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Hawker Hunter Mark 59

Hawker Hunter Mark 59

Hawker Hunter Mark 59

Die Hawker Hunter Mark 59 was die benaming wat 46 Jagters in die middel van die sestigerjare aan Irak verkoop het tydens die ontdooiing van die betrekkinge tussen die land en Brittanje.

Irak het die Hunter vir die eerste keer in 1957 ontvang toe sestien F.Mark 6's uit RAF -aandele verskaf is met behulp van Amerikaanse befondsing. Hierdie vliegtuie het moontlik 'n rol gespeel in die staatsgreep in Julie 1958 wat koning Faisal II omvergewerp het en 'n linkse regering onder leiding van brigadier-generaal Abdul Karim Qassim ingestel het. Qassim het Irak nader aan die Sowjetunie gebring, en gevolglik het die wapenverkope uit Brittanje tot 'n einde gekom.

Qassim is in Februarie 1963 omvergewerp en vervang deur kolonel Abdul Salam Arif. Hy was meer aanvaarbaar in die weste, en sy regering kon suksesvol onderhandel oor die aankoop van meer Jagters. Die eerste bestelling was dat vyftien oud-RAF F.Mk 6's as die FGAMk 59 afgelewer sou word. die FGAMk 59A tussen November 1965 en Mei 1967. Terselfdertyd is 'n bevel geplaas dat vier vliegtuie as FRMk.59B's tussen Mei en September 1966 afgelewer sou word. vegvliegtuie, asook vyf T.Mk.59s.

Die Irakse Jagters het in die Sesdaagse Oorlog van 1967 en die Yom Kippur -oorlog van 1973 geveg, wat in beide gevalle as boonste dekking gedien het vir ander vliegtuie wat grondaanval -missies vlieg. Hulle is ook gebruik as grondaanvalvliegtuie tydens die Yom Kippur-oorlog en tydens die vroeë stadiums van die Iran-Irak-oorlog, waar hulle vermoedelik chemiese wapens laat val het.


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Oorsprong Redigeer

Geoffrey de Havilland, eienaar en stigter van die onderneming, het probeer om 'n ligte vliegtuig te vervaardig wat beter is as twee van sy vorige ontwerpe, de de Havilland Humming Bird en de Havilland DH.51. [3] Uit vroeëre ervaring het de Havilland die moeilikheid en belangrikheid van die korrekte grootte van so 'n vliegtuig geken om 'n beroep op die burgerlike mark te hê, soos toer-, afrigter-, vliegklub- en private lugvaartklante wat die firma groot sukses behaal het met 'n afgeskaalde weergawe van die DH.51, de de Havilland DH.60 mot. [3]

Die beginpunt vir die DH.82 Tiger Moth was die de Havilland DH.71 Tiger Moth. [4] de Havilland het agtereenvolgens meer bekwame Gipsy-enjins ontwikkel, en die maatskappy het 'n nuwe laagvlerkige eenvliegtuig vervaardig om dit te toets. Hierdie vliegtuig het die eerste vliegtuig geword waarna verwys word as die Tiger Moth. [5] Verbeterings aangebring op die Tiger Moth -eenvliegtuig is opgeneem in 'n militêre afrigtervariant van die DH.60 mot, die DH.60T mot - die T Benewens 'Trainer' staan ​​ook 'Tiger'. [4]

Die DH.60T -mot het verskeie tekortkominge gehad, en was dus onderhewig aan verskeie wysigings, soos die aanneming van verkorte ondervliegtuie om die vlerkpunte te verhoog nadat onvoldoende grondvryhoogte ontdek is tydens proefnemings by RAF Martlesham Heath. [4] As gevolg van die Martlesham -proewe is 'n gunstige verslag vir die tipe opgestel, wat weer daartoe gelei het dat die tipe binnekort formeel aangeneem is as die nuwe basiese afrigter van die Royal Air Force (RAF). 'N Enkele prototipe, aangedui as die DH.82 Tiger Moth, is beveel deur die Britse lugministerie onder spesifikasie 15/31, wat 'n geskikte gesoek het ab-initio opleidingsvliegtuie. [4]

Een van die belangrikste veranderinge wat in die vorige Moth -reeks aangebring is, was verbeterde toegang tot die voorste kajuit, aangesien die opleidingsvereiste spesifiseer dat die voorste sitplekbewoner maklik moet kan ontsnap, veral as hy 'n valskerm dra. [6] [4] Toegang tot die voorste kajuit van die motte se voorgangers is beperk deur die nabyheid van die brandstoftenk van die vliegtuig, direk bokant die voorste kajuit, en die agterste kajuitstutte vir die boonste vleuel. Die oplossing was om die boonste vleuel vorentoe te skuif, maar die vlerke terug te vee om dieselfde hefpunt te behou. [7] [4] Ander veranderings sluit in 'n versterkte struktuur, neerklapdeure aan beide kante van die kajuit en 'n hersiene uitlaatstelsel. [6]

Op 26 Oktober 1931 is die eerste 'ware' Tiger Moth, die prototipe E6, het sy eerste vlug uitgevoer by Stag Lane Aerodrome, Edgware, London de Havilland Hooftoetsvlieënier Hubert Broad was tydens die eerste vlug onder beheer. [8] [4] Kort daarna is die bou van die eerste 35 produksievliegtuie vir die POF aangewys K2567-K2601, begin na die uitreiking van spesifikasie T.23/31, en twee vlootvliegtuie wat toegerus is, S1675 en S1676, is gebou volgens spesifikasie T.6/33. [4]

Produksie Redigeer

Die Tiger Moth het vinnig 'n kommersiële sukses geword, en verskillende modelle is na meer as 25 lugmag van verskillende lande uitgevoer. [4] Benewens die militêre vraag, is daar ook vliegtuie vir die burgerlike mark vervaardig. Op 'n stadium het die bestellingsvloei vir die Tiger Moth feitlik die hele kapasiteit van De Havilland beslaan om vliegtuie te vervaardig, en daar kon min kapasiteit gespaar word om huishoudelike kliënte te huisves. [9] In 1932 ontwikkel de Havilland ook 'n bekostigbare lugtaxi van die Tiger Moth met byna al die hoofkomponente van die voormalige in kombinasie met 'n nuwe laaghoutkroes wat vier mense in 'n omheinde kajuit sit, en dit word bemark as die de Havilland Fox Mot. [10] Na die beëindiging van alle vervaardiging sou derde partye af en toe Tiger Moths herbou tot 'n soortgelyke opset as die Fox Moth, soos die Thruxton Jackaroo. [11]

Aan die einde van 1934 is 50 Tiger Moths van 'n meer verfynde ontwerp, soms na verwys as die Tiger Moth II, is by die RAF afgelewer. Met hierdie vliegtuie is die de Havilland Gipsy Major -enjin aangeneem, wat 130 pk kan genereer, en die gebruik van laaghoutdekke op die agterste romp in plaas van tradisionele weefsels wat die stringers bedek. [12] Gedurende die periode 1934–1936 was die produksieaktiwiteit daarop gerig om aan die vraag na militêre opleiers te voldoen, insluitend verskeie kontrakte wat die RAF gesluit het aan spesifikasie T.7/35, asook uitvoeropdragte deur sewe oorsese operateurs. [13] In hierdie tyd word ook burgerlike voorbeelde gelewer, sowel vir Britse private kliënte as vir uitvoerkliënte in lande soos Ceylon, Griekeland, Litaue, Rhodesië, Peru en Switserland. [14]

Na 1936 het die geleidelike versnelling van die vervaardiging van Tiger Moth die punt bereik dat produksievermoë uiteindelik die eise van militêre kliënte alleen kon oorskry. [15] Met die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is 'n totaal van 1,424 Tiger Moths voltooi deur sowel plaaslike as oorsese vervaardigingspogings. [16] In 1941 het de Havilland die belangrikste vervaardigingsaktiwiteite vir die Tiger Moth van sy Hatfield -fabriek na Morris Motors Limited by hul fasiliteit in Cowley, Oxford, oorgeplaas. [17]

In 1945 is die produksie van British Tiger Moth op hierdie punt beëindig; Morris Motors het 'n totaal van 3,433 Tiger Moths voltooi. [17]

Oorsese vervaardiging van die tipe het in 1937 begin, die eerste sodanige buitelandse bouer was de Havilland Canada by sy fabriek in Downsview, Ontario. Benewens 'n aanvanklike groep van 25 Tiger Moths wat vir die Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) gebou is, het die Kanadese firma begin om rompskepe te bou wat na voltooiing na die VK uitgevoer is. [16] Tiger Moths wat in Kanada gebou is, het modifikasies om die plaaslike klimaat beter aan te pas, saam met 'n versterkte stertwiel, handbediende remme (gebou deur Bendix Corporation), korter onderstelradiusstawe en die bene van die hoofbene van die landingsrat wat gehark word vorentoe as 'n veiligheidsmaatreël om vooruit te kantel tydens rem. Daarbenewens was daar 'n groot skuifdak in die kajuit, asook verwarming op uitlaatgasse, en verskillende alternatiewe onderstelreëlings is ook aangebied. [18] Teen die einde van die Kanadese produksie het de Havilland Canada altesaam 1,548 van alle weergawes vervaardig, insluitend die DH.82C en Amerikaanse Menasco Pirate-motorvariante (met teenoorgestelde "regter"/"teen die kloksgewyse" draai na die links/linksom gipsy major) bekend as die Menasco mot Dit sluit ook 200 Tiger Moths in wat tydens die oorlogstyd van die United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) se leninghuur-bevele gebou is, wat vir papierwerk aangewys is as die PT-24, voordat dit by die RCAF afgelewer word.

