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Tande wat in China ontdek is, toon dat moderne mense Afrika minstens 30 000 jaar vroeër verlaat het as wat voorheen gedink is

Tande wat in China ontdek is, toon dat moderne mense Afrika minstens 30 000 jaar vroeër verlaat het as wat voorheen gedink is

'N Span Chinese en Spaanse navorsers sê dat daar minstens 80 000 jaar gelede Homo sapiens, met 'n heeltemal moderne voorkoms, reeds in Asië gewoon het. Hierdie bewering is gebaseer op die deeglike ontleding van 47 tande wat aan minstens 13 individue behoort het.

Die koerant El Mundo berig dat die tande in die Fuyan -grot, in die suid van China, in Daoxian . Die studie was in die joernaal aangebied Natuur en toon aan dat moderne mense in Asië gewoon het lank voor hulle in Europa en die oostelike Middellandse See aangekom het: eintlik tussen 30 000 en 70 000 jaar tevore.

"Die Daoxian -tande is die vroegste bewys van moderne mense uit Afrika wat ons vandag het ," Maria Martinon-Torres , 'n navorser by die University College in Londen , lid van die navorsingspan by Atapuerca sedert 1998 en mede-outeur van die studie, vertel El Mundo . Sy het ook gesê:

"Die meerderheid van die wetenskaplike gemeenskap ondersteun die hipotese dat moderne mense Afrika slegs ongeveer 50 000 jaar gelede verlaat het, wat bekend staan ​​as die 'Onlangs uit Afrika' -hipotese. Ander vorige bewyse oor die moontlikheid van Homo sapiens in Asië voor 50 000 jaar gelede is nie eenparig aanvaar nie, hetsy omdat daar nie vasgestel kon word dat hulle deel uitmaak van ons spesie of omdat hulle stratigrafiese konteks, dit wil sê presiese oorsprong en datering, twyfel veroorsaak nie. Met ons studie van die Daoxian -oorskot het ons die kwarantyn verbreek waaraan hierdie aannames onderhewig was ."

"Die Daoxiaanse tande is die vroegste bewys van moderne mense uit Afrika wat ons vandag het ," sê Maria Martinon-Torres, 'n mede-outeur van die huidige studie. ( historiayarqueología.com)

Nog een van die hoofnavorsers, Liu Wu van China's Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), aan CNN gesê 'Die fossiele onthul dat 80 000 jaar gelede die eerste moderne mense êrens in die suide van China verskyn het. Ons glo dat Suid -China waarskynlik 'n sentrale gebied was vir moderne evolusie. "

Van sy kant, Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro , mede-outeur van die studie saam met Martinon-Torres en mede-direkteur van die Atapuerca-webwerf, verduidelik daardie:

"Moderne mense het ongeveer 40 000 jaar gelede in Europa aangekom en in China en Australië is daar tussen 45 000 en 50 000 jaar gelede bewyse dat hulle bestaan. 'N Minimum syfer van 80 000 jaar gelede vir die Fuyan -grot is dus 'n groot sprong. Dit bevestig ook die hipotese oor die vertrek van Homo sapiens uit Afrika baie vroeër as wat voorheen gedink is en hoe hulle deur die Bab el-Mandeb-straat op die Horing van Afrika getrek het ."

  • Prehistoriese tande wat in China gevind word, dui moontlik op geheimsinnige nuwe menslike spesies
  • Nuwe navorsing kan die raaisel van die raaiselagtige Sanxingdui -beskawing van China oplos
  • Taiwan se kakebeen wat verband hou met die oorsprong van die mensdom, kan heel nuwe prehistoriese spesies onthul
  • Ou menslike fossiele wat in China gevind word, is 'n uitdaging buite die teorie van Afrika

Die Bab el-Mandeb-straat op die Horing van Afrika: die plek waar Homo sapiens Afrika veel vroeër verlaat het as wat voorheen gedink is, volgens Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro, mede-outeur van die huidige studie. ( )

Alhoewel oorblyfsels van Homo sapiens van 90 000 jaar gelede op die terreine van gevind is Skhul en Qafzeh grotte in Israel, die feit is dat hierdie individue steeds 'n paar argaïese of primitiewe kenmerke behou - iets wat nie in die Daoxiaanse fossiele voorkom nie.

"Hierdie artikel dwing die wetenskaplike gemeenskap om alle inligting oor hoe, wanneer en miskien waarom hierdie eerste uitbreiding buite Afrika plaasgevind het, te herrangskik. Daarbenewens is daar geen twyfel dat nuwe projekte in China en miskien in ander streke van Suidoos -Asië van stapel gestuur word om die oudheid van ons studie te bevestig nie , ”Het Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro gesê El Mundo .

Die tande is ontdek met 'n wye verskeidenheid fossiele van ander soogdiere, uitgestorwe sowel as bestaande. Volgens Maria Martinon-Torres die bewyse vir die datering het ontstaan ​​omdat: “Al die fossiele is verseël in 'n kalsitiese vloer, wat soos 'n grafsteen is, wat dit afgesluit het. Die tande moet dus ouer wees as die laag. Hierbo is stalagmiete wat met uraanreeks gedateer is tot 80 000 jaar. ”

Die maksimum ouderdom van die tande is gedateer tot 120 000 jaar gelede. Hierdie vroeëre datum is afgelei deur die natuurlewe wat naby die menslike oorskot gevind is - wat tipies is van die Bo -Pleistoseen tydperk.

Neanderthalers en moderne mense

Martinon-Torres gedink daardie:

"Dit is interessant om te dink dat terwyl moderne mense ongeveer 100 000 jaar gelede in Asië was, hulle eers eers 40 000 jaar gelede in Europa kon kom . Ons dink dit miskien Neanderthalers was 'n bykomende versperring vir 'n tropiese spesie (Homo sapiens) wat nie gereed was vir die vyandige klimaat nie - al kon die Neanderthalers honderde duisende jare daar oorleef. Ons het altyd gedink dat die binnekoms van Homo sapiens die uitwissing van die Neanderdal veroorsaak het. Maar miskien moet ons ook oop wees vir die moontlikheid dat hulle eers die weg kon oopmaak toe Neanderthalers begin afneem het, na so 'n lang isolasie op 'n moeilike plek. Dit was eers toe Neanderthalers demografies en geneties swakker uitgeput was, dat Homo sapiens die geleentheid gehad het om in te gaan. "

Anatomiese vergelyking van skedels van Homo Sapiens (links) en Homo neanderthalensis (regs). Museum vir Natuurgeskiedenis in Cleveland. (Hairymuseummatt / CC BY - SA 2.0 )

Bermudez de Castro en Martinon-Torres werk al jare saam met die IVPP in Beijing . Die Spaanse ondersoekers het 'n jaar gelede die terrein van Daoxian besoek en die oorspronklike tande ondersoek. Daar kon hulle sien dat die toestande van die grot nie ideaal was nie, dus is die meer weerstandige skelet- menslike en dierlike oorblyfsels die enigste wat die lang tyd verduur het.

Voorgestelde foto: Die tande wat gevind is in die Fuyan -grot, in die suide van China, in Daoxian, Hunan -provinsie. (S.Xing / XJ.Wu / El Mundo )

Deur: Mariló TA

Hierdie artikel is die eerste keer in Spaans gepubliseer by https://www.ancient-origins.es/ en is met toestemming vertaal.


    Fossiele vinger kan China se menslike geskiedenis herskryf

    Die fossiel van 'n menslike vinger wat