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Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter

Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter

Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter

Die Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter is in 1940 in klein getalle vervaardig, maar is gekanselleer nadat die Japannese vloot die gebruik van primêre watervliegtuigopleiers laat vaar het.

In 1937 het die Japannese vloot Nippon, Watanabe en Kawanishi gevra om 'n 12-Shi Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter te vervaardig om die Navy Type 90 Primary Seaplane Trainer (Yokosuka K4Y1) te vervang. Die nuwe vliegtuig moes aangedryf word deur 'n 130 pk Jimpu -enjin, en die vervaardigers het taamlik beperkende instruksies gegee.

Kawanishi vervaardig 'n tweevlot tweedrywende tweedekker met twee oop kajuit. Die vliegtuig het 'n gelaste staalraamwerk vir die romp en 'n houtraamwerk vir die vlerke, albei met stof bedek. Die vlotte is van metaal gemaak.

Die eerste prototipe het sy eerste vlug op 6 Julie 1938 gemaak en is gevolg deur nog twee. Die vloot het dit as die K8K1 getoets en in Julie 1940 aanvaar dit vir produksie as die Navy Type 0-1-1 Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter. Dit is later verander na net die tipe 0.

Slegs vyftien produksievliegtuie is voltooi voordat die vloot besluit het om sy opleidingsroetine te verander en die primêre seevliegtuig af te sny. Nadat hulle primêre opleiding op landvliegtuie ondergaan het, het hulle onmiddellik na die Yokosuka K5Y Type 93 Intermediate Seaplane Trainer gegaan. Die produksie van die K8K1 is laat vaar.

Enjin: Gasuden Jimpu 2 sewe-silinder lugverkoelde radiale enjin
Krag: 130-160 pk
Bemanning: 2
Span: 31 voet 2 duim
Lengte: 28ft 10.5in
Leë gewig: 1,5885 pond
Laai gewig: 2,184lb
Maksimum spoed: 115 mph op seevlak
Klimkoers: 5 minute 40 sekondes tot 9,843 voet
Diensplafon: 11,450 voet
Uithouvermoë: 4,6 uur


Kawanishi N1K Warbird -inligting


Rol: Vegter
Vervaardiger: Kawanishi Aircraft Company
Ontwerper: Shizuo Kikuhara
Eerste vlug: N1K1 6 Mei 1942 N1K1-J 27 Desember 1942 N1K2-J 31 Desember 1943
Inleiding: 1943
Afgetree: 1945
Primêre gebruiker: Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Aantal gebou: 1.435

Die Kawanishi N1K Kyōfū (強 風 "sterk wind", geallieerde verslagdoeningsnaam "Rex") was 'n keiser van die Japanse vlootvliegtuig. Die Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden (紫 電 "Violet Lightning") was 'n landgebaseerde weergawe van die N1K van die keiserlike Japanse vlootlugdiens. Die N1K-J, wat aan die geallieerde kodenaam "George" toegewys is, word deur beide sy vlieëniers en teenstanders beskou as een van die beste landgevegters wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur die Japannese gevlieg is.

Die N1K beskik oor 'n swaar bewapening en kan ongewoon vir 'n Japannese vegter aansienlike slagskade opneem. Die N1K-J pas ewe goed by die F6F Hellcat en was 'n beter pasmaat as die A6M Zero vir vliegtuie soos die F4U Corsair en P-51 Mustang. Ondanks hierdie vermoë is dit te laat en in onvoldoende getalle vervaardig om die uitkoms van die oorlog te beïnvloed.

Vliegtuigfoto - Kawanishi N1K1 "Rex" -vliegtuigvegters wat na die oorlog by 'n Japannese vlootbasis gevind is.

Kawanishi se N1K is oorspronklik gebou as 'n vlugvliegtuig om voorwaartse offensiewe operasies te ondersteun waar geen vliegbane beskikbaar was nie, maar teen 1943, toe die vliegtuig in diens was, was Japan sterk op die verdediging, en was daar nie meer 'n vegter nodig om hierdie rol te vervul nie.

Die vereiste om 'n lywige, swaar vlot te dra, het die N1K in wese lamgelê teen kontemporêre Amerikaanse vegters. Kawanishi-ingenieurs het egter aan die einde van 1941 voorgestel dat die N1K ook die basis sou wees van 'n formidabele vegter op die grond, en 'n landgebaseerde weergawe is as 'n private onderneming deur die maatskappy vervaardig. Hierdie weergawe vlieg op 27 Desember 1942, aangedryf deur 'n Nakajima NK9A Homare 11 radiale enjin, wat die minder kragtige Mitsubishi MK4C Kasei 13 van die N1K vervang. Die vliegtuig het die middelvlerk van die vlotvliegtuig behou, en gekombineer met die groot skroef het 'n lang, stingelagtige hooflandingsgestel nodig geword. 'N Unieke kenmerk was die outomatiese gevegsklappe van die vliegtuig wat outomaties aangepas is op grond van versnelling, wat die vlieënier nie meer hoef te doen nie en die kans om in 'n geveg te stop, verminder word. Die N1K het wel 'n onderstel: as dit rofweg hanteer word, kan dit outomaties draai en soms buite beheer loop.

Vliegtuigfoto - 'n N1K1

Die Nakajima Homare was kragtig, maar is in produksie gehaas voordat dit voldoende ontwikkel is en was moeilik. 'N Ander probleem was dat, as gevolg van 'n swak hittebehandeling van die wiele, hul mislukking by die landing dikwels tot gevolg sou hê dat die landingsrat eenvoudig afgeruk sou word. Daar is berig dat meer 'Georges' hieraan verlore gegaan het as vir die geallieerde magte. Afgesien van enjinprobleme en die landingsgestel, het die vlugtoetsprogram getoon dat die vliegtuig belowend was. Prototipes is deur die vloot geëvalueer, en aangesien die vliegtuig vinniger was as die Zero en 'n baie langer reikafstand gehad het as die Mitsubishi J2M Raiden, is dit in produksie bestel as die N1K1-J, die -J dui op 'n land-gebaseerde vegtermodifikasie van die oorspronklike vliegvliegtuigvegter.

Slegs vier dae na die eerste toetsvlug van die Shiden, is 'n volledige herontwerp begin, die N1K2-J. Die nuwe ontwerp het die belangrikste gebreke van die N1K1-J aangespreek, hoofsaaklik die middelste vleuel en lang landingsgestel. Die vlerke is na 'n lae posisie verskuif, wat die gebruik van korter konvensionele onderstel moontlik gemaak het, die romp is verleng, die stert herontwerp en die hele vliegtuig is baie eenvoudiger gemaak om te vervaardig, met meer as 'n derde van die dele van die Shiden. Konstruksiemateriaal behels die gebruik van nie-kritiese materiale. Die herontwerp was ongeveer 250 kg (550 lb) ligter, vinniger en betroubaarder as die vorige N1K1 -weergawe. Aangesien daar geen alternatief was nie, het die Homare -enjin behoue ​​gebly, alhoewel die betroubaarheidsprobleme daarvan nie heeltemal reggestel is nie. 'N Prototipe vlieg op 1 Januarie 1944 en nadat die vlootproewe in April voltooi is, is die N1K2-J in produksie gehaas. Die variant is die naam "Shiden-Kai" (紫 電 改), Kai staan ​​vir Modified.

Vliegtuigfoto-Kawanishi N1K2-J, waarskynlik N1K4-J Shiden Kai Model 32-slegs twee prototipes is gebou.

Die N1K1 het vroeg in 1944 diens gedoen en was uiters effektief teen Amerikaanse vegters. Die Kawanishi was een van die min Japannese vegters wat die beste vyandelike tipes kon behartig, insluitend Hellcats en Corsairs. In die hande van aas kan die Shiden selfs sy Amerikaanse teenstanders oorskry. In Februarie 1945 het luitenant Kinsuke Muto, wat met 'n N1K2-J gevlieg het, 'n tiental Amerikaanse vloot Hellcats in die lug oor Japan gekonfronteer. Hy het vier Hellcats neergeskiet en die ander weggejaag. Hierdie verslag is egter eintlik 'n byproduk van Japan se oorlogstydse propaganda. In werklikheid was Muto se vlug van 10 besig met VF-82, en het vier Hellcats sonder verlies neergeskiet.