Bykomende vervaardigingsaktiwiteite in die buiteland het ook plaasgevind, waarvan die meeste tydens oorlogstyd plaasgevind het. de Havilland Australië het 'n aanvanklike bondel van 20 vliegtuie saamgestel uit onderdele wat uit die Verenigde Koninkryk gestuur is voordat hulle hul eie groot produksieveldtog van die DH.82A begin het, wat gelei het tot 'n totaal van 1 070 Tiger Moths in Australië. [17] Aan die einde van 1940 het die eerste Australiese vergaderde Tiger Moth sy eerste vlug in Bankstown, Sydney, uitgevoer. Die meeste Australiese vliegtuie is by die Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) afgelewer, maar verskeie groepe is uitgevoer, waaronder 18 vir die USAAF en 41 vir die Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF). [17]

132 Tiger Moths is in Nieu -Seeland voltooi deur de Havilland Aircraft van Nieu -Seeland. [19] 23 is in Swede gebou as die Sk.11 deur AB Svenska Järnvägsverkstädernas Aeroplanavdelning, 91 is gebou in Portugal deur OGMA, en nog 38 in Noorweë deur Kjeller Flyfabrikk (sommige bronne sê 37, dus die eerste is moontlik uit 'n stel saamgestel) benewens 'n groot aantal vliegtuie wat uit kits wat uit die Verenigde Koninkryk gestuur word. [19] [20] [17]

Ontwerp wysig

Die de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth is 'n enkelmotorige tweevliegvliegtuig. Dit is hoofsaaklik ontwikkel om gebruik te word vir privaat toerklante sowel as vir vlieënieronderrig vir sowel militêre as burgerlike operateurs. Dit word tipies aangedryf deur 'n de Havilland Gipsy III 120 pk-enjin, maar later word modelle toegerus met kragtiger modelle van hierdie enjin, terwyl sommige deur derdeparty-ondernemings herontwerp is.

Een kenmerkende kenmerk van die Tiger Moth -ontwerp is die differensiële opstelling van die aileron -beheer. Die ailerons (slegs op die onderste vleuel) op 'n Tiger Moth word bestuur deur 'n ekstern gemonteerde sirkelvormige klok, wat gelyk is aan die onderkant van die onderste vleuel. Hierdie sirkelvormige klokkie word deur metaalkabels en kettings van die stuurkolomme van die kajuit gedraai, en die ekstern gemonteerde aileron -stangstang is vasgemaak op 'n punt van 45 ° buiteboord en voor die middel van die klok, wanneer die ailerons albei in hul neutrale posisie is. Dit lei daartoe dat 'n aileron -beheerstelsel met amper geen beweging op die vleuel aan die buitekant van die draai werk nie, terwyl die aileron aan die binnekant 'n groot hoeveelheid opwaarts beweeg om nadelige gaai teë te werk.

Van die begin af was die Tiger Moth 'n ideale afrigter, eenvoudig en goedkoop om te besit en te onderhou, hoewel beheerbewegings 'n positiewe en seker hand nodig het, aangesien daar 'n traagheid was om insette te beheer. Sommige instrukteurs het hierdie vliegkenmerke verkies as gevolg van die effek dat die onbekwame studentevlieënier uitgevee word. [21]

Inleiding Redigeer

Die RAF het 35 dubbele beheer bestel Tiger Moth Is wat die maatskappy se aanwysing gehad het DH.82. [22] 'n Volgende bestelling is geplaas vir 50 vliegtuie aangedryf deur die de Havilland Gipsy Major I -enjin (130 pk), wat die DH.82A of aan die RAF Tiger Moth II. Die Tiger Moth het in Februarie 1932 diens gedoen by die RAF Central Flying School. Gedurende die vooroorlogse jare is toenemende getalle Tiger Moths vir die RAF aangeskaf en deur oorsese kliënte teen 1939 is byna 40 vliegskole wat die tipe bedryf het, gestig, nege van wat ook modelle van siviele registers bedryf het. [23]

Vanaf 1937 is die Tiger Moth beskikbaar gestel aan algemene vliegklubs, wat voorheen deur militêre kliënte beset is. Die tipe is vinnig gebruik om ouer vliegtuie in die burgerlike afrigterskap te vervang, soos die ouer de Havilland Cirrus Moth en Gipsy Moth. [15] Teen die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die RAF ongeveer 500 Tiger Moths in diens gehad. Bykomend is byna alle Tiger Moths wat deur die burgerlike bedryf in die Gemenebest bestuur word, vinnig in hul onderskeie lugmagte beïndruk om aan die strawwe vraag na treinvliegtuie in die oorlog te voldoen. [16]

Opleiding Redigeer

Die Tiger Moth het die primêre afrigter in die Statebond en elders geword. Dit was die belangrikste tipe wat in die British Commonwealth Air Training Plan gebruik is, waar duisende militêre vlieëniers hul eerste voorsmakie in hierdie robuuste masjien gekry het. Die RAF het die hantering van die Tiger Moth gevind as ideaal vir die opleiding van toekomstige vegvlieëniers. Oor die algemeen gemaklik en vergewensgesind in die normale vlugfases wat tydens die aanvanklike opleiding teëgekom het, toe die Tiger Moth beslis vaardigheid en konsentrasie vereis het om goed te presteer - 'n mislukte maneuver kan maklik veroorsaak dat die vliegtuig gaan staan ​​of draai. Vanaf 1941 was alle militêre en baie burgerlike Tiger Moths toegerus met anti-spin strakes op die aansluiting tussen die romp en die voorkant van die stertvliegtuig, bekend as Mod 112 later is die massa -balanse van die aileron verwyder vir verbeterde spinherwinningsprestasie. [16]

Gunnery target drone Edit

In 1935 het die DH.82 Queen Bee, 'n vlieënierlose, radiobeheerde variant van die Tiger Moth verskyn, vir gebruik by die opleiding van vliegtuigskutters. Die gebruik van die woord drone, as 'n algemene term vir vlieënde vliegtuie, is blykbaar afkomstig van die naam en rol van die koninginby (dws die woord drone is 'n verwysing na die manlike by wat een vlug maak op soek na die vroulike koninginby en dan sterf daarna). [24] [25] Die DH.82 het 'n houtromp, gebaseer op die van die DH.60 Gipsy Moth (met gepaste strukturele veranderinge wat verband hou met die plasing van kabaanstutte) en die vlerke van die Tiger Moth II. [26] Queen Bees het 'n normale voorste kajuit behou vir toetsvliegtuie of veerbootvlugte, maar het 'n radiobeheerstelsel in die agterste kajuit om die bedieningspanele te bestuur met behulp van pneumaties aangedrewe servo's.

'N Totaal van 400 is deur de Havilland op Hatfield gebou en 'n verdere 70 deur Scottish Aviation. [27] Aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was daar byna 300 in diens.

