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Shirley Temple ontvang $ 50 000 per film

Shirley Temple ontvang $ 50 000 per film

Op 27 Februarie 1936 ontvang Shirley Temple 'n nuwe kontrak van 20th Century Fox wat die sewejarige ster $ 50 000 per film sal betaal.

Temple is in 1928 in Santa Monica, Kalifornië, gebore en het begin verskyn in 'n reeks kortfilms wat huidige films bedrieg, genaamd Baba Burlesks, op die ouderdom van vier. Op ses het sy aandag getrek met haar komplekse sang-en-dansnommer "Baby Take a Bow", uitgevoer saam met James Dunn, in die film van 1934 Staan op en juig. Op grond van die sukses van die film, het 20th Century Fox vir klein Shirley 'n kontrak van sewe jaar onderteken.

Sy sou daardie jaar en die volgende jaar in 'n reeks films verskyn, insluitend Klein juffrou Marker, Virander van hart, Helder oë (met een van haar bekendste liedjies, die springmelodie "On the Good Ship Lollipop"), en Krullerige top. Op die dieptes van die Groot Depressie het Temple se films 'n vrolike alternatiewe heelal gebied vir gehore wat ly onder die gevolge van wydverspreide werkloosheid en algemene ekonomiese swaarkry.

Omdat hulle weet dat hulle 'n kontantkoei in hul hande het, het 20th Century Fox die bepalings van die kontrak van Temple in 1936 verfyn en haar 'n ongekende bedrag van $ 50 000 per foto betaal. Hulle het ook die jaar op haar geboortesertifikaat beroemd verander, sodat dit blyk dat sy 'n jaar jonger was om haar pragtige kindersterstatus te verleng. Teen 1938 was Temple die lokomotief nommer 1 in Amerika. Die publiek was lief vir haar, en sy het gereeld haar volwasse eweknieë op die groot skerm vertoon. In die loop van die dertigerjare het die loket sukses van haar meer as 40 films, insluitend Arme Klein Ryk Meisie, Wee Willie Winkie, Heidi en Rebecca van Sunnybrook Farm, het baie gehelp om Fox te help om die depressie te verduur.

Temple se loopbaan het egter in haar tienerjare begin toeneem, en haar latere films het al hoe minder sukses onder die gehoor gekry. In 1950 tree sy uit rolprente, hoewel sy die televisiereeks vertel Shirley Temple se storieboek van 1957 tot 1959. Ook in 1950 trou sy met die marine -offisier Charles Black en verander haar naam na Shirley Temple Black. (Sy was voorheen getroud met Jack Agar; hulle het getrou toe sy 17 was en geskei nadat hulle een kind gehad het, Linda.) Met Black het sy nog twee kinders, Charles Jr. en Lori, gehad.

Sowat 20 jaar nadat hy uit Hollywood uittree, begin Temple Black 'n politieke loopbaan, wat hy in 1967 as die Republikeinse kandidaat vir 'n kongresstoel in San Mateo, Kalifornië, begin en die tweede van 14 kandidate word. Die jaar daarna het president Richard Nixon haar as ambassadeur by die Verenigde Nasies aangestel; sy het meer as twee dekades by die staatsdepartement in die Verenigde State en oorsee gewerk. Sy was die eerste vrou wat ooit as protokolhoof gedien het, 'n pos wat sy 11 jaar lank onder president Gerald R. Ford en president George H.W. Bush noem haar ambassadeur in Tsjeggo -Slowakye in 1989; teen die einde van haar termyn in 1993 het dit die Tsjeggiese Republiek geword.

Temple Black publiseer haar outobiografie, Kinderster, in 1988. Sy dien by die Institute of International Studies. Die voormalige kinderster het ook 'n woordvoerder geword van borskankerbewustheid nadat sy in 1972 'n kwaadaardige knop in haar bors ontdek het en 'n eenvoudige mastektomie ondergaan het. In 1999, tydens 'n geleentheid wat die destydse president Bill Clinton en sy vrou, Hillary, aangebied het, ontvang Temple Black 'n medalje van die Kennedy Center vir lewenslange prestasie aan die Verenigde State en die wêreld.

Op 10 Februarie 2014 sterf Temple in haar huis in Woodside, Kalifornië, op 85.

LEES MEER: 7 feite oor Shirley Temple


Hoe is Shirley Temple ontdek?

Tempel was gebore aan 'n bankier en 'n huisvrou met twee ouer kinders, op 23 April 1928, in Santa Monica, Kalifornië. Wanneer Tempel was net 3 jaar oud en het 'n kontrak met Educational Pictures gesluit haar speeldebuut in 'n reeks films met 'n lae begroting, genaamd 'Baby Burlesques'.

'N Mens kan ook vra: hoeveel het Shirley Temple verdien? Op hierdie dag in 1936, Shirley Temple ontvang 'n nuwe kontrak van 20th Century Fox wat die sewejarige ster $ 50 000 per film sal betaal. Tempel is in 1928 in Santa Monica, Kalifornië, gebore en het op vierjarige ouderdom begin verskyn in 'n reeks kortfilms wat die huidige films, genaamd Baby Burlesks, bedrieg.

Hoe het Shirley Temple op hierdie manier leer dans?

Shirley begin dans lesse op die sagte ouderdom van drie. 'N Hollywoodverkenner het haar by die dans studio en het haar saam met 'n paar ander kinders aangestel om in 'n reeks rolprente met die naam Baby Burlesks te speel.


Shirley Temple ontvang $ 50,000 per film - GESKIEDENIS

Die oorheersing van die Studio -stelsel:

Die Amerikaanse filmbedryf is in die dertigerjare (en tot in die veertigerjare) oorheers deur vyf groot ateljees in korporatiewe styl. Sommige van hulle het oorspronklik in opstand gekom teen die MPPA (Motion Picture Patents Company) - sien die ontwikkeling daarvan in die vorige afdelings. Die Hollywood -ateljees met hul eskapistiese "droomfabrieke" en hul ateljeehoof "Front Office", produksiehoof, produsente en ander assistente, was heeltemal in beheer en op volle sterkte. Hulle het hul invloed uitgeoefen op die keuse van films, begrotings, die keuse van personeel en draaiboeke, akteurs, skrywers en regisseurs, redigering, partituur en publisiteit:

  • 20ste eeuse jakkals (gevorm in 1935 uit die samesmelting van Twentieth Century Pictures, gestig deur Joseph Schenk, en die Fox Film Corporation)
  • MGM (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer) (onder leiding van Louis B. Mayer)
  • Paramount
  • Warner Bros.
  • RKO Radio

Drie ander klein ateljees was naby:

  • Columbia (onder leiding van Harry Cohn uit 1932)
  • Universeel
  • Verenigde kunstenaars

Republiek foto's (gestig in 1935) en Monogram is oorgedra na B-prentstatus, en Disney was 'n gespesialiseerde ateljee vir animasie. [Die gestileerde logo's van sommige van die ateljees het oor baie dekades dieselfde gebly: Warners (skild), Universal (aardbol) en Fox (soekligte).]