Hulle was egter meganies onbetroubaar. Die enjin was moeilik om in stand te hou en, soos die ingewikkelde onderstel, word gereeld deur foute geteister. N1K1-J-vliegtuie is baie effektief gebruik oor Formosa, die Filippyne en later Okinawa. Voordat produksie na die verbeterde N1K2-J oorgeskakel is, is 1 007 vliegtuie vervaardig, insluitend prototipes.

Probleme het daartoe gelei dat baie min N1K2-J-vliegtuie vervaardig is, maar die Shiden-Kai was een van die beste "hondevegters" wat weerskante gebruik het. Saam met hoë spoed was die vegters baie behendig met 'n rolsnelheid van 82/sekonde teen 386 km/h (240 mph). Hul wapens wat vier kanonne van 20 mm in die vlerke bevat het, was baie effektief. As 'n bomwerperskepper was die N1K2-J minder suksesvol, belemmer deur 'n swak klimtempo en verminderde enjinverrigting op groot hoogte.

Vliegtuigfoto - Kawanishi N1K2 -Js (let op Amerikaanse merke) vasgevang met hul Homare -enjins wat deur die voormalige JNAF -grondbemanning opgedryf word.

As gevolg van produksieprobleme en skade wat veroorsaak is deur B-29 Superfortress-aanvalle op Japannese fabrieke, is slegs 415 vegters vervaardig. Gevolglik is N1K2-J-vegters hoofsaaklik uitgereik aan elite-eenhede soos die IJN 343rd Air Group (343 Kokutai Naval Fighter Group), onder bevel van Minoru Genda wat op 25 Desember 1944 saamgestel is. Die nuwe 343ste Kokutai het bestaan ​​uit die beste vlieëniers, waaronder Kaneyoshi Muto, wat na bewering vier Hellcats met die hand neergeskiet het. Die eenheid het die beste beskikbare toerusting gekry en was ook toegerus met die nuwe Nakajima C6N Saiun, met die kodenaam "Myrt" langafstandverkenningsvliegtuie. Op 18 Maart 1945 het een van die "Myrts" daarin geslaag om Amerikaanse vragmotors onderweg na Japan te sien.

Die volgende oggend het 343 Kokutai's Shidens 300 Amerikaanse vliegtuie onderskep. Baie van die 343 Kokutai Shiden -mag was N1K2's. Toe die Shidens VBF-17 Hellcats teëkom, het drie vliegtuie aan beide kante verlore gegaan tydens die aanvanklike aanval, een Hellcat en twee Shiden is deur vyandelike grondvuur neergeskiet, twee vegters het in die lug gebots en een Hellcat het neergestort terwyl hulle probeer land het. Dan duik die ander Shiden op die Hellcats, terwyl hy 'n ander een neerslaan. Uiteindelik het die 407 Hikotai ses vegters verloor teenoor agt VBF-17 Hellcats.

Vliegtuigfoto - Die 343 Kokutai's Shiden -Kai te sien in sy museum op die eiland Shikoku

Ernstiger was die ontmoeting met VBF-10 Corsairs, toe twee van die Corsairs van die hoofformasies geskei is en daarna deur 343ste Shidens aangeval is. Vier N1K2's is neergeskiet en die Corsairs het daarin geslaag om terug te keer na hul vervoerder, USS Bunker Hill. Die N1K2's het spoedig wraak geneem, toe VFM-123 Corsairs verras is deur Shidens, aanvanklik vir Hellcats, met 'n luggeveg van 30 minute. Drie Corsairs is neergeskiet en nog vyf is beskadig terwyl drie ander swaar beskadigde F4U's wat op draers geland het, in die see gegooi is. Van die 10 Japannese vliegtuie wat die Amerikaners beweer het, is nie een effektief neergeslaan nie. Twee Shidens is egter by die landing deur Hellcats van VF-9 neergeskiet. Baie ander Shidens is deur Amerikaanse vegters verwoes oor 'n ander lughawe, waar hulle probeer land het omdat hulle te min brandstof gehad het. Aan die einde van die dag het 343 52 oorwinnings verklaar, Amerikaanse vegters 63. Die werklike verliese was 15 Shidens en 13 vlieëniers, 'n "Myrt" met sy drie man bemanning en nege ander Japannese vegters. Die VSA het ook groot verliese gely, met 14 vegters en sewe vlieëniers en 11 ander aanvalsvliegtuie.

Vyf dae later is 'n nie -amptelike toekenning aan 343 Kokutai gestuur vir die dapperheid wat op 19 Maart getoon is. Op 12 April 1945 was nog 'n hewige geveg betrokke by 343 tydens Kikusui N.2. Die Japannese het verskeie oorwinnings behaal, maar 12 verliese uit 34 masjiene gely. Op 4 Mei is nog 24 Shidens in Kikusui N.5 gestuur.

In alle gevalle was die Shiden, veral die Kai -weergawe, 'n bekwame hondevegter met vuurkrag, behendigheid en robuuste struktuur. Die voorste eenheid wat die Shiden vlieg, 343 Kokutai, bly in bedryf totdat die oorweldigende eenheidsverliese tot die uiteindelike uittrede van die eenheid gelei het. Die 343 is op 14 Augustus 1945 ontbind toe die keiser oorgawe gelas het.

N1K1: slegs standaardtipe as vlotvliegtuig, wat vroeg in 1943 gebruik is.
N1K2: voorbehoude naam vir 'n beoogde model met 'n groter enjin, nie gebou nie.

N1K1-J: prototipes: ontwikkeling van vegvliegtuig-hidro-vliegtuig N1K1 Kyofu, 1,357 kW (1,820 pk) Nakajima Homare 11-enjin, 9 gebou
N1K1-J Shiden ("Violet Thunder") Navy Land-Based Interceptor, Model 11: eerste produksiemodel: 1.484 kW (1.990 pk) Homare 21-enjin met hersiene deksel, gewapen met twee 7,7 mm (.303 in) tipe 97-masjiengewere en twee 20 mm tipe 99 kanonne. Gewysigde kajuit met totale visie.
N1K1-Ja, model 11A: Sonder frontale 7,7 mm (.303 in) tipe 97's, slegs vier 20 mm tipe 99's in vlerke
N1K1-Jb, Model 11B: Soortgelyk aan Model 11A tussen twee bomme van 250 kg (550 lb), hersiene vleuelwapens
N1K1-Jc, Model 11C: definitiewe vegter-bomwerper weergawe, afgelei van Model 11B. Vier bomrakke onder vlerke.
N1K1-J KAIa: eksperimentele weergawe met hulpraket. Een model 11 -omskakeling.
N1K1-J KAIb: omskakeling vir duikbomme. Een bom van 250 kg (550 lb) onder die maag en ses vuurpyle onder vlerke.

N1K2-J prototipes: N1K1-Jb herontwerp. Lae vlerke, enjinbedekking en landingsgestel aangepas. Nuwe romp en stert, 8 gebou
N1K2-J Shiden KAI (Violet Thunder, Modified) Navy Land Based Interceptor, Model 21: eerste model van die reeks
N1K2-Ja, model 21A: vegter-bomwerper weergawe. Vier bomme van 250 kg (550 lb). Konstrueer deur Kawanishi: 393, Mitsubishi: 9, Aichi: 1, Showa Hikoki: 1, Ohmura Navy Arsenal: 10, Hiro Navy Arsenal: 1.
N1K2-K Shiden KAI-Rensen (Violet Thunder Fighter Trainer, gewysig) Trainer-weergawe van die N1K-J-reeks met twee sitplekke, in werking of in die fabriek

N1K3-J Shiden KAI 1, model 31 prototipes: enjins verplaas na voor, twee 13,2 mm (51 in) tipe 3-masjiengewere voor, 2 gebou
N1K3-A Shiden KAI 2, model 41: draer-gebaseerde weergawe van N1K3-J, slegs projek
N1K4-J Shiden KAI 3, Model 3: Prototipes, 1.491 kW (2.000 pk) Homare 23-enjin, 2 gebou.
N1K4-A Shiden KAI 4, Model 4: prototipe, eksperimentele omskakeling van N1K4-J-voorbeeld met toerusting vir gebruik in draers, 1 gebou
N1K5-J Shiden KAI 5, Model 25: High-Altitude Interceptor-weergawe. Slegs projek

Totale produksie (alle weergawes): 1.435 voorbeelde.

