Wing area: 20 m (216 ft )
    Empty weight: 2,839 kg (6,259 lb)
    Loaded weight: 3,211 kg (7,080 lb)
    Powerplant: 1 Mitsubishi MK4R-A Kasei 23a 14-cylinder two-row radial engine, 1,379 kW (1,850 hp)

    Maximum speed: 655 km/h (355kn or 407 mph)
    Range: 560 km (302 nmi, 348 mi)
    Service ceiling: 11,430 m (37,500 ft)
    Rate of climb: 1402 m/min (4,600 ft/min)
    Wing loading: 174 kg/m (35 lb/ft )
    Power/mass: 0.42 kW/kg (0.26 hp/lb)

    Guns: 4 20 mm (Type 99 cannon]]:

    2 x Type 99-2 cannon in inboard wing stations with 190 rpg and 2 x 20mm Type 99-1 cannon in outboard wing stations with 210 rpg.


    Kyk die video: Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (Oktober 2021).