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Waarom is soveel suksesvolle sokker (sokker) spanne omstreeks 1900 gestig?

Waarom is soveel suksesvolle sokker (sokker) spanne omstreeks 1900 gestig?

bv. Manchester United, Real Madrid, Juventus, Bayern München.


Real Madrid CF

Real Madrid CF het waarskynlik alles bereik wat 'n sokkerklub kon doen. Met 'n rekord van 33 La Liga -titels, 19 Copa del Rey -trofeë, 'n opspraakwekkende 13 Europese bekers/kampioeneligas en 2 UEFA -bekers, is Real ongeëwenaard in 'n kompetisie vir die grootste sokkerklub ooit. Terwyl die klub hewige wedywering met Barcelona (El Clásico) en Atlético Madrid (El Derbi Madrileño) geniet, was Real die grootste deel van sy geskiedenis die klub wat die meeste in die land ondersteun word. Baie van die beste spelers ter wêreld het in die klubs wit hemde gespeel, insluitend legendes soos Alfredo Di Stéfano en Ferenc Puskás.

Basiese feite

Gestig: 1902
Land: Spanje
Stad: Madrid

Huisgronde

Campo de O'Donnell (1912-1923)
Campo de Ciudad Lineal (1923-1924)
Estadio Chamartín (1924-1947)
Santiago Bernabéu (1947-)

Hoof trofeë

La Liga: 34
Copa del Rey: 19
Europese beker/Champions League: 13
UEFA -beker: 2

La Liga: 1931–32, 1932–33, 1953–54, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1966–67 , 1967–68, 1968–69, 1971–72, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1985–86, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1989 –90, 1994–95, 1996–97, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2016–17
Copa del Rey: 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1917, 1934, 1936, 1946, 1947, 1961–62, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1979–80, 1981–82, 1988–89, 1992–93, 2010–11, 2013–14
Europese beker: 1955–56, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1965–66
UEFA Champions League: 1997–98, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2013–14, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18
UEFA -beker: 1984–85, 1985–86

Prominente spelers

Santiago Bernabéu Yeste, José María Peña, Adolphe Mengotti, Alfredo di Stéfano, Raymond Kopa, Ferenc Puskás, Francisco Gento, Butragueño, Michel, Hugo Sánchez, Fernando Redondo, Luís Figo, Zinedine Zidane, Roberto Carlos, Raúl González, , Gareth bale

Klubrekords

Meeste gespeelde wedstryde: Raúl (550)
Beste doelskieter: Cristiano Ronaldo (380)


Die oorsprong van sokker in Skotland is onseker. Die Highlanders het blykbaar nooit so 'n wedstryd gespeel nie (anders as ander Keltiese streke, soos Cornwall, Wallis en Bretagne). Daar word dus voorgestel dat voetbal Skotland uit Frankryk of Engeland bereik het. [1]

Verskeie speletjies, bekend as "voetbal" (of variante), is in die Middeleeue in Skotland gespeel. Ten spyte van dieselfde naam, lyk die Middeleeuse voetbal egter min of meer aan Association Football (sokker). Die bal is gereeld met die hand gedra, en die spanne was dikwels groot of oneweredig, en soms was skrumwerk betrokke. Sommige van hierdie speletjies word tot vandag toe nog gespeel, veral in Kirkwall en Jedburgh - sien Ba -spel.

Die vroegste verwysing na 'fute-ball' in Skotland was in 1424 toe koning James I die speel daarvan verbied het in die voetbalwet 1424. Dit was vermoedelik as gevolg van die ontwrigting wat sokker ondergaan het tydens militêre opleiding sowel as die dikwels gewelddadige aard daarvan. Daaropvolgende konings het baie soortgelyke bevele uitgevaardig, wat daarop dui dat die verbod onsuksesvol was. Sekerlik was James VI van Skotland deeglik bewus van die gewelddadige aard van sokker, skryf, in sy 1599 Basilikon Doron, om van prysenswaardige oefening te ontslae te raak "alle rowwe en gewelddadige oefeninge, soos die voetbal, leter meer as om die gebruikers daarvan in staat te stel". [2] [3] Daar was egter tye dat koninklike verbod verslap is, indien nie amptelik nie. In 1497 bevat die rekeninge van die Lord High Treasurer die aankoop van voetbal vir James IV. Dit is nie bekend of hy ooit die wedstryd gespeel het nie. Daar is ook 'n tradisie dat koning James V van Melrose na Jedburgh oorgesteek het om aan die Jedburgh -balspel deel te neem. Daar is egter geen gedokumenteerde bewyse om hierdie oortuiging te bevestig nie, en die vroegste kontemporêre weergawe van die spel in Jedburgh kom baie later aan die begin van die agtiende eeu.

Geweld tydens vroeë Skotse voetbalwedstryde was beslis 'n belangrike rede vir hierdie koninklike besluite, en verdere bewyse kom uit die 16de eeuse Skotse literatuur, byvoorbeeld in die volgende gedigte.

Tussen 1501 en 1512 verklaar Gavin Douglas:

"Hierdie gebreekte skeen wat swel en nie verlig sal word nie. Neem dit vir hom, hy het dit met die bal gebreek, en sê vir hom dat dit sy beloning sal wees. Neem die hele gekneusde arm na hom toe"

Sir Richard Maitland spreek sy plesier uit 'n laat -sestiende eeuse gedig uit om te oud te wees vir die rowwe spel:

As jong manne van die gren af ​​kom, het die speelbal by die voetbal, met gebroke koud, ek dank my god, ek wil een, ek is so goed. "[3]

In moderne Engels kan vertaal word as:

As jong mans uit die setperk kom, het hulle voetbal gespeel met 'n gebroke skouer, ek dank my God dat ek nie sig het nie: ek is so oud

Die geweld van vroeë voetbal in Skotland word ook lewendig beskryf deur 'n ander anonieme beskrywing van die sestiende eeu, "The Beauties of Foot-ball":

Brissit, brawnis and broken banis, Stryf, discorde and waistie wanis, Cruikit in eild syn stop withall, Thir are the bewties of the fute ball ". [3]

Dit in moderne Engels word vertaal as:

Gekneusde spiere en gebreekte bene Stryd, onenigheid en vergeefse houe Lamed op ouderdom, dan gekreukel, dit is die skoonheid van sokker "

Dit was nie net die Skotse monargie en plaaslike munisipaliteite wat wette sou wou instel oor die speel van sokker nie. In Perth moes vakleerlinge wat in die 16de eeu vorder tot ambagsmanne, tradisioneel vir 'n banket betaal en 'n voetbalwedstryd hou. [4] In 1546 het die Company of Hammermen (dit wil sê smede) van Perth 'n bevel uitgevaardig dat "nóg bediendes of vakleerlinge" voetbal moet speel "onder die straf van 'n pond was" wat aan hul altaar in die kerk gegee moet word. [5] Vermoedelik was dit 'n maatreël om werkafwesigheid en beserings te voorkom. Daar is ander berigte oor werkgewers wat gedurende die daaropvolgende eeue aktief deelneem aan pogings om voetbal in Skotland te verbied.

Vroeë Skotse voetbal het soms uitgebreek in baie uiterste gewelddadige uitbarstings, insluitend die gebruik van vuurwapens. By Lochtoun in 1606 tydens 'n "fute-ball" wedstryd, het sommige spelers "in tevredenheid en kontroversie geval, soos ander saam met ander, en schot en dilaschit pistolettis en hacquebuttis" [3] Dit was duidelik 'n hartstogtelike en gevaarlike tydverdryf. Voetbal in die sestiende eeu word ook gedokumenteer as 'n voorwendsel vir strooptogte oor die grens teen die Engelse.