Minstens drie Shiden Kai -vliegtuie oorleef in Amerikaanse museums. Een daarvan is by die National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida.

Die tweede N1K2-Ja (s/n 5312), 'n vegvliegtuigvariant wat toegerus is met vleuelhouers om bomme te dra, word in die Air Power-galery in die National Museum of the United States Air Force, by Wright-Patterson Air Force, vertoon. Basis naby Dayton, Ohio. Hierdie vliegtuig is jare lank buite op 'n speelterrein in San Diego vertoon, wat aansienlike roes opgedoen het en ernstig agteruitgegaan het. In 1959 is dit aan die museum geskenk deur die samewerking van die San Diego -eskader van die Air Force Association. In Oktober 2008 is die vliegtuig weer vertoon na 'n uitgebreide herstel van agt jaar. Baie dele moes deur die restaurasiepersoneel van die museum omgekeer word. Vier verskillende reeksnommers van vliegtuie is op dele in die hele vliegtuigraam gevind, wat daarop dui dat hulle weer bymekaargekom het van drie verskillende wrakke wat na die VSA teruggebring is vir ondersoek, of tydens die montering of herstel van die oorlog tydens onderdele wat uit drie verskillende vliegtuie verkry is. Reeksnommer 5312 is op die meeste plekke gevind, en is die nommer wat nou aangehaal word. Die N1K2-Ja is geverf as 'n vliegtuig in die Yokosuka Kokutai (eskader), 'n evaluerings- en toetseenheid.

Die derde voorbeeld is die eiendom van die National Air and Space Museum, maar is herstel deur die Champlin Fighter Museum in Falcon Field, Mesa, Arizona, in ruil vir die reg om die vliegtuig vir tien jaar na die herstel op Falcon Field te vertoon.

'N Egte Shiden-Kai van die 343 eskader word in 'n plaaslike museum in Shikoku, Japan, vertoon. Nadat hy in die geveg beskadig was, beland die vlieënier op 24 Julie 1945 in die waters van die Bungo -kanaal, maar hy is nooit weer gevind nie. Ses vlieëniers van die 343 eskader het die dag verdwyn. Na die herstel van die bodem van die see gedurende die sewentigerjare was dit onmoontlik om te weet watter van die ses vlieëniers die vliegtuig gevlieg het. Foto's van die ses vlieëniers word met respek onder die vliegtuigmotor vertoon. Een van die ses verlore vlieëniers was Takashi Oshibuchi, wat bevel gegee het oor die 701 Hikotai (gelykstaande aan USAAF of RAF -eskaders).

Data van Japannese vliegtuie uit die Stille Oseaanoorlog

Bemanning: 1
Lengte: 9,3 m
Spanwydte: 39 ft 4 in (12,0 m)
Hoogte: 3,9 m
Vleueloppervlakte: 253 voet (23,5 m)
Leë gewig: 5 855 lb (2 656 kg)
Laai gewig: 8.820 lb (4.000 kg)
Maksimum opstyggewig: 10.710 lb (4.860 kg)
Motor: 1 x Nakajima Homare NK9H radiale enjin, 1.990 pk (1.480 kW)

Maksimum spoed: 369 mph (594 km/h)
Reikwydte: 2,395 km (1 668 mi) veerboot (1,716 km / 2,395 km)
Diensplafon: 35.800 voet (10.800 m)
Stygtempo: 4000 ft/min (brandstof met hoë oktaan) (20,3 m/s)
Vleuelbelasting: 166 kg/m
Krag/massa: 0,226 pk/lb (0,305 kW/kg)

4x 20 mm Type 99 Model 2 Mk 4 kanon in vlerke. 200 rondtes per geweer (teenoor 100 rondtes per geweer intern en 70 rondtes per geweer in ondervlerke vir die vroeë N1K1-J). Die 20x101 mm -rondte het 'n effektiewe reikafstand van 1.000 m (3.280 voet) en 'n snuitspoed van 700 m/s (2.297 ft/s). Die dop van 128 g het 6-8% HE. Die vuurtempo was ongeveer 500 rondtes/min per geweer. Die gewere is gesinkroniseer om op 200 m (656 voet) bymekaar te kom.
2 x 250 kg (551 lb) bomme
2x 400 L (105 gal) valtenks

Nakajima Ki-84
Mitsubishi J2M
Kawasaki Ki-100
Lavochkin La-7
Focke-Wulf Fw 190
Republiek P-47 Thunderbolt
Noord-Amerikaanse P-51 Mustang

Angelucci, Enzo en Paolo Matricardi. Wêreldvliegtuie: Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Deel II (Sampson Low Guides). Maidenhead, UK: Sampson Low, 1978. ISBN 0-562-00096-8.
Francillon, PhD., Ren J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. Londen: Putnam & amp Company Ltd., 1970. tweede uitgawe 1979. ISBN 0-370-30251-6.
Francillon, PhD., Ren J. Kawanishi Kyofu, Shiden en Shiden Kai Variants (vliegtuie in profiel 213). Windsor, Berkshire, Verenigde Koninkryk: Profile Publications Ltd., 1971.
Galbiati, Fabio. "Battaglia Aerea del 19 Marzo su Kure. (In Italiaans)." Tydskrif Storia Militare, Albertelli edizioni, N.166, Julie 2007.
Groen, William. Bekende vegters van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & amp Company, 1960.
Groen, William. Oorlogsvliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Volume 3: Fighters. Londen: Macdonald & amp. (Uitgewers) Bpk., 1961 (sewende indruk 1973). ISBN 0-356-01447-9.
Koseski, Krystian. Kawanishi N1K1/N1k2-J "Shiden/Kai" (in Pools). Warszawa, Pole: Wydawnictwo Susei, 1991. ISBN 83-900216-0-9.
Mondey, David. Die bondige gids van Hamlyn vir asvliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Londen: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-753714-60-4.
Sakaida, Henry. Imperial Japanese Navy Aces, 1937-45. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-727-9.
Sakaida, Henry en Koji Takaki. Genda's Blade: Japan se eskader, 343 Kokutai. Hersham, Surrey, UK: Classic Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-903223-25-3.
Gidsboek van die Amerikaanse lugmagmuseum. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
Werneth, Ron. "Wedergeboorte van 'n vergete Japannese vlootvegter." Flight Journal, Deel 13, nommer 3, Junie 2008.

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Kopiereg A Wrench in the Works Entertainment Inc .. Alle regte voorbehou.


Yokosuka K5Y Warbird -inligting


Die Yokosuka K5Y was 'n tweesitplek tweedelige tweedekker-afrigter (geallieerde berignaam: "Willow") wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die Keiserlike Japanse vloot gedien het. As gevolg van sy helder oranje verfskema (toegepas op alle Japannese militêre opleiers vir sigbaarheid), het dit die bynaam "aka-tombo", of "rooi naaldekoker", gekry na 'n soort insek wat algemeen in Japan voorkom.