Kuspatrollie Redigeer

In Desember 1939, weens 'n tekort aan maritieme patrollievliegtuie, is ses vlugte Tiger Moths deur die RAF Coastal Command uitgevoer vir toesigvlugte oor kuswaters, bekend as "voëlverskrikke". Die vliegtuig werk in pare en was slegs met 'n baie pistool gewapen. Die bedoeling was om 'n inbreukmakende U-boot te dwing om een ​​vliegtuig te duik, wat dan in die omgewing sou bly, terwyl die ander sou soek na 'n vlootpatrollievaartuig wat na die plek teruggebring kon word. [28] Omdat hulle nie radio -toegerus was nie, het elke vliegtuig ook 'n paar huisduiwe in 'n vlegmandjie gedra om hulp te ontbied in geval van gedwonge landing op see. Soms is 'n bom van 11,5 kilogram (11,5 kilogram) gedra, maar daar is geen rekord dat een in aksie geval het nie. [29]

Anti-inval voorbereidings Redigeer

In die nadraai van Brittanje se rampspoedige veldtog in Frankryk, in Augustus 1940, is drie voorstelle vir strandverdedigingstelsels voorgelê. 350 Tiger Moths was toegerus met bomrakke om as ligte bomwerpers te dien as deel van Operation Banquet. 'N Meer radikale omskakeling behels die "paraslaser", 'n seelagtige lem wat op 'n tiermot aangebring is en bedoel was om die afdakke van valskermspringers te sny terwyl hulle op die aarde neerdaal. Vlugtoetse het die idee bewys, maar dit is nie amptelik aanvaar nie. Die Tiger Moth is ook getoets as 'n dispenser van Paris Green rotgif vir gebruik teen grondtroepe, met poeierdispensers onder die vlerke. [30]

Naoorlogse redigering

In die naoorlogse klimaat is indrukwekkende Tiger Moths herstel na hul voormalige burgerlike bedrywighede en eienaars. [31] Gevolglik is 'n groot aantal oortollige Tiger Moths beskikbaar gestel vir verkoop aan vliegklubs en individue. Daar is destyds ook relatief min nuwe ligte vliegtuie vervaardig om die plek daarvan in te neem. [32] Omdat die tipe relatief goedkoop is om te bedryf en die bogenoemde faktore, het die Tiger Moth 'n entoesiastiese ontvangs oor die hele burgerlike mark gekry. Boonop is dit onmiddellik in gebruik geneem vir verskillende nuwe rolle, insluitend lugreklame, lugambulans, aërobatiese kunstenaars, afstofbespuiting en sleepvaart. [31]

In die lugwedrenmark is 'n hoeveelheid Tiger Moths omskep in 'n enkel-sitplek-opset, dikwels tydelik. [33] Verskeie vliegtuie is omvattend aangepas vir groter spoed, insluitend veranderinge soos die verwydering van die brandstoftenk in die middelste gedeelte, alternatiewe brandstoftenk-konfigurasies, heeltemal nuwe hysbakke, spesiaal ontwerpte brandstofinspuiters en die herstel van die romp met stof van ligter gewig. [34] Drie spesifieke vliegtuie, G-APDZ, G-ANZZ en G-ANMZ, is dienooreenkomstig herbou en is gereeld gebruik in internasionale kompetisies, die ontwerpveranderinge het gelei tot aansienlik verbeterde prestasie tydens omgekeerde vlug. [35]

Baie oud-RAF-voorbeelde is gedurende die naoorlogse tydperk na Nederland ingevoer en die Nederlandse nasionale vliegskool op Ypenburg toegerus. [36] Hierdie vliegtuie moes deur die Nederlandse burgerlike lugvaartowerhede 'n groter rugvin met 'n verlengde filet aan die vin bevat, om 'n ekstra oppervlakte te bied. Hierdie vereiste is ook uitgebrei na Tiger Moths in privaat besit in Nederland. [35]

Die Tiger Moth kan op die eerste oogopslag verwar word met die Belgiese ontwerpte Stampe SV.4-aërobatiese vliegtuie met 'n baie soortgelyke ontwerpuitleg, beide vliegtuie het gebruik gemaak van 'n soortgelyke hooflandingsgestel, 'n effens terugwaartse vleuel en 'n gelyke enjin/motor. ontwerp. Verskeie Tiger Moths is gedurende die 1950's omskep in 'n Koepee standaard, wat die installering van 'n skuifkap oor albei bemanningsposisies behels, nie anders as die Kanadese geboude Fleet Finch tweedekker-opleiers wat tydens die tipe oorlogstyd langs die Tiger Moth in RCAF-diens as afrigters in Kanada gewerk het nie. [33]

Na die ontwikkeling van lugversiering in Nieu-Seeland, is 'n groot aantal voormalige Royal New Zealand Air Force Tiger Moths wat in daardie land en in die Verenigde Koninkryk gebou is, omskep in landbouvliegtuie, aangesien dit 'n baanbrekerswerk was vir vliegtuie. [31] In hierdie rol is die voorste sitplek gewoonlik vervang met 'n houer om superfosfaat te bevat vir lugdoek. 'N Groot aantal is ook gebruik om insekdoders in die gewasbespuiterrol te gebruik, waarvoor verskeie alternatiewe reëlings, waaronder geperforeerde pype onder die hoofvliegtuie of die plasing van roterende verstuivers op die onderste hoofvliegtuig, gebruik is. [31]

Royal Navy Tiger Moths wat as sleepbote gebruik is en 'lugervaring'-masjiene het die laaste militêre voorbeelde geword toe die diens in 1956 'n bondel opgeknapte voormalige siviele voorbeelde gekoop het. Arend) in die Engelse kanaal gedurende die somer van 1967. Met die opstyg het die wind oor die dek die vliegtuig toegelaat om te vlieg, maar dit was stadiger as die karweier, wat hard na stuurboord gedraai het om 'n moontlike botsing te vermy. [ aanhaling nodig ] Hierdie vliegtuie het tot in die vroeë sewentigerjare in diens gebly. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Tiger Moth (en, in mindere mate, die soortgelyke Belgiese Stampe-Vertongen SV.4) is dikwels gebruik as 'n stand-in vir seldsame vliegtuie in films, soms baie omvattend aangepas om na buite te lyk soos die vliegtuig wat dit uitgebeeld het. [38] 'n Drie vliegtuie is omskep deur Film Aviation Services Ltd, gebaseer op Croydon, vir gebruik tydens die verfilming van die film Lawrence of Arabia uit 1962. Tiger Moth het 'n replika van 'n Fokker D.VII geword terwyl twee vliegtuie op die Rumpler CV gelyk het om uit te beeld hierdie tipe vir die film. [38] Verskeie Tiger Moths is in die ongelukstonele gebruik Die Groot Waldo -peper, staan ​​in vir die Curtiss JN-1. [ aanhaling nodig ] Danksy die gewildheid van die ontwerp en die stygende koste van voorbeelde wat gevlieg kan word, is 'n aantal replika's (skaal en grootte) ontwerp vir die huisbouer, waaronder die Fisher R-80 Tiger Moth en die RagWing RW22 Tiger Moth. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Tiger Moth reageer goed op die beheer van insette en is redelik maklik om te vlieg vir 'n stert-sleeper. Sy groot "valskerm" -vlerke is baie vergewensgesind, en dit stop met 'n snelheid van so stadig as 25 knope met krag. Sy stal- en draaiseienskappe is goedaardig. Dit het 'n paar ongunstige gaaie en benodig daarom roerinvoer tydens draaie. [39] Die Tiger Moth vertoon die fundamentele vereistes van 'n oefenvliegtuig, omdat dit 'maklik om te vlieg, maar moeilik is om goed te vlieg', die goedaardige hantering van die vliegtuig wanneer dit binne die perke dit vir die beginner maklik maak om die basiese vaardighede van vlug aan te leer. Terselfdertyd moet tegnieke soos gekoördineerde vlug aangeleer en effektief gebruik word, en die vliegtuig sal verkeerd hanteer word vir 'n oplettende instrukteur of oplettende leerling. Namate opleiding vorder na meer gevorderde gebiede, veral aerobatics, neem die vaardigheid toe wat 'n Tiger Moth -vlieënier benodig. Die vliegtuig sal nie, soos sommige opleidingsvliegtuie, 'uit die moeilikheid vlieg' nie, maar sal eerder stop of draai as dit verkeerd hanteer word. Die stalletjie en draai bly egter goedaardig en vertoon weer 'n gebrekkige vlieënier sonder om die vliegtuig of die bemanning in gevaar te stel. Hierdie kenmerke was van onskatbare waarde vir militêre operateurs, wat moet identifiseer tussen vlieëniers met die potensiaal om vegvliegtuie te vlieg, diegene wat meer geskik is vir masjiene met 'n laer werkverrigting en diegene wat na 'n nie-vlieëniervliegtuigposisie verplaas moet word. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Omdat die Tiger Moth geen elektriese stelsel het nie, moet dit met die hand begin word. Dit moet met omsigtigheid gedoen word om te voorkom dat die skroef getref word, wat ernstige beserings tot gevolg kan hê. Aangesien 'n tweedekker met 'n stert sleep, moet u ook sorg. Die vlieënier kan nie direk vorentoe sien nie, dus kan die onderste vleuel obstruksies tref, en dit is vatbaar vir rukwinde op sy skuins, groot boonste vleuel. [39]

Die opstyg is sonder probleme en het 'n redelike styging. Die volle krag moet egter nie langer as 'n minuut gehandhaaf word om skade aan die enjin te voorkom nie. [39]

