Geskiedenis Podcasts

Chinese Bodhisattva met Diadem

Chinese Bodhisattva met Diadem


Houten standbeeld van die Guanyin -godheid

Hierdie ongeveer 4,5 'Paulownia -houtbeeld is 'n voorstelling van die Guanyin -godheid, 'n Chinese bodhisattva [Sien Meulenbend 2016, 2], bekend as die' godin van barmhartigheid en deernis '[Sien Hedges 2012, 1]. Daar word vermoed dat dit in die vroeë 12de en 160ste eeu in China geskep is onder die Jin -dinastie (ook bekend as die Jurchen Jin -dinastie) [Sien "Guanyin, Bodhisattva of Compassion" 2018]. Dit is interessant dat hierdie standbeeld nie veel bevat van die simboliek wat met die Guanyin verband hou nie, soos 'n wilgertak, wat die vermoë om te buig, maar nie te breek nie, of 'n waterkruik simboliseer, wat die 'goddelike nektar van die lewe' simboliseer [Sien Gehrmann 2018]. Sy dra egter 'n soort kroon wat 'n simbool van Amitabha Boeddha is (die onderwyser van Guany Yin voordat sy 'n Bodhisattva geword het). Die krale en juweliersware om haar nek simboliseer die voortdurende kring van "wedergeboorte tot nirvana" en verligting [Sien Gehrmann 2018]. In hierdie standbeeld word sy uitgebeeld asof sy in 'n dam kyk met vis, 'n metafoor vir haar wat oor die wêreld se pyn kyk [Sien Gehrmann 2018]. Die standbeeld is tans geleë in die Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) in Boston, Massachusetts [Sien "Guanyin, Bodhisattva of Compassion" 2018]  


Chinese Bodhisattva met Diadem - Geskiedenis


Vier Bodhisattva in Halo gesny.
Van Risshō Kosei-kai 立正 佼 成 会,
'n Boeddhistiese organisasie gestig in
1938, wat die wysheid van die Lotus Sutra kombineer en die kernleer van Shaka Boeddha (Historiese Boeddha).
Gebaseer in Tokio, met wêreldwye gemeenskappe. Foto van groepering van twee.

In Asië is daar vier wyd eerbiedige Bodhisattva, wat elkeen verskillende aspekte van Boeddhistiese geloof en praktyk simboliseer, en elkeen met sy eie individuele vereringskultus. Die mees algemene groepering sluit Kannon Bosatsu (grenslose deernis), Monju Bosatsu (wysheid), Fugen Bosatsu (praxis of praktyk) en Jizō Bosatsu (groot geduld en redding van lyding) in. Onder die vier is Kannon, die god/godin van barmhartigheid (barmhartigheid), die algemeenste in Asië. Die groep van vier het die eerste keer in die Lotus Sutra verskyn, maar die groep self is nie 'n voorwerp van aanbidding nie. Die vier verskyn inderdaad selde as 'n groep in Japannese kunswerke, behalwe in die mandala -skilderye en halo (kōhai 光 背) gravures van die Esoteriese sektes.

Tegnies gesproke, deernis (Skt. = Karuna Jp. = Jihi 慈 非) is die bepalende kenmerk van alle Bosatsu's, wat per definisie hul toetrede tot Nirvana - uit deernis - uitgestel het om die groot menigte siele te red wat nog steeds vasgevang is in die wiel van karmiese wedergeboorte, die siklus van lyding. Hierdie groepering van vier is dus willekeurig en die lede kan wissel. Dit verwys eenvoudig na vier van die mees vereerde Bosatsu in die Asiatiese streek, en is gebaseer op beide skriftuurlike bronne en veranderende gewildheid.

In die eeue na die bekendstelling van Boeddhisme in Indië omstreeks 500 vC, is daar boonop 'n stelsel van geloftes ontwikkel - die 48 geloftes van die Bodhisattva - vir diegene wat die Bodhisattva -staat wil bereik. Die geloftes verskil ietwat tussen die Tibetaanse, Chinese en Japannese tradisies, maar almal is afkomstig van die geloftes wat Hōzō Bosatsu (wat dan Amida Boeddha word), pligsgetrou vervul is.

Benewens deernis, is daar ses volmaakthede (Skt. Parmitas) wat 'n Bodhisattva moet kweek om Boeddha te bereik, waaraan nog vier perfeksies later toegevoeg is:

  1. Vrygewigheid (Skt. Dana-paramita) onbaatsugtige en onpartydige vrygewigheid
  2. Dissipline (Skt. Shila-paramita) nakoming van die etiese regime
  3. Geduld (Skt. Kshanti-paramita) pasiënt se uithouvermoë van probleme
  4. Energie (Skt. Virya-paramita) ywerige energie in volharding
  5. Meditasie (Skt. Dhyana-paramita) bewuste opname in meditasie
  6. Wysheid (Skt. Prajna-paramita) wysheid van transendente insig

Vier Groot Bodhisattva 四大 菩薩
Daar is verskillende groeperings van die vier.

EEN GROEPER. Soos verskyn in die Lotus Sūtra 法華經 (T 262.9.40a24)

GROEPER TWEE. 'N Ander lys verskyn in die 從 地 踊 出 hoofstuk van die Lotus Sūtra 法華經 (T 262.9.40a24). Hierdie vier word grootliks onder die Japannese mense vergeet, maar word steeds in kunswerke van die Esoteriese sektes aangetref (sien foto bo -aan bladsy).

  1. Jōgyō 上行 (Skt. = Viśiṣtacāritra, Chn. = Shàngxíng). Trans. & quote uitstekende praktyke/gedrag. & quot
  2. Muhen Gyō 無 辺 行 (Skt. = Anantacāritra, Chn. = Wúbiānxíng). Trans. "onbeperkte oefening."
  3. Jōgyō 浄 行 (Skt. = Viśuddhacāritra, Chn. = JìngXíng). Trans. "oefen suiwerheid."
  4. Anryūgyō 安 立 行 (Skt. = Supratiṣṭhitacāritra, Chn. = Ānlì xíng). Trans. stabiele praktyk

GROEP DRIE. 'N Ander lys verskyn in die Boeddhisme van Louis Frederic (Flammarion Iconographic Guides), bladsy 151: & quotEsoteric Buddhism erken vier groot Bodhisattvas of 'Great Acolytes ' (Mahaparivara, groot gevolg), wat die simbole is van die deugde van die Groot Solar Boeddha Vairocana (ook bekend as Dainichi Boeddha).

  1. Suidoos. Samantabhadra (J = Fugen) verteenwoordig die verdienste van die hart van Bodhi.
  2. Noordoos. Maitreya (J = Miroku), wat die groot deernis van die Boeddha verteenwoordig.
  3. Suidwes. Mañjuśrī (J = Monju), wat wysheid en die verdienste van die onderrig van die wet verteenwoordig.
  4. Noordwes. Sarvanīvaraṇaviṣkambhin (J = Jo Kaishō Bosatsu 除 蓋 障 菩薩, C = Chú Gàizhàng Púsà), 'n vorm van Kannon wat die verdienste verteenwoordig as gevolg van die vernietiging van hindernisse op die pad van die Bodhi. & Quot

GROEPING VIER. Vier beroemde berge in China 四大 名山 (C = Sìdà Míngshān, J = Shidai Myōsan). Ook vier beroemde berge van Boeddhisme (C = Sìdà Fójiào Míngshān 四大 佛教 名山. J = Shidai Bukkyō Myōsan). Hierdie groepering is baie soortgelyk aan GROEP EEN, maar hier vervang Jizō Bosatsu Miroku Bosatsu. Dit is egter maklik verstaanbaar as ons onthou dat Jizō 'n plaasvervanger vir Miroku is. Jizō belowe inderdaad om die take van Miroku onophoudelik te vervul in die tydperk tussen die dood van die historiese Boeddha en die aankoms van Miroku (die toekomstige Boeddha). Volgens Japan se Shingon -sekte van die esoteriese Boeddhisme sal Miroku ongeveer 5,6 miljard jaar van nou af kom om universele redding aan alle wesens te skenk. Gedurende hierdie interval dien Jizō as vervanging van Miroku. Elkeen van die vier Bodhisattva in hierdie groep word hieronder bekendgestel.