In 'n poging om sulke gewelddadige uitbarstings te beheer, het voetbal in die sestiende en sewentiende eeu onder die Puriteinse aanval gekom en word dit baie keer gedokumenteer as 'n oortreding op 'n Sondag, vermoedelik vanweë die ontwrigtende uitwerking daarvan op die samelewing en die waarskynlik gewelddadige aard. Byvoorbeeld, die jeug van Aberdeen word in 1607 daarvan beskuldig dat hulle hulself op die sabbat onheilig gedra het: "drink, voetbal speel. En van gemeente na gemeente" [6] Verdere verwysings na die oortreding in Skotland van sokker speel op Sondag kom by die einde van die sestiende eeu en die eerste helfte van die sewentiende. In 1656 het die Skotse parlement 'n wet uitgevaardig wat alle onstuimige speletjies op die dag van die Here verbied. Tog was die puriteinse aanval op sokker nie so erg in Skotland as in Engeland nie en in albei lande is die spel ongetwyfeld geesdriftig gespeel.

Daar is bewyse dat skoolseuns in 1633 'n voetbalbalwedstryd in Aberdeen speel (sommige verwysings noem 1636), wat opvallend is as 'n vroeë verwysing na wat sommige as 'n bal beskou het. Die woord "slaag" in die mees onlangse vertaling is afgelei van "huc percute" (slaan dit hier) en later "repercute pilam" (slaan weer die bal) in die oorspronklike Latyn. Dit is nie seker dat die bal tussen lede van dieselfde span geslaan is nie. Die oorspronklike woord wat as 'doel' vertaal is, is 'metum', wat letterlik die 'pilaar aan elke einde van die sirkusbaan' in 'n Romeinse wa -wedloop beteken. Daar word verwys na "om die bal in die hande te kry voordat ['n ander speler] dit doen" (Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere) wat daarop dui dat die hantering van die bal toegelaat is. Een sin lui in die oorspronklike vertaling uit 1930 "Werp jouself teen hom" (Age, objice te illi). Dit is duidelik dat die spel taai was, en die aanpak wat toegelaat is, sluit in die "laai" en druk van teenstanders ("dryf daardie man terug" in die oorspronklike vertaling, "repelle eum" in oorspronklike Latyn). Daar word beweer dat hierdie wedstryd ooreenstem met rugbyvoetbal. In teenstelling met mediaberigte in 2006, is daar geen verwysing na voorwaartse aangee, spelreëls, nasien van spelers of spanvorming nie. Hierdie verslae beskryf dit as '' 'n wonderlike nuwe ontdekking '', maar is eintlik sedert die vroeë twintigste eeu goed gedokumenteer in die geskiedenis van sokkergeskiedenis en sedert minstens 2000 op die internet beskikbaar. [6]

Geweld was 'n gereelde klag oor Skotse voetbalwedstryde vir baie eeue. Sir Patrick Hume van Polwarth het in Maart 1648 aan sy vrou geskryf dat hul seun "homself Sondag so seer gemaak het by voetbal in Polwart dat hy nie kon oproer nie". In Jedburgh is die balspel in 1704 deur die stadsraad verbied en verklaar dat "soms oud en jonk naby hul lewens daardeur verloor het". [3] As gevolg hiervan is besluit om die spel nou en altyd te laat aflaai. Hierdie poging was aanvanklik onsuksesvol, aangesien in 1706 selfs plaaslike handel in Jedburgh saamgewerk het om die spel te onderdruk, soos blyk uit die boete van sommige lede van die Fleshers Corporation op 'n skelm van die voetbal. [5] Net so by Duns in 1724 lui 'n klag "voetbal. Het altyd geëindig en bepaal in die vloei van bloed onder die inwoners". [3] Teen die einde van die agtiende eeu het die digter Skinner in sy gedigte opgemerk 'n paar van die beserings wat hy in Monymusk opgedoen het: 'Is daar nog nooit in Monymusk gesien nie?' daar was nane, maar het twee bloedige skene gehad "

Sir Walter Scott beskryf sokker as "sy gunsteling grenssport". Ook hy praat egter oor die rowwe aard van die negentiende -eeuse Skotse voetbal in sy teks The Lay: "In riot, revelry, and rout, Pursued the football, play". [3] Scott sê ook dat in die "voetbal": "Die oorwinning word met die grootste woede bestry, en soms het baie ernstige ongelukke in die stryd plaasgevind".

Skotse voetbal was tot in die negentiende eeu 'n baie gewelddadige aangeleentheid. Byvoorbeeld, die spel in Hawick is in 1825 beskryf as 'n soort oorlog of geveg ". [3] In 1826 is die spel in Kirkwall verbied omdat dit die vrede versteur. Van hierdie tyd tot in die laat 1860's is daar 'n stilte in verwysings na sokker in Skotland, wat daarop dui dat die verbod op die spel uiteindelik suksesvol was. As gevolg van die vlak van geweld in die vroeë Skotse voetbalwedstryde, is baie tradisionele balspele in die negentiende eeu aangepas of dood. Daar is egter steeds voorbeelde van tradisionele Skotse voetbal, veral die Ba -spel (hoewel baie hiervan in die moderne tyd herleef is).

Die vroegste bewys van die gebruik van gekodifiseerde reëls vir enige tipe voetbal in Skotland kom in 1851 toe rugbyvoetbal deur die Edinburgh Academy aangeneem is om met ander skole te kan speel. Die Edinburgh Academical Football Club, is die oudste sokkerklub van enige kode in Skotland (rugbyvoetbal).

'N "Foot Ball Club" is in 1824 in Edinburgh gestig [7] Nadat dit onlangs hervorm is, speel dit nou verenigingsvoetbal in die Edinburgh & amp District Sunday Amateur Association.


Amerika se baie suksesvolle sosialistiese eksperiment

In sport en in die lewe sien Europa en die Verenigde State hul samelewings anders - net nie op die manier wat u sou verwag nie.

Memphis, Tennessee, is bekend vir baie dinge: Elvis Presley en BB King, die blues en braai. Al hierdie dinge, en meer. Maar nie Grizzly -bere nie.

Ek het nie veel hieraan gedink terwyl ek met my vakansie uit Londen was toe ek en my vrou die stomende, ondraaglike hitte van die stad vrygespring het om deur die waaierwinkel van Memphis Grizzlies (met heerlik lugversorging) te kyk nie. Die Grizzlies is die stad se professionele basketbalspan. Hul gelukbringer is Griz the Grizzly Bear. Hulle kuif is 'n Grizzly -beer. Dit gaan alles oor die beer.

In 'n hoek van die winkel was hemde en ander goedere vir 'n span genaamd die Vancouver Grizzlies - een wie se naam baie meer sin maak. Trouens, die twee spanne was dieselfde franchise, wat in 2001 1 900 myl oor 'n internasionale grens en drie tydsones verhuis het. Vancouver kon nie 'n professionele basketbalspan ondersteun nie, daarom het die Grizzlies na Tennessee vertrek. Dit is nie uniek in Amerikaanse sport nie, selfs nie in Tennessee nie. In 1997 verhuis die Amerikaanse voetbal se Houston Oilers na Nashville, waar hulle as die Tennessee Oilers ongehoorsaam gespeel het voordat hulle die Tennessee Titans geword het. Die mees absurde voorbeeld bly die Jazz: 'n perfekte naam vir 'n basketbalspan uit New Orleans, waar dit minder uit Utah was, waar dit nou woon.