Die Tiger Moth se tweedekkerontwerp maak dit sterk en is volledig aërobaties. Dit het egter slegs ailerons op die onderste vleuel, wat sy roltempo relatief traag maak vir 'n tweedekker, en, soos voorheen genoem, werk die ailerons op 'n Tiger Moth gewoonlik met 'n swaar ingeboude differensiële werking (meestal afbuiging, byna glad nie afwaarts) om nadelige gapingsprobleme tydens normale vlug te vermy. Die meeste maneuvers begin met ongeveer 90 tot 110 knope, en dit het 'n snelheid wat nooit oorskry is nie (VNE) van 140 knope. Dit is belangrik om die outomatiese latte (voorste kleppe) tydens aerobatiese maneuvers te sluit. [39]

Daar is twee metodes om te land. "Wheeler" -landing behels dat die vliegtuig teen 'n matige spoed op die aanloopbaan gestoot word met net die hoofwiele op die grond, met die stert omhoog totdat die spoed verminder. Dit is nie geneig om te bons nie. In teenstelling met die meeste stertrekkers, is driepuntlandings met 'n stadige spoed redelik moeilik, want daar is nie genoeg hysbak om die stert in die regte driepunt-houding te bring nie. [ oorspronklike navorsing? ] Dit beteken dat die stert teen die regte spoed skerp moet sak om die hoekmomentum [ oorspronklike navorsing? ] om dit voldoende af te dra. [39]

Die oop kajuit laat vlieëniers toe om hul koppe oor die kant te beweeg om die aanloopbaan te sien tydens aanloop en landing. Aangesien die vliegtuig 'n stert sleep is, is dit noodsaaklik om dit reguit te land sonder om sywaarts te beweeg, om grondlusse te vermy. [39]

'N Kenmerk wat dikwels nie gedokumenteer is nie, is dat die ontdooiingsmeganisme van die vergasser outomaties geaktiveer word wanneer die versneller verminder word. Dit beteken dat as 'n enjin weens ys swak loop, die vlieënier die krag nog verder moet verminder en dan moet wag totdat die ys smelt. [39]


Hawker Hunter Mark 59 - Geskiedenis

Cessna T-50 / UC-78 Bobcat

(Variante/ander name: Kraan 1A AT-8 AT-17 C-78 JRC-1)


N65809, 'n 1943 UC-78 wat geverf is om 'n AT-8 voor te stel, en destyds in besit van Ron Huckins.
(Foto bron onbekend. Kontak ons ​​gerus as u krediet verdien.)

Geskiedenis: Die eerste keer in 1939, die Cessna T-50 was die maatskappy se bod vir 'n suksesvolle kommersiële vervoer met vyf sitplekke, tipies van baie ander vliegtuie wat in die laat dertigerjare gebou is. Terwyl die vlerke en stert-eenheid van hout was, was die romp 'n gesweisde staalbuis-ontwerp met stof oor houtvel. Dit was 'n monoplane met 'n lae vleuel en het 'n unieke intrekbare stertwiel en agtervleuelvleuels, beide elektries bediend.

Die behoefte aan 'n opleidingsvliegtuig om vlieëniers te help omskakel van enkel- na tweemotorige vliegtuie, het Cessna in staat gestel om 550 vliegtuie vir hierdie doel aan Kanada te verkoop (onder die benaming Hyskraan), gevolg deur 33 T-50 ’'s na die US Army Air Corps onder die benaming AT-8. In 1942 het die USAAF gemeen dat die T-50's goed sou werk as ligte personeelvervoer en vir skakeling/kommunikasie. 1 287 AT-17 Bobcats (later aangewys as UC-78s) afgelewer en bedien in alle oorlogsteaters. Om nie te vergeet nie, het die Amerikaanse vloot in 1942-43 67 vliegtuie gekoop wat hulle aangewys het JRC-1s, om vlieëniers tussen afleweringshawe te vervoer en vlootvlieëniers na nuwe diensstasies te vervoer. Die T-50 het etlike jare na die oorlog in hierdie verskillende rolle gedien. Meer as twee dosyn Bobcats dwaal steeds deur die lug van die VSA, Kanada en Australië/Nieu -Seeland.

Byname: Die bamboesbomwerper Useless-78, The Wichita Wobbler Brasshat Double-Breasted Cub Boxkite Rhapsody in Glue San Joaquin Beaufighter

Spesifikasies (UC-78):
Motore: Twee 245-pk Jacobs R-755-9 radiale suier-enjins van 245 pk
Gewig: leeg 3,500 lbs., Max opstyg 5,700 lbs.
Vleuel span: 41 voet. 11in.
Lengte: 32 voet. 9in.
Hoogte: 9 voet. 11in.
Optrede:
Maksimum spoed: 195 mph
Kruissnelheid: 175 mph
Plafon: 22.000 voet.
Bereik: 750 myl
Bewapening: Geen

Aantal gebou:

Nommer steeds lugwaardig:


Cessna Warbirds, The War Years (1941-45): The T-50 Bobcat
en die Cessnas beïndruk in militêre diens

Deur Walt Shiel

Hierdie boek beskryf die ontstaan ​​en evolusie van die Cessna T-50 Bobcat vanaf sy inkarnasie as 'n burgerlike vliegtuig gedurende sy militêre geskiedenis. Persoonlike herinneringe van vlieëniers wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog met die vliegtuig gevlieg het, 'n magdom foto's (sommige in kleur), diagramme wat uit die vlieëniershandleiding geneem is, en 'n versameling Cessna-verwante oorlogstydadvertensies bied 'n unieke diepte van materiaal. Dit beskryf ook die vooroorlogse enkelmotorige Cessnas wat beïndruk was met militêre diens. Die boek bevat 'n geïllustreerde oorsig van Clyde Cessna, die man, die vliegtuig wat hy ontwerp het en die maatskappye wat hy geskep het.

Alle teks en foto's Kopiereg 2016 The Doublestar Group, tensy anders vermeld.
U mag hierdie bladsy slegs vir u eie, nie-kommersiële verwysingsdoeleindes gebruik.


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U besoek Fidelity.com van buite die Verenigde State en u moet die internasionale gebruiksooreenkoms aanvaar voordat u kan voortgaan.

Hierdie webwerf is bedoel om slegs beskikbaar te wees vir individue in die Verenigde State. Niks op hierdie webwerf word beskou as 'n werwing of 'n aanbod om 'n sekuriteit of 'n ander produk of diens aan enige persoon in 'n jurisdiksie te verkoop nie, waar sodanige aanbod, werwing, koop of verkoop onwettig sou wees ingevolge die wette van sodanige jurisdiksie en geen van die sekuriteite, produkte of dienste wat hierin beskryf word, is gemagtig om buite die Verenigde State van Amerika aangevra, aangebied, gekoop of verkoop te word nie. Deur hierdie webwerf te gebruik, gee u toestemming vir die gebruik van koekies wat inligting oor besoekers van die webwerf versamel. Om na hierdie webwerf te gaan, moet u erken dat u hierdie gebruiksvoorwaardes verstaan ​​en instem deur op 'Ek aanvaar' hieronder te klik.


Hul kort vate en algehele kort lengte maak hulle gunstelinge in enige toepassing waar wendbaarheid en gemaklike hantering prioriteite is.

Eenvoudige, robuuste aksie in die Garand-styl met grendelsluitstelsel, 'n vaste suier-gassisteem en selfreinigende gassilinder bied ongeëwenaarde betroubaarheid onder moeilike omstandighede.

Koue hamer-gesmee vat lei tot ultra-presiese geweer wat uitstekende akkuraatheid en lang lewe bied.

Integrale omhulsels, direk gemasjineer op die soliede ontvanger van staal, bied 'n stabiele monteeroppervlak vir ingesluit omvangringe, wat 'n moontlike bron van losheid en onakkuraatheid in die veld uitskakel.

Akkurate waarnemingstelsel met 'n spookring-agteropening en 'n nie-glansende, beskermde voorblad.

Ontvanger word geboor en getik vir die montering van die meegeleverde Picatinny -spoor.

Bevat ook: twee tydskrifte Picatinny spoorringe.

Bogenoemde funksies is beskikbaar op alle standaardmodelle, maar mag nie op Exclusive Distributor -modelle verskyn nie. Sien individuele spesifikasieblaaie vir modelspesifieke kenmerke.


Vermont Drug Task Force maak 59 arrestasies

Vermont Business Magazine Die Vermont Drug Task Force kondig 'n arrestasie-staking van twee weke aan wat afgehandel is met die arrestasies van talle mense wat daarvan beskuldig word dat hulle dwelms dwarsdeur Vermont verhandel het. Die Vermont Drug Task Force het die afgelope paar weke 59 verdagtes gearresteer op aanklagte van die verkoop en verspreiding van heroïen, fentaniel, kokaïen en crack -kokaïen. Die ondersoeke het onder meer 53 individuele aanklagte van die verkoop van heroïne en 43 individuele aanklagte van die verkoop van crack -kokaïen tot gevolg gehad.