    (Skt. = Mañjuśrī). Voorsit oor die element wind/lug/eter. Mount Wutai (J = Godai) (Skt. = Avalokitêśvara). Voorsit oor die element water. Mount Pǔtuó (J = Fudaraku) (Skt. = Samantabhadra). Voorsit oor die element vuur. Mt Éméi (J = Gabi) (Skt. = Kṣitigarbha). Voorsit oor die element aarde. Mount Jǐuhuá (J = Kukesen)

VIER BODHISATTVA VAN
CHINA ’S VIER BEKENDE BERGE

1. Kannon Bosatsu
Jp. = Kannon Bosatsu 観 音 菩薩
Chn. = Guānyīn Púsà 観 音 菩薩 Guanyin
Skt. = Avalokitêśvara अवलोकितेश्वर
Pǔtuó shan (Pu-t 'o, Puto) 普陀山 is die heilige berg van Kannon op die Chinese eilande Zhou-shan 舟山 群 嶋 in die provinsie Chekiang 浙江. In Japan staan ​​die paradys van Kannon bekend as Fudarakusen (of Fudarakusan, of Fudasan) 補 陀 洛 山, letterlik Mount Fudaraku, wat die Japannese transliterasie van Sanskrit Potalaka is.

Kannon staan ​​algemeen in Engels bekend as die Godin of Mercy, Kannon is miskien die mees vereerde en gewildste Boeddhistiese godheid op die vasteland van Asië. Kannon beliggaam onbegrensde deernis en is een van die belangrikste bedieners van Amida Nyorai, die Boeddha van die Westerse Paradys, en in standbeelde van die 11-kop Kannon is die boonste kop die van Amida Boeddha. Kannon kom in talle manifestasies voor - meestal met duisend arms en elf koppe, maar in Japan verskyn dit ook in 33 spesifieke vorme, die keshin genoem. Kannon, wat oorspronklik as manlik uitgebeeld is, verskyn in die moderne tyd meestal as 'n vrou in China, en in Japan word dit dikwels geassosieer met vroulike deugde. Klik hier vir 'n bietjie meer oor hierdie geslagsverandering. Avalokitesvara word vroeg in Mahayana -tradisies aangetref en geniet groot guns in Indië totdat die Boeddhisme omstreeks 1200 nC deur Islam en Hindoe -oortuigings oorval is. Kannon -aanbidding het van Indië na Suidoos -Asië gegaan, waar dit met groot sukses vergader het, en daarna in Tibet en Nepal (in Tibet word vermoed dat die huidige Dali Lama die aardse reïnkarnasie van die Kannon is), en ook in China en Korea, voor uiteindelik in Japan aangekom.


Fugen bo -op die olifant
13de eeu
Sanjūsangendō in Kyoto

Fugen staan ​​bekend as die 'Groot gedrag' Bodhisattva, want Fugen leer dat aksie en gedrag (gedrag) net so belangrik is as denke en meditasie. Fugen moedig mense aan om die Boeddhistiese voorskrifte van liefdadigheid, sedelike gedrag, geduld en toewyding ywerig te beoefen. Fugen het tien geloftes afgelê vir die beoefening van Boeddhisme, en is die beskermer van almal wat die Dharma (Boeddhistiese wet) onderrig.

Fugen word dikwels uitgebeeld op 'n olifant (tradisioneel 'n wit olifant met ses slagtande). Die ses slagtande verteenwoordig die oorwinning van gehegtheid aan die ses sintuie, terwyl die olifant die krag van Boeddhisme simboliseer om alle struikelblokke te oorkom. In kunswerke van Mahayana-tradisies word Fugen dikwels getoon met die wens vervullende juweel of 'n lotusknop, maar in kunswerke van die esoteriese sektes sit Fugen gewoonlik eerder op 'n lotusblaar as bo-op 'n olifant. Fugen verskyn gereeld met Monju Bosatsu langs die historiese Boeddha (Shaka) in Japannese kunswerke wat bekend staan ​​as die Shaka Triad (Shaka Sanzon 釈 迦 三尊).


Monju Bosatsu ry leeu.
12de eeu, Chusonji -tempel
Foto uit tydskrif
Nihon no Bi no Meguru #35

Een wat edel en saggeaard is. Monju is die beliggaming van wysheid. Beelde van Monju is in Japan ingevoer deur Chinese monnike wat tydens 'n reis na Wutaishan geleer het dat Manjusri in die persoon van die Japannese monnik Gyōki reïnkarneer is, en so na Nara gegaan het in 736. Een van hierdie monnike, Bodhisena (Japanese Bodaisenna) , volg Gyōki op as direkteur van die Boeddhistiese gemeenskap van die Tōdai-ji-tempel in Nara in 751 of 752. Op sy beurt reis 'n ander monnik met die naam Ennin na China na die berg Wutai (Monju ’s heilige berg in China) in die jaar 840, tydens 'n reis wat nege jaar geduur het van 838 tot 847, en die Skrifte en beelde van hierdie godheid teruggebring het.

Monju Bosatsu, saam met Fugen Bosatsu (Samantabhadra), is dissipels van die historiese Boeddha. In Japan verskyn die twee dikwels saam met die Historiese Boeddha in 'n groep genaamd Shaka Sanzon, en die drie eerbiedwaardige Sakyamuni. ”, ook bekend as die Shaka Triade. Monju verteenwoordig wysheid, intelligensie, wilskrag, bemeestering van die Dharma, 'n onfeilbare geheue, geestelike volmaaktheid en welsprekendheid. Hierdie godheid, wat in Indië bekend is deur die leerstellings van die Theravada, word geïdentifiseer met die koning van Gandharva - Pancasikha. Monju Bosatsu verskyn ook in baie Mahayana -tekste.

Monju word gereeld verteenwoordig in Indië en Tibet, in China en Japan en in Nepal, wat volgens tradisie gestig is dat Monju gestig is met sy aankoms uit China. Monju se beelde verskyn eers laat in die sesde eeu in Sentraal -Asië en op 'n paar Chinese stele wat verband hou met Vimalakirti (Japannees = Yuima Koji).


Jizo, Kamakura Era
Jufuku-ji-tempel. Nou gehou by
Tsurugaoka Hachimangu
Nasionale Museum in Kamakura

Jizō het belowe om onder ons goeie werke te bly en almal te help en te onderrig wat eindeloos draai in die ses lyke, veral die siele van die ontslape wat deur die Tien konings van die hel beoordeel word (en verduidelik hoekom Jizō -standbeelde algemeen voorkom in Japannese begraafplase). Jizō beloof om hierdie take onophoudelik te vervul in die eeue lange interval tussen die dood van die historiese Boeddha en die koms van Miroku Boeddha (die toekomstige Boeddha). Volgens Japan se Shingon -sekte van die esoteriese Boeddhisme (Mikkyō 密 教) sal Miroku ongeveer 5,6 miljard jaar van nou af aankom om universele redding aan alle wesens te skenk.

Mayahana Boeddhisme - Die Bosatsu -konsep
Mahayana Boeddhisme (ook genoem die “Greater Vehicle ”) verkondig die bestaan ​​van tallose Bosatsu (Bodhisattva) wat as universele redders vir alle lewende wesens optree. Vir Boeddhistiese volgelinge in Japan, wat meestal van die Mahayana -tradisie is, is medelye “ die bepalende waarde van die Bosatsu -konsep. In die Asiatiese streek is die Four Bosatsu of Compassion een van die bekendste Boeddhistiese verlossers.

Die term “Bodhisattva ” is oorspronklik gebruik om na die historiese Boeddha te verwys voordat hy verligting verkry het. Daarna is die term ook gebruik om te verwys na Miroku (Skt. Maitreya), die Boeddha van die Toekoms. Met die verspreiding van die Mahayana Boeddhisme het die term egter bedoel dat iemand wat verligting bereik, maar Boeddhahood vertraag, maar eerder op aarde bly om alle wesens te help om verlossing te bewerkstellig. In die huidige era (ons huidige tyd), verskyn Miroku slegs as 'n Bosatsu, een wat Boeddha -vertraging vertraag het, een wat as agtergebly het om ander te bevoordeel. Laasgenoemde konsep is sterk bevorder deur aanhangers van Mahayana om dit te onderskei van die Theravada -konsep van Arhat. Die Arhat is ook 'n verligte wese, maar volgens Mahayana -gelowiges beskik die Theravada Arhat oor 'n minderwaardige, selfsugtig bereikte verligting, gebaseer op & quotefinitief self & quot - want die Theravadins beklemtoon die kloosterlewe, die versaking van sekulêre plesiere, die fokus van almal een se energie op die bereiking van individuele bevryding. Die Bodhisattva van Mahayana -tradisies word egter heeltemal gemotiveer deur deernis, deur die begeerte om 'ander' te bevoordeel ' - inderdaad, die hoogste strewe van die Mahayana Bodhisattva is om alle lewende wesens te red.