Toe ons terugkeer na Brittanje, bereik die jaarlikse waansin van voetbaloordrag sy gewone koorshoogte. Sou Neymar Jr., die Brasiliaanse superster, terugkeer na Barcelona vanaf Paris Saint-Germain? Hoeveel sou hy kos - $ 200 miljoen? Meer? Terselfdertyd staan ​​twee klein, maar beroemde klubs in Engeland, Bury FC en Bolton Wanderers, net soos die Vancouver Grizzlies, aan die einde van die pad. Hulle was besig om geld te verloor en kon geen koper kry nie. Dit beteken egter nie dat u na 'n ander stad moet verhuis nie, maar die moontlikheid van bankrotskap en uitwerping. Die kontras tussen Amerikaanse en Europese professionele sportsoorte kan nie skerper wees nie. In die Verenigde State woon spanne voort, net op 'n nuwe plek, en mislukking bied die geleentheid om te herstel. In die wrede wêreld van Europese sokker word sterkte en sukses beloon, swakheid gestraf.

Op sportgebied is die VSA en Europa verskillende wêrelde, wat elkeen groter waarhede openbaar oor die samelewings waarin hulle funksioneer - hoewel dit miskien nie die is wat die toevallige waarnemer sou aanneem nie.

Europa word gereeld gesien en bespot oor die Atlantiese Oseaan as die tegnokratiese moederkontinent van Amerika, waar kollektivisme en welwillendheid heers. Tog het dit 'n sokkermodel ontwikkel wat 'n vorm van hiperkapitalisme is, waarin die sterkste spanne besighede is wat leef en sterf weens hul vermoë om te wen. Diegene aan die bokant kry enorme bedrae prysgeld, waardeur hulle die beste spelers met die beste lone kan verseker. Die drie beste sportsterre ter wêreld hierdie jaar is almal sokkerspelers: Lional Messi, Cristiano Ronaldo en Neymar, wat elk meer as $ 100 miljoen per jaar verdien.

In Europese voetbal is daar geen salarisdop nie, of spelers word oor die algemeen as kommoditeite verhandel - letterlik 'n deel van die onderneming se balansstaat uit. As u spelers in Europa koop, koop u dit nie. Die klubs wat te veel spandeer, gaan bankrot. Diegene wat mededingend misluk, eindig in die onderste paar posisies in die liga, word gedelegeer, heeltemal uit die boonste vlak verwyder en gedwing om met 'n ander, laer vlak te speel voordat hulle hulself verdien om terug te keer. (Dit geld ook vir die Europese elite. As hulle selfs net vir een seisoen nie goed genoeg presteer nie, kan hulle nie deelneem aan die kontinent se voorste kompetisie nie: die Champions League, 'n wedstryd wat slegs oop is vir die spanne wat naby die top van hul eindstryd eindig. binnelandse liga.)

Die Verenigde State, daarenteen, het 'n reputasie in groot dele van Europa as die toonbeeld van kapitalisme wat alles kan wen, maar gebruik tog variante van 'n protososialistiese model vir al sy groot sportsoorte. Sukses word gegroet, maar tog ingekort en mislukking word beloon: Die spanne wat die swakste geplaas is, kry die eerste keuse in die ontwerp van nuwe spelers in die volgende seisoen, sodat hulle talent kan herbou, 'n vorm van herverdeling wat elders in die Amerikaanse ekonomie verwerp word. Daar is geen degradasie vir diegene wat laaste eindig nie. Salarisbepalings verseker elke jaar 'n gelyke speelveld, en die franchises stem gesamentlik ooreen. Daar is selfs in sommige gevalle 'n salarisvloer om te verseker dat klubs mededingend bly.

As Amerikaanse en Europese sportligas politici was, sou Europa Donald Trump wees, en die Verenigde State Bernie Sanders.

Amerikaanse sport is nie so omdat hulle van sosialisme hou nie - hulle neem eenvoudig die beste pad om geld te verdien.

"In die VSA het hulle vroeër agtergekom dat 'n liga meer winsgewend is as mense saamwerk," het Gabriele Marcotti, 'n senior sokkerskrywer by die sportuitsaaier en nuuswebwerf ESPN, aan my gesê. "Liga -eienaars is sakevennote."

Terwyl Amerikaanse sport kollektief in struktuur is - kompetisie beheers, talent en geld herverdeel word - bly dit diep, uitsonderlik Amerikaans. Basketbal, sokker en bofbal is in die Verenigde State geskep, ontwerp vir die Verenigde State, en verpak vir die Verenigde State. Hulle voldoen aan die Amerikaanse gevoelighede-vir televisie- en kommersiële pouses, cheerleaders en halftydprogramme, en is bedoel om verbruik te word, en kompeteer nie met ander ligas wat dieselfde produk aanbied nie, maar met Hollywood en prime-time TV.

Dat hulle geld wil verdien, is ook minder omstrede in die Verenigde State. Die Chicago White Sox het byvoorbeeld in 2006 'n kontrak geteken om die aanvangstyd van hul bofbalwedstryde na 19:11 te verander. as deel van 'n borgskapooreenkoms met die kettingwinkelketting 7-Eleven. In Europa sou dit 'n heiligmaking wees.

Fundamenteel onthul Amerikaanse sport iets wat net so waar is in wêreldsake as enigiets anders: Amerikaanse uitsonderlikheid. Die Verenigde State kan en doen dinge in die wêreld wat ander nie kan nie. Sy grootte, rykdom en aardrykskunde maak dit eenvoudig so.

Kyk hoe Amerikaanse sportsoorte gebore is. Daar was geen ander ligas om mee te ding nie - dit was Amerikaanse sport, nie wêreldsport nie. Dit het die organiseerders meer beheer gegee oor die manier waarop die ligas uitgevoer word as wat die geval is in sokker, wat deur wêreldwye, mededingende kragte onderbreek word. In sport, net soos in die lewe, is die VSA volgens sy eie reëls groot genoeg en anders genoeg om sy eie speletjies te speel. Die res van die wêreld kan nie.

Sokker, die belangrikste sport in Europa, het in 'n amateur -era begin en beskou homself as meer as vermaak: iets gemeenskapliks, selfs stam. Klubs is deur kerke of minderheidsgroepe gestig om 'n klas of belang, stad of streek, selfs politieke affiliasie en godsdiens, te verteenwoordig. Dit gaan nie net oor vermaak nie.

'N Vinnige besoek aan enige land in Europa illustreer die punt. In Glasgow, Skotland, is die sokkerklub Celtic gestig deur 'n Ierse Katolieke priester met die doel om geld in te samel vir 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie wat opgerig is om armoede te verlig. Sy stadsmededingers, Rangers, wat deur vier broers in die westelike deel van die stad gestig is, is tradisioneel protestantse. Vandag bly Kelties oor die Katolieke span - dit speel in groen en wit, en die driekleur van Ierland, 'n Katolieke land, word tydens sy wedstryde gevlieg. Die Rangers speel in blou, en Britse vlae word tydens hul wedstryde gewaai. Om die een of ander trui in Belfast, oorkant die Ierse See in Noord -Ierland, te dra, is amper 'n aanduiding van watter sektariese stam u behoort. Een katolieke vriend van my wat in Belfast grootgeword het, herinner hom erg aan die dag toe hy as kind met 'n Protestantse vriend gespeel het, dat hy deur 'n seuntjie in 'n Keltiese top in die gesig geslaan is omdat hy 'n Rangers -sweetpak gedra het. Die pa van sy vriend het die seuns die uitrustings gegee - hulle was mal oor sokker en te jonk om vir die kleure van die span om te gee.