Die meeste ateljeehoofde van die laat 20's en 30's het op hul produksiehoofde staatgemaak vir verhaalbesluite: 'Boy Wonder' Irving Thalberg (eers by Universal, toe MGM), David O. Selznick (RKO, MGM) en Darryl Zanuck (Fox). Tot met sy dood in 1936, was die uitvoerende hoof/magnaat Irving Thalberg verantwoordelik vir gesogte, gesogte films met die beste prentjie wat as stervoertuie gedien het, bv. Grand Hotel (1932), Mutiny on the Bounty (1935), en Die Groot Ziegfeld (1936). Die ywerige, hardkoppige Thalberg was egter bekend vir botsings met die uitspattige akteur-regisseur Erich von Stroheim oor sy films, soos Dwase vroue (1922) en Merry-Go-Round (1923).

Die begin van die agteruitgang van die groot ateljeestelsel in die laat 30's is aangedui deur verskillende aggressiewe produsente wat uitmekaar is en onafhanklik geword het. David Selznick bedank byvoorbeeld in 1935 by MGM en stig sy eie onafhanklike onderneming - Selznick International Pictures. As 'n onafhanklike vervaardiger het David O. Selznick gedien as 'n 'mens-man'-filmbedryf met 'n geweldige gesag en mag oor die keuse van sterre en besluite van regisseurs. Hul eerste filmproduksie, 'n verwerking van Little Lord Fauntleroy (1936), speel Freddie Bartholomew.

Die hoogste wins Weg met die wind (1939) was die duurste film van die dekade met $ 4,25 miljoen. Dit was ook Selznick se grootste triomf (en na die sukses van die film het hy die res van sy lewe probeer om die prestasie te herhaal) en 'n rekord van agt Oscar -toekennings gewen. Hy het filmregte op die topverkoperroman gekoop van die eerste keer skrywer Margaret Mitchell vir $ 50,000 (destyds 'n astronomiese, ongekende koste), en hy het die sterre vir die film gespeel (dobbel op Vivien Leigh as die vurige Scarlett O'Hara), in botsing met die regisseur George Cukor gekom en hom uiteindelik ontslaan en daarop aangedring om die gewaagde woorde van die afskeid van Rhett Butler te gebruik (& quot; Eerlik, my skat, ek gee nie om nie) in weerwil van die Hays -kantoor - hy is na bewering 'n boete van $ 5,000 opgelê vir alhoewel hy oorspronklik van plan was om die film sy eie onafhanklike produksie te maak, het die feit dat 'n hoogs betaalde superster Clark Gable by MGM geleen is en die daaropvolgende hoë prys van die film Selznick genoop om toe te laat MGM stel die film vry (en ontvang die helfte van die wins). Die film was onvergeetlik omdat Hattie McDaniel die eerste Afro-Amerikaner om 'n Oscar te wen (as beste aktrise).

MGM's Studio Dominance in die 30's:

Die 'sterrestelsel' floreer met elke ateljee met sy eie waardevolle 'eienskappe', en Irving Thalberg was verantwoordelik vir die bekendmaking van MGM se sterre. Die dertigerjare was 'n tydperk van weelderige glans en seksuele aantrekkingskrag, en MGM het die grootste, mees oorheersende en mees sterbelaaide ateljee van almal geword, wat dit "The Home of the Stars" gemaak het. "Dit belowe meer sterre as wat daar in die hemel is, het Jeanette MacDonald-Nelson Eddy-films na die skerm gebring. En die ateljee het ook produksies van hoë gehalte gehad vanweë die groot vakmanne, waaronder King Vidor, Victor Fleming en George Cukor.

Teen 1934 het MGM meer as 60 groot naamakteurs onder kontrak gehad. MGM het die grootste 'stal' sterre van al die ateljees gehad, waaronder: Joan Crawford (oorspronklik 'n winkelmeisie met die naam Lucille Le Sueur), Clark Gable, Myrna Loy, William Powell, Greta Garbo, Norma Shearer, Jean Harlow, Robert Montgomery, Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney, Katharine Hepburn, Spencer Tracy, James Stewart, die Barrymores en Spencer Tracy.

Een van sy grootste vroeë treffers was die ster-gedrewe, winsgewende beste filmwenner Grand Hotel (1932), geleë in 'n weelderige hotel in Berlyn met buitensporige kunstrigting deur Cedric Gibbons. Die karakters in die gewilde melodrama sluit die volgende hoogs betaalde kontrakteurs in: die Sweedse ster Greta Garbo as balletdanser, John Barrymore as 'n juweeldief, Joan Crawford as 'n jong stenograaf, Wallace Beery as 'n tirannieke, spoggerige sakeman en Lionel Barrymore as terminaal siek boekhouer. Dit het ook floreer met sy Tarzan reeks avontuur-/oerwoudfilms, Tom en Jerry tekenprente, Weg met die wind (1939), en Die towenaar van Oz (1939).

20th Century Fox was bekend vir sy musiekblyspele (veral in die 40's met Betty Grable) en prestige biografieë (soos Jong meneer Lincoln (1939)). Fox Studios het na die middel van die 30's ook sy verhouding met Shirley Temple benut - sy het in die laat 30's uit eie hand meer as $ 20 miljoen vir Fox verdien.

RKO was die plek vir die eerste films van Orson Welles (Burger Kane (1941) en The Magnificent Ambersons (1942)), die gesofistikeerde dansfilms van Fred Astaire en Ginger Rogers, komedies en sy deurslaggewende monsterfilm King Kong (1933).

Universal floreer met die bekende regisseur Tod Browning, westers, W.C. Fields en Abbott en Costello komedies, die Flash Gordon reekse, en sy argetipiese, lae begroting -rillerfilms soos Dracula (1931), Frankenstein (1931) en Die Wolfman (1941).

Die beste regisseur van Columbia was Frank Capra, bekend vir sy volksvreemde, sprokiesagtige "Capra-corn" -prente. Hy regisseer baie van die beste populistiese en tuisverhale uit hierdie tydperk met helde uit die wortels, wat verrassend goed gevaar het toe hulle in die klein teaters vertoon is. Sy romantiese komedies wat op die hoogtepunt van die depressie gemaak is, het die ongekende treffer ingesluit Dit het een nag gebeur (1934) oor 'n sukkelende hack -verslaggewer en 'n ryk heldin wat saamgegooi is, en Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936), oor 'n miljoenêr wat probeer het om sy nuut verworwe erfenis weg te gee.

Paramount Studios aan die ander kant, met 'n meer Europese, kontinentale gesofistikeerdheid en smaak, het Marlene Dietrich en die regisseur Josef von Sternberg, Gary Cooper, Cary Grant, Carole Lombard, Fredric March, Claudette Colbert en regisseur Ernst Lubitsch gespog met sy 'gesofistikeerde' komedies: Trouble in Paradise (1932), Engel (1937), en Ninotchka (1939). Hulle het ook komedies van Mae West, W.C. Fields, die Marx Brothers, Bob Hope en Bing Crosby, musiekblyspele met Maurice Chevalier, en films van Cecil B. DeMille.