Bodhisattva het ook 'n derde betekenis in Mahayana -tradisies - dit verwys na almal wat opreg probeer om ander te red terwyl hulle die weg van verligting volg. In wese kan elkeen wat besluit om die Boeddhistiese pad te volg 'n Bodhisattva genoem word, en baie Mahayanans meen dat daar op elke oomblik ontelbare bodhisattva's op aarde is. Terwyl Theravada Boeddhisme die monastieke lewe - die monnik se lewe - beklemtoon as die enigste weg tot redding (Arhatship), sê die Mahayana -skool dat almal, insluitend leke, Boeddha kan bereik deur die Bodhisattva -waardes te beoefen. Klik hier vir meer inligting oor hierdie verskillende interpretasies.


Gokō Shii Amida 五 刧 思惟 阿 弥陀 (ook bekend as Hōzō Bosatsu). Tōdaiji -tempel (Nara), 13de eeu.

Hōzō het lank (vyf kapla) geoefen voordat hy verligting verkry het, en word dus met dik hare getoon. Een kalpa (Jp. = Kō) is die tydperk wat nodig is om 'n stad van tien vierkante myl van papawershutte leeg te maak, as een saad elke drie jaar verwyder word. & ltSource: Enlightenment Embodied, The Art of the Japanese Buddhist Sculptor (7de - 14de eeu). Japan Society, 1997. ISBN 0-913304-43-3.

Skt. Dharmakara. The Sutra of Infinite Life (Jp. = Muryojukyō 無量壽經) teken die toesprake op wat die historiese Boeddha op Vulture Peak in Rajagriha (Indië) gelewer het, waar hy praat van die 48 geloftes wat Hōzō Bosatsu 法 蔵 菩薩 gemaak het (ook gespel Hozo of Houzou ) om alle wesens te help om verlossing te bewerkstellig. As mens was Hōzō 'n koning wat sy troon prysgegee het nadat hy die leer van Lokesvararaja Buddha ((Sejizaiō Butsu 自在 王佛) gehoor het.

Na eeue se oefen het hy 48 geloftes afgelê 願 十八 願 en daarna Boeddhahood bereik, wat bekend geword het as Amida, die Boeddha van Oneindige Lewe. Diegene wat in Amida glo, word wedergebore in die Boeddha -land van perfeksie (die “Pure Land ”). Van die 48 geloftes is die 18de gelofte die belangrikste. In hierdie gelofte streef Hōzō Bosatsu na die universele redding van alle wesens. Dit lui:

& quot Op my Boeddha -lewe bereik, as lewende wesens in die tien kwartale - wat opreg van hart is, geloof hou en in my land wil gebore word - my naam tot tien keer herhaal, maar tog nie in my kan wedergebore word nie land, dan mag ek nie daarin slaag om verligting te kry nie. & quot

Die 48 geloftes van Hōzō Bosatsu het in die moderne tyd oorleef, en variasies op die geloftes word deur leke, nonne en monnike in Tibet, China en Japan gebruik.

  • Buddhist-Artwork.com, ons susterwebwerf, is in Julie 2006 bekendgestel. Hierdie aanlynwinkel verkoop kwaliteit handgemaakte Boeddhabeelde en Bodhisattva-beelde, veral dié wat vir die Japannese mark gesny is. Dit is gemik op kunsliefhebbers, Boeddhistiese beoefenaars en leke. Net soos hierdie webwerf (OnmarkProductions.com), word dit nie verbind met enige opvoedkundige instelling, privaat korporasie, regeringsagentskap of godsdienstige groep nie.
    . Buite skakel. Nie meer aanlyn nie. 'N Wonderlike aanlynwoordeboek met baie besonderhede oor Kannon Bodhisattva in Japannese kuns. Dit bevat ook aparte inskrywings oor baie Kannon -manifestasies in Japan.
  • Sien die bibliografie vir ons volledige lys van bronne oor die Japannese boeddhisme, of besoek enige webwerfbladsy en blaai na onder vir gedetailleerde bronne oor die spesifieke godheid of onderwerp. . Met Sanskrit en Engelse ekwivalente. Plus Sanskrit-Pali-indeks. Deur William Edward Soothill en Lewis Hodous. Hardeband, 530 bladsye. Uitgegee deur Munshirm Manoharlal. Herdruk 31 Maart 2005. ISBN 8121511453.
  • Butsuzō-zu-i 仏 像 図 彙, die “ Versamelde illustrasies van Boeddhistiese beelde. ” Gepubliseer in 1690 (Genroku 元 禄 3). Een van Japan se eerste groot studies oor Boeddhistiese ikonografie. Honderde bladsye en tekeninge, met gode wat in ongeveer 80 (tagtig) kategorieë ingedeel is. Moderne herdrukke is beskikbaar by hierdie aanlynwinkel (J-site).
  • Mandara Zuten 曼荼羅 図 典 (Japanese Edition). Die Mandala -woordeboek. 422 bladsye. Die eerste keer gepubliseer in 1993. Uitgewer Daihorinkaku 大 法輪 閣. Taal Japannees. ISBN-10: 480461102-9. Beskikbaar by Amazon. (C. Muller login & quotguest & quot)
  • Boeddhisme: Flammarion Iconographic Guides, deur Louis Frederic, Gedruk in Frankryk, ISBN 2-08013-558-9, Eerste publikasie 1995. 'n Hoog geïllustreerde bundel, met 'n spesiale betekenis vir diegene wat Japannese Boeddhistiese ikonografie bestudeer. Dit bevat ook baie van die mites en legendes van die vasteland van Asië, maar die spesiale sterkte daarvan is die dekking van die Japannese tradisie. Honderde gepaardgaande beelde/foto's, beide S & W en kleur.

Laaste opdatering = 9 April 2011 (groot herskryf)

Kopiereg 1995 - 2014. Mark Schumacher. E -posmerk.
Alle verhale en foto's, tensy anders vermeld, deur Schumacher.
www.onmarkproductions.com | 'n skenking maak

Moet asseblief nie hierdie bladsye of foto's na Wikipedia of elders kopieer sonder die regte aanhaling nie!


Die rol van Bodhisattvas in die Mahayana -boeddhisme

In die Mahayana Boeddhisme is bodhisattvas omskep in redderagtige figure. Dit strook met die konsep van bodhicitta (wat verwys na die strewe na die verligting van die verstand) wat deur hierdie tak van Boeddhisme gehou word.

In Mahayana Boeddhisme behels bodhicitta nie net die bevryding van die self nie, maar ook 'n begeerte van diegene wat verligting bereik het om ander lewende wesens te help. Ter vergelyking plaas die konsep van bodhicitta in Theravada Boeddhisme klem op die bevryding van die self, wat slegs bereik kan word deur die uitwissing van begeertes deur jouself, sonder om op eksterne hulp staat te maak.

Mahayana Boeddhisme leer dat almal kan streef om 'n bodhisattva te word. Tog is daar in die geskiedenis van die Mahayana -boeddhisme 'n aantal bodhisattva's wat groot roem verwerf het en dus baie vereer word. Een van die bekendste bodhisattva's is Avalokiteśvara, wie se naam kan beteken 'die heer wat met deernis kyk'.

Hy staan ​​ook bekend as Guanyin in Chinees en Kannon in Japannees. Terloops, in Oos -Asië is hierdie bodhisattva van 'n mannetjie in 'n wyfie verander. Daar word bespiegel dat Avalokiteśvara in China die eienskappe van Taoïstiese vroulike gode verwerf het, veral die koninginmoeder van die Weste, wat moontlik kon bydra tot sy transformasie in 'n vrou.

Avalokiteśvara word beskou as die verpersoonliking van die deernis van al die Boeddha's en is waarskynlik die gewildste figuur in die Boeddhistiese legende. Hy is nie net geliefd in die Mahayana -boeddhisme nie, maar ook in die Theravada-, Vajrayana- en Tantriese takke van Boeddhisme.