Celtics -aanhangers spog met die kleure van die span. (Jason Cairnduff / Reuters)

Daar is talle ander voorbeelde: Lazio in Rome is berug vir die verband met fascisme en Mussolini. Livorno, 150 myl langs die kus, was waar die Italiaanse Kommunistiese Party gestig is, en sy ondersteuners het Joseph Stalin se verjaardag gevier. Rusland het spanne wie se wortels terugkeer na afdelings in die Sowjet -era: die mense (Spartak), die polisie (Dynamo) en die weermag (CSKA). In Spanje verteenwoordig klubs apartheid, monargie of klas. Die leuse van FC Barcelona - op sy stadion, die Camp Nou - is "Més que un club, "Of" Meer as 'n klub. " Ondanks sy geglobaliseerde handelsmerk, bly FC Barcelona 'n klub wat deur sy ondersteuners besit word en 'n kragtige simbool van Katalaans identiteit. In die Baskeland het Athletic Club Bilbao slegs spelers uit die Baskiese streek in diens. Real Madrid - Royal Madrid - is die koning se span, kompleet met 'n koninklike helmteken (en omstrede finansiële transaksies van die regering).

Die mees opvallende voorbeeld is miskien uit Oostenryk. In 1909 het twee Oostenrykse Sioniste, Fritz “Beda” Löhner en Ignaz Herman Körner, die klub Hakoah Vienna gestig om fondse in te samel vir die sionisme. Hakoah - die naam beteken "sterkte" in Hebreeus - het die Oostenrykse kampioenskap in 1925 gewen, voordat hy die volgende jaar na die VSA getoer het en groot skare getrek het. In New York het die klub voor meer as 40 000 ondersteuners gespeel - die grootste skare vir 'n sokkerwedstryd in die VSA vir die komende dekades.

Die idee dat sokker meer as net 'n sport is, is tot 'n mate 'n mite wat Europa homself vertel - een wat in een of ander waarheid gebaseer is, maar nie die hele verhaal nie. In Engeland, byvoorbeeld, het suksesvolle vroeë klubs in Preston, Sunderland en Birmingham almal wild bestee om die beste spelers in te haal, het die voetbalskrywer Jonathan Wilson vir my gesê. Vandag is die truie van sokkerklubs bedek met logo's van borge, terwyl die eienaars van een span, Liverpool, selfs die naam van die stad probeer kenmerk.

Tog, sê Wilson, is daar 'n verskil tussen die sporttradisies aan weerskante van die Atlantiese Oseaan. "Die idee van sport as 'n geldmaakmiddel, deel van die vermaaklikheidsbedryf, het Amerikaanse sport nog altyd onderstreep," het Wilson gesê. 'Terwyl daar in Europa 'n gevoel van sport is as deel van die groter voordeel.'

Voor Memphis het ek en my vrou tyd in Atlanta deurgebring. In die woonbuurt Inman Park waar ons gebly het, oos van die middestad, het die rooi-en-swart vlag van Atlanta United FC huis na huis gewaai, so dikwels as die Stars and Stripes, en meer nog selfs die vlag van die Atlanta Falcons, die stad se Amerikaanse voetbalspan. Die gemiddelde bywoning van Atlanta United-meer as 50 000-plaas dit op nommer 10 op die wêreldwye bywoningsranglys, bo sommige van die aristokratiese reuse van Europa, soos die Italiaanse Juventus, Inter Milan en AC Milan. En tog bestaan ​​Atlanta United eers in 2014.

Daar is min, indien enige, ekwivalente verhale in Europese sokker. In 2004 is Wimbledon FC, 'n span uit Suid -Londen, verplaas na Milton Keynes, 'n stad wat in die dekades na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebou is. Die stap het nasionale nuus en veroordeling veroorsaak, en hoewel die klub, met die naam MK Dons, hom sedertdien in die derde vlak van Engelse voetbal gevestig het, met 'n gemiddelde bywoning van 9,000, is dit glad nie op die skaal van Atlanta United nie.

Selfs as gevestigde, maar middelste spanne hier 'n skielike sukses beleef, word hulle deur hul meer aristokratiese broers gering geag. Aanhangers van Liverpool, 'n dominante klub met 'n dekades lange geskiedenis van sukses, spot met sy eerste mededinger Manchester City, wat in 2008 deur 'n Emirati-organisasie gekoop is, omdat hulle nie dieselfde stamboom het nie. 'U kan nie klas koop nie', skreeu hulle.

Adam Lallana van Liverpool saam met Gael Clichy van Manchester City. (Andrew Yates / Reuters)

Die Verenigde State is natuurlik nie ontevrede met hiërargie en sportgeboortereg wat in stad en staat gewortel is nie, maar dit is voorbehou vir universiteitsport, 'n ander uitsluitlik Amerikaanse konsep, los van - en tot 'n mate gewilder as - die pro -ligas. In die boek van die Amerikaanse reisskrywer Paul Theroux Diep Suid, hy het besin oor Alabama se obsessie met sy oorheersende universiteitsvoetbalspan, wat sy tuiswedstryde speel in die Bryant-Denny-stadion met 101.821 persone, die agtste grootste sportveld ter wêreld en groter is as enige sokkerstadion in Europa. 'N Speeldag in Alabama is 'n staatswye gebeurtenis, en Theroux het geskryf dat motors met kursief gedruk is A van die span op bufferplakkers, en aanhangers het die brief op hul nek getatoeëer.

'Dit is 'n scenario waarin u historiese supermoondhede gevestig het,' het Marcotti, die ESPN -skrywer, my vertel van Amerikaanse universiteitsport. 'Hulle is elke jaar goed, want hulle werf die beste spelers. Hulle werf die beste spelers aan - en onthou dat hulle dit nie kan betaal nie - omdat hulle ander dinge na hulle toe gooi: sigbaarheid en status, uitstekende fasiliteite en 'n wonderlike konferensie en deel van die tradisie. ”

Op sportgebied werk die Verenigde State grotendeels alleen, onbetwis. Sy sport, professioneel en amateur, weerspieël die samelewing waarin hulle grootliks afsonderlik gegroei het, dit kan sy eie reëls skep en mededinging van die res van die wêreld vermy. Tot 'n punt.

Die VSA is uitsonderlik - maar nie heeltemal so nie. Dit kan selfs minder uitsonderlik word namate die res van die wêreld meer Amerikaans word, en die VSA meer soos die res van die wêreld word.

Neem sokker. Hiperkapitalistiese mededinging, geld en kommersialisering het dinastieë opgelewer. Die vyf groot Europese sokkerligas - Engeland, Frankryk, Duitsland, Spanje en Italië - word oorheers deur 'n klein aantal klubs, wat baie ryker is as die res. In Italië het Juventus agt keer agtereenvolgens die liga gewen. In Duitsland, Bayern die afgelope sewe. In Frankryk het Paris St. Germain ses van die afgelope sewe gewen.

Maar dit is binnelands. In die Champions League kon geen klub oorheers nie - Real Madrid is die enigste span wat ooit in opeenvolgende jare gewen het. In die afgelope 15 jaar is die kompetisie deur agt verskillende spanne gewen.

En omdat bloot deelname aan die Champions League so winsgewend is, ondersoek die reuse van Europese voetbal nou maniere om te verseker dat hulle nie maklik uit die kompetisie verwyder kan word deur dit uit te brei nie. '' N Stappie nader aan die franchisemodel ', soos Marcotti dit stel. 'Die top 10 tot 12 klubs, dit is nie professionele klubs nie; hulle speel 'n ander sport. Hulle is in die vermaaklikheidsbedryf. ”


9 oudste sokkerklubs ter wêreld

Voetbal, sokker, calcio, fútbol, ​​Fußball - hoe u dit ook al wil noem, 'The Beautiful Game' het 'n lang en ryk geskiedenis. Wat egter interessant is, is dat hierdie geskiedenis nie baie bekend is nie, aangesien ons praat oor die gewildste sport ter wêreld.