Warner Bros. was deur mans gedomineer en vinnig in beweging, en was bekend vir kranige, nuutste, realistiese films of biopics, oorlogsfilms, Westers en sosiaal-bewuste films in dokumentêre styl. Die ateljee het ook uitgesak Gouddelwers musicals byna elke jaar (begin in 1929) in die dekade en in die 40's - Bugs Bunny en ander tekenprente. In die vroeë dertigerjare het Warners ook die misdaad-gangster-film, met sy Klein Caesar (1930), Die openbare vyand (1931), Scarface (1932), en The Roaring Twenties (1939). Die ateljee floreer saam met regisseur Michael Curtiz, en beroemde & quottough -ou met sterre, waaronder: James Cagney, Paul Muni, Humphrey Bogart en Edward G. Robinson. Sy vroulike sterre was ewe verbied, en het Bette Davis, Barbara Stanwyck, Lauren Bacall en Ida Lupino ingesluit.

Die grootste sterre in die dertigerjare:

Films is gemaak met spesifieke sterre in gedagte wat dikwels bekende karaktersoorte vertolk het, insluitend die grootste sterre van die dekade: Clark Gable, Paul Muni, Janet Gaynor, Eddie Cantor, Wallace Beery, Mae West, Greta Garbo, Jean Harlow, Astaire en Rogers, Claudette Colbert, Dick Powell, WC Fields, Joan Crawford, Marie Dressler, James Cagney, Bing Crosby, Jeanette MacDonald, Barbara Stanwyck, Johnny Weismuller, Gary Cooper, Norma Shearer, Robert Taylor, Myrna Loy, Tyrone Power, Alice Faye, Errol Flynn, Bette Davis, Spencer Tracy, James Stewart, Veronica Lake en Katharine Hepburn. Baie gehore het die jong geselskap van Shirley Temple, Deanna Durbin, Judy Garland en Mickey Rooney geniet. Daar was ook 'n aantal Britse sterre in die dekade, waaronder Ronald Colman, Basil Rathbone (die Sherlock Holmes van die skerm), Charles Laughton ('n Oscar-wenner in 1933 as koning Henry VIII), C. Aubrey-Smith en Leslie Howard.

Die grootste direkteure van die era:

Ondanks sensuur en streng ateljeebeheer, is baie van die beste films in die film in hierdie dekade vervaardig. Onder die ateljeestelsel het sekere regisseurs 'n kenmerkende styl of genre -patroon behaal. Die direkteure van MGM (George Cukor, King Vidor, Jack Conway, Sidney Franklin, Fritz Lang, Clarence Brown, Sam Wood en Victor Fleming) was die beste rolprentmakers in die dertigerjare. Die vakman-regisseur George Cukor het die regie behartig Aandete om agt (1933) met 'n sterrestelsel MGM -sterre, waaronder Marie Dressler, John Barrymore, Wallace Beery, Jean Harlow, Lionel Barrymore en meer. Hy het ook W. C. Fields geregisseer David Copperfield (1935), Romeo en Julia (1936) met 'n ouer Norma Shearer (Irving Thalberg se eie vrou) en Lesley Howard, en die skermgodin Greta Garbo in een van haar laaste groot rolle in die voortreflike romanse Camille (1936) -'n magies-romantiese melodrama teenoor die opkomende MGM-ster Robert Taylor. Cukor regisseer Katharine Hepburn ook in drie klassieke: Klein vrouens (1934), Vakansie (1938) en Die Philadelphia -verhaal (1940).

Jack Conway geregisseer Viva Villa! (1934) (saam met Howard Hawks) Tarzan en sy maat (1934), 'N Verhaal van twee stede (1935), Libeled Lady (1936), Saratoga (1937) (Harlow se laaste film), en Te warm om te hanteer (1938). Voordat hy na Hollywood gekom het, was die Duitse regisseur Fritz Lang se eerste 'talkie' die opwinding M (1931), met Peter Lorre se filmdebuut as 'n afwykende reeksmoordenaar (kindermoordenaar) wat Grieg s'n fluit Peer Gynt terwyl hy sy volgende slagoffer bekruip. Sam Wood se beste films uit die 30's was Totsiens, meneer Chips (1939) en twee Marx Brothers -films, A Night at the Opera (1935) en 'N Dag by die wedrenne (1937). Koning Vidor het die regie behartig Die kampioen (1932) en Stella Dallas (1937) - onder andere.

Frank Capra, vir Columbia, werk saam met Robert Riskin, wat die Oscar vir beste aangepaste draaiboek gewen het vir sy wonderlike draaiboek en sy karakters (gespeel deur Clark Gable en Claudette Colbert) in die romantiese komedie en avontuur op die pad Dit het een nag gebeur (1934). Dit was die eerste film om al die beste Oscars (beste prent, beste akteur, beste aktrise en beste regisseur) te wen, en een van die eerste skroefbalkomedies. Riskin skryf verder ander genomineerde draaiboeke vir Capra's Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936) (saam met Gary Cooper), Lost Horizon (1937) -'n klassieke verhaal van 'n verlore Shangri-La wat deur 'n groep uiteenlopende reisigers gestruikel is, en vir die Oscar-bekroonde beste prent Jy kan dit nie saamneem nie (1938) - 'n lieflike filmverwerking uit die verhoogklassieke. Capra het ook James Stewart geregisseer Smith gaan na Washington (1939), 'n inspirerende film oor 'n kruistogende senator wat elf Oscar -benoemings behaal het (en een oorwinning vir Lewis R. Foster se beste oorspronklike verhaal).

Fox se jarelange produksiehoof vanaf die dertigerjare was Darryl F. Zanuck en sy beste filmregisseur was John Ford, wie se films in die dertigerjare insluit Die verlore patrollie (1934), Tromme langs die Mohawk (1939), die reisiger in gevaar Stagecoach (1939) (gekenmerk deur Ford se eerste verfilming in sy gunsteling Monument Valley, en John Wayne se uitbreekrol as die Ringo Kid), en Jong meneer Lincoln (1939). Die sukses van Max Steiner se saamgestelde partituur vir Ford's Die Informer (1935) moedig die toekomstige ontwikkeling van musikale klankbane en begeleiding aan.

Die vrugbaarste samewerking van produsent Samuel Goldwyn was met regisseur William Wyler. Voorbeelde van hul filmkwaliteit en stylvolle melodramas sluit in: Dodsworth (1936), Hierdie drie (1936), Dooiepunt (1937) (wat die Dead End Kids bekendgestel het), en Wuthering Heights (1939) (en Die klein jakkalse (1941) en Die beste jare van ons lewe (1946) in die volgende dekade).


Shirley Temple Dead: Legendary Child Star sterf op 85

Opgedateer: 'Ons groet haar vir 'n lewe van merkwaardige prestasies', lui 'n verklaring van die aktrise se familie gedeeltelik waarin hulle om privaatheid vra terwyl hulle begrafnisreëlings voorberei.