Avalokiteśvara, die bodhisattva wat bekend is vir deernis. (FlickreviewR / CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Volgens Boeddhistiese oortuigings het Avalokiteśvara besluit om sy eie Boeddha uit te stel sodat hy sy soeke kon voortgaan om alle wesens te help om verligting te verkry. Volgens een verhaal het hy aan die begin van Avalokiteśvara se loopbaan as bodhisattva belowe dat as hy ooit moedeloos word in sy strewe om alle lewende wesens te bevry van lyding en die ewige siklus van dood en wedergeboorte, sy liggaam in duisend gebreek sou word stukke.

Dit is bedoel om die oneindige deernis van Avalokiteśvara en sy vasberadenheid te demonstreer. Op 'n dag kyk Avalokiteśvara van 'n hoër koninkryk af na die helle wat hy pas leeggemaak het deur die leer van die dharma. Hy het opgemerk dat ondanks alles wat hy gedoen het, die hel steeds deur talle wesens oorstroom word. Vir 'n kort rukkie het Avalokiteśvara so moedeloos geword dat sy gelofte waar geword het - sy liggaam het in duisend stukke verbrysel.

Avalokiteśvara se persoonlike onderwyser, Boeddha Amitabha, het hom te hulp gekom. Die Boeddha het die fragmente versamel en sy student 'n nuwe vorm gegee - een met 11 koppe en duisend arms. Die bykomende koppe het die vermoë van Avalokiteśvara verbeter om die krete van die lyding te hoor, terwyl sy ekstra arms hom in staat gestel het om meer mense te red.

Duisend gewapende bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. (Huihermit / Skaamdomein )


Kuan-yin: Die Chinese transformasie van Avalokitesvara

Verreweg een van die belangrikste voorwerpe van aanbidding in die Boeddhistiese tradisies, word die bodhisattva Avalokitesvara beskou as die verpersoonliking van deernis. Hy is sedert die vroeë eeue van die gewone era in die Boeddhistiese lande van Asië wyd vereer. Terwyl hy ten nouste geïdentifiseer is met die koninklikes in Suid- en Suidoos -Asië, en die Tibetane tot vandag toe steeds die Dalai Lamas as sy inkarnasies beskou, in China hy geword het 'n sy—Kuan-yin, die 'Godin of Mercy'-en het 'n heel ander geskiedenis. Die oorsake en prosesse van hierdie metamorfose het Boeddhistiese geleerdes al eeue lank verwar.

In hierdie baanbrekende, omvattende studie bespreek Chün-fang Yü hierdie dramatiese transformasie van die (manlike) Indiese bodhisattva Avalokitesvara in die (vroulike) Chinese Kuan-yin-van 'n relatief klein figuur in die Boeddha se gevolg tot 'n universele redder en een van die gewildste gode in die Chinese godsdiens.

Met die fokus op die verskillende media waardeur die vroulike Kuan-yin in China gebou en mak geword het, ondersoek Yü Boeddhistiese geskrifte, wonderverhale, pelgrimstogte, populêre literatuur en klooster- en plaaslike koerante-sowel as die veranderende ikonografie wat in Kuan-yin weerspieël word. beelde en artistieke voorstellings - om die rol van hierdie materiaal in hierdie wonderlike transformasie te bepaal. Die boek beeld die domestisering van Kuan-yin welsprekend uit as 'n gevallestudie van die inheemsheid van Boeddhisme in China en belig die manier waarop hierdie geliefde god die lewens van alle Chinese mense deur die eeue beïnvloed het.


KENMERKE | TEMAS | Kuns en argeologie

In 'n tweede lesing wat in Julie by die University of Hong Kong & rsquos Center for Buddhist Studies aangebied is, het professor Osmund Bopearchchi sy bespreking van die landroetes van die Silk Road voortgesit, met verwysing na verskeie gevalle van kulturele interaksies wat getoon is deur die ontdekkings van Gandharan -motiewe in Boeddhistiese ikonografie.

Entoesiastiese reisende monnike, wat moontlik handelaars en karavaanhandelaars vergesel het, het Boeddhisme baie vroeg aan China bekendgestel. Hulle het nie net Boeddhistiese filosofie oorgedra nie, maar ook Boeddhistiese ikonografie na Boeddhistiese sentrums in Bamiyan in Afghanistan, die Kizil -grotte in Xinjiang en in Dunhuang in die noordwestelike Gansu -provinsie in die weste van China. Die gebeure hou verband met die lewe van Shakyamuni Boeddha of verhale van sy vorige geboortes (Jatakas) was van Indiese oorsprong, maar die ikonografiese weergawe daarvan in 'n Chinese konteks het toevoegings en weglatings wat ooreenstem met die smaak van die skenkers wat hulle opdrag gegee het en van die kunstenaars wat dit visualiseer. Vroom handelaars wat hierdie weelderige muurskilderye geborg het om verdienste te verkry, het moontlik verhale verkies waarin die uiteindelike offer van die Boeddha en die toekomstige Boeddha goed geïdealiseer is.

Soos prof. Bopearachchi gedeel het, bied ldquoBuddhism nuwe gronde vir vernuwende artistieke uitdrukking. & Rdquo Hy vergelyk beelde van 'n beeldhouwerk van groter Gandhara wat die pynkreet van 'n monnik uitbeeld met die pynlike leek onder die Boeddha & rsquos -bed wat die dood van die Salige betreur, soos uitgebeeld op 'n reliëf wat tans in die Victoria and Albert Museum (V & ampA) in Londen uitgestal word. Die ooreenkoms was nie net in die voorkoms en gevoel van die beelde nie, maar ook in die detail van die uitdrukkings: in die tande, tong, kakebeen, wenkbroue en starende oë, wat alles 'n diep hartseer en wanhoopskreet weerspieël. Bopearachchi het verder daarop gewys dat inspirasie van die Hellenistiese standbeeld kon kom Laoco & oumln en sy seuns, ook bekend as die Laocoon Group, & ldquo die prototipiese ikoon van menslike pyn & rdquo in Westerse kuns. Hierdie tipe ikonografie het direk of indirek na Dunhuang gereis. Die bekendste uitbeeldings kom uit grot nr. 158 in Mogao, bekend as die Nirvana -grot, met roubeklaers wat die dood van die Boeddha sien, wat in muurskilderye langs die agterkant van die saal uitgebeeld word.

Die wanhoop van die Trojaanse priester wat sy eie dood in die gesig staar (Fig. 1) is die voorloper van die hartstogtelike en emosionele uitdrukkings van die pynlike Boeddhistiese monnik van die pleisterwerk uit die Vardak-streek (Fig. 2), die pynlike leek op die beeld uit die V & ampA (fig. 3), en die arahat uit die Mogao -grot nr. 158 wat die dood van hul geliefde onderwyser bedroef het (Fig. 4). Gandharaanse kuns is grotendeels geïnspireer deur die Hellenistiese kuns, wat verklaar waarom Griekse en Romeinse mitologiese verhale en beelde in Gandharan Boeddhistiese kuns en tot in Dunhuang in China voorkom.

Fig. 1. Laocoon van die Hellenistiese Laocoon -groep. Beeld met vergunning van prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 2. Agoniseerde monnik, Vardak, Ghandhara. Beeld met vergunning van prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 3. Pyngeteisterde leek, V&A Museum. Beeld met vergunning van prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 4. Klaagliedere arahat, Mogao -grot No.158. Beeld met vergunning van prof. Osmund Bopearachchi

'N Ander voorbeeld van 'n artistieke uitdrukking wat oos versprei, kan gevind word in die windgod wat die kuns in China en selfs Japan beïnvloed het. Die Windgodin van Kizil in grot nr. 38 van die Mogao-grotte en die hoofbedekking van Shiva wat op sy voertuig Nandi in grot nr. 288 sit, is goeie voorbeelde van Iraanse, Grieks-Romeinse en Gandharese inspirasies in Sentraal-China. Alhoewel die windgode in Grieks-Romeinse kuns bekend is, kom die naaste parallelle met dié in Bamyan, Kizil en Mogao uit die Kushan-konteks. Die windgod, bekend as Oado en gevind op Kushan -muntstukke, het moontlik die ikonografie van die Bamyan- en Chinese muurskilderye geïnspireer.