Alle verdagtes word aangekla van dwelmmisdrywe in die staat en is aangehaal en vrygelaat met toekomstige datums om in die kriminele afdeling van die hooggeregshowe in Vermont in die staat te verskyn. 'N Lys van verdagtes en die aanklagte wat hulle in die gesig staar, is aan die einde van hierdie uitgawe ingesluit.

Die Drug Task Force doen jaarliks ​​honderde ondersoeke na verskillende vlakke van onwettige dwelmaktiwiteite en is daartoe verbind om die mense wat hierdie giftige dwelms verkoop of versprei, aggressief te vervolg, of om individue te help wat dit verkoop. Hierdie middels is gevaarlik vir die persoon wat dit neem en nooi geweld uit na ons gemeenskappe.

Terselfdertyd is die staatspolisie in Vermont ook daartoe verbind om individue te help om behandeling vir hul verslawing te vind en om hulle te help op hul pad na herstel. Tydens hierdie operasie werk die taakspan saam met die departement van gesondheid in Vermont om inligting te verskaf oor behandelings- en hersteldienste aan diegene wat 'n dwelmafhanklikheid het.

Wetstoepassing, openbare gesondheid, opvoeding, behandeling, herstelondersteuning en gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid loop hand aan hand om die probleme wat deur opioïedgebruik veroorsaak word, te voorkom, te verminder en uit te skakel.

Die Vermont -staatspolisie het ook 'n wenk en vra die publiek om hulp by die aanmelding van dwelmhandelaars in hul gemeenskappe. Wenke kan aanlyn ingedien word by https://vsp.vermont.gov/tipsubmit.

Die departement van gesondheid van Vermont bied ook aanlynhulpbronne aan sodat mense hulp en 'n pad na herstel kan vind: https://www.healthvermont.gov/alcohol-drugs.

Die volgende agentskappe het bygestaan ​​in hierdie operasie Vermont State Police, Brattleboro PD, Winchester NH PD, Bellows Falls PD, Springfield PD, Bennington PD, Rutland City PD, Bennington County Sheriff's Dept., South Burlington PD, Burlington PD, Grand Isle Sheriff's Dept. , Franklin County Sherriff's Dept., Essex PD, St. Johnsbury PD en Newport PD.

Lys van verweerders Klik HIER vir bekerfoto's


Hawker Hunter Mark 59 - Geskiedenis

Ondanks die feit dat 'n geskatte sesde van die wêreld se manne besny is [1,2], is dit lankal vergete waar of waarom hierdie interessantste operasie begin het. The procedure has been performed for religious, cultural and medical reasons, although the last has only become fashionable since the rise of modern surgery in the 19th century. Accordingly, the indications for surgery have surfaced, submerged and altered with the trends of the day. In this review we explore the origins of circumcision, and discuss the techniques and controversies that have evolved since the event has become `medicalized'.

Anthropologists do not agree on the origins of circumcision. The English egyptologist, Sir Graham Elliot Smith, suggested that it is one of the features of a `heliolithic' culture which, over some 15 000 years ago, spread over much of the world. Others believe that it may have originated independently within several different cultures certainly, many of the natives that Columbus found inhabiting the `New World' were circumcised. However, it is known that circumcision had been practised in the Near East, patchily throughout tribal Africa, among the Moslem peoples of India and of south-east Asia, as well as by Australian Aborgines, for as long as we can tell. The earliest Egyptian mummies (1300 BCE) were circumcised and wall paintings in Egypt show that it was customary several thousand years earlier than that [3,4].

In some African tribes, circumcision is performed at birth. In Judaic societies, the ritual is performed on the eighth day after birth, but for Moslems and many of the tribal cultures it is performed in early adult life as a `rite of passage', e.g. puberty or marriage. Why the practice evolved is not clear and many theories have been proposed. Nineteenth century historians suggested that the ritual is an ancient form of social control. They conceive that the slitting of a man's penis to cause bleeding and pain is to remind him of the power of the Church, i.e. `We have control over your distinction to be a man, your pleasure and your right to reproduce'. The ritual is a warning and the timing dictates who is warned for the new-born it is the parents who accede to the Church: `We mark your son, who belongs to us, not to you' [5]. For the young adolescent, the warning accompanies the aggrandisement of puberty the time when growing strength give independence, and the rebellion of youth [6].

Psychologists have extended this theory to incorporate notions of `pain imprinting'. By encoding violence on the brain, child-maternal bonding is interrupted and a sense of betrayal is instilled in the infant these are considered requisite qualities that enhance the child's ability for survival later in life [7]. Indeed, some components of these psychological theories have recently been tested in prospective clinical trials and there is now evidence that neonates who are circumcised without local anaesthetic do have increased pain responses when 4- and 6-monthly vaccinations are administered [8].

Fig. 1. A captured Schemite warrior is circumcised. Engraving
by J. Muller. Reproduced with permission of the Wellcome Institute.

Others believe that circumcision arose as a mark of defilement or slavery [1,9] (fig. 1). In ancient Egypt captured warriors were often mutilated before being condemned to the slavery. Amputation of digits and castration was common, but the morbidity was high and their resultant value as slaves was reduced. However, circumcision was just as degrading and evolved as a sufficiently humiliating compromise. Eventually, all male descendents of these slaves were circumcised. The Phoenicians, and later the Jews who were largely enslaved, adopted and ritualized circumcision. In time, circumcision was incorporated into Judaic religious practice and viewed as an outward sign of a covenant between God and man (Genesis XVI, Fig. 2).

Fig 2. Circumcision is a covenant between God and man.
Reproduced with permission of the Wellcome Institute.

There are many other reasons why circumcision may have evolved. Some have suggested that it is a mark of cultural identity, akin to a tattoo or a body piercing [3]. Alternatively, there are reasons to believe that the ritual evolved as a fertility rite [4]. For example, that some tribal cultures apportion `seasons' for both the male and female operation, supports the view that circumcision developed as a sacrifice to the gods, an offering in exchange for a good harvest, etc. This would seem reasonable as the penis is clearly inhabited by powers that produce life. Indeed, evidence of a connection with darvests is also found in Nicaragua, where blood from the operations is mixed with maize to be eaten during the ceremony [1,10]. (Fig. 3). Although the true origins of circumcision will never be known, it is likely that the truth lies in part with all of the theories described.

Fig. 3 Attendants await to collect the circumcision blood this is to be mixed with maize and eaten in a harvest ceremony. Reproduced with permission of the Wellcome Institute.

From ancient to mediaeval times

Whatever religious or cultural forces drove this practice, historical clues to the surgical aspects of circumcision cane be found by chronicling the medical texts. However, this approach has its limitations: techniques and practitioners were diverse and studying surgical writing alone provides an incomplete reflection of the controversies that are endemic to all times. Furthermore, was it always doctors who performed the procedure in ancient times? Probably not: in biblical times it was the mother who performed the ceremony on the newborn. Gradually mohels took over men who had the requisite surgical skill and advanced religious knowledge. After prayer, the mohel circumcised the infant and then blessed the child, a practice little changed today [11] (Fig. 4a-d). In ancient Egyptian society, the procedure was performed by a priest with his thumb-nail (often gold-impregnated) and throughout mediaeval times it appears to have been largely kept in the domain of religious men [12].

Fig. 4. (a) A Mohel circumcises an infant with his finger nail. (b) An ancient circumcision knife. Collection plate and Scroll of Torah (

300 AD). (c) Instruments and sacred objects of the Enlightenment (1741): Above bistoury, collection plates, anointment and prepuce holder. Below: scrolls of Torah. (d) A Mohel's pocket knife. All reproduced with permission of Wellcome Institute.

Few mediaeval medical texts describe the procedure, although Theodoric (1267) suggests the need for `removal of the end part (penis)' in the treatment of `black warts and tubercles' [13]. He may indeed have been describing circumcision in the context of some penile pathology. However, it is likely that doctors did not perform circumcision until the latter half of the 19th century.