Mike Barnes

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Shirley Temple, die betowerende sang- en dansende kinderster met die gloeiende kurketrekkerkrulle wat 'n Hollywood -ateljee gered het en Amerika gehelp het om die groot depressie te verdryf, is Maandagaand dood. Sy was 85.

Temple sterf aan natuurlike oorsake in haar huis in Woodside, Kalifornië, omring deur haar familie en versorgers, lui 'n verklaring van haar agent.

Temple het onlangs hospitaalversorging begin kry, haar neef, Richard Swart, vertel Die Hollywood Reporter.

Die gloeilamp, wat 650 dollar per week verdien het, was 'n veteraan van 46 funksies en eenrollers voordat sy 13 geword het. , aanhangers het vir haar 167 000 geskenke gestuur. Sy was die onderwerp van 'n Salvador Dali 'n surrealistiese skildery en 'n nie -alkoholiese drankie versier met 'n maraschino -kersie, is uitgevind en na haar vernoem, sodat kinders en volwassenes saam kon saamkuier.

'N Groter lokettrekking as Clark Gable (nog 'n akteur met beroemde kuiltjies), Temple het filmgangers geboei met haar wenkbroue, verwardheid en onophoudelike opgewondenheid in films soos Helder oë (1934), waarin sy haar kenmerkende liedjie gordel het, “The Good Ship Lollipop. ”

Op die goeie skip Lollipop is dit 'n lekker reis na 'n lekkergoedwinkel. Waar bonbons speel, op die sonnige strand van Peppermint Bay, sing sy. Die bladmusiek het 'n halfmiljoen eksemplare verkoop.

Terwyl die land nog steeds onder die groot depressie val, president Franklin Roosevelt verkondig, “ Solank as wat ons land Shirley Temple het, sal dit met ons regkom. Royce (van die Aga Khan in die Midde-Ooste) en 'n jade-olifant van klein grootte (uit China).

Die Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences oorhandig Temple op 6 -jarige ouderdom met die eerste Juvenile Academy Award en dankbaar erkenning vir haar uitstekende bydrae tot die vermaak van die skerm gedurende die jaar 1934. Sy is die jongste persoon wat ooit 'n Oscar -beeldjie ontvang het , miniatuur of andersins.

Temple verskyn daardie jaar in ses ander funksies, waaronder die musiekblyspel Staan op en juig! Sy het slegs 'n klein rol gespeel in die film, en in die plot sien die Amerikaanse regering 'n departement van vermaak om die land te ontwrig uit sy depressie, maar die prentjie het Fox vinnig laat besef wat 'n waardevolle bate dit is op sy hande gehad.

Op die rand van bankrotskap en tientalle miljoene dollars se skuld, het Fox in 1935 saamgesmelt met Twentieth Century Pictures en studiohoof Darryl F. Zanuck het die skatting tot sy nommer 1 -prioriteit gemaak. Hy het die beste talent op die perseel geplaas om aan haar foto's te werk, en die Shirley Temple Development Division het op 'n tyd 19 skrywers in diens geneem.

Vier van die mees onvergeetlike films van Temple is in 1935 vrygestel, insluitend Die klein kolonel, 'n musiekdrama uit die Burgeroorlog waarmee sy saam dans Bill “Bojangles ” Robinson op 'n trap in een van die mees betowerende filmreekse van alle tye.

Sy het daardie jaar opgevolg met Ons dogtertjie en Krullerige top — wat nog een van haar liedjies bekendgestel het wat 'n klassieke geword het, “Animal Crackers in My Soup ” — en Die kleinste rebel, waarin sy en Robinson 'n beroep doen President Lincoln vir hulp in 'n ander Burgeroorlog -sage.

'N Goudmyn met gloeiende slotte — haar ma Gertrude het haar hare vir elke film gemaak, met elke keer 56 kurkentrekker krulle — was die knap Tempel vier jaar lank nommer 1 by die loket, van 1935 tot 1938. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het Fox haar kontrak herwerk om haar $ 50,000 per jaar te betaal film.

Nadat Temple in 1934 vir die films aan Paramount uitgeleen is Nou en vir ewig met Gary Cooper en Carole Lombard en Klein juffrou Marker, Het Zanuck seker gemaak dat dit nooit weer sal gebeur nie. Hy wou haar nie by MGM laat werk nie Die Wizard of Oz (1939), en die deel van Dorothy het gegaan na Judy Garland.

In die ateljee was daar 'n geweldige verdienste uit die foto's van Temple, en die meisie het produkte soos rokke, graan en seep onderskryf. Haar poppe verkoop teen 1,5 miljoen per jaar. Sy het haar onskuld, of ten minste haar geloof in Kersvader, verloor toe my ma my na hom in 'n warenhuis geneem het, en hy het my handtekening gevra, en sy het eenkeer gesê.

In 'n 1988 -onderhoud met Mense tydskrif, erken sy dat sy nie besef het hoe beroemd sy was nie.

Ek het dit regtig nie geweet nie, en sy sê. Toe ek my ma vra waarom die skare my naam skree en sê: 'Ons is lief vir jou,' sal sy dit afstof deur te sê: 'Jou werk maak hulle gelukkig.' kop. ”

Shirley Jane Temple is gebore in Santa Monica op 23 April 1928. Haar pa, George, was 'n bankier, en haar ma was 'n tuisteskepper. Sy het twee ouer broers gehad. Haar ma beweer dat haar baba se eerste woorde 'n liriek was vir a Rudy Vallee liedjie, en sy het haar ongelooflike helder dogter by die dansskool ingeskryf.

In 1932 verskyn die 3-jarige tempel in die eerste van haar agt Baba Burlesks one-reelers — parodieë oor filmtreffers of aktuele gebeure met rolle in rolle wat volwassenes bekend gemaak het. Op die ouderdom van 5 het sy met Fox onderteken, meteories van kontrakspeler na 'n volwaardige ster Staan op en juig teaters gespeel.

Die ateljee het sy grootste ster in haar eie bungalow op die erf beskut in 'n poging om haar natuurlike kinderlike sjarme te behou. As ek my onskuld verloor het, onthou sy 'n ateljee -eksekuteur wat dit vir my gesê het, en dit sou in my oë verskyn. '

Temple het gegradueer tot hoofrol in welbekende literêre verwerkings soos Wee Willie Winkie (1937), geregisseer deur John Ford. Van 1937 tot 1940 het sy films soos Heidi, Rebecca van Sunnybrook Farm, Klein juffrou Broadway, die Technicolor -juweel Die klein prinses, Die Blou Voël (Fox ’s antwoord op Die Wizard of Oz) en Jong mense.

Die laaste twee films was egter flops. Binnekort, Mickey Rooney, 'n ander jongeling, was koning van die loket, en Fox en Temple beëindig hul vereniging in 1940. Haar ouers plaas die 12-jarige tempel in 'n skool vir meisies, en sy het uiteindelik 'n kontrak met MGM gesluit.