Die vliegtuig was gebaseer op die Yokosuka Navy Type 91 Intermediate Trainer, maar stabiliteitsprobleme het gelei tot 'n herontwerp deur Kawanishi in 1933. Dit het in 1934 in diens geneem as Navy Type 93 Intermediate Trainer K5Y1 met vaste stert-slip landingstoerusting, en het deurgaans in gebruik gebly. die oorlog. Vliegtuigtipes K5Y2 en K5Y3 is ook vervaardig. Na die aanvanklike 60 voorbeelde deur Kawanishi, word die produksie voortgesit deur Watanabe (556 vliegtuie gebou), Mitsubishi (60), Hitachi (1,393), First Naval Air Technical Arsenal (75), Nakajima (24), Nippon (2,733) en Fuji (896), vir 'n totaal van 5,770. Hierdie vliegtuie was die steunpilaar van die Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service se vliegopleiding, en as tussentydse opleiers kon hulle veeleisende aërobatiese maneuvers uitvoer. Twee verdere weergawes op die land, die K5Y4 met 'n 358 kW (480 pk) Amakaze 21A-enjin en die K5Y5 met 'n 384 kW (515 pk) Amakaze 15, is geprojekteer, maar nooit gebou nie.

Tweesitplek intermediêre afrigter vir die Imperial Japanese Navy.

Vliegtuigweergawe, met Amakaze 11 -enjin.

Vliegtuig, met 384 kW (515 pk) Amakaze 21.

Geprojekteerde weergawe op die land met 358 kW (480 pk) Amakaze 21A. Nooit gebou nie.

Geprojekteerde weergawe op land met 384 kW (515 pk) Amakaze 15. Nooit gebou nie.

Data van Japannese vliegtuie uit die Stille Oseaanoorlog

Bemanning: Twee
Lengte: 8,05 m (26 voet 5 in)
Spanwydte: 11,00 m (36 ft 1 in)
Hoogte: 3,20 m (10 ft 6 in)
Vleueloppervlakte: 27,7 m (298,2 voet)
Leeg gewig: 1.000 kg (2.205 lb)
Maksimum opstyggewig: 1.500 kg (3.307 lb)
Kragkrag: 1 x Hitachi Amakaze 11 negesilinder lugverkoelde radiale enjin, 224 kW (300 pk)

Maksimum spoed: 212 km/h (115 knope, 132 mph)
Kruissnelheid: 138 km/h (75 knope, 86 mph)
Bereik: 1,019 km (550 nmi, 633 mi)
Diensplafon: 5.700 m (18.700 voet)
Klim tot 3 000 m (9 845 voet): 13 minute 32 sek

Gewere: 1x vaste, voorwaartse vuur 7,7 mm (.303 in) tipe 89 masjiengeweer en 1x buigsame, agteruitskietende 7,7 mm (.303 in) tipe 92 masjiengeweer
Bomme: Tot 100 kg (220 lb) bomme op eksterne rakke

Arado Ar 66
Avro 626
Breda Ba.25

Collier, Basil. Japannese vliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Londen: Sidgwick & amp, Jackson, 1979. ISBN 0-283-98399-X.
Francillon, R.J. Japannese vliegtuie van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog. Londen: Putnam & amp Company Ltd., 1970 (2de uitgawe 1979). ISBN 0-370-30251-6.
Mondey, David. Die bondige gids vir asvliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Londen: Chancellor Press, 1996. ISBN 1-85152-966-7.
Tagaya, Osamu. Imperial Japanese Naval Aviator, 1937-45. Botley, Oxfordshire, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-385-3.

Hierdie webwerf is die beste vir: alles oor vliegtuie, oorlogvoëls, oorlogvoëls, vliegtuigfilm, vliegtuigfilm, oorlogvoëls, vliegtuigvideo's, vliegtuigvideo's en lugvaartgeskiedenis. 'N Lys met alle vliegtuigvideo's.

Kopiereg A Wrench in the Works Entertainment Inc .. Alle regte voorbehou.


Operasionele geskiedenis

Die N1K1 het vroeg in 1944 diens gedoen en was uiters effektief teen Amerikaanse vegters. Die Kawanishi was een van die min Japannese vegters wat die beste vyandelike tipes kon behartig, insluitend Hellcats en Corsairs. In die hande van aas kan die Shiden selfs sy Amerikaanse teenstanders oorskry. In Februarie 1945 het luitenant Kaneyoshi Muto, wat 'n N1K2-J gevlieg het as deel van 'n groep van ten minste tien deskundige Japannese vegters, sewe Amerikaanse vloot Hellcats van VF-82 in die lug oor Japan gekonfronteer. Sy groep het vier Hellcats afgeskiet sonder om hulself te verloor. [7] Na die aksie het verslaggewers 'n verhaal vervaardig waarin Muto die enigste lugman was wat 12 vyandelike vliegtuie in die gesig staar. [8]

Hulle was egter meganies onbetroubaar. Die enjin was moeilik om in stand te hou en, soos die ingewikkelde onderstel, word gereeld gepla. N1K1-J-vliegtuie is baie effektief gebruik oor Formosa, die Filippyne en later Okinawa. Voordat produksie na die verbeterde N1K2-J oorgeskakel is, is 1 007 vliegtuie vervaardig, insluitend prototipes.

Probleme het daartoe gelei dat baie min N1K2-J-vliegtuie vervaardig is, maar die Shiden-Kai was een van die beste 'hondevegters' aan weerskante. Saam met hoë spoed was die vegters baie rats met 'n roltempo van 82 °/sek by 386 en#160km/h (240  mph). Hul wapens wat uit vier 20   mm kanonne in die vlerke bestaan ​​het, was baie effektief. As 'n bomwerperskepper was die N1K2-J minder suksesvol, belemmer deur 'n swak klimtempo en verminderde enjinverrigting op groot hoogte. [9] [10]

343 Kokutai

As gevolg van produksieprobleme en skade wat veroorsaak is deur B-29 Superfortress-aanvalle op Japannese fabrieke, is slegs 415 vegters vervaardig. Gevolglik is N1K2-J-vegters hoofsaaklik uitgereik aan elite-eenhede soos die IJN 343rd Air Group (343 Kokutai Naval Fighter Group), onder bevel van Minoru Genda wat op 25 Desember 1944 saamgestel is. Die nuwe 343ste Kokutai bestaan ​​uit die beste vlieëniers, waaronder Muto. Die eenheid het die beste beskikbare toerusting gekry en is ook toegerus met die nuwe Nakajima C6N Saiun, kodenaam "Myrt" langafstandverkenningsvliegtuie. Op 18 Maart 1945 het een van die "Myrts" daarin geslaag om Amerikaanse vragmotors onderweg na Japan te sien.

Die volgende oggend, 343 Kokutai 's Shidens het 300 Amerikaanse vliegtuie onderskep. Baie van die 343 Kokutai Shiden krag was N1K2s. Wanneer die Shidens het VBF-17 Hellcats teëgekom, drie vliegtuie het aan beide kante verlore gegaan in die aanvanklike aanval een Hellcat en twee Shiden is deur die vyand se grondvuur neergeskiet, twee vegters het in die lug gebots en een Hellcat het neergestort terwyl hy probeer land het. Dan die ander Shiden duif op die Hellcats, terwyl hulle nog een neerwerp. Uiteindelik het die 407 Hikotai ses vegters verloor teenoor agt VBF-17 Hellcats.

Ernstiger was die ontmoeting met VBF-10 Corsairs, toe twee van die Corsairs van die hoofformasies geskei is en daarna deur 343ste aangeval is Shidens. Vier N1K2's is neergeskiet en die Corsairs het daarin geslaag om terug te keer na hul vervoerder, USS  Bunker Hill. Die N1K2's het gou wraak geneem toe VFM-123 Corsairs verras was Shidens, aanvanklik verwar met Hellcats, met 'n luggeveg van 30 minute. Drie Corsairs is neergeskiet en nog vyf is beskadig terwyl drie ander swaar beskadigde F4U's wat op draers geland het, in die see gegooi is. Van die 10 Japannese vliegtuie wat die Amerikaners beweer het, is nie een effektief neergeslaan nie. Twee Shidens is egter by die landing deur Hellcats van VF-9 neergeskiet. Baie ander Shidens is vernietig deur Amerikaanse vegters oor 'n ander lughawe, waar hulle probeer land het omdat hulle min brandstof gehad het. Aan die einde van die dag het 343 ° 52 oorwinnings verklaar, Amerikaanse vegters 63. Die werklike verliese was 15 Shidens en 13 vlieëniers, 'n "Myrt" met sy drie man bemanning, en nege ander Japannese vegters. Die VSA het ook groot verliese gely, met 14 vegters en sewe vlieëniers en 11 ander aanvalsvliegtuie.