U sien, 'voetbal' was in die middel van die 19de eeu 'n baie gewilde sport in Engeland, maar daar was nie 'n stel reëls nie. Almal het dit net op hul eie manier gespeel. In 1863 het 'n klomp voetbalorganisasies bymekaargekom om 'n amptelike stel reëls op te stel sodat hulle mekaar sonder geskille kon speel. Dit was die eerste vergadering van The Football Association. Maar die stigting van die FA het gelei tot 'n skeuring tussen klubs wat wou hê spelers moes met die bal in hul hande hardloop en klubs wat net wou hê dat spelers die bal moes skop. Daarom, vanaf hierdie punt, toe mense oor gepraat het sokker, moes hulle spesifiseer of hulle bedoel rugby voetbal - waaruit Amerikaanse en Australiese voetbal afgelei is - of vereniging sokker.

Teen die 1880's was die Engelse egter van mening dat 'verenigingsvoetbal' 'n te omslagtige frase is, en daarom word dit afgekort tot 'soc ’er'. Dit is natuurlik die oorsprong van die Noord -Amerikaanse en Australiese name vir die sport. Maar hoewel die naam in daardie dele van die wêreld vasgesteek het, in Engeland, het sokkervoetbal teen die begin van die 20ste eeu rugbyvoetbal as die gewildste weergawe van die spel oortref. Dus het hulle die “ -vereniging ” laat vaar en dit net "sokker" begin noem.

Dit was in elk geval ongeveer 1860 dat klubs streng speel verenigingsvoetbal begin opduik. Hier is 'n lys van die 9 oudste sokkerklubs ter wêreld om hierdie geskiedenisles 'n stap verder te neem. Natuurlik sê ek 'wêreld', maar dit blyk dat hulle almal uit Engeland kom.

9. Sheffield Wednesday F.C. (Est. 1867)

Oorspronklik gestig as The Wednesday Cricket Club in 1820 - vernoem na die dag van die week waarin hulle hul wedstryde gespeel het - het hulle in September 1867 oorgeskakel na sokker en hul eerste mededingende wedstryd op 1 Februarie 1868 gespeel. Die klub het amptelik in 1887 pro geword. Die pro -sokkerklub was tot 1929 bloot bekend as "The Wednesday", waarna hulle die naam van die Sheffield Wednesday Football Club gekry het. Vandag Sheffield Wednesday F.C. speel in Engeland se Football League 1, die 3de hoogste afdeling op die piramide van die Engelse sokkerliga ná die Engelse Premierliga en die Football League -kampioenskap. Hulle het egter so hoog soos die EPL gespeel so onlangs as 1992, en die FLC so onlangs as 2010.

8. Nottingham Forest F.C. (Est. 1865)

Hierdie klub is in 1865 gestig in die stad West Bridgford, Engeland, en het in 1888 pro gegaan. Hulle speel tans in Engeland se 2de afdeling Football League -kampioenskap, maar het suksesvolle toernooie in die boonste vlak geniet. In die seisoen 1977-78 het Forrest (soos hulle bekend staan) die naam van hul span in die Engelse sokkergeskiedenis geëts deur een van die min spanne te word wen Engeland se beste liga in hul eerste jaar nadat hulle uit die 2de vlak bevorder is. (Die foto hierbo is afkomstig van die span se toer van 1905 deur Suid -Amerika.)

Hierdie klub uit die stad Brigg in Noord -Lincolnshire, Engeland, is reeds in 1864 gestig. Vandag speel hulle in Engeland se Norther Premier League Division One South, wat manier onderaan die Engelse voetballiga -piramide - die 8ste vlak om presies te wees. Natuurlik, soos die ligastelsel in Engeland werk, is dit in teoreties moontlik vir klein BTFC om binne 7 seisoene tot in die Engelse Premierliga te kom, hoewel ons hoop dat niemand in Brigg asem ophou nie.

Gestig in 1863 as die Stoke Ramblers Football Club, Stoke City F.C. is tans die oudste sokkerklub wat in die Engelse voetbalstelsel, die Premier League, speel. Natuurlik het hulle eers die oudste span in die EPL geword toe hulle in 2008 uit die tweede afdeling bevorder is. En as hulle in die komende seisoen in die onderste drie in die tweede seisoen was, kan hulle ophou om die oudste span in die EPL te wees. Die titel "oudste EPL -span" is dus altyd op die spel.

5. Notts County F.C. (Est. 1862)

Stoke City is moontlik die oudste sokkerklub in die EPL, maar Notts County F.C. het die titel "oudste professioneel klub ”in die wêreld. Net soos Sheffield Wednesday speel Notts County tans in Football League 1, Engelse sokker se 3de afdeling. Die klub het egter 'n paar proeë van glorie gehad. Hulle speel so onlangs as 1991-1992 in die hoogste afdeling-voordat die 'superliga', wat die EPL is, gestig het, maar net kleiner klubs in die onderste rye.

4. Worksop Town F.C. (Est. 1861)

Worksop Town F.C. is 'n semi-pro-sokkerklub wat tans speel in die Engelse Premier Premier League, die sewende vlak van die Engelse ligastelsel. Though the club has never made it above the 6th tier of the league system, they have some relative exciting moments in FA Cup tournament play. Most notably, in the 1920-21 season Worksop Town F.C. somehow managed to tie Tottenham Hotspur 0-0. To put it in perspective for North American sports fans, that’s like a high school football team earning a tie against the Buffalo Bills.

3. Cray Wanderers F.C. (Est. 1860)

The Cray Wanderers are another semi-pro club—meaning players are paid something (maybe in beer?), but nowhere near enough to quit their day jobs. Like Worksop, Cray plays in the 7th tier of the English league system however, they play in a league parallel to the Northern Premier League called the Isthmian League Premier Division. Also like Worksop, Cray has never been able to rise above the bottom levels of the English soccer pyramid.


The 30 most successful football clubs in the world - based on total trophies won

When thinking of the most successful clubs in the world, familiar names spring to mind.

The likes of Real Madrid, Juventus, Barcelona, Manchester United, Liverpool and Bayern Munich are known for their lucrative history, as well as recent successes which has come with their dominance on both a domestic and European level.

But if we take into account the whole of the world and assess their total number of trophies won, none of these sides make it into the top five.

A chart, compiled by Goal, listed the top 30 most successful clubs in the world based on all-time trophies won.

The table features some surprising names. and we bet you could not guess the name of the team sitting in No.1.

The top 30 clubs in world football based on trophies won

30. Club Atletico Independiente - Argentina - 43 trophies

29. Fenerbahce - Turkey - 43 trophies

28. Deportivo Saprissa - Costa Rica - 46 trophies

27. River Plate - Argentina - 48 trophies

26. CSKA Sofia - Bulgaria - 48 trophies

25. AC Milan - Italy - 48 trophies

24. Grasshopper Club Zurich - Switzerland - 49 trophies

23. Zamalek - Egypt - 52 trophies

22. Deportivo Colo-Colo - Chile - 54 trophies

21. Boca Juniors - Argentina - 56 trophies

20. Club Olimpia - Paraguay - 57 trophies

19. FCSB - Romania - 58 trophies

17. Liverpool - England - 60 trophies

17. Anderlecht - Belgium - 60 trophies

16. Galatasaray - Turkey - 61 trophies

15. Juventus - Italy - 64 trophies

The Italian giants boast an impressive 36 Serie A titles along with 13 Coppa Italias and two UEFA Champions League trophies.