As tiener en jong volwassene het sy 'n hoofrol gespeel in die drama van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Sedert jy weg is (1944) Die Bachelor en die Bobby Soxer (1947) oorkant Cary Grant en Myrna Loy Ford ’s Fort Apache (1948) met John Wayne en Henry Fonda en haar laaste kenmerk, 'N Soen vir Corliss (1949) met David Niven.

Temple se laaste professionele verbintenis met skouspelondernemings was aan die einde van die vyftigerjare en vroeë 821760's, toe sy gasheer was en soms 'n ster in Shirley Temple se storieboek en Die Shirley Temple Show op televisie.

Tempel getroud John Agar (sewe jaar ouer as haar) in 1945 toe sy 17 was, tydens 'n troue in Los Angeles wat duisende van haar aanhangers gelok het. Hulle het 'n dogter gehad, Linda, en Agar het 'n akteur geword en verskyn saam met Temple in Fort Apache en Avontuur in Baltimore (1949). As gevolg van sy oormatige drinkery en konstante flirtasies, versoek Temple in 1949 om egskeiding en tree hy terug.

Maande nadat die egskeiding afgehandel is, het Temple ontmoet Charles Swart by die Outrigger Club terwyl hy op 'n Hawaii -vakansie in Waikiki was. 'N Sakeman van San Francisco en 'n voormalige vlootbeampte, Black het aan haar erken dat hy nog nooit een van haar films gesien het nie. Hy stel 13 dae voor nadat hulle ontmoet het, en hulle trou in Desember 1950 in Carmel Valley, Kalifornië. Hulle het 'n seun, Charles, in 1952 en 'n dogter, Lori, in 1954.

Black sterf in hul huis in Woodside aan beenmurgsiekte in Augustus 2005, en die neef van Temple, Richard, het gesê dat sy sedertdien eensaam was. Al drie haar kinders oorleef haar ook.

'N Republikein, Temple het in 1967 tevergeefs vir die kongres opgedaag op 'n platform wat Amerika se betrokkenheid by die Viëtnam -oorlog ondersteun het. 'N Jaar later, President Nixon het haar as 'n Amerikaanse afgevaardigde by die Verenigde Nasies aangestel. Sy was later die Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Ghana en Tsjeggo -Slowakye en as die protokolhoof van die staatsdepartement.

In 1972, op die ouderdom van 44, was Temple een van die eerste openbare figure wat gepraat het oor 'n mastektomie, wat die weg baan vir 'n oop bespreking van 'n voorheen taboe gesondheidsonderwerp. “Dit is my vurige hoop dat vroue nie bang sal wees om na dokters te gaan vir diagnose as hulle ongewone simptome het nie, ” het sy toe gesê.

In 1988 publiseer Temple haar topverkoper-outobiografie, Kinderster, en het Kennedy Center -eerbewyse ontvang. Sy aanvaar die Screen Actors Guild ’s Life Achievement Award in 2006, maar bly in die laaste jare uit die openbare oog.

Toe ek 3 jaar oud was, was ek verheug om te hoor dat ek 'n aktrise was, al het ek nie geweet wat 'n aktrise is nie, en sy het baie gelag tydens die SAG -aanbieding.

Ek het een raad vir diegene onder u wat die Lifetime Achievement Award wil ontvang: begin vroeg! ”

'N Verklaring van die familie van Temple gedeeltelik gelees, en ons groet haar vir 'n lewe van merkwaardige prestasies as akteur, as diplomaat en die belangrikste as ons geliefde ma, ouma, oumagrootjie en geliefde vrou vir vyf en vyftig jaar van die laat en baie gemis Charles Alden Black & hellip. Ons vra dat ons gesin in hierdie tyd die geleentheid kry om privaat te treur. ”


Burberry

Jason Alden/Bloomberg/Getty

Hoe het 'n bedrywige klerehandelsmerk wat in 1856 gestig is en geliefd was vir sy rokke, 'n wêreldwye kleinhandelaar geword in luukse goedere? 'N Ikoniese geruite afdruk kan iets daarmee te doen hê; mdash en die kundigheid van Angela Ahrendts, uitvoerende hoof. Namate die luukse sektor in die vroeë 2000's hoogty gevier het, was Burberry se kenmerkende bruin, wit, rooi en swart druk op omtrent elke tipe kledingstuk, insluitend hondebande, gepleister. Toe Ahrendts in 2006 leiding neem, het sy die produkte van die onderneming gestroomlyn, die ontwerpspan in die VK gesentraliseer en hul bemarking heroriënteer na die rykste in die wêreld. 'In luukse sal alomteenwoordigheid u doodmaak,' het Ahrendts eens gesê. Min handelsmerke was nog op die punt om sy cachet & mdash te verloor en dit suksesvol uit die dollarblik te red.

Jason Alden/Bloomberg/Getty

Sien die fassinerende lewe van Shirley Temple in foto's

'N Kykie hoe dit was om een ​​van Hollywood se mees ikoniese kindersterre te wees.

Teen die ouderdom van 12 was Shirley Temple 'n goeie rolprentster. Sy was bekend as die liefling van Hollywood tydens die Groot Depressie en het al in 40 films verskyn. Alhoewel haar volwasse rolprentloopbaan in die jongste jare nie floreer het nie, het die aktrise 'n volwaardige en impakvolle lewe gelei. Kyk self na hierdie foto's van Shirley wat insig gee in haar robuuste loopbaan en gelukkige persoonlike lewe en as u nuuskierig is oor meer sterre, kyk na ons diep duik in die lewens van Judy Garland, Audrey Hepburn en Julie Andrews.

Shirley Temple is in 1928 in Santa Monica, Kalifornië, gebore. Die jongste van drie kinders, haar ma was 'n huisvrou, terwyl haar pa as bankier gewerk het.

Dit was haar ma, Gertrude Temple, wat Shirley se talent vir vermaak erken het. Sy het Shirley op die ouderdom van 3 en 'n half jaar in dansklasse ingeskryf.

Op net 4 -jarige ouderdom word Shirley in 'n reeks films met 'n lae begroting gespeel, genaamd 'Baby Burlesks'. Die aktrise het later verhale van mishandeling op die stel van hierdie films in haar memoires gedeel, Kinderster: 'n outobiografie.

Die blootstelling van Shirley in die 'Baby Burlesks' het daartoe gelei dat sy deur 20th Century Fox ontdek is. Op 5-jarige ouderdom onderteken die jong aktrise 'n kontrak van sewe jaar met die ateljee.

Nadat Shirley haar ateljeekontrak onderteken het, het haar pa, George Francis Temple, as haar talentbestuurder oorgeneem. George verteenwoordig die belange van sy dogter in die ateljee, dien as middelman en veg gedurende haar loopbaan vir salarisverhogings.

Fox het geen tyd gemors om te baat by Shirley se pragtige houding nie. Einde 1934 speel sy in sewe groot foto's, insluitend Helder oë. Hier word Shirley gesien met haar volwasse kostuums Klein juffrou Marker, Dorothy Dell, Charles Bickford en Adolphe Menjou.