The early 19th century

Brief descriptions of adult circumcision for phimosis start to appear in early 19th century textbooks. Although the surgical techniques tend not to be described in detail, Abernathy (1928) [14] who was a reluctant surgeon) does report the use of the bistoury (knife) to achieve circumcision in men with `gonoccocal phimosis'. He also states that the bleeding should be `stanched with iodoform and boric', possibly indicating that sutures were not applied. Baillie (1833) [15] also describes gonococcal phimosis and recommends that the initial treatment is `nugatory' (inoperative) involving the washing of the penis (and under the prepuce with soap and tepid water, followed by the application of calomel ointment. Abernathy also warns against immediate circumcision in the face of a `morbidly sensitive surface' (and declares that Sir Edward Home agrees with him!). He advocates that the posthitis (inflamed foreskin) should be allowed to `soothe and allay' before surgical intervention. We can assume that the complications recognized by both Abernathy and Baillie were re-phimosis, re-stricture or suppuration what is clear is that circumcision was not a procedure taken lightly at that time. Interestingly, neither author mentions circumcision in the neonate, suggesting that it had not yet significantly entered the domain of English surgeons.

Mid-19th to early 20th century

By the middle of the 19th century, anaesthesia and antisepsis were rapidly changing surgical practice. The first reported circumcision in the surgical accounts of St Bartholomew's Hospital was in 1865 although this comprised only one of the 417 operations performed that year, it was clearly becoming a more common procedure [16]. Indeed, this was a time when surgical cures were being explored for all ails and in 1878 Curling described circumcision as a cure for impotence in men who also had as associated phimosis [17]. Many other surgeons reported circumcision as being beneficial for a diverse range of sexual problems [18]. Walsham (1903) re-iterates the putative association of phimosis with impotence and suggests that it may also predispose to sterility, priapism, excess masturbation and even venereal disease [19]. Warren (1915) adds epilepsy, nocturnal enuresis, night terrors and `precocious sexual unrest' to the list of dangers [20], and this accepted catalogue of `phimotic ills' is extended in American textbooks to include other aspects of `sexual erethisms' such as homosexuality [21,22].

Fig. 5. The scissor technique described by Sir Frederick Treves (1903). Reproduced from [23].

The turn of the 19th century was also an important time in laying the foundations of surgical technique. Sir Frederick Treves (1903) provides us with a comprehensive account of basic surgical principles that remain today [23]. Like most of his contemporaries, he used scissors to remove the prepuce (fig. 5) and describes ligation of the frenular artery as being `mandatory' in the adult. He also warns against the excess removal of skin, as this may lead to chordee.

Treves also maintains that the oppositional sutures of the skin edges must be of interrupted `fine catgut'. Other surgeons chose to use horse-hair or silk [19], but irrespective of variations in suturing materials, all were agreed that a continuous stitch should not be applied. One notable exception was the Master Technician and influential French Surgeon E. Doyen, who headed his own Institute of Surgical Excellence in Paris (L'Institut Doyen). Many foreign surgical trainees passed through his department, and together with his English collaborator H. Spencer-Browne, they described their antihaemorrhagic triradiate continuous circumcision suture line [24]. Three circular sutures of no. 1 silk were applied to achieve `coaptation' of the skin edges, each one third of the circumference of the glans. The ends were not tied so as to allow expansion of the space between the two skin layers if necessary (fig. 6a). A compressing piece of sterilized muslim was then wrapped over the entire distal penis, with a snug hole to allow for the passage of the glans (Fig. 6b). The sutures and the muslin were then removed after 3-5 days.

Fig. 6. (a) The triradiate continuous suture of Doyen (1920). (b) Compressive muslin dressing.

Such variations in suture application aimed at minimizing the most frequent immediate complication of haemorrhage. Indeed, the popular urological text of Charles Chetwood (1921) recommended leaving long interrupted horse-hair sutures so that compressive strips of iodoform and petroleum gauze could be securely tied down over the suture line (Fig. 7a). Variations on what became known as `chetwood's dressing' appeared as recently as Sir Alec Badenorch's Manual of Urology in 1953 (Fig 7b) [25]. This later text is also interesting in that measures to prevent haemorrhage within the first 24 h of surgery included the administration of stilboestrol to prevent erection of the penis. He recommended that this be given at a dose of 5 mg three times daily, beginning one day before surgery and continued for several days afterwards. He also advocated the use of bromide and chloral for similar reasons. It is also interesting that the 1974 edition of Badenoch's Manual no longer included this advice.

Fig. 7. Chetwood's lang horse-hair tethering sutures (1921) and (b) Chetwood's dressing. From [25]

Neonatal circumcision techniques have evolved in parallel. It is clear from most surgical texts that circumcision of the new-born had become a regular request for the surgeon by the later part of the 19th century. For instance, Jacobsen (1893) [26] warns of the importance of establishing a familial bleeding tendency from the mother before circumcision. He describes the case of four Jewish infants, each descended from a different grandchild of a common ancestress, all of whom died from haemorrhage after circumcision. Treves (1903) [23] and most other contemporary writers note that ligation of the frenular arteries is usually not necessary in the neonate and that bleeding can usually be controlled by simple pressure. Indeed it seems that `crush' with a clamp followed by preputial excision rapidly became the template for the operation in babies. As such, the last hundred years has seen the evolution of various crushing and clamping instruments to facilitate the procedure. Doyen (1920) [24] developed his écraseur for use in neonatal circumcision. The foreskin was crushed and cut in four separate manoeuvres with very little concomitant bleeding. He was so impressed with the efficacy of this instrument that he frequently used it for adult circumcisions without (he claimed) the need for additional sutures (Fig. 8a-c).

Fig. 8. (a) the Écraseur of Doyen (1920), with (b) and (c) showing the four-point crushing manoeuvre.

By the 1930s, many circumcision clamps were available for use in the new-born. Indeed, the use of such clamps prompted Thomson-Walker [27] to painstakingly warn of the dangers of injury to the glans when such clamps were used, and not surprisingly, more sophiticated tools were introduced to protect the penis. The prototype of the `Winkelman' was introduced in 1935 and its appearance has changed little today. (Fig. 9). However, concern not only over the dangers of neonatal circumcision, but also of the risks of neonatal anaesthesia lead to the development of the `Plastibell' device by the Hollister company in the 1950s (Fig. 10). Its use was first reported in 1956 [28] and several favourable reports followed [29,30]. With the exception of the occasional proximal migration of the ring [31,32], complications are few and the device remains in widespread popular use today. More recently plastic clamps with integral stell cutting blades have also been introduced [33]. These include instruments such as the Glansguard TM (Fig. 11) and many other clamps, e.g. the Gomco, Bronstein and Mogen variations, are used in different parts of the world.

Fig. 9. The `Winkelman' circumcision clamp. Reproduced with permission of Aescalup Surgical Products.

Fig. 10. The Plastibell TM device.

Alternative procedures

More than 2000 years of Jewish persecution has led to the development of alternative surgical procedures. Indeed, `uncircumcision as a measure to offset the oppression of Jews is cited in the Old Testament (I Maccabees 1:14-15) and surgical attempts to restore the prepuce have been well documented throughout history [17,34,35]. In modern times, this was no more true than during the period of Nazi terror, where clandestine recontructions were commonplace in a desperate attempt by Jewish men to avoid internment [36]. Relics of anti-Semitism are evident throughout history and even the statue of Michelangelo's David (a Jew), which was erected in Florence in 1504 was carved uncircumcised [37] (Fig. 12). Not surprisingly, contemporary operations to `stretch' the circumcised foreskin are recorded in early Renaissance Europe [34]. In more recent surgical times, surgeons were urged to develop alternative procedures to circumcision for men who required surgery for phimosis. Cloquet's `V' excision of the foreskin in 1900 was a popular means to retain a `cloak' of prepuce over the glans, yet still release the phimosis [38] In 1926, Young and Davies [39] described a preputial-plasty whereby a constricting band of the foreskin was incised and then closed by the Heinecke-Mikulicz principle (Fig. 13). Although not widely practised, this procedure has stood the test of time and recently was shown to be superior to circumcision in a comparative study [40].

Fig. 11. The glansguard TM device

Recurrent paraphimosis has long been held to be an indication for circumcision. In most circumstances, it can be reduced by manipulation, and circumcision performed electively later. However, Walsham (1903) [19] recommended an alternative approach whereby acute division of the paraphimotic band was all that was necessary. He suggested that in the presence of such an oedematous prepuce, the phimotic band would heal with less constriction, and that delayed circumcision would not be required (Fig. 14). Young and Davies also described a similar procedure whereby a preputial-plasty was performed on the constricting band during the acute oedematous phase the prepuce was reduced and the need for a circumcision negated (Fig. 15). It is interesting that a `re-invention' of this operation has recently been reported [41].