After nine Serie A titles in a row, Juventus are looking to bolster their European trophy tally, and following the acquisition of Cristiano Ronaldo last summer, the Old Lady is rapidly becoming one of the strongest teams on the continent.

14. Bayern Munich - Germany - 72 trophies

30-time Bundesliga champions Bayern Munich continue to dominate Germany season-by-season.

They also rank fourth in all time Champions League wins with five to their name, their most recent being in 2012/13.

Despite being strong domestically, Bayern’s success in Europe has fallen short in recent years, since claiming the Champions League in 2013, Bayern have not been in the final.

13. Ajax - Netherlands - 70 trophies

Ajax’s 2018/19 Champions League campaign saw them reach the semi-finals with a squad which had an average age of 24 years old.

The youngsters even managed to defeat European giants such as Real Madrid and Juventus on their way there.

The rich history of Ajax has seen the club win the Eredivisie 34 times as well as lifting the Champions League on four occasions.

Despite losing key players to their 2018/19 Champions League campaign, such as Matthijs Ligt and Frenkie de Jong, the youthfulness of the squad hints that even more trophies could be on the horizon in years to come.

12. Manchester United - England - 71 trophies

The most successful club in England, Manchester United boast a rich history of 20 league titles, 12 FA Cups and three Champions Leagues.

As well as the titles, United’s history has been full of talented players who have gone on to be, or are currently, some of the best in the world.

The likes of George Best, Eric Cantona, Ryan Giggs, David Beckham and Cristiano Ronaldo were all stars throughout the club’s history.

Moreover, Sir Alex Ferguson led the club to 38 trophies during his 26 years at the helm, and many see him as one of the greatest managers of all time.

11. Al-Faisaly - Jordan - 74 trophies

Formed in Amman in 1932, Al-Faisaly are by the most successful club in Jordan’s history.

The club have won the Jordanian Premier League 34 times as well as winning the Jordanian FA Cup 20 times, accounting for most of the success that they have had.

10. Porto - Portugal -76 trophies

The second-most decorated club in Portugal, Porto have won the Primeira Liga 29 times, the Taco de Portugal 17 times and the Champions League twice.

They had a memorable victory in with Jose Mourinho as manager the team, featuring the likes of Deco and Ricardo Carvalho, Porto defeated Monaco.

9. Olympiacos - Greece - 76 trophies

Based in Athens, Olympiacos are the most successful team in Greece, with an impressive 45 Greek Super League and 27 Greek Cup titles to their name.

Their highest finish in UEFA competition came in 1998/99, where the club reached the quarter-final stage of the Champions League.

Notable players include Brazil-legend Rivaldo as well as former Arsenal and Man City midfielder, Yaya Toure.

8. Benfica - Portugal - 82 trophies

The most successful team in Portugal. Benfica have won the Primeira Liga a record 38 times, as well as holding the record for the most Taco de Portugal titles, with 26.

On the European stage, Benfica won the European Cup two years in a row in 1960/61 and 1961/62.

Benfica has seen a large amount of European talent pass through its squad.

Players such as Jan Oblak, David Luiz, Bernardo Silva and Angel Di Maria all made appearances for Benfica before breaking out into the bigger clubs of Europe.

7. Real Madrid - Spain - 91 trophies

Real Madrid are one of the most decorated clubs in history and have the record for most Champions League titles - 13.

They hold multiple records across Europe, the most notable being their back-to-back-to-back Champions League victories from 2016 to 2018.

The Santiago Bernabeu has seen players such as Zinedine Zidane, David Beckham, Iker Casillas and most notably Cristiano Ronaldo, who is regarded as the best Real player of all time. He is also the club&aposs record goalscorer (450 goals in 438 appearances between 2009/10 - 2017/18).

6. Barcelona - Spain - 91 trophies

Fierce rivals of Real Madrid, Barcelona are a club also stacked with history and glory - and are arguably the biggest football club in the world.

The Catalan club has 26 La Liga titles to go with their 30 Cop del Rey victories and 5 Champions Leagues.

Barcelona also holds the record for being the only club to win two trebles (the first in 2008/09, the second in 2014/15).

Similar to Madrid, Barca has seen many star players come through their club, but unlike Real, Barca used to focus on youth talent, rather than buying the best players in Europe.

5. Celtic - Scotland - 106 trophies

Fifth in the all-time list and the first team on the list with over 100 trophies, Celtic are a team which has dominated Scottish football in recent years - but they are not the most successful team in the country&aposs history.

Celtic have won an astonishing 51 Scottish League championships, and have won it every year for the last nine years.

They also won the European Cup in 1966/67.

4. Atletico Penarol - Uruguay - 108 trophies

Penarol are the second most successful team in Uruguay.

They have never been relegated from the top division since joining the league in 1900.

The club has won 50 Primera Division titles and five Copa Libertadores.

A notable forward to come through the club is former Manchester United and Atletico Madrid star Diego Forlan, regarded as one of the greatest Uruguayan players of all time.

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3. Club Nacional de Football - Uruguay - 114 trophies

The most successful team in Uruguay, pipping Penarol on the trophy front, Club Nacional have won the Primera Division 47 times and have three Copa Libertadores titles, but it&aposs the domestic cup competition success which has them ahead of their rivals.

Inter Milan defender Diego Godin spent the early days of his career at Nacional and is one of their most famous players.

2. Rangers - Scotland - 115 trophies

The most successful team in Scotland, Rangers have 54 Scottish League titles to their name.

In Europe, they won the European Cup Winners’ Cup in 1971/72.

Despite having not won the Scottish title since 2010/11, Rangers continue to be the most decorated team in Scotland and have seven domestic trebles. but Celtic are hot on their tails.

1. Al Ahly - Egypt - 118 trophies

The most decorated club in the world, if trophy count is what should be believed, are Egypt’s Al Ahly.

Known as “The Club of the Century” in African football, Al Ahly were founded in 1907 and have been perennial winners since day one.

Among their vast collection of trophies, they have won 41 Egyptian Premier League titles, 36 Egyptian Cups, 10 Egyptian Super Cups, eight CAF Champions Leagues, six CAF Super Cups, four CAF Cup Winners’ Cups and one CAF Confederations Cup.


Historically speaking, most sports agents recognize the inception of the profession stemming from the work of several individuals during the 1960’s. However, sports agency can actually be traced back to 1925 when Red Grange hired an agent to negotiate his professional football contract. Red Grange was the first football player to have a personal representative, an agent as they are called now, to work out a performance contract. Grange was the first professional athlete in team sports whose pay was linked with the number of fans his fame and performance attracted to the games. These have become commonplace for professional athletes. Grange did not go out for football when he went to the University of Illinois. He was a star in four sports in high school (track, football, basketball and baseball). He thought baseball and basketball were his best sports bets to earn a varsity letter. When his fraternity brothers directed him to go out for football and got out the big paddle, Grange decided to report. He was issued jersey No. 77. In the first scrimmage against the Illinois Varsity, Grange returned a punt 65 yards for a touchdown. Before Grange’s meteoric career on the gridiron, college football was largely a campus game of interest to students and alumni but by the time Grange’s All-American career was finished at the University of Illinois, millions who had no particular interest in a college were aware of the Galloping Ghost and college football. Professional football, before Grange, was largely played by teams from neighboring towns in sand lot circumstances before hundreds, rather than thousands of fans.

Grange’s 1923 team turned in an unbeaten season, were co-champions of the Big Ten and Red Grange, in his first varsity year, was named an All American. Something very special was arranged for the 1924 season. The new University of Illinois Memorial Stadium, largest campus arena in the nation for football, was to be dedicated on October 18. The University of Michigan, who was also undefeated in 1923 and co-champions with Illinois, would be the opponent. Michigan came to the big game a favorite. Illinois was missing some of its players from the 1923 team through graduation. Illinois had also lost its first game of the season, 9 to 6, to the University of Nebraska.