Terwyl die land in die dieptes van die Groot Depressie was, het president Roosevelt die kinderster as Little Miss Miracle genoem en haar toegeskryf aan die versterking van die moraal in die land. Teen 1935 was Shirley die grootste filmster in Amerika. Daardie jaar het sy 'n paar van haar mees geliefde films vrygestel, waaronder Krullerige top aan Die kleinste rebel, en het saam met van die grootste name in die onderneming gewerk.


Die beroemde voormalige kinderaktrise Shirley Temple sterf op 10 Februarie 2014

(CNN) Shirley Temple Black, wat bekendheid verwerf het as die gewildste kinderster in die geskiedenis van Hollywood, is laat Maandagaand oorlede, het haar publisist gesê.

Temple Black, wat ook 'n lang loopbaan as diplomaat geniet het, is in haar huis in Woodside, Kalifornië, aan natuurlike oorsake oorlede. Sy was omring deur familie en versorgers, lui 'n verklaring van Cheryl Kagan.

She began acting at age 3 and became a massive box-office draw before turning 10, commanding a then-unheard of salary of $50,000 per movie.

Her first film of notice was in 1932 when she played in “War Babies,” part of the “Baby Burlesks” series of short films.

For about 18 years, she sang, tap-danced and acted her way into the hearts of millions. Her corkscrew curls were popular with little girls from the 1930s through the 1970s.

Early years

Her star shone brightest as a toddler, and 20th Century Fox cranked out a series of feature films with the adorable, talented little girl. Her hits included “Little Miss Marker” (1934), “Curly Top” (1935) and “The Littlest Rebel” (1935).

At the box office, she beat out the great adult stars of her day, such as Clark Gable and Bing Crosby. Her popularity spawned a large array of merchandizing items, such as dolls, hats and dresses.

She was the top box-office star four years in a row, from 1935 to 1938. Her career was at its peak as the country was suffering the effects of the Great Depression, and her films offered uplifting moments.

But as she got older, the pace of movies slowed, and by 1939, her popularity was fading. She and 20th Century Fox terminated her contract early in 1940, just before she reached her teenage years.

U.S. diplomat

She retired from filmmaking at 22 and married Charles Black, changing her last name from Temple to Temple Black.

But she did not fade from the public eye.

She embarked on a new career as a foreign diplomat: She served in the U.S. delegation to the United Nations from 1969 to 1974 was U.S. ambassador to Ghana from 1974 to 1976, and U.S. ambassador to Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992.

Former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, who appointed her to the Czechoslovakia post, said Tuesday that he and his wife “mourn the loss of an American icon.”

“She captured the affections of millions around the world by her endearing performances on the silver screen as a young girl, but I also admired Shirley for her selfless service to our country later in her life,” Bush said in a statement released by his spokesman. “In both roles, she truly lifted people up and earned not only a place in our hearts — but also our enduring respect.

“Barbara and I send our condolences to Shirley’s family and countless fans around the world.”

A statement from Temple Black’s family members said they “salute her for a life of remarkable achievements as an actor, as a diplomat, and most importantly as our beloved mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, and adored wife of fifty-five years of the late and much missed Charles Alden Black.”

Enduring icon

She remained a cultural icon for decades after stepping down from the silver screen.

In 1958, she made a comeback as an entertainer, this time on television, in an hourlong show, “Shirley Temple’s Storybook.”

She later received two lifetime achievement awards for her performing career.


Shirley Temple Black, commonly known as Shirley Temple, was a famous American diplomat, politician, actress, as well as a singer. Even though Shirley Temple had been performing in front of television screens since she was three years old, her rise to prominence came several years later, when she starred in David Butler’s comedy drama film entitled “Bright Eyes”. In the movie, Temple played the role of Shirley Blake, which was developed specifically for her. Temple’s role in “Bright Eyes” brought her a Juvenile Academy Award in 1935, for her input to the film industry. Temple followed her success with appearances in the 1935 musical film called “Curly Top”, as well as the 1937 musical drama movie “Heidi”, in which she co-starred with Jean Hersholt, Mary Nash and Marcia Mae Jones.

Shirley Temple Net Worth $30 Million

In addition to acting, Shirley Temple became known for her political ventures. In 1974, Temple earned the position of the United States Ambassador to Ghana, then became a Chief of Protocol of the United States, and in 1989 served under George H. W. Bush as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia.

A popular actress, as well as a politician, how rich is Shirley Temple? Sources state that Shirley Temple’s net worth is estimated to be $30 million. Most of Shirley Temple’s net worth came from her acting career, as well as her involvement in politics.

Shirley Temple was born in 1928, in Santa Monica, California. Temple was noticed in 1932, by Charles Lamont, who offered her a role in a collective series called “Baby Burlesks”. After that, Temple appeared in “Frolics of Youth”, “The Red-Haired Alibi” and “Little Miss Marker”. Shirley reached the peak of her career in 1935 and the following years, when she began to be featured in such major films as “Captain January”, “The Littlest Rebel”, and “Our Little Girl” to name A few. Temple failed to repeat her early success with her future works, therefore she decided upon her retirement from the film industry when she was 22 years old. However, even though she stayed away from the limelight for a while, Shirley Temple made her return to on television screens in 1958, when she began hosting a children’s anthology series called “Shirley Temple’s Storybook”, which aired for two seasons. Initially, the show seemed to be too amateur, hence, as a result of this it was recreated and re-released under the name of “The Shirley Temple Show”. Unfortunately, due to the competition on the network from such shows as “Dennis the Menace” and “The Wizard of Oz”, “The Shirley Temple Show” failed to maintain its ratings, and was eventually cancelled.

Aside from acting, Temple dabbled in politics, until she was diagnosed with breast cancer. Shirley Temple passed away in 2014, at the age of 85, due to obstructive pulmonary disease, which developed as a result of smoking. Temple’s contributions to the film industry have been acknowledged with Kennedy Center Honors, Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, a bronze statue near the Fox Studio, as well as a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.


Shirley Temple: the superstar who had her childhood destroyed by Hollywood

Within the exclusive, highly-priced residential enclave of Woodside in Northern California, the family and friends of a widowed great-grandmother will gather next week to celebrate her birthday.

She is known locally as Mrs Black, and today she keeps the lowest of profiles. Since the death three years ago of her husband, whom she calls "the love of my life," she has retired into virtual silence.

Her public outings now are rare, but on the few occasions when she does emerge from her secluded, Spanish-style home, passers-by often turn round in the street and look back at her with puzzled curiosity.

There is something about her unusually bright eyes and dimpled smile that makes them feel as if they know her well.

And almost certainly they do, for once she was the most famous person in the world. She has not stepped in front of a movie camera for close on 60 years, yet the local delivery office in Woodside is expecting sackloads of fan mail next week.

It will come from every corner of the globe to salute the fact that on Wednesday, Mrs Black - better known as Shirley Temple - the most popular and idolised child star of all time and a former United States ambassador, will be 80.

Movie fame is possibly the most transient of all acquisitions. It can fade with alarming speed once those cameras have stopped turning. The astonishing thing about Shirley Temple is that even people like myself, who were not born when she was the world's number one box-office star, know all about her.