Understanding the prepuce

It is surprising that despite the many billions of foreskins that have been severed over thousands of years, it is only recently that efforts have been made to understand the prepuce. The first adequate embyrological description of preputial development was published in the 1930s [42]. It was realized that the formation of the preputial space occurred by patch desquamation of the epithelial cells which were contiguous between the glans and the prepuce, a process not necessarily complete by birth [43]. Indeed the first study to address this question was the influential landmark report of Douglas Gairdner in 1949 [44]. He concluded that only 4% of foreskins were fully retractile at birth, yet 90% were so by the age of 3 years. Of these remaining foreskins, most could be rendered retractile by gentle manipulation. Recent studies have suggested that by the age of 17 years, only 1% remain unretractile [45]. However, the importance of Gairdner's paper was that he was one of the first people to ascribe a function to the prepuce. Previous medical texts are notable for their absence of comment and some even describe the prepuce as a vestigial structure [20,21,46]. Gairdner made the astute observations that the slow period of preputial development corresponded with the age of incontinence. He felt that the prepuce had a protective role and noted that meatal ulceration only occurred in circumcised boys. Recently, a doctor writing anonymously in the BMJ provided an analogy suggesting that the prepuce is to the glans what the eyelid is to the eye [47].

Fig. 12. Michelangelo's David, uncircumcised (inset)

Fig. 13. The preputial-plasty of Young and Davies [39].

To date, a more definite function cannot be ascribed to the prepuce, but as an accessible and ready source of fibroblasts, it has become a favourite tissue reservoir for cell-culture biologists and hence basic scientific research. From this wealth of disparate information, it is clear that the foreskin is an androgen-dependent structure [48] with complex intradermal enzyme systems. These confer upon it a wide range of metabolic functions, including the differential metabolism of various prostaglandins which are copiously produced throughout the male and female genital tract [49]. Certainly, it can be anticipated that many other biochemical functions will be defined in the years to come a vestigal structure it almost certainly is not [50].

Fig. 14. The paraphimotic-plasty of Walshame (1903) [19].

Fig. 15. Acute division of the phimotic band in paraphimosis [39].

Notwithstanding the relative disinterest over the function of the prepuce, no other operation has been surrounded by controversy so much as circumcision. Should it be done, then when, why, how and by whom? Religious and cultural influences are pervasive, parental confusion is widespread and medical indications shift with the trends of the day. Doctors divide into camps driven by self-interest, self-righteousness and self-defence. It is not surprising that some of the most colourful pages in the medical literature are devoted to the debate. For instance in 1950, Sir James Spence of Newcastle upon Tyne responded to the request from a local GP as follows:

Literary assaults such as these have served to fuel the debates and even a Medline ® search today reveals that in the last year alone, 155 reviews or letters have been published arguing for or against routine circumcision. However, studying the evolution of the medical indications provides us with a pleasing demonstration of how controversy drives scientific enquiry. We have already described how the surgeons of 100 years ago advocated circumcision for a wide variety of conditions, such as impotence, nocturnal enuresis, sterility, excess masturbation, night terrors, epilepsy, etc. There can be no doubt that a large element of surgical self-interest drove these claims. However, most of the contemporary textbooks also included epithelioma (carcinoma) of the penis amidst the morass of complications of phimosis. Although rare, once this observation had been made, it presumably filtered down through the textbooks by rote, rather than scientific study. A few reports had appeared in the early 20th century indicating that carcinoma of the penis was rare in circumcised men, but not until the debate over neonatal circumcision erupted in the medical press in the 1930s that this surgical `mantra' was put to the test. In 1932, the editor of the Lancet challenged Abraham Wolbarst [52], a New York urologist, to prove his contention (in a previous Lancet editorial), that circumcision prevented penile carcinoma. Wolbarst responded by surveying every skin, cancer and Jewish hospital in the USA, along with 1250 of the largest general hospitals throughout the Union. With this survey, he was able to show that penile cancer virtually never occurred in circumcised men and that the risk related to the timing of the circumcision. Over the years this association has been reaffirmed by many research workers, although general hygiene, demographic and other factors such as human papilloma virus and smoking status are probably just as important [53]. However, Wolbarst established that association through formal scientific enquiry and proponents of the procedure continue to use this as a compelling argument for circumcision at birth.

Almost as an extension to the lack of penile cancer in Jews, Handley [54] reported on the infrequency of carcinoma of the cervix in Jewish women. He suggested that this related to the fact that Jewish men were circumcised. Not surprisingly, this spawned a mass of contradictory studies and over the next 50 years the champions of both camps have sought to establish the importance or irrelevance of circumcision in relation to penile cancer. The pendulum has swung both ways and the current evidence suggests that other factors are probably more important [55,56]. A similar debate has raged for 50 years over concerns for the risks of urinary tract infections in young boys and currently, any decreased risk associated with circumcision remains tentative but not proven [56].

However, during the two World Wars, governments became increasingly interested in reducing the risk of venereal disease amongst their soldiers. Clearly, such pathology can have a profound effect on the efficiency of fighting armis. Indeed, in 1947 the Canadian Army [57] found that whereas 52% of their soldiers had foreskins intact, 77% of those treated for venereal disease were uncircumcised. Persuasive arguments to circumcise all conscripts were proposed. Furthermore, it was an age-old observation, and indigenous African healers had promoted circumcision to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted disease for centuries [58]. As might be expected, the evidence did not withstand further scientific scrutiny and numerous contradictions were provided [56] However, there has recently been startling evidence that HIV infection is significantly associated with the uncircumcised status [59]. Indeed, one author has recently suggested routine neonatal circumcision on a world-wide scale as a long-term strategy for the control of AIDS [60]: a whole new chapter opens in this ancient debate!

Finally, controversy has arisen over who should perform the procedure. Once circumcision had been `medicalized' in the 19th century, many surgeons were keen to take paying customers away from the religious men. As such, doctors were often quick to highlight the unforseen risks attendant on a non-medical procedure. For instance, Cabot (1924) [61] described tuberculosis of the penis occurring when Rabbis with infected sputum sucked on the baby's penis to stop the bleeding. However, it has often been claimed that the incidence of complications in Jewish children is very low and that the final result is usually better than any hospital doctor can produce [62, 63]. Naturally, quality control is variable and whereas not all commentators have had such respect for the religious men [64,65], others have been quick to indicate the sub-optimal results frequently obtained in hospital [29]. Not surprisingly, disastrous accounts damning practitioners from all quarters have embellished the literature on countless occasions. Irrespective, the circumcision of young boys has become a thriving business for all parties [66].

However, with a healthcare budget of $140 million per year in the USA (1990) [67], insurance companies eventually forced closer scrutiny. Following such pressure, the first Task Force of Neonatal Circumcision from the American Academy of Pediatrics (1n 1975) concluded that there was no valid medical indication for this procedure [68]. However, the pro-circumcision lobby was strong and the task force was forced to re-evaluate. In 1989, they conceded that there may be certain advantages to neonatal circumcision, although their recommendations did stop short of advising routine operation [56]. Similar pressures in the UK have now resulted in only certain Health Authorities being prepared to pay for the procedure. These tend to be in regions with large ethnic minorities who otherwise may suffer form `back street' circumcisions [62, 64].

Thus it is clear that medical trends are now being driven by financial constraints. Perhaps this is reflected by the dramatic decline in the number of non-religious circumcisions performed over the last half century in the USA an estimated 80% of boys were circumcised in 1976 [69] but by 1981 this had fallew to 61% [67], and recent estimates suggest that this decrease continues [70]. In the UK the decline has been even more dramatic: originally more common in the upper classes [44], circumcision rates fell from 30% in 1939 to 20% in 1949 and 10% by 1963. By 1975 only 6% of British schoolboys were circumcised [71] and this may well have declined further [63]. Whether this general trend reflects a tempering of attitudes towards the persuasive medical rhetoric that has simmered for the past 100 years, or whether financial considerations have dampened enthusiasm, is unknown. Perhaps the First World cultures are witnessing an escape from the medical paternalism that has gripped them for so long, or even that the age-old ritual is simply no longer fashionable in modern peoples again, it is unknown. However, whatever the current trend, ebbing or flowing, we can be sure that the controversies of circumcision will continue to colour the medical literature, far into the future.

Many historical accounts of circumcision have been written and most authors have used their survey to form an opinion as to whether the neonatal procedure is justified. The weak medical arguments are tempered by the importance of cultural and religious factors. In truth, the real reasons why circumcision has evolved are much broader. Opponents of the ritual draw attention to the `rights' of the new-born, which, they argue, mut be upheld [66]. Others contest that humans are social animals and cannot survive alone they require their parents, community and culture to thrive, and, as such, `rights' belong to the group, not to the individual. If there is an inherent survival advantage to a group of humans who chose to maim their young, then this is presumably evidenced by their continued survival as a race [11]. In short, to conclude any historical reflection with a reasoned `right' or `wrong', would be like claiming to have fathomed human nature itself. Consider this mankind has developed this strange surgical signature that is so pervasive, that in the last five minutes alone, another 120 boys throughout the world have been circumcised.