Die vroegste uitbeelding van Avalokiteshvara-ekadasamukha word gevind in nommer 41 van die Kanheri-grotte, aan die westelike buitewyke van Mumbai. Daar is 109 grotte wat uit die basalt gesny is en dateer uit die eerste eeu vC tot die 10de eeu nC. Soos epigrafiese bewyse toon, is hierdie ondernemings gebou deur handelaars wat verbonde was aan die handelsentrums Sopara, Kalyan, Nasik, Paithan en Ujjain. Hierdie ikonografie het langs die sypad gereis. Die Mogao- en Yulin -grotte bevat baie afbeeldings van Avalokiteshvara wat afkomstig is van die Indiese prototipe, maar mettertyd word dit gekenmerk deur ekstra koppe en arms. Mogao-grot nr. 35, gedateer uit die tydperk van die vyf dinastieë, beeld 'n 11-koppige bodhisattva van deernis uit wat die son, die maan, 'n drietand en 'n skatkis in sy agt arms hou.

Die muurskildery op die noordwand van die Mogao-grot No.76 het 'n simboliese beeld van die Avalokiteshvara met duisendhande en duisend oë. Die hoof gesig het drie oë. Elke palm van die agt hande het ook 'n genadige oog. Een van die mees uitgebreide weergawes van die Avalokiteshvara-ekadasamukha is die muurskildery van hierdie bodhisattva van deernis met duisend hande op die noordwand van grot No.3 van die Mogao-grotte, gedateer aan die Yuan-dinastie. Die koppe is in drie rye gerangskik, onderskeidelik bo mekaar, bestaande uit drie, sewe en een kop, van bo na onder. Die reputasie van Avalokiteshvara as die beskermer van handelaars wat die gevaarlike landroetes neem, kan gesien word in die Boeddhistiese grotbeelde wat die Astamahabhaya Avalokiteshvara uitbeeld wat mense beskerm teen die agt groot gevare.

Die verhale agter hierdie uitbeeldings is Indies, maar die artistieke weergawe van hierdie vertellings is Chinees. Die Indiese ikonografieë word nie net gekopieer en geplak nie, maar herstruktureer in 'n Chinese konteks. Sodra dit herstruktureer is, verander die visualisering van die Indiese verhaal, en maak die Silk Road -kuns 'n unieke manier van uitdrukking.

Bespreking van die verspreiding en herinterpretasie van die Grieks-Iraanse en Gandharaanse ikonografie kan verder ontwikkel word deur 'n ander belangrike motief: die geblokkeerde diadeem, ook bekend as wapperende linte en vlieënde streamers. Dit word agter die koppe van boeddha's, bodhisattvas, gode, edeles en handelaars aangetref op die skilderye van Bamiyan in Afghanistan, in die Kizil -grotte in Xinjiang en in Dunhuang. Tradisioneel was die diadeem aan die agterkant vasgemaak met 'n rif (vierkantige) knoop, terwyl die lang ente agteroor hang. Presies watter antieke kultuur die diadeem ingebring het, is onduidelik, maar teen die laat negende eeu vC het die Neo-Assiriese konings 'n lint om die basis van hul tulbande gedra (Fig. 5). Alexander die Grote word ook gesien met 'n ketting, nadat hy sy teenstander Darius III (330 v.C.) verslaan het (fig. 6). Dit was in ooreenstemming met die Oosterse praktyk, waardeur belangrike mense hul hare met 'n diadeem (fig. 7) in die Weste kon bind; dit is gebruik om goddelikheid te impliseer (fig. 8).

Vanaf die vyfde eeu nC is hierdie motiewe wyd versprei in Boeddhistiese beelde (Fig. 9). Dit het gebeur in die mate dat die goddelike koninklike simboliek van die Grieke en Perse sy spesifieke betekenis verloor het, en edeles, handelaars, hemelse wesens en selfs diere kan gevind word met fladderende linte in Boeddhistiese skilderye in Indië, Sentraal -Asië en China. Alhoewel hierdie motiewe in Sentraal -Asiatiese en Gandharaanse streke ontstaan ​​het, het hulle in ruimte en tyd langs die sypaaie gereis na Boeddhistiese sentrums in verre lande. Soos hulle dit ontwikkel het, ontwikkel hulle in kruisbemeste kulturele kontekste en word hulle opgeneem in die sentimente en estetika van hul onderskeie bevolkings wat nuwe kunsvorme skep (Fig. 10 & ndash11).

Fig. 5. Assiriese koning Tukul-apil-esharra III ontvang hulde (745–27 vC). Beeld met vergunning van prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 6. Lysimachus (360-281 vC) was 'n Masedoniese offisier en 'opvolger' van Alexander die Grote. Beeld met vergunning van prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 7. Investiture relief at Naqs-I Rustan, Ahura Mazda hands the beribboned diadem to Ardasir I (224-42 CE). Image courtesy of Prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 8. Huviška’s venerating bodhisattva Maitreya, second or third century CE, Museo d'Arte Orientale, Turin. Image courtesy of Prof. Osmund Bopearachchi

Fig. 9. Standing bodhisattva Siddhartha Gautama, Mes Aynak, Afghanistan. Image courtesy of Prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 10. Bodhisattva, fifth century CE, cave No.272, Mogao, Dunhuang. Image courtesy of Prof. Osmund Bopearachchi Fig. 11. Narayana, with three heads and six arms, on the south end of the west wall, cave No.285 of the Western Wei dynasty (535–56 CE), Mogao, Dunhuang. Image courtesy of Prof. Osmund Bopearachchi

Having gone through the journey of the discovery of these Buddhist images and hence historical facts, Prof. Bopearchchi takes pride in the passion and effort that goes into sharing this history with people who already have an habitually established perception for a history told otherwise. The resilient spirit in fact-finding will not end. When asked about the one thing he would say to the students who are following his path, in a faithful and sincere voice, Prof. Bopearchchi replied: &ldquoGo beyond me!&rdquo


Inhoud

Acala first appears in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra (不空羂索神変真言經, Bùkōng juànsuǒ shénbiàn zhēnyán jīng, translated by Bodhiruci circa 707-709 CE [7] ), where he is described as a servant or messenger of the buddha Vairocana: [8]

The first from the west in the northern quadrant is the acolyte Acala (不動使者). In his left hand he grasps a noose and in his right hand he holds a sword. He is seated in the half-lotus position. [8] [9]

More well-known, however, is the following passage from the Mahāvairocana Tantra which refers to Acala as one of the deities of the Womb Mandala:

Below the lord of mantras [i.e. Vairocana], in the southwestern direction, is Acala, servant of the Tathāgata (不動如来使). He holds the sword of wisdom and the noose (pāśa). His hair hangs on his left shoulder. One eye lightly squinting, he gazes intently. Blazing flames radiate from his awe-inspiring body. He dwells on a large rock. On his forehead are wrinkles like waves on the water. He is a young boy with a plump body. [8] [10]

The deity was apparently popular in India during the 8th-9th centuries as evident by the fact that six of the Sanskrit texts translated by the esoteric master Amoghavajra into Chinese are devoted entirely to him. [3]

While some scholars have put forward the theory that Acala originated from the Hindu god Shiva, particularly his attributes of destruction and reincarnation, [11] [12] Bernard Faure suggested the wrathful esoteric deity Trailokyavijaya (whose name is an epithet of Shiva), the Vedic fire god Agni, and the guardian deity Vajrapāṇi to be other, more likely prototypes for Acala. He notes: "one could theoretically locate Acala's origins in a generic Śiva, but only in the sense that all Tantric deities can in one way or another be traced back to Śiva." [8] Faure compares Acala to Vajrapāṇi in that both were originally minor deities who eventually came to occupy important places in the Buddhist pantheon. [13]

Acala is said to be a powerful deity who protects the faithful by burning away all impediments (antarāya) and defilements (kleśa), thus aiding them towards enlightenment. [14] In a commentary on the Mahāvairocana Tantra by Yi Xing, he is said to have manifested in the world following Vairocana's vow to save all beings, and that his primary function is to remove obstacles to enlightenment. [8] Indeed, the tantra instructs the ritual practitioner to recite Acala's mantras or to visualize himself as Acala in order to remove obstacles. [15]