Vyf dae later is 'n nie -amptelike toekenning aan 343 gestuur Kokutai vir die dapperheid wat op 19 Maart getoon word. Op 12 April 1945 was nog 'n hewige geveg 343 °, tydens Kikusui N.2. Die Japannese het verskeie oorwinnings behaal, maar 12 verliese uit 34 masjiene gely. Op 4 Mei, nog 24 Shidens is in Kikusui N.5 gestuur.

In elke geval, die Shiden, veral die Kai weergawe, blyk 'n bekwame hondevegter te wees met die vuurkrag, behendigheid en robuuste struktuur. Die voorste eenheid wat die Shiden, 343 Kokutai bly in werking totdat die oorweldigende eenheidsverliese tot die uiteindelike uittrede van die eenheid gelei het. Die 343 ° is op 14 Augustus 1945 ontbind, toe die keiser beveel om oor te gee.


Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primêre watervliegtuigafrigter - Geskiedenis



























Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 Canary
Enkelmotorige tweesitplek-basiese afrigter vir tweevoudige vliegtuie/vlotvliegtuie, U.S.A.

Argieffoto's [1]

[Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 Yellow Peril (BuNo 2951/32) te sien (9/23/2003) in die Kalamazoo Aviation History Museum, Portage, Michigan (Foto deur John Shupek copyright & copy 2003 Skytamer Images)]

[Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 Yellow Peril (BuNo 3022/44) te sien (2/16/2004) in die National Air and Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Chantilly, Virginia (Foto deur Jim Hough, 2/ 16/2004)]

Oorsig [3]

    Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 Canary
  • Nasionale herkoms: Verenigde State
  • Vervaardiger: Naval Aircraft Factory
  • Eerste vlug: Augustus 1935
  • Inleiding: 1936
  • Afgetree: 1961
  • Primêre gebruiker: U.S. Navy
  • Aantal gebou: 997

Die N3N was 'n twee-tandem-sitplek, oop kajuit, primêre opleidingsvliegtuigvliegtuig wat deur die Naval Aircraft Factory (N.A.F.) in die 1930's gebou is in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Ontwikkeling en ontwerp [3]

Die N3N is gebou om die gekonsolideerde NY-2 en NY-3 te vervang en is suksesvol getoets as 'n konvensionele vliegtuig en 'n watervliegtuig. Die watervliegtuig gebruik 'n enkele vlot onder die romp en dryf onder die buitenste punte van die onderste vleuel. Die konvensionele vliegtuig het 'n vaste landingsgestel gebruik. Die prototipe XN3N-1 is aangedryf deur 'n radiale Wright-ontwerpte Wright J-5-enjin. 'N Bestelling vir 179 produksievliegtuie is ontvang. Teen die einde van die eerste produksieloop is die enjin vervang met die Wright R-760-2 Wervelwind radiaal.

Operasionele geskiedenis [3]

Die N.A.F. 997 N3N-vliegtuie afgelewer vanaf 1935. Dit het 180 N3N-1's en 816 N3N-3's ingesluit. Vier N3N-3's is in 1941 by die Amerikaanse kuswag afgelewer. Die produksie het in Januarie 1942 geëindig, maar die tipe is gedurende die res van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog steeds in gebruik. Die N3N was die laaste tweedekker in die Amerikaanse militêre diens - die laaste (wat deur die US Naval Academy vir vertroudheid met die lugvaart gebruik is) is in 1961 afgetree. bedryf deur die Amerikaanse regering (die vloot, in hierdie geval) in teenstelling met die private industrie. Hiervoor het die vloot die regte en gereedskap vir die Wright R-760-reeks gekoop en hul eie enjins vervaardig. Hierdie vlootgeboude enjins is geïnstalleer op vlootraamwerke wat deur vloot gebou is.

Variante [3]

XN3N-1: Eerste prototipe vliegtuig, Bureau of Aeronautics nommer 9991.

N3N-1: Tweesitplek primêre afrigter tweedekker, aangedryf deur 'n 220 pk (164 kW) Wright J-5 radiale suier-enjin. 179 is gebou.

XN3N-2: Slegs een prototipe (Buro nommer 0265) aangedryf deur 'n 240-pk (179 kW) Wright R-760-96 radiale suier-enjin.

XN3N-3: Een produksie N3N-1 (0020) is omskep in 'n & lsquodash drie & rsquo-prototipe.

N3N-3: Tweesitplek primêre afrigter tweedekker, aangedryf deur 'n 235 pk (175 kW) wright R-760-2 Wervelwind 7 radiale suier -enjin. 816 gebou.

Operateurs [3]

Verenigde State: Amerikaanse kuswag

Verenigde State: United States Navy/United States Marine Corps

Paraguay: Paraguayaanse vlootvaart (twee N3N-3's ontvang deur die Lend-Lease-program)

Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 Canary Spesifikasies [3,4]

Algemene kenmerke

  • Vervaardiger: Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Tipe: primêre afrigter.
  • Verblyf: Pilot en instrukteur in tandem.
  • Kommunikasie: Kommunikasie is deur die instrukteur uitgevoer deur middel van 'n spreekbuis na die agtergeblewe student. Communications Back was ooreengekome gebare.

Kragsentrale:

  • Spanwydte: 34,36 m
  • Lengte: 7,77 m
  • Hoogte: 10 ft 10 in (3,3 m)
  • Vleueloppervlakte: 305 voet en sup2 (28,3 m en sup2)

Optrede

  • Maksimum spoed op seevlak: 203 km/h
  • Kruissnelheid: 90 mph (244,84 km/h)
  • Aanvanklike klimtempo: 800 ft/min (243,84 m/min)
  • Diensplafon: 16.200 voet (4.635 m)
  • Bereik: 470 st. myl (756 km)

Reeksnommers

  • XN3N-1: BuNo 9991
  • N3N-1: BuNo 0017-0019 0021-0101 0644-0723 0952-0966
  • XN3N-2: BuNo 0265
  • XN3N-2: BuNo 0020
  • N3N-3: BuNo 1759-1808 1908-2007 2573-3072 4352-4517
  1. Shupek, John. Die Skytamer -foto -argief, foto's deur John Shupek, kopiereg en kopie 2003 Skytamer Images (Skytamer.com)
  2. Hough, Jim. Die Skytamer -foto -argief, foto's deur Jim Hough, kopiereg en kopie 2004 Jim Hough
  3. Wikipedia, N3N Canary
  4. Swanborough, Peter en Bowers, Peter M., "Naval Aircraft Factory N3N," Amerikaanse vlootvliegtuie sedert 1911, Annapolis, Naval Institute Press, 1968, ISBN 0-87021-792-5, pp 375-377.

Kopiereg en kopie 1998-2019 (ons 21ste jaar) Skytamer Images, Whittier, Kalifornië
ALLE REGTE VOORBEHOU


In 1937 word die Japannese mariene en spesifikasie vir 'n 12-jarige primêre flottörtränare gebruik om die Yokosuka K4Y- of Navy Type 90 Primary Seaplane Trainer te gebruik. Specifikationen utfärdades to the establishmentade flightplanbyggarna for marinen, Kawanishi och Watanabe och till the relativea nykomlingen Nihon Hikoki (also known as "Nippi"). Spesifikationer krävde use of same Gasuden Jimpu radialmotor som use of K4Y, and the tre designerna visade small veranderings from flygplanet that should ersätta.