Mirroring the metaphorical representation of the group as a twelve-legged spider, the Phantom Troupe is composed of 13 members, one "head" and 12 "legs". ⎖] All the "legs" are equal in ranking and decisional power, and tasks are assigned based on each member's individual skills or volunteering. ⎘] The "head" is the leader, whose orders are to be considered the utmost priority however, their life is not, since even the "head" can be replaced. The "legs" are expected to always adhere to the governing principle that the prosperity of the group as a whole trumps the survival of any one of its individuals, even taking matters into their own hands should the interests of the group and of the "head" clash. ⎖] In Chrollo's case, however, several members had come to be so reliant on him that his life was in fact elevated to the status of priority of the group. ⎙ ]

The Phantom Troupe does not assemble frequently but gathers at the "head"'s request, which can be discretionary or mandatory. Skipping a mandatory meeting could result in a "leg" being punished by the "head". ⎚] Only the "head" has the authority to add new members, although a "leg" can recommend candidates they deem suitable. ⎛] Defeating a current member is a viable way to replace them, which may not be subjected to the "head"'s approval. Γ ]

Other than following the "head"'s directives, there are no specific lines of conduct that "legs" are expected to follow. Although some members believe buying and bidding to be against the ways of the group, ⎜] others have no qualms about resorting to legal, non-violent channels and transactions, ⎚] with at least two of them becoming Hunters for the associated benefits. ⎝] ⎞] It has been noted that two "legs" are always by the "head"'s side when the Phantom Troupe gathers, but it is unknown if that is an official rule. Γ ]

Positions and Roles

Phantom Troupe members are assigned to or volunteer for certain activities in the group based on their aptitude. ⎘ ]

  • Boss (団長, "Leader"): The leader of the Phantom Troupe. Currently held by Chrollo Lucilfer.
  • Acting Leader (団長代理, "Leader Substitute"): The interim leader of the Spiders when the leader is absent. This position was granted to whoever killed Zazan first. ⎟] Formerly held by Feitan Portor. ⎠ ]
  • Commando Team (特攻 ⎘] or 実行部隊, Ζ] "Vanguard/Attack Squad" or "Execution Squad"): Volunteers for this unit are frontline fighters. One of their main responsibilities consists in protecting the recon and cleanup groups. Formerly held by Nobunaga Hazama and Uvogin ⎘] currently held by Nobunaga Hazama, Phinks Magcub, and Feitan Portor. Ζ ]
  • Recon (情報, "Intelligence"): Members in charge of information gathering. Formerly held by Shalnark and Pakunoda. ⎘ ]
  • Cleanup (処理部隊, "Disposing Squad"): Members in charge of removing the evidence of the group's criminal activity. Currently held by Shizuku. ⎘ ]

Coin Tossing

Heads side of the Spider coin

Tails side of the Spider coin

Serious fights are prohibited among Phantom Troupe members. Since no "leg" outranks another, if a clash of opinions cannot be solved through discussion, coin tossing is used to settle the quarrel. ⎛] However, disputes solved by the coin are only between two legs and not multiple. ⎡] The coin used is custom-made, the heads side sporting the group's signature twelve-legged spider, and the tails side depicting a spider's web.

Tattoo

Uvogin's numbered 11 Spider tattoo

Members of the Phantom Troupe, with the possible exception of Chrollo, sport a tattoo of a twelve-legged spider somewhere on their body. Inside the spider, there is a number, ranging from 1 to 12 for the "legs", which differs for each member. ⎘] It is unknown how these numbers are assigned. Although the twelve-legged spider is instantly recognizable as the symbol of the Troupe, the fact it is numbered is not as widely known. Β ]


A brief history of Trump's small-time swindles

Illustrated | Andrew Harrer/Getty Images, panic_attack/iStock

President Trump has long claimed to be a fierce defender of the "forgotten" American. In his unsettlingly dark inauguration address, for example, Trump declared: "The forgotten men and women of our country will be forgotten no longer. Everyone is listening to you now. . And I will fight for you with every breath in my body, and I will never, ever let you down."

But Trump has long made a career of letting down just these sorts of Americans.

Despite his fiery rally rhetoric and over-the-top working-class bluster, Trump's hypocrisy on this score has always been gobsmackingly obvious, since in his former life as a real estate tycoon he left a long trail of small businesses and independent contractors feeling bilked or burned.

Granted, fights between developers and contractors over payments are not uncommon in the construction and real estate business. But consultants and lawyers in the industry say that Trump's tactics — like using last-minute excuses to either refuse payment or renegotiate terms — were especially cutthroat and petty.

Let's take a brief (and hardly comprehensive) tour of some of the Americans left burned by the president.

1. Trump's personal driver

This is the latest entry in Trump's ledger: Noel Cintron, 59, says he worked as a chauffeur for Trump and his family for 25 years. On top of a mammoth unpaid overtime bill — 3,300 hours in the last six years — Cintron says he only got a raise twice after 2003: to $68,000 in 2006, and then to $75,000 in 2010. The second bump came with a requirement that Cintron give up his health benefits. All told, Cintron is suing Trump for at least $350,000 in damages.

2. A Philadelphia cabinet maker

Edward Friel Jr. owned a family business that harked back to the 1940s. During the Atlantic City boom four decades later, he landed a $400,000 contract to make slot machines, bars, desks, and other furniture for Harrah's at Trump Plaza. But Trump refused to pay the final bill of around $84,000. Friel's son suspected that Trump also used his clout in the industry to block the company from getting other Atlantic City contracts. Friel had to file for bankruptcy a few years later.

3. A paint seller and event workers in Florida

After putting in long hours for a special event at Trump National Doral, a Miami resort, 48 servers had to sue for unpaid overtime. The settlements averaged around $800 per worker, but went as high as $3,000 in one case. On top of that, a paint shop owner named Juan Carlos Enriquez also sued Trump's business, claiming he never got the final payment for a paint shipment to the same resort. In 2017, after a three-year legal fight, a court found in Enriquez's favor, and ordered Trump's company to pay the final $32,000, plus $300,000 in legal fees.

4. A drapery business in Las Vegas

Back in 2007, Larry Walters got an order for over $700,000 of curtains, pillow covers, and bedspreads for Trump's hotel in Sin City. Walters said additional orders grew the job to $1.2 million, but the developer, a joint venture LLC called Trump Ruffin, only paid $553,000. Eventually, Walters responded by halting work and keeping the remaining fabric as collateral. Trump Ruffin sued, and sheriff's deputies actually showed up at Walters' business to take the fabric away. Knowing they could drag the legal fight out, Walters eventually settled for $823,000 — about $380,000 short of what he said he was owed. He closed the business in 2011.

According to court records, Walters never had a dispute with any other client.

5. A toilet maker in Atlantic City

It was 1988 when Forest Jenkins won a $200,000 contract to install toilet partitions at Trump's Taj Mahal in Atlantic City. For a modest business like Jenkins', it was a huge score. But thanks to the enormous debts Trump built up, the casino went belly up just a few years later, and the payment never came. After years of fighting in bankruptcy court, Jenkins only got $70,000 back, and was nearly ruined in the process. According to CNN, dozens of other contractors on the project went through the same ordeal.

There's plenty more, like the jewelry store owner who was strong-armed out of his kiosk in Trump Tower, or the West Palm Beach chandelier company that Trump sued to avoid paying half of a $34,000 bill. Even lawyers who helped Trump in his fights with contractors later got into payment fights with Trump himself.

Of course, not everyone who ever worked with Trump is unhappy, and he's won plenty of his legal fights. Reuters looked at over 50 court cases and liens related to Trump projects: "The majority said they were paid in full and happy to work for him but at least a dozen said they had been left out of pocket or had watched as other contractors were short-changed." A far more sweeping investigation by USA Today found Trump was involved in over 3,500 lawsuits during the last three decades. "At least 60 lawsuits, along with hundreds of liens, judgments, and other government filings" were from contractors claiming they got stiffed. USA Today also found "24 violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act since 2005 for failing to pay overtime or minimum wage."

Trump says this is just business. "Let's say that they do a job that's not good, or a job that they didn't finish, or a job that was way late. I'll deduct from their contract, absolutely," Trump once said. As for Noel Cintron, Trump's longtime driver, a spokeswoman for the Trump Organization said he was always "paid generously and in accordance with the law. Once the facts come out we expect to be fully vindicated in court."

With these sorts of disputes, who you believe often comes down to whose integrity, honor, and moral character you have more faith in.

As to how Trump stacks up on those metrics, I leave it to readers to judge.


Kyk die video: Avionics teardown: Hawker Hunter rockets firing controller. (Januarie 2022).