From a humble acolyte, Acala evolved into a powerful demon-subduing deity. In later texts such as the Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra, Acala - under the name Caṇḍaroṣaṇa ("Violent Wrathful One") or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa ("Violent One of Great Wrath") - is portrayed as the "frightener of gods, titans, and men, the destroyer of the strength of demons" who slays ghosts and evil spirits with his fierce anger. [3] [16] In the Sādhanamālā, the gods Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma and Kandarpa - described as "wicked" beings who subject humanity to endless rebirth - are said to be terrified of Acala because he carries a rope to bind them. [3]

In Tibetan Buddhism, Acala or Miyowa (མི་གཡོ་བ་, Wylie: mi g.yo ba) is considered as belonging to the vajrakula ("vajra family", Tibetan: དོ་རྗེའི་རིགས་, dorjé rik), a category of deities presided over by the buddha Akṣobhya and may even be regarded, along with the other deities of the kula, as an aspect or emanation of the latter. [3] [17] [18] [19] Indeed, he is sometimes depicted in South Asian art wearing a crown bearing an effigy of Akṣobhya. [3] [18] [19] In Nepal, Acala may also be identified as a manifestation of the bodhisattva Mañjuśrī. [20] [21] [22] He has a consort named Viśvavajrī in both the Nepalese and Tibetan traditions, with whom he is at times depicted in yab-yum union. [4] [21]

By contrast, the sanrinjin (三輪身, "three cakra bodies") theory prevalent in Japanese esoteric Buddhism (Mikkyō) interprets Acala as an incarnation of Vairocana. In this theory, the five chief vidyārājas or wisdom kings (明王, myōō), of which Acala is one, are interpreted as the wrathful manifestations (教令輪身, kyōryō rinshin, lit. ""embodiments of the wheel of injunction") of the Five Tathāgatas, who assume the form of gentle bodhisattvas to teach the Dharma to sentient beings and terrifying wisdom kings to subdue and convert hardened nonbelievers. [23] [24] [25] Under this conceptualization, the wisdom kings are ranked superior to the dharmapala ( 護法善神 , gohō zenshin) , [26] a different class of guardian deities. However, this interpretation, while common, is not necessarily universal: in Nichiren-shū, for instance, Acala and Rāgarāja (Aizen Myōō), the two vidyārājas who commonly feature in the mandalas inscribed by Nichiren, are apparently interpreted as protective deities (外護神, gegoshin) who are the respective embodiments of the two tenets of hongaku ("original enlightenment") doctrine: shōji soku nehan (生死即涅槃, "the sufferings of life and death (saṃsāra) are nirvana") and bonnō soku bodai (煩悩即菩提, "earthly desires (kleśa) lead to enlightenment (bodhi)"). [27] [28] [29] [30]

As noted above, Acala appears in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra en die Mahāvairocana Tantra (ook bekend as die Mahāvairocana Abhisaṃbodhi Tantra of die Vairocana Sūtra). As Caṇḍaroṣaṇa or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa, he is the primary deity of the Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra and is described in the Sādhanamālā.

The Japanese esoteric Buddhist tradition and Shugendō also make use of the following apocryphal sutras on Acala:

  • Sūtra of the Great Wrathful King Āryācala's Secret Dhāraṇī (聖無動尊大威怒王秘密陀羅尼経, Shō-Mudō-son daiifunnuō himitsu darani kyō)
  • Āryācala Sūtra (仏説聖不動経, Bussetsu Shō-Fudō kyō)
  • Sūtra on Reverencing the Secret Dhāraṇī of Āryācala (稽首聖無動尊秘密陀羅尼経, Keishu Shō-Mudō-son himitsu darani kyō) [35][36]

Die bīja or seed syllables used to represent Acala in Japanese Buddhism are hāṃ (हां / हाँ) en hāmmāṃ (हाम्मां / हाम्माँ), the latter being a combination of the two final bīja in his mantra: hāṃ māṃ (हां मां). [37] [38] Hāṃ is sometimes confounded with the similar-looking hūṃ (हूं), prompting some writers to mistakenly identify Acala with other deities. [39] The syllables are written using the Siddham script and is conventionally read as kān (カーン) and kānmān (カーンマーン). [37] [40] [41]

Three mantras of Acala are considered to be the standard in Japan. The most widely known one, derived from the Mahāvairocana Tantra and popularly known as the "Mantra of Compassionate Help" (慈救呪, jikushu of jikuju), goes as follows: [42] [43]

Sanskrit Shingon pronunciation Tendai pronunciation English translation
Namaḥ samanta vajrānāṃ caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa sphoṭaya hūṃ traṭ hāṃ māṃ [38] Nōmaku sanmanda bazarada(n) senda(n) makaroshada sowataya un tarata kan man [44] [45] Namaku samanda basaranan senda makaroshana sowataya un tarata kan man [46] [47] Homage to the all-encompassing Vajras! O violent one of great wrath (caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa), destroy! hūṃ traṭ hāṃ māṃ.

The "Short Mantra" (小呪, shōshu) of Acala - also found in the Mahāvairocana Tantra [48] - is as follows:

Sanskrit Shingon pronunciation English translation
Namaḥ samanta vajrānāṃ hāṃ [38] Nōmaku sanmanda bazaradan kan [49] [50] Homage to the all-encompassing Vajras! hāṃ.

The longest of the three is the "Great Mantra" of Acala, also known as the "Fire Realm Mantra" (火界呪, kakaishu / kakaiju): [51]

Sanskrit Shingon pronunciation English translation
Namaḥ sarva-tathāgatebhyaḥ sarva-mukhebhyaḥ sarvathā traṭ caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa khaṃ khā he khā he (of khāhi khāhi [52] ) sarva-vighnaṃ hūṃ traṭ hāṃ māṃ [53] Nōmaku saraba tatagyateibyaku saraba bokkeibyaku sarabata tarata senda makaroshada ken gyaki gyaki saraba bikin(n)an un tarata kan man [45] [49] [50] Homage to all Tathāgatas, the omnipresent doors, who are in all directions! traṭ. O violent one of great wrath! khaṃ. Root out, root out every obstacle! hūm traṭ hām mām. [54]

Another mantra associated with the deity is Oṃ caṇḍa-mahā­roṣaṇa hūṃ phaṭ, found in the Siddhaikavīra Tantra. The text describes it as the "king of mantras" that dispels all evil and grants "whatever the follower of Mantrayāna desires". [55]

Die Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra 's description of Acala is a good summary of the deity's depiction in South Asian Buddhist art.

"His right hand is terrifying with a sword in it,
His left is holding a noose
He is making a threatening gesture with his index finger,
And bites his lower lip with his fangs.
"Kicking with his right foot,
He is smashing the four Māras.
His left knee is on the ground.
Squint eyed, he inspires fear.
"He points a threatening gesture at Vasudhā [i.e. the earth],
Kneeling on the cap of his left knee.
He has Akṣobhya for his crest jewel
He is of blue color and wears a jewel diadem.
"A princely youth, Wearing Five Braids of Hair,
Adorned with all the ornaments,
He appears to be sixteen years old,
And his eyes are red—he, the powerful one." [16]

In Nepalese and Tibetan art, Acala is usually shown either kneeling on his left knee or standing astride, bearing a noose or lasso (pāśa) and an upraised sword. Some depictions portray him trampling on the elephant-headed Vighnarāja (the Hindu god Ganesha), the "Lord of Hindrances". He may also be shown wearing a tiger skin, with snakes coiled around his arms and body. [3] [56]

By contrast, portrayals of Acala (Fudō) in Japan tend to conform to the description given in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra en die Mahāvairocana Tantra: holding a lasso and a sword while sitting or standing on a rock (盤石座, banjakuza) or a pile of hewn stones (瑟瑟座, shitsushitsuza), with his braided hair hanging from the left of his head. [57] [58] [59] He may also be depicted with a lotus flower - a symbol of enlightenment - on his head (頂蓮, chōren). [60] Unlike the South Asian Acala (whose posture conveys movement and dynamism), the Japanese Fudō sits or stands erect, suggesting motionlessness and rigidity. [8] The sword he wields may or may not be flaming and is sometimes described generically as a "jeweled sword" ( 宝剣 , hōken) or "vajra sword" ( 金剛剣 , kongō-ken) , which is descriptive of the fact that the sword's pommel is in the shape of the talon-like vajra (金剛杵, kongō-sho). It may also be referred to as a "three-pronged vajra sword" ( 三鈷剣 , sanko-ken) . [61] In some cases, he is seen holding the "Kurikara sword" (倶利伽羅剣, Kurikara-ken), [62] a sword with the dragon (nāga) king Kurikara (倶利伽羅 Sanskrit: Kulikāla-rāja of Kṛkāla-rāja) coiled around it. [63] The flaming nimbus or halo behind Acala is known in Japanese as the "Garuda flame" (迦楼羅炎, karura-en), after the mythical fire-breathing bird from Indian mythology. [14]