Kawanishis design, som fick den korta beteckningen K8K1, var, like the other two uitvoerandena, en enmotorig twoplan with and täckt täckt steelrörskropp och en trävinge with two flottörer. Praktika en instruksies vir individuele oop kuipe. Die eerste prototyper het vir die eerste keer vir 6 Julie 1938 die eerste keer vir 'n jaar getoets. Nippis -bydrae (K8Ni) skyfwaardeverklarings van die tavlingen, aangesien dit 'n slotte vir die stuur van K8K kan word, en K8Y kan baie beter wees as K4Y, wat baie veranderings moontlik maak. Wat is die belangrikste watervan K8W en produksie van Navy Type 0 Primêre seevliegtuigafrigter. Na nog 12 vlugplan wat geboue kan ophou om produksies, en mariene besluite te gebruik om die kragvolle Yokosuka K5Y te gebruik vir die verskaffing van primêre flottörbildings.


Volle raam

I was in Kyushu in July for a trail run in the mountains of the Kirishima-Kinowan National Park amidst the torrential rain brought by Typhoon Danas. The weather was so severe that the course had to be shortened and the race terminated prematurely for many participants. Needless to say, I DNF.

Fortunately, the skies cleared the next morning and I took the opportunity to visit Japan Maritime Self Defense Force's ( JMSDF ) Kanoya Air Base Museum which is only about 60km from Kirishima City. JMSDF has in total three museums catering to different aspects of naval warfare in Kyushu and Honshu. The Sasebo museum deals with surface warfare, the Kure museum deals with undersea warfare and the Kanoya museum with naval aviation.

Kanoya Air Base And Museum

Kanoya is a city in Kagoshima Prefecture located in the remote south-eastern part of Kyushu Island. Due to its southerly latitude and its proximity to the southern seas, Kanoya Air Base was extensively used for Kamikaze operations in the closing days of World War II. Today, it is the headquarter of Fleet Air Wing 1 with its P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft ( and the P-1 since July 2019 ), UH-60J search and rescue helicopter, as well as TH-135 and SH-60 training squadrons.

The museum is located just outside of the airbase and is accessible to the public seven days a week except during the New Year holidays. Admission is free of charge.

History and Purpose

The museum is popularly known as the Kanoya Sky Museum ( 鹿屋スカイミュージアム ) in Japan. It first opened in December 1973 and received a total of 840640 visitors up till December 1991 when it was closed for renovations. The renewed museum was reopened in July 1993 and has received 1904613 visitors until December 2018, a monthly average of about 5000.

The design of the 2-storey main building is rather drape and unexciting. It houses some 5500 artifacts relating to the history of Kanoya Air Base under the administration of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II and also post war and modern JMSDF naval aviation activities. Not surprisingly, it has a special section dedicated to the Kamikaze pilots, many of whom took off from Kanoya never ever to return. A immaculately restored Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52c Zero fighter is displayed in this indoor area.

The extensive outdoor display area has many legacy maritime patrol aircrafts like the P-2V Neptune, S2F-1 Tracker and rotary crafts like the KV-107II but the most unique has to be the Kawanishi H8K2 flying boat from WWII. It is the one and only surviving specimen in the entire world but more of that later.

As usual, the purpose of these Self Defense Force museums are always for publicity and recruitment. There is no conscription in post war Japan and the SDF is made up entirely of career soldiers and these are always in short supply, made worse by the declining birth rates and shrinking population. The museum show cases the activities and equipment of the SDF with the hope of enticing young men and women to join its ranks when they come of age.

The Indoor Exhibits

A large hall with high ceiling welcomes the visitor to the museum. At the receptionist counter, the visitor book has only two columns for your signature. One column for visitors from Kagoshima Prefecture and the other column for visitors from all the other 46 Prefectures of Japan. There is no provision for foreigners or non-Japanese visitors as the museum is not expecting ANY. It is remote enough that many of the Japanese themselves may not have known about it far less make a visit. As such, be warned that the displayed exhibits are mainly in Japanese language only.

A floor to ceiling stained glass art piece depicting the active volcano Sakurajima basking in the glow of the setting sun stands erect at the end of the entrance hall. Entitled Evening Glow on Sakurajima ( 夕映桜島 ) and crafted by artist Hirayama You, it was meant to recreate the last vision of Japan seen by the Kamikaze pilots as they depart Kanoya Air Base for their final suicide mission. The purpose of this art piece was purportedly to appease the spirits of these young men who sacrificed their lives for their country and to pray for world peace. It was installed at the museum in 1993.

Stained Glass panel Yuei Sakurajima ( 夕映桜島 )
by Hirayama You ( 平山郁夫 )

Standing next to a pillar in front of the stained glass panel is a half sized bronze statue of a Kamikaze pilot entitled Special Attack Pilot's Statue ( 特攻隊員の像 Tokkoutaiin no Zou ) with a small display about the sculptor Fukushima Kiyohiko ( 福島精彦 ) who had to battle some chronic physical disability while sculpturing. These art pieces help set the tone for the extensive collection of Kamikaze related documents including dairies, last wills, photographs and personal belongings of the pilot that the visitor is about to encounter on level 2 of the museum

Special Attack Pilot's Statue by Fukushima Kiyohiko

Photography was strictly prohibited within the special exhibit area on the Kamikaze Special Attack Corps out of respect for the deceased members. It was a good place to learn about the history of the special attack units as long as you can understand Japanese and have plenty of time to spend at the museum. As I only had a couple of hours to spare, I moved on to the adjacent room where the main attraction of the museum was displayed - a restored Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52c Zero fighter. This was the only location on the second floor where photography was permitted.

Mitsubishi A6M5 Model 52c Zerosen


The A6M5 Model 52c was an evolved late generation zero fighter that was first flown in Sep 1944. They were mainly used to intercept American B-29 bombers and for Kamikaze special attacks. The restoration effort has an interesting history as it combined the parts from 2 wreckages from different areas in Kagoshima. One was an A6M2b Model 21 salvaged from the beach near Tarumizu City ( 垂水市 ) which is located south of Sakurajima. The other was an A6M5 Model 52c fished from the seabed off Fukiagehama ( 吹上浜 ) in western Kagoshima.

Salvaging the Zerosen wreckages.

The reconstruction works must have been monumental but the museum did a fantastic job. The Zero fighter looked immaculate and the cockpit can be viewed at close range with all the instruments in place. It looks primitive compared with that of a more modern fighter like the F-5. Even the Nakajima Sakae Model 21 radial engine is displayed next to the aircraft.


The Nakajima Sakae Model 21 engine - 14 cylinder two-row air-cooled radial


The tail hook for catching the arrestor cable on the aircraft carrier flight deck


All around the Zerosen are scale models of ship and aircraft and photographs of admirals.

More displays await the visitor on the ground floor of the museum. You will come across many scale models of legacy anti-submarine patrol aircrafts like the P2V-7, P-2J, P-3C and amphibious aircrafts like the US-1 as you descend the stairs.

P2V-7, YS-11 and helicopter scale models


On the ground level, an entire section is dedicated to search and rescue operations ( SAR ) with the displays centering on the partial airframe of a decommissioned Mitsubishi S-61A Sea King SAR helicopter. The visitor can enter the cabin and cockpit of the helicopter, walk around and see the winch, life raft and rescue basket up close.


Mitsubishi S-61A Sea King SAR helicopter

Interior of the S-61A is surprisingly spacious

Life raft, rescue basket and flotation device

Close up of rescue basket

S-61A cockpit

The S-61A Sea King has long since retired and has now been replaced by the UH-60J Sea Hawk helicopter in the SAR role.


Still on the ground level but at a different corner is the front section of a Kawasaki P-2J Neptune anti-submarine patrol aircraft on display. This aircraft was most likely P-2J serial number 4770. A total of 83 were produced by Kawasaki between 1969 and 1979 with the last aircraft being s/n 4783. All had been retired from service by 1995, replaced by the P-3C Orion. The visitor can step up to view the cockpit or crawl through to the nose cone.