Grange ran ninety-five yards for a touchdown on the opening kickoff and then rushed from scrimmage for three more touchdown runs of sixty-seven, fifty-six and forty-four yards before leaving the field with three minutes remaining in the first quarter. In the second half, he scored a fifth TD on a twelve-yard run just for good measure.

On Nov. 22, 1925, the day following his last game for the University of Illinois, Red Grange signed the first big time professional contract, casting his lot with the Chicago Bears, It called for one hundred thousand dollars and a share of the gate in a period when most professional football players were getting twenty-five to a hundred dollars a game, if they were paid at all.

In the 1960s, attorney Mark McCormack’s work with young golfer Arnold Palmer probably changed the manner in which sponsors dealt with professional athletes. Since the 1960’s, many other remarkable sports agents have made an impression on the profession that is now dominated by high-profile individuals working for large sport management agencies. In a famous scene in the 1996 film Jerry Maguire, the sports agent played by Tom Cruise is goaded by his client, played by Cuba Gooding Jr., to repeatedly scream into the phone “Show me the money.” By the time that film came out, however, the role of the sports agent had long since been transformed into one far more sophisticated than simply negotiating contracts. And while screenwriter Cameron Crowe based the Jerry Maguire character on agent Leigh Steinberg, it was Mark McCormack who ushered in the modern era of sports management and marketing. McCormack, founder of International Management Group (IMG), believed the popularity and marketability of athletes could transcend borders, cultures, language, even sports itself. McCormack-managed athletes were the first to endorse clothing, watches, and motor oil. They played exhibition matches around the world. They gave inspirational talks to business at a hefty price tag.

Whether it was setting up golf matches between a young Arnold Palmer and company executives at $500 a game, arranging tennis exhibitions throughout China featuring Bjorn Borg and Jimmy Connors, or promoting a soccer match between Pele’s New York Cosmos and the soccer star’s former Brazilian teammates, McCormack had a gift for keeping his clients well-known and well-paid.

McCormack was born in Chicago in 1930 When he was just 6 years old he was hit by a car and suffered a fractured skull. The doctors said contact sports like football and basketball were out, so golf became McCormack’s passion. He starred in the sport at the College of William & Mary, and one day came up against a pretty good Wake Forest golfer — Palmer. The two hit it off, and it was not long before McCormack, after obtaining a law degree from Yale, was busy helping Palmer and other pro golfers look over their contracts. In 1960, after a hand-shake management deal with Palmer, McCormack was on his way. After Palmer came deals with South Africa’s Gary Player and Jack Nicklaus, giving McCormack a lock on golf’s “Big Three.” He then branched into tennis and other sports with a global footprint. By 1985, IMG’s roster included golfer Palmer, soccer’s Pele, tennis players Martina Navratilova and Chris Evert Lloyd, skier Jean-Claude Killy (who became a very close friend of McCormack’s), runners Sebastian Coe, Bill Rodgers, and Mary Decker Slaney, baseball star Jim Rice, and football player Herschel Walker. Athletes knew that at IMG, they stood a good chance of earning just as much off the playing field as on and that IMG would manage everything, from negotiating with team owners to investing their money to making sure they got to appointments on time.

McCormack himself took an intensely personal interest in many of the athletes. Besides lasting friendships with Palmer, Killy, and hundreds of others, McCormack later in his career became a father figure for other athletes, including tennis star Monica Seles. In 2003 McCormick died at age 72.

One need not be a lawyer to be a sports agent, but many agents are lawyers. As a general rule, student-athletes with remaining eligibility may not have an agent to represent their interests in that particular sport. Agents are notorious for becoming occasionally overzealous in furthering the athlete’s interests to secure a contract with a team or league. There is no typical, formal education program for sports agents. Many sports agents have law degrees. Others have no formal college education. Those who attend college earn degrees in a variety of fields, including legal studies, political science, sociology, and sports management.

Practically speaking, however, obtaining a law degree has become an unwritten prerequisite to break into the profession in terms of maintaining a competitive advantage. One can become an agent without a law degree, but being a lawyer allows you to earn money practicing law while building up your sports agency practice. It takes some start up money to be a sports agent to compete with big firms that often give potential clients all sorts of cash and gifts. Agents without formal legal training will likely continue to recruit clients as long as those agents find athletes that will let them represent them. Ultimately, the most important issue for sports agents is to keep their clients happy.

Though there are no current federal laws that directly governs sports agency, this may change in the near future. Uniform Athlete Agents Act (UAAA) is a model act governing sports agents. It was written by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. It is available for adoption by states. A sports agent advocates and represents the legal and business affairs of a professional athlete, usually for a fee. This fee is usually a percentage of the athlete’s income that came from negotiations by the Agent. The NFL regulates this percentage. Generally speaking, the term sports agent refers to someone who tries to get an athlete to let him represent him when in negotiations with professional teams.

Agents have a fiduciary relationship with their clients. A fiduciary is someone who owes a duty of loyalty to safeguard the interests of another person or entity. Fiduciary duty is a legal requirement of loyalty and care that applies to any person or organization that has a fiduciary relationship with another person or organization. A fiduciary duty is one of complete trust and utmost good faith.

As stated earlier, there are no specific qualifications to become a sports agent. In recent years, however, numerous states have attempted to define and ultimately regulate sports agents and their activities. The National Football League Players Association (NFLPA) now requires a four-year college degree from an accredited institution in order to represent professional football players in the National Football League (NFL). In the major professional sports leagues of the NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association NBA) and National Hockey League (NHL), players associations serve as unions and actually regulate fees that the agent may charge the player. These players association are powerful and are capable of barring the agent from being able to represent players within that sport for a violation of its policies and procedures. Agents are now required to pay expensive fees to the players associations. These costs can discourage a new agent from entering the profession.

Agency law has existed for hundreds of years. The basis of this law is for one person to allow another person to act on his behalf. An agency relationship is one in which one party (an agent) agrees to act on behalf of another (the principal). Examples could be a sales clerk, a sports agent, or the president of a corporation. Employees are oftentimes agents of their employers, but this is not always true. A sports agent, for example, is not an employee of his client, but is an agent of his client. The sports agent would be an independent contractor. An employee who acts within the scope of his/her employment furthers the business interest of the employer by creating a relationship that would hold the employer responsible for the actions of the employee. The phrase scope of employment is often referred to as respondeat superior, a Latin phrase meaning let the master answer. An agent expressly enters into an agency agreement with a principal to further the interests of that principal. Sports agents serve in this capacity.

Until the enactment of the Uniform Athlete Agent Act (UAAA) there were too many different state laws governing or regulating sports agents. Such laws theoretically required that agents register and pay fees in each and every state in which they recruited student-athletes. Additionally, differing definitions of sports agent and student-athlete caused great debate on the need for a uniform federal law. Adoption of the UAAA may end this debate.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association has made it clear that having an agent is akin to relinquishing one’s amateur status. In recent years, the NCAA has allowed a student-athlete to participate as an amateur in one sport while remaining a professional (with an agent) in another sport. Chris Weinke, one of the finest quarterbacks in Florida State history, signed with Florida State out of high school and spent four days in August of 1990 on the FSU campus before signing a professional baseball contract with the Toronto Blue Jays. He spent six years in the Toronto Blue Jays organization before returning to Florida State in the spring of 1997. In 1999, he led Florida State to its second National Championship and first undefeated season.