The other day, a five-year-old girl sang me the words that Temple so memorably delivered in the film Bright Eyes, 74 years ago: "On the good ship Lollipop/It's a sweet trip to a candy shop/Where bon-bons play/On the sunny beach of Peppermint Bay."

Scroll down for more .

Early Fame: At seven with a Shirley Temple doll

I was astonished. "But how do you know that?" I asked. The child regarded me with utter scorn. "I've got the DVD, silly," she replied.

The story of how a curly-headed six-year-old tot saved a major Hollywood studio from financial ruin is like something out of a Harry Potter book.

The saga begins in the Californian resort of Santa Monica on April 23, 1928, when Shirley Jane Temple was born, the third child of George Temple, afterwards a Californian branch bank manager, and his wife Gertrude.

Mrs Temple was a thwarted dancer who had grown too tall to become a ballerina. Like many other mothers in those days, she channelled her frustrated ambitions into her daughter.

At the age of three, Shirley was enrolled at the Ethel Meglin Dance Studios in Hollywood, where she was spotted by two talent scouts from a minor studio, Educational Films, which churned out one-reel "Poverty Row" shorts.

Struck by Shirley's engaging personality, Educational signed her to a two-year contract for 26 short films, at $50 a week. Eight of these were part of a series entitled Baby Burlesks, which Shirley would later describe as "a cynical exploitation of our childish innocence," that "occasionally were racist or sexist."

The regime at Educational Studios was infantile slave labour. Rehearsals would mean two weeks without pay. Each film was then shot at lightning speed in two days. For playing the lead, Shirley received just $10 a day.

For any child who misbehaved, there was the sinister black "punishment box," containing only a large block of ice, in which the obstreperous infant would be forcibly confined to "cool off."

Shirley was put into this box several times, was once forced to work the day after undergoing an operation to pierce her ear-drum and on another occasion to dance on a badly injured foot.

When Educational Films filed for bankruptcy, George Temple astutely bought up his daughter's contract for a mere $25.

At the age of five, Shirley's big break arrived when the songwriter Jay Gorney, composer of Brother, Can You Spare A Dime?, invited her to audition at Fox Film Corporation on December 7, 1933, for a new film, Stand Up And Cheer.

"Sparkle, Shirley, sparkle!" urged her mother, and the producers were so captivated as she performed the audition song Baby Take A Bow that she was signed up for a year at $150 a week, with an option for a further seven years, plus $25 a week for her mother.

After playing Spencer Tracy's daughter in Now I'll Tell, Fox loaned her out to Paramount for the lead in Little Miss Marker at $1,000 a week - more than six times what she was being paid by Fox.

Her co-star in that film, Adolphe Menjou, confessed: "This child frightens me. She knows all the tricks." The director got her to cry on cue by telling the terrified Shirley that her mother had been "kidnapped by an ugly man, all green with blood-red eyes" - and then kept his cameras turning.

By the end of the film, Paramount knew that a star had been born, and offered Fox $50,000 to buy Temple's contract outright. Fox, knowing it was on to a good thing, refused.

Little Miss Marker became a smash-hit, packing cinemas all over America. Now that Shirley had quadrupled her family's income, the Temples moved to a bigger house. A housekeeper was hired and a full-time secretary to deal with more than 4,000 fan letters a week.

Business at George Temple's bank boomed. Mothers queued to meet the father of Hollywood's newest sensation. One lady even offered Temple a "stud fee" to father "another Shirley."

When Shirley's next film, Baby Take A Bow, premiered to massive business, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed: "As long as our country has Shirley Temple, we will be all right."

In Britain, the two young Princesses, Elizabeth and Margaret, were avid Temple fans. (In exile, the former King Edward VIII and his American mistress Wallis Simpson, in acid references to the Royal Family, always referred to the Princess Elizabeth as "Shirley Temple" and to her mother, Queen Elizabeth, later the Queen Mother, as "Mrs Temple Senior."

Temple made eight films in 1934, including Bright Eyes, which marked her passage from stardom to superstardom. At the year's end she had entered the list of the world's top ten money-making stars at number eight.

By the following year she had risen to the top of the list, and for four consecutive years she remained the world's number one box-office star, pushing Clark Gable into second place.

Fox, which had owed $42million and teetered on the brink of bankruptcy, came out of the red entirely thanks to a six-year-old child.

After a protracted legal dispute, Temple's salary at Fox was increased more than six-fold, with her mother now receiving $250 a week. For each film completed, there was also a $15,000 bonus placed in trust for her, later more than doubling to $35,000.

In all this time, however, all the world's highest earning child actually saw of her salary was $13 a month in pocket money.

Not all the world fell in love with this ringleted, dimpled, singing and dancing doll, though. The novelist Graham Greene, reviewing Captain January, found the film "a little depraved," adding: "Some of her popularity seems to rest on a coquetry quite as mature as Miss [Claudette] Colbert's and on an oddly precocious body as voluptuous in grey flannel trousers as Miss Dietrich's."

Greene, who had elsewhere referred to Temple as "a 50-year-old dwarf," went a great deal further in his review of Wee Willie Winkie: "Her admirers - middle-aged men and clergymen - respond to her dubious coquetry, to the sight of her well-shaped and desirable little body, packed with enormous vitality, only because the safety curtain of story and dialogue drops between their intelligence and their desire."

Twentieth Century-Fox (as it was by this time known) promptly sued.

Greene and his publisher, the magazine Night And Day, were subsequently obliged to pay £3,500 in damages to the studio and to Temple, referred to by Greene as "that little bitch."

While Greene's insinuations were snide, there were others who also felt that the presentation of Temple sometimes lacked taste. In Curly Top, for example, she appeared as a naked cupid, smeared from head to toe in gold paint, causing the film to be banned in Denmark for "corruption."

After four consecutive years as the queen of the box-office, Temple's career finally faltered in 1939. She lost the lead in The Wizard Of Oz to Judy Garland after Fox refused to loan her to MGM.

Fox rushed her into their own Technicolor fantasy, The Blue Bird, which flopped so badly that it was taken off within days of its opening.

Her fee was now $300,000 per film, and Fox, realising that her childhood appeal was waning, agreed to let her parents buy up the rest of her contract. She moved to MGM, but their two vehicles for her, Kathleen in 1941 and Miss Annie Rooney in 1942, were both failures.

David O. Selznick signed her to a seven-year contract, but in the first three films he produced for her - Since You Went Away, I'll Be Seeing You and Kiss And Tell - Temple came across as just a typical Hollywood teenager. The impish and beguiling tot had vanished.

In 1945, at the age of 17, she married John Agar, a sergeant in the U.S. Army Air Corps, who became an actor. Their daughter, Linda Susan, was born in 1948, but the marriage swiftly disintegrated owing to his chronic drinking and serial infidelity.

Temple continued to star in films, including The Bachelor And The Bobby-Soxer with Cary Grant, and John Ford's classic western Fort Apache co-starring John Wayne and Henry Fonda, in which her husband, John Agar, made his screen debut.