Front section of a P-2J Neptune ASW aircraft, likely s/n 4770


P-2J cockpit

This is also where one can learn everything about the Neptune variants. The various consoles within the P-2J were faithfully reconstructed as museum display complete with the instrument panels and even the seats. They include the work space for the 2 acoustic sensor operators, the Tactical Co-ordinator ( TACCO ), navigation officer, non-acoustic sensor operator ( radar, Magnetic Anomaly Detector, electronic warfare ) , communications officer and ordnance officer.


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L-R : AW1 ( Acoustic 1), AW2 ( Acoustic 2 ), TACCO, Navigation,
AW3 ( non-acoustic sensors - Radar, MAD, EW )




Wright R3350-32W Radial Engine


The Wright R3350-32W duplex cyclone 18 cylinder air-cooled radial engine that powered the P2V-7 is shown with parts of the propeller. A series of Japanese sonobuoys are also displayed from the primitive HQS-2 passive type sonobuoy with vacuum-tube technology to slightly more advanced all-transistor versions like the HQS-4 and its successor HQS-6 and even later versions HQS-12, HQS-31 and HQS-33. The JMSDF used US made sonobuoys from 1954, its year of inauguration, until 1958. From 1959 only domestically developed sonobuoys were deployed.

Cutaway display of various Japanese developed passive type sonobuoys

HQS-5D sonobuoy with parachute


A Mk 34 acoustic torpedo and a Mk 44 air-launched lightweight torpedo are on display with a ATM-84D air-launched Harpoon missile which can be carried by the P-3C Orion. A replica of a contact type sea mine is also exhibited in front of the nose of the P-2J.

Mk 34 Acoustic Torpedo ( front ) and Mk 44 Air Launched Lightweight Torpedo ( back )

A replica of the Harpoon missile on the pylon of an ASW patrol aircraft

JMSDF uniforms

So that more or less wraps up the museum's indoor displays. There are of course a few miscellaneous exhibits like uniforms, rank insignias, museum mascots and odds and ends but the outdoor aircraft displays awaits.


The Kanoya Sky Museum with its extensive outdoor exhibition of legacy naval aircrafts

Outdoor Aircraft Collection

The over the years the Kanoya Air Base Museum has amassed a huge collection of legacy naval fixed wing and rotary assets. They include amphibious planes like the Shinmeiwa US-1, maritime patrol aircrafts like the Lockheed P2V-7 and S2F Tracker, trainers like the Beechcraft B-65 Queen Air and the Beech SNB-4 Expeditor, Kawasaki KV-107II mine sweeping helicopter, the ancient looking Bell 47 trainer helicopter, Kawasaki OH-6D and many more. Some like the Kawanishi H8K2 flying boat shown below is unique to this museum and can be found nowhere else.

Kawanishi H8K2 Model 12

The last Kawanishi H8K2 Model 12 on display at Kanoya
Allied reporting name " Emily " Source Wikipedia.

This large aircraft is known as the Nishiki Hikotei ( 二式飛行艇 ) or Type 2 flying boat in Japanese. It was considered one of the most outstanding maritime combat aircraft of WWII with its large capacity, long endurance and strong defensive armaments. The allied reporting name for the H8K was " Emily ". Of all the 167 built, this aircraft is the sole surviving specimen.

Unsurprisingly, the museum has made the H8K Nishiki Hikotei the official museum mascot and has created a caricature in the form of a flying whale called Nishiki Don. It has a counterpart that looks like a doggie with flappy ears that resemble wings called Hikotaro which means flying Taro. Taro ( 太郎 ) is a very common Japanese name for the male gender. The Hikotaro character was created to mark the museum's 25th anniversary.

You can read about the H8K2 Emily in my separate blog post here.



The museum mascot Nishiki Don

The sidekick Hikotaro created for the museum's 25th anniversary

Shin Meiwa US-1A

Next, the Shin Meiwa US-1A STOL Amphibian for Search and Rescue is probably also unique to this museum. The US-1A flying boat had been in service with the JMSDF only and had never been sold to any foreign nation. Affectionately known as Otori ( おおとり ) or Big Bird, the US-1A was credited with saving more than 500 lives from 1976 until 2017 when the type was retired from service.

The Shin Meiwa US-1A Amphibious SAR flying boat.


The US-1A with a Kawasaki P-2J in the background

The unique shape of the wave suppressor is clearly seen here

The swiveling landing gear made the US-1A a true amphibian

Grumman S2F-1 Tracker

Between 1957 and 1959, the fledging JMSDF received a total of 60 Grumman S2F-1 anti-submarine patrol aircraft under the Military Aid Program from the US. The S2F was the world's first purpose built single airframe ASW aircraft. It was later re-designated the S-2 Tracker. The Japanese nick-named theirs the Aotaka ( あおたか ) which most likely means blue eagle. The S-2 was powered by two Wright R-1820-82WA radials and could be armed with torpedoes, depth charges and rockets. The last of JMSDF's S-2F1 was retired on 30th Mar 1983.




Grumman S-2F1 ( S-2A ) with dorsally mounted ESM pod

Kawasaki P2V-7 Neptune

The JMSDF operated a total of 64 P2V-7 Neptune land based anti-submarine patrol bomber beginning from 1956. The first 16 aircrafts were transferred from the USN while the rest were either assembled or manufactured by Kawasaki. Together with the carrier capable S-2F1 Tracker, it formed the mainstay of JMSDF's aerial ASW asset. The Japanese nick name is Owashi ( おおわし ) meaning Big Eagle.

The P2V is powered by two Wright R-3350 32W radials augmented by two Westinghouse J34-WE-34 turbojets. The JMSDF retired its last P2V-7 in 1981.



The P2V-7 can be distinguished from the P-2J by its
4 bladed propeller and single wheel on the main landing gear

Kawasaki P-2J Neptune

The museum also has not one but 2 Kawasaki P-2J Neptune ASW patrol planes on display, though not unique to Kanoya, as far as I am aware, only the Kakamigahara Aerospace Museum in Gifu Prefecture has another P-2J on display. The P-2J was the license-produced and upgraded version of the Lockheed P2V-7. The radial engines of the P2V-7 were replaced by turboprops and the P-2J used 3 bladed propellers instead of the 4 bladed ones found on the P2V-7. The P-2J's main landing gear has 2 smaller wheels unlike the P2V-7 which has one single large wheel.

A total of 83 P-2Js had been produced with 82 new builds and one converted from a P2V-7. All P-2Js had been retired from service by May 1994.


Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

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Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

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Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

CCO - Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)

This media is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu

Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

CCO - Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)

This media is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu

Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

CCO - Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)

This media is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

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Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

CCO - Creative Commons (CC0 1.0)

This media is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu

Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

Bright yellow bi-plane, hand crank start. Cockpit instrumentation consists of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge, floats.

Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 "Yellow Peril"

In 1934 the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia was tasked to manufacture a new primary trainer for the U.S. Navy. Following successful tests, this little biplane trainer was built in both land and seaplane versions.

Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3

In 1934 the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia was tasked to design and manufacture a new primary trainer for the U.S. Navy. The N3N biplane trainer was designed to work in both land and seaplane configurations. From 1936 to 1942, the factory produced almost one thousand N3Ns, of which more than eight hundred were N3N-3 models. Tricky ground handling characteristics as a landplane and the Navy's standard yellow paint scheme for trainers led to the unofficial nickname, the "Yellow Peril." The U.S. Navy used N3Ns extensively throughout World War II as primary trainers, retiring the last N3N in 1961.

Display Status:

This object is on display in the Boeing Aviation Hangar at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA.

In 1934 the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia was tasked to manufacture a new primary trainer for the U.S. Navy. Following successful tests, this little biplane trainer was built in both land and seaplane versions. The Navy initially ordered 179 N3N-1 models, and the factory began producing more than 800 N3N-3 models in 1938. U.S. Navy primary flight training schools used N3Ns extensively throughout World War II. A few of the seaplane version were retained for primary training at the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1961 they became the last biplanes retired from U.S. military service.