It does not appear that the NCAA at this time is willing to allow a student-athlete to have an agent and still participate in intercollegiate athletics in that particular sport. With the advent of television, professional sports became more visible. Television meant the influx of more money into sports. More money meant players forming unions and wanting more of the pie. Cable and satellite television continues this trend, and sports agents followed the money and have served as advocates for professional athletes rights.

Requiring a sports agent to be a lawyer would allow for more regulation over agents with the ability to take a law license away. However, the advent of the UAAA may be a better way to regulate sports agents.

Some states have enacted laws governing contracts made between athletes and athlete agents, which vary by state. Such laws may govern issues such as state registration and recordkeeping of athlete agents and disclosure requirements in their agency contracts. The majority of states have enacted the Uniform Athlete Agent Act (UAAA). The UAAA requires an agent to provide important information to enable student-athletes and other interested parties to better evaluate the prospective agent. The UAAA also requires that written notice be provided to institutions when a student-athlete signs an agency contract before his or her eligibility expires. In addition, the UAAA gives authority to the Secretary of State to issue subpoenas that would enable the state to obtain relevant material that ensures compliance with the act.

Alabama is serious about its amateur sports and in order to maintain the legitimacy of its amateur sports it is has adopted the Alabama Uniform Athlete Agents Act (the “Act”). Essentially, the Act requires any agent doing business in Alabama to register with the state. It also contains certain restrictions upon the activities that an agent can and can’t engage in. Alabama adopted its Act in the current form in 2001, and is one of approximately 30 states that have adopted similar acts. For example, in addition to requiring the agent to register with the State, the Act states that an agent may not (1) Give any materially false or misleading information or make a materially false promise or representation. (2) Furnish, directly or indirectly, any thing of value to a student-athlete before the student-athlete enters into the agency contract. (3) Furnish, directly or indirectly, any thing of value to any individual other than the student-athlete or another registered athlete agent. [Alabama Code § 8-26A-14(a)]. It also goes on to state that a student-athlete may not, (2) Accept anything from an athlete agent without first entering into a contract in conformity with this chapter. (Alabama Code § 8-26A-14(d)).

In addition to regulating the conduct of agents, the Alabama statute prescribes significant criminal penalties for both student-athletes and agents that do not follow the terms of the Act. Section 8-26a-15 of the Alabama code makes a violation of the Act by an agent a class B or C Felony, depending on the type of violation. Class B Felonies can carry a sentence of up to 20 years, while Class C convictions can be up to 10 years. Violations by student-athletes are Class C misdemeanors and carry a mandatory minimum sentence of 70 hours community service. While it is highly unlikely that a single incident would result in a 20 year prison sentence for an agent, the point is that Alabama clearly wasn’t messing around when it created the Act – and it didn’t stop there. Alabama also provides civil remedies to universities who are harmed by the actions of the agent and student-athlete. Alabama Code § 8-26A-16(B) allows the university to recover “losses and expenses incurred because . . the educational institution was injured by a violation of this chapter or was penalized, disqualified, or suspended from participation in athletics by a national association for the promotion and regulation of athletics, by an athletic conference, or by reasonable self-imposed disciplinary action taken to mitigate sanctions likely to be imposed by such an organization.”


Geskiedenis

The league began play in 1920 and comprised five teams from Ohio (Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Tigers, Columbus Panhandlers, and Dayton Triangles), four teams from Illinois (Chicago Tigers, Decatur Staleys, Racine Cardinals [the Cardinals were based in Chicago but took the name of a local street], and Rock Island Independents), two from Indiana (Hammond Pros and Muncie Flyers), two from New York (Buffalo All-Americans and Rochester Jeffersons), and the Detroit Heralds from Michigan. Of these original franchises, only two remain: the Cardinals left Chicago for St. Louis after the 1959 season and relocated to Arizona in 1988 the Decatur Staleys moved to Chicago in 1921 and a year later changed their name to the Bears.

The NFL survived many years of instability and competition from rival organizations to became the strongest American professional football league. The most serious challenge to its leading role came from the American Football League (AFL) in the 1960s. The NFL and AFL completed a merger in 1970, creating a 26-team circuit under the name of the older NFL. Since then the league has expanded four times, adding six new franchises.

For a more complete history of football and the NFL, kyk football, gridiron.


A game of two halves

A game of rugby, 1897 © But things were different in one area of society. In the public schools the aristocratic pupils held sway over their middle class teachers, and were free to play as they pleased. Nevertheless, parents were becoming concerned about the treatment of youngsters who, under the prefect-fagging system, were put in goal and suffered the brunt of the violence. Schools had to take action or face the prospect of parents taking their children elsewhere.

He. advocated a type of tackle that they called 'hacking'.

Thomas Arnold, headmaster at Rugby school, wanted his pupils to grow up into moral Christian gentlemen. He therefore moderated the prefect-fagging system and advocated regulated sports which provided exercise and encouraged healthy competition. By 1845, the pupils at Rugby felt it necessary for the first time to write down the rules of football at their school to establish exactly what constituted fair play. In the Rugby version, handling the ball was allowed, but, in 1849, pupils at Eton created a rival game. It may well have been an attempt to outdo the 'upstarts' at Rugby, but football Eton-style greatly restricted the use of the hands.

The pupils took their games with them to university, the only problem being that everyone played different versions. A need for a common set of rules arose and at Cambridge University four attempts were made in the 1840s and 1850s. Eventually, in 1863, they decided on a set of rules in which handling the ball was outlawed.

At the end of that year, players from around the country came together to form the Football Association and the Cambridge rules were adopted. It didn't suit everybody, and the representative from the Blackheath club withdrew because he favoured the Rugby style of game. He also advocated a type of tackle that they called 'hacking' - these days we would probably call it GBH.


125 years of the Football League and the top flight - which team comes top?

Which teams have the upper hand after a century and a quarter of football?

Today exactly 125 years ago, The English Football League was founded at the Royal Hotel in Manchester, becoming the first national football league in the world. Twelve teams started into the first season on September 8 1888, which would produce Preston North End as their very first champions.

We've crunched the numbers of all 113 top flight seasons (1888-1892: Football League, 1892-1992: First Division, 1992-today: Premier League). Eleven seasons had been suspended during the first and second world wars.

Since the foundation of the Football League, a total of 64 teams have played at least one season in the respective top flight of English football. Everton, one of the twelve founding members, is currently playing its 110th season in the top league, having missed only four for two spells in the second division. It is topping the list of most seasons played in the top flight.

23 teams have been crowned champions at least once, Manchester United (19 titles), Liverpool (18) and Arsenal (13) being the most successful collectors of silverware.

If we combine the two metrics – championships won and seasons played in the top league – we can calculate an efficiency index in winning tropies when in the race. Which puts Huddersfield Town right in the top group along the above serial winners.

From a geographical perspective, London might have been and still be the city with by far the most teams, but its the North-Western cities that picked up most of the trophies to date. Our map shows how the 113 championship trophies have been spread across the country.

Over all 113 completed seasons, the average number of goals scored is just above three per game. It has been the highest in the very beginning, at 4.63 in the second season. After being at a steady low for the past fourty years, average goals scored per game have been rising again in the past three seasons. They are now – at a current 2.83 goals per game – on course to finish higher than in any other season since 1967-68.

Finally, if we count every single game played in England's top league since it was founded towards one table, this is what it would look like as of April 14 2013. Points are counted as they were awarded at the time, so two points for a win until 1981, three afterwards (did you know that the initial idea of the founders was to award points for wins only, so that it would make no difference if you drew or lost a game?).


Kyk die video: Hoe beweeg n sokkerbal? (Oktober 2021).