Whereas earlier Japanese images showed Acala with glaring eyes and two fangs pointing upwards, a new variation developed by the late Heian period which depicted him with one eye wide open and/or looking upwards, with the other narrowed and/or looking downwards - an iconographic trait known as the tenchigan (天地眼), "heaven-and-earth eyes". Similarly, one of his fangs is now shown as pointing up, with the other pointing down. [59] [64] [65] [66] Acala's mismatched eyes and fangs were allegorically interpreted to signify both the duality and nonduality of his nature (and of all reality): the upward fang for instance was interpreted as symbolizing the process of elevation towards enlightenment, with the downward fang symbolizing the descent of enlightened beings into the world to teach sentient beings. The two fangs also symbolize the realms of buddhas and sentient beings, yin and yang, and male and female, with the nonduality of these two polar opposites being expressed by Acala's tightly closed lips. [67]

Acala is commonly shown as having either black or blue skin (the Sādhanamālā describes his color as being "like that of the atasī (flax) flower," which may be either yellow [68] or blue [69] [70] ), though he may be at times portrayed in other colors. In Tibet, for instance, a variant of the kneeling Acala depiction shows him as being white in hue "like sunrise on a snow mountain reflecting many rays of light". [71] In Japan, some images may depict Acala sporting a red (赤不動, Aka-Fudō) or yellow (黄不動, Ki-Fudō) complexion. The most famous example of the Aka-Fudō portrayal is a painting kept at Myōō-in on Mount Kōya (Wakayama Prefecture) traditionally attributed to the Heian period Tendai monk Enchin. Legend claims that Enchin, inspired by a vision of Acala, painted the image using his own blood (thus explaining its red color), though recent analysis suggests that the image may have been actually created much later, during the Kamakura period. [72] [73] [74] The most well-known image of the Ki-Fudō type, meanwhile, is enshrined in Mii-dera (Onjō-ji) at the foot of Mount Hiei in Shiga Prefecture and is said to have been based on another vision that Enchin saw while practicing austerities in 838. The original Mii-dera Ki-Fudō is traditionally only shown to esoteric masters (ācārya 阿闍梨, ajari) during initiation rites and is otherwise not shown to the public, though copies of it have been made. One such copy, made in the 12th century, is kept at Manshu-in in Kyoto. [75] [76] [77] [78] [79]

The deity is usually depicted with one head and two arms, though a few portrayals show him with multiple heads, arms or legs. [80] In Japan, a depiction of Acala with four arms is employed in subjugation rituals and earth-placating rituals (安鎮法, anchin-hō) this four-armed form is identified in one text as "the lord of the various categories [of gods]." [81] An iconographic depiction known as the "Two-Headed Rāgarāja" (両頭愛染, Ryōzu Aizen of Ryōtō Aizen) shows Acala combined with the wisdom king Rāgarāja (Aizen). [82] [83] [84]

Acolytes Edit

Acala is sometimes described as having a retinue of acolytes, the number of which vary between sources, usually two or eight but sometimes thirty-six or even forty-eight. These represent the elemental, untamed forces of nature that the ritual practitioner seeks to harness. [1] [85]

The two boy servants or dōji (童子) most commonly depicted in Japanese iconographic portrayals are Kiṃkara ( 矜羯羅童子 , Kongara-dōji ) and Ceṭaka ( 吒迦童子 , Seitaka-dōji ) , who also appear as the last two of the list of Acala's eight great dōji. [1] [14] [85] Kiṃkara is depicted as white in color, with his hands joined in respect, while Ceṭaka is red-skinned and holds a vajra in his left hand and a vajra staff in his right hand. The two are said to symbolize both Dharma-essence and ignorance, respectively, and is held to be in charge of good and evil. [85]

Kiṃkara and Ceṭaka are also sometimes interpreted as transformations or emanations of Acala himself. In a sense, they reflect Acala's original characterization as an attendant of Vairocana indeed, their servile nature is reflected in their names (Ceṭaka for instance means "slave") and their topknots, the mark of banished people and slaves. In other texts, they are also described as manifestations of Avalokiteśvara (Kannon) and Vajrapāṇi or as transformations of the dragon Kurikara, who is himself sometimes seen as one of Acala's various incarnations. [85]

Two other notable dōji are Matijvala (恵光童子, Ekō-dōji) and Matisādhu (恵喜童子, Eki-dōji), the first two of Acala's eight great acolytes. Matijvala is depicted as white in color and holds a three-pronged vajra in his right hand and a lotus topped with a moon disk on his left, while Matisādhu is red and holds a trident in his right hand and a wish-fulfilling jewel (cintāmaṇi) on his left. The eight acolytes as a whole symbolize the eight directions, with Matijvala and Matisādhu representing east and south, respectively. [85]

Japan Edit

The cult of Acala was first brought to Japan by the esoteric master Kūkai, the founder of the Shingon school, and his successors, where it developed as part of the growing popularity of rituals for the protection of the state. While Acala was at first simply regarded as the primus inter pares among the five wisdom kings, he gradually became a focus of worship in his own right, subsuming characteristics of the other four vidyarājas (who came to be perceived as emanating from him), and became installed as the main deity (honzon) at many temples and outdoor shrines. [1] [86]

Acala, as a powerful vanquisher of evil, was regarded both as a protector of the imperial court and the nation as a whole (in which capacity he was invoked during state-sponsored rituals) and the personal guardian of ritual practitioners. Many eminent Buddhist priests like Kūkai, Kakuban, Ennin, Enchin, and Sōō worshiped Acala as their patron deity, and stories of how he miraculously rescued his devotees in times of danger were widely circulated. [87]

At temples dedicated to Acala, priests perform the Fudō-hō ( 不動法 ) , or ritual service to enlist the deity's power of purification to benefit the faithful. This rite routinely involves the use of the Homa ritual ( 護摩 , goma) [1] as a purification tool.

Lay persons or monks in yamabushi gear who go into rigorous training outdoors in the mountains often pray to small Acala statues or portable talismans that serve as his honzon. [1] This element of yamabushi training, known as Shugendō, predates the introduction of Acala to Japan. At this time, figures such as Zaō Gongen ( 蔵王権現 ) , who appeared before the sect's founder, En no Gyōja, or Vairocana, were commonly worshiped. [1] Once Acala was added to list of deities typically enshrined by the yamabushi monks, his images were either portable, or installed in hokora (outdoor shrines). [1] These statues would often be placed near waterfalls (a common training ground), deep in the mountains and in caves. [59]

Acala also tops the list of Thirteen Buddhas. [88] Thus Shingon Buddhist mourners assign Fudō to the first seven days of service. [88] The first week is an important observance, but perhaps not as much as the observance of "seven times seven days" (i.e. 49 days) signifying the end of the "intermediate state" (bardo).

Literature on Shingon Buddhist ritual will explain that Sanskrit "seed syllables", mantras and mudras are attendant to each of the Buddhas for each observance period. But the scholarly consensus seems to be that invocation of the "Thirteen Buddhas" had evolved later, around the 14th century [89] [90] and became widespread by the following century, [89] so it is doubtful that this practice was part of Kūkai's original teachings.

China Edit

While iconography of Acala is not as popular in Chinese Buddhist temples as in Japan, he is revered as one of the eight Buddhist guardians of the Chinese zodiac and specifically considered to be the protector of those born in the year of the Rooster.

    's 1969 poem Smokey the Bear Sutra portrays Smokey Bear (the mascot of the U.S. Forest Service) as an incarnation of Vairocana (the "Great Sun Buddha") in a similar vein as Acala. Indeed, Acala's Mantra of Compassionate Help is presented in the text as Smokey's "great mantra." [91]
  • The character Daigo Dojima from the Yakuza series has a tattoo of Acala on his back.