This N3N-3 was transferred from Cherry Point to Annapolis in 1946, where it served as a seaplane trainer. It was restored and displayed at the Naval Academy Museum before being transferred here.

In December 15, 1922, the navy developed specifications for a float biplane for instruction in flying and gunnery. It had a weight limit of 1,815 pounds. This aircraft was designated as the N2N and would be similar to the Consolidated NY-2s and NY-3s still in service. Following the production of this aircraft through 1929, the Navy requirement for a new primary flight traininer for the 1930s prompted the development of an important series of biplanes that served from 1938 through World War II. The N3N model, manufactured by the Navy Aircraft Factory (NAF) in Philadelphia answered the need. The N3N was used extensively as the primary trainer until the end of WWII. Outwardly, this aircraft appeared similar to the Consolidated NY-2 and NY-3. The major difference in the N3N was its structure, which featured riveted extruded aluminum fuselage construction with removable side panels for ease of inspection and maintenance. The wings, also constructed internally of all metal, were covered with fabric like the fuselage and tail.

Following successful tests at Philadelphia and Anacostia, as both a land-plane and a single-float seaplane, the Navy ordered production with a 220 horsepower Wright J-5 radial engine. The prototype, US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) Number 9991, went through service trials during February and March 1936. The trials recommended minor modifications, leading to the creation of another version, the XN3N-2. The NAF built one hundred and seventy-nine N3N-1s, with the first one delivered in June 1936. A fourth N3N-1 (BuAer # 0020) was modified as another prototype, XN3N-3. These two aircraft were fitted with navy built versions of the 240 hp Wright J-6-7 (R-760-96) engine, which was the same as that used in the NY-3s since 1929. The N3N-3, of which 816 were built, differed slightly from the -1. It had a redesigned vertical tail and a single strut landing gear. The N3N-1 was produced with a distinctive anti-drag ring around the engine, but the N3N-3s did not have this feature.

The N3N's nickname, "Yellow Peril", came from the aircraft's propensity for "ground looping" on landing. The narrow landing gear, only 72 1/2 inches from the centerline of each tire, did not provide much lateral stability at higher touchdown speeds. Many naval aviation cadets learned about this feature the hard way during primary flight training.

The engine was started by using a hand crank. The crank was inserted and vigorously turned until the inertia flywheel achieved sufficient momentum and the starter T-handle was pulled. Taxiing the N3N required a series of "S" turns because forward visibility was partially blocked by the engine.

Take off in calm winds within 600 feet were normal. A neutral control stick position with full throttle and 2,000 rpm was all that was needed to get the N3N flying. Landings were best-done using the full-stall technique. The N3N was flown over the fence at about 57-60 knots (65-70 mph) and stalled at 44 knots (50 mph) with a full load. Visibility was better from the back seat for landing. Cockpit instrumentation consisted of an altimeter, tachometer, airspeed indicator, compass, turn and bank indicator, and a combination fuel and oil temperature and pressure gauge. The aircraft could climb at 900 feet per minute and cruise at 87 knots (100 mph), at 1800 rpm. Climbing and gliding were accomplished at 65 knots. The aircraft's service ceiling was 15,200 feet (4,632 m). The N3N's great structural integrity allowed for high G turns and pullouts at close to 174 knots (200 mph).

On June 13, 1946, NASM's N3N-3, outfitted with floats, became part of the Naval Academy's training squadron at Annapolis, Maryland. The aircraft continued in this role until the spring of 1960 when it was struck from the Navy's inventory. That fall, the National Air Museum acquired the aircraft. These N3N seaplanes, when retired in 1961, were the last biplanes retired from US military service.


Operasionele geskiedenis

The five K-8As were all used by Nippon Koku for its airmail service between Osaka and Fukuoka. Ώ] The two K-8Bs were used to carry out two formation tours around Japan in April and May 1927 in an effort to promote aviation. They were then leased free-of-charge to Nippon Koku on the condition that they would be transferred to the Imperial Japanese Navy on request. They joined the K-8As on the Osaka–Fukuoa airmail route, and were heavily used before they were retired in April 1929. Α]


Kawanishi E15K Warbird Information


The Kawanishi E15K Shiun (紫雲, "Violet Cloud") was a single-engined Japanese reconnaissance floatplane of World War II. The Allied reporting name for the type was "Norm" after Squadron Leader Norman O. Clappison of the RAAF, a member of the Allied Technical Air Intelligence Unit (ATAIU).

In 1939 the Imperial Japanese Navy instructed the Kawanishi Aircraft Company to develop a two-seat high-speed reconnaissance floatplane, which was required to have sufficient performance to escape interception by land based fighters. It was planned to equip a new class of cruisers, intended to act as a flagship for groups of submarines, operating six of the new floatplanes to find targets. The first of the new cruisers, Ōyodo was also ordered in 1939.

Kawanishi designed a single-engined low-wing monoplane, powered by a 1,460 hp (1,090 kW) Mitsubishi MK4D Kasei 14 14-cylinder radial driving two Contra-rotating two-bladed propellers, the first installation of contra-rotating propellers produced in Japan, while a laminar flow airfoil section was chosen to reduce drag. It had a single main float under the fuselage and two stabilising floats under the wing. The stabilising floats were designed to retract into the wing, while the central float was designed to be jettisoned in case of emergency, giving a sufficient increase in speed (estimated as approximately 50 knots (90 km/h)) to escape enemy fighters.

The first prototype of Kawanishi's design, designated E15K1 in the Navy's short designation system made its maiden flight on 5 December 1941. Five more prototypes followed during 1941-42. Problems were encountered with the retractable stabilising floats, resulting in several accidents when the floats could not be lowered for landing, and the system was eventually abandoned, with the stabilising floats being fixed, and a more powerful Mitsubishi MK4S Kasei 24 engine fitted to compensate for the increased drag.

Despite these problems, the E15K1 was ordered into limited production as the Navy Type 2 High-speed Reconnaissance Seaplane Shiun Model 11. Six were sent to Palau in the South Pacific, but these were quickly shot down by Allied fighters, as the jettisonable float failed to separate on demand (although subjected to wind tunnel testing, the float separation system had never been tested on the actual aircraft). This resulted in the cancellation of production in February 1944, with only 15 Shiuns completed, including the six prototypes.

E15K1 : Single-engined reconnaissance floatplane. Production version.

Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War

Crew: Two
Length: 11.59 m (38 ft 0 in)
Wingspan: 14.00 m (45 ft 11 in)
Height: 4.95 m (16 ft 2⅞ in)
Wing area: 30.0 m (323 ft )
Empty weight: 3,165 kg (4,978 lb)
Loaded weight: 4,100 kg (9,039 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 4,900 kg (10,803 lb)
Powerplant: 1 x Mitsubishi MK4S Kasei 24 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine with two two-blade contra-rotating propellers, 1,159 kW (1,540 hp)at 5,500 m (18,045 ft)

Maximum speed: 468 km/h (253 knots, 291 mph) at 5,700 m (18,700 ft) (float attached)
Cruise speed: 296 km/h (160 knots, 184 mph)
Range: 3,373 km (1,820 nmi, 2,095 mi)
Service ceiling: 9,836 m (32,270 ft)
Wing loading: 136.7 kg/m (28 lb/ft )
Power/mass: 0.28 kW/kg (0.17 hp/lb)
Climb to 6,000 m (19,700 ft): 10 min

1 x 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine gun in rear cockpit

List of military aircraft of Japan
List of seaplanes and flying boats

Francillon, PhD., Ren J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1970. (2nd edition 1979, ISBN 0-370-30251-6).
Groen, William. War Planes of the Second World War: Volume Six, Floatplanes. London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1962.
Jackson, Robert, The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft, Parragon, 2002. ISBN 0-75258-130-9.
Layman, R.D and Stephen McLaughlin. The Hybrid Warship. London: Conway Maritime Press, 1991. ISBN 0-85177-555-1.

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