Temple's Selznick contract and screen career petered out ignominiously with four unremarkable films that received devastating reviews. The court evidence in Temple's messy divorce from Agar seemed to remove what was left of the gloss on her stardom - how he had brought different woman back to the house while she was pregnant, and how once he came home so drunk and abusive that she had fled the house in terror.

On holiday in Honolulu in 1950 she met and fell in love with California businessman Charles Alden Black, nine years her senior, who confessed that he had never seen one of her films. They were married in December of that year. Their son Charles Jr. was born in 1952 and their daughter Lori in 1954.

In 1958 Temple made a comeback on television in the series Shirley Temple's Storybook, followed by a further series, Shirley Temple Theatre, in 1961.

In 1967 she unsuccessfully ran for Congress on a platform supporting America's involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1969 President Richard Nixon appointed her as United States representative to the 24th General Assembly of the United Nations.

Then, in 1972, she discovered a lump on her left breast which proved to be malignant, and underwent a mastectomy. Afterwards, she "reached up to feel the void. It was an amputation, and I faced it."

With characteristic courage, she went public on her illness, becoming one of the first female celebrities to admit to breast cancer, which brought her 50,000 letters of support.

In 1974 she was appointed United States Ambassador to Ghana, and in 1976 became America's first female Chief of Protocol at the White House.

A decade later the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented her with a full-sized Oscar to replace the miniature one she had been given 50 years earlier. She dedicated it to her late mother.

Shirley was devastated when, on August 4, 2005, her husband died from myelodysplastic syndrome (a bone marrow disease) at the age of 86, after almost 55 years of marriage.

Touchingly, she kept Charles's voice on their answering machine. "I don't ever want to erase it," she said.

In 2006, Temple received the Screen Actors Guild's Lifetime Achievement Award for having "lived the most remarkable life, as the brilliant performer the world came to know when she was just a child to the dedicated public servant who has served her country both at home and abroad for 30 years."

These claims do not seem excessive. This was one child star who did not self-destruct through booze, drugs or sex, who kept faith with the public, loved her country and justly became the world-wide cinematic legend and American icon that she remains today.

Her own assessment of her career is modest. "I class myself with Rin Tin Tin," she said once. "At the end of the Depression, people were perhaps looking for something to cheer themselves up. They fell in love with a dog and a little girl. It won't happen again."

And it hasn't. No child star since has ever won more than a fraction of the fame and popularity that Shirley Temple achieved.

The calendar may tell us that she is 80 on Wednesday. Yet to an entire generation that grew up with her, as well as to the children of today who buy her DVDs by the thousand, she will always be that bright-eyed, curly-haired little girl.


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Her divorce petition said that Temple had endured 'grievous mental suffering' and that Agar had subjected her to 'extreme cruelty'.

When the FBI agent came to speak with Agar, the file states he told them that he had not been in contact with his ex-wife at all since they split up two decades before.

The report states: 'He further stated that during his marriage her mother interfered with their affairs, which caused part of their marital problems.

'He advised he would hesitate to recommend [her] for a position of trust and confidence in the Federal government as, during their marriage, he considered her emotionally unstable in that she had a tendency to 'overreact' if she did not get her way'.

Agar did however say there was 'no question' over her integrity or her associates.

President Reagan, who was governor of California at the time, gave a statement through his assistant that Temple was a friend of his for 25 years and that she had served on the state Advisory Hospital Council.

Political: Richard Nixon had known Shirley Temple long before he was president. They are seen in 1960 at a benefit for the Multiple Sclerosis Society. Nixon was running for president and Temple a staunch Republican

Loyal: Shirley Temple with her second husband Charles Black. FBI background reports said that they had a strong marriage and that she was a committed patriot

Rescuer: Ronald Reagan had appeared alongside Shirley Temple in That Hagen Girl in 1947. He was California's governor when he and others endorsed her for office during FBI background checks, unlike her ex-husband

He said that he had the 'utmost trust and confidence' in her abilities and that he considers her 'loyalty, morals, character, reputation and associates to be beyond reproach'.

The report said: 'He said he had never heard anything derogatory about (Temple) and he highly recommended her for a position of trust and responsibility in the United States government'.

The picture from other people who were interviewed by the FBI was generally positive, with a few reservations.

Sheriff Earl Whitmore of Redwood City in California, where Temple was living at the time, said that her 'loyalty to this country is completely unquestioned'.

However Lucille Hosmer, who got to know Temple when she was running for Congress, said that she was 'somewhat naive in her acceptance of people and organisations'.

She also claimed that Temple was 'aloof' and that she had been accused of 'snobbery' because she doesn't have a good memory for names and faces.

Hosmer also claimed that Temple was 'not a deep thinker' and needs a good team around her to function well.

Another female Republican advisor who was spoken to says that Temple 'cannot stand the flak of controversy' whilst a second said that she is 'easily directed'.

A former district office manager for California Representative Paul McCloskey, whose name has been redacted, says that he had a 'personal like for [her] and felt she was completely sincere in what she does'.

Friends: Shirley Temple was a friend of Richard Nixon, who nominated her for the American ambassadorship to the UN, and of J Edgar Hoover, whose agency was asked to investigated her background

Family life: Shirley Temple became a full-time mother to her children (from left) Susan Agar, whose father was her first husband, and Charles Jr and Lori, by her second husband Charles Black (right)

Devoted: Shirley Temple and her second husband Charles Black. The files praised their family life and said the manager of their country club 'considers the Blacks to be one of the finest families she has ever known' there.

But he also felt that Temple 'did not have the intellectual background for the job she was seeking'.

The FBI file is very much a product of its time and calls Temple an 'unemployed housewife except when she worked as an actress'.

An account of an interview with the manager of the Menlo Country Club, whose name has been redacted, suggesting she is still alive, said: 'She stated she considers the Blacks to be one of the finest families that she has ever known at the club and described the Black children as very fine, strictly raised children.'

A summary document of interviews prepared by FBI agent Donald Kuno reveals that some of those spoken to thought she was 'not outstanding in administrative matters'.

The file claims that Temple and FBI director J Edgar Hoover were friends and says that agents were not to conduct neighborhood surveillance on her 'unless the need arises', and only with approval of their superiors at the bureau.

Temple was appointed to the post but only held it from September until December 1969.

By 1974 Temple was being lined up for the post of US ambassador to Ghana after Secretary of State Henry Kissinger heard her discussing Namibia at a party and was 'surprised that I even knew the word', Temple said in one interview.

The FBI carried out more checks on her past and approached future President George H.W. Bush, who was chairman of the Republican National Committee at the time, to give his view of her.

The response was that Bush had known Temple through her work at the UN and that he 'knows of no information which could conceivably contract from her good character, associates, reputation, and loyalty'.

She got the post, which she held for two years, and was then Gerald Ford's chief of protocol, from July 1976 until January 1977.

Temple would later serve as US ambassador to Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992, a role that President Bush awarded to her whilst he was in office.

She died last year aged 85 having been married to her second husband Charles Black until his death in 2005.

President Bush said at the time that he and his wife were mourning the loss of an 'American icon'.


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