Gilt bronze statue from Tibet, 15th-16th century, Honolulu Museum of Art

Thangka depicting four-armed Acala, from Khara-Khoto, 13th-14th century

Kamakura period painting at Daigo-ji, Kyoto showing Acala with Kiṃkara and Ceṭaka

Acala with eight acolytes, Kamakura period, Nara National Museum

The Kurikara sword flanked by Kiṃkara and Ceṭaka, Kamakura period, Nara National Museum

Drawing of four-armed Acala, from the Fudō Giki (1245) [92]

Statue of Two-Headed Rāgarāja, the combined form of Acala (Fudō) and Rāgarāja (Aizen), at Hokke-ji (Mitahora Kōbō) in Gifu

Statue at the Great Peace Pagoda in Shinshō-ji, Narita, Chiba Prefecture


In eighth-century China, Buddhist sculptors adopted new standards of secular beauty for spiritual figures. Whereas images of the Buddha appear sternly formal, bodhisattvas, the merciful deities that guide men toward salvation, often display more humanistic features. This bodhisattva’s graceful proportions, upswept hair, sinuous drapery, and delicate jewelry convey an appealing physical elegance. Seated informally, the deity is poised to step down from its pedestal.

Together with a large seated Buddha and another attendant bodhisattva in the Art Institute collection (1930.83, 1930.84), this sculpture came to the museum in 1930 with a note of its discovery in a temple known as Cangfosi in northern Hebei province. Neither archaeological nor written records have been located to confirm this reported site. The scale and stone medium of these figures suggest that they were commissioned for a cave temple or shrine a chamber carved into the face of a mountain or cliff.


Ksitigarbha in Japan

Ksitigarbha has a unique place in Japan, however. As Jizo, the bodhisattva (bosatsu in Japanese) has become one of the most beloved figures of Japanese Buddhism. Stone figures of Jizo populate temple grounds, city intersections, and country roads. Often several Jizos stand together, portrayed as small children, dressed in bibs or children's clothes.

Visitors might find the statues charming, but most tell a sad story. The caps and bibs and sometimes toys that decorate the silent statues often have been left by grieving parents in memory of a dead child.

Jizo Bosatsu is the protector of children, expectant mothers, firemen, and travelers. Most of all, he is the protector of deceased children, including miscarried, aborted, or stillborn infants. In Japanese folklore, Jizo hides the children in his robes to protect them from demons and guide them to salvation.

According to one folk tale, the dead children go to a kind of purgatory where they must spend eons piling stones into towers to make merit and be released. But demons come to scatter the stones, and the towers are never built. Only Jizo can save them.

Like most of the transcendent bodhisattvas, Jizo may appear in many forms and is ready to help whenever and wherever he is needed. Nearly every community in Japan has its own beloved Jizo statue, and each one has its own name and unique characteristics. For example, Agonashi Jizo heals toothaches. Doroashi Jizo helps rice farmers with their crops. The Miso Jizo is a patron of scholars. The Koyasu Jizo assists women in labor. There is even a Shogun Jizo, dressed in armor, who protects soldiers in battle. There are easily a hundred or more special Jizos throughout Japan.


Chinese Bodhisattva with Diadem - History

(Minghui.org) Buddhism flourished in China during the Southern Dynasty, mostly because Xiao Yan (464 - 549 AD), Emperor Wu of Liang, was a devout Buddhist. He not only promoted Buddhism nationwide, but also conscientiously practiced Buddhism in his daily life and in his managing of state affairs.

After Xiao Yan became the emperor, he achieved great things politically. Having learned from the demise of the Qi State, he was diligent in handling state affairs and always got up early every morning to review memorials and official documents regardless of the weather or season. In the winter, his hands were sometimes so cold that the skin cracked, but he never complained.

To hear good advice from all over and to make the best use of his people’s talents, he ordered two boxes set up outside the gate of the imperial compound, one called “Bang Mu Han” and the other, “Fei Shi Han.”

If meritorious officials or talented people were not properly rewarded or promoted, they could put their letters of appeal into the “Fei Shi Han” box. If ordinary people wanted to make critical comments on state affairs or offer suggestions, they could put their petitions into the “Bang Mu Han” box.

Emperor Wu of Liang attached great importance to the selection and appointment of officials. He demanded that local officials be honest with a clear conscience, and he often summoned them to the court to remind them that it was their responsibility to serve the country and the people.

To promote high standards in governance, the emperor also sent edicts across the country. If magistrates in small counties were responsible for outstanding achievements, they would be promoted to be magistrates in large counties, and large county magistrates with outstanding merits would be promoted to the position of governor in a prefecture. Thanks to these sound policies, the officials in Liang did well, and agriculture, the silk textile industry, and commerce in Liang flourished.

Emperor Wu of Liang believed in and worshiped Buddha with all sincerity. In the early years when he spent most of his time fighting on the battlefield, he did not have time to visit temples or burn incense and show his respect to Buddha. After he became emperor, he took worshiping Buddha and visiting temples very seriously, and such events became important ritual activities in his country.

In 504 AD, the year after he became emperor of Liang, he led 20,000 monks and laymen to Chongyun Pavilion of Chongyun Hall and wrote “She Dao Shi Fo Wen,” declaring his sincerity in worshiping Buddha.

Emperor Wu of Liang also showed his commitment to Buddhism in his daily life and gained his people’s respect. According to history books, he wore the same headwear for three years and used the same quilt for two years before replacing them with new ones. He followed a vegetarian diet and paid little attention to food or clothing. He wore the same clothes even after they had been washed several times. All his clothes were made of cotton instead of silk, since the extraction of silk would kill countless silkworms, which would not comply with the Buddhist prohibition against killing. He ate mostly vegetables and only one meal a day. When he was very busy, he would just have porridge when he felt hungry. He never drank alcohol or listened to music for pleasure, even though he himself was a proficient musician. He was the most “miserable” emperor in Chinese history.

Emperor Wu of Liang showed great compassion in his governance. Whenever the court sentenced a criminal to death, he would look very sad for many days. In his later years, he declared that he was willing to convert to Buddhism and actually went to stay in Tongtai Temple, the largest temple in Jiankang City, four times. Consequently, he was given the nickname “Emperor Bodhisattva.”

Xiao Yan, Emperor Wu of Liang, truly deserved the title “Emperor Bodhisattva.” He ordered the construction of many temple towers and Buddha statues and promoted Buddhism earnestly during his reign. The capital city, Jiankang, which covered an area of 40 miles in each direction, was home to more than 500 temples, with numerous towering pavilions and pagodas. The Liang Dynasty had a population of five million, and the number of monks and nuns in Jiankang City alone reached 100,000. There were also many monks and nuns in other counties and prefectures.

There was a common practice at that time, known as “sacrificing oneself.” There were two ways to do this. One was to give one's assets to the temple, and the other was to join the temple to serve the monks. Xiao Yan “sacrificed himself” four times as a monk in Tongtai Temple (now the Jiming Temple in Nanjing), with lengths of stay from four to 37 days. And each time the court redeemed him with gold. The total amount paid in ransoms to the temple came to 400 million gold coins. Buddhism achieved unprecedented prosperity during the Liang Dynasty.

Xiao Yan was on the throne for nearly half a century, and his country and people enjoyed remarkable cultural and economic prosperity during his reign. Even the enemy countries to the north were amazed and followed suit.

Traditional Confucianism also reached a historical high while Emperor Wu of Liang was vigorously promoting Buddhism. The whole country was permeated with an atmosphere of Confucian culture, and scholars showed a keen interest in Confucian studies. From the emperor to the princes and nobles, everybody took pride in being gracious and having integrity, and strove to improve their cultural literacy.

As a result, during Liang’s just over 50 years, an impressive number of accomplished writers and poets made significant contributions to Chinese literature, such as Xiao Tong, who wrote “Selected Works of Zhaoming” Shen Yue, author of “Song Shu” Xiao Ziliang, who wrote “Nan Qi Shu” Liu Xie, author of “Wen Xin Diao Long” Zhong Rong, author of “Shi Pin” as well as many other well-known scholars, not to mention Xiao Yan’s two sons who became emperors themselves—Jianwen Emperor Xiao Gang and Yuan Emperor Xiao Yi. In short, the literary achievements during the Liang Dynasty could be matched only by the prosperous Tang and Northern Song dynasties in Chinese history.

Emperor Wu of Liang made remarkable contributions to Chinese Buddhist culture, the promotion of Confucianism, and the spread of China’s divine culture.


Kyk die video: Chinese Buddhist Morning Chant (Oktober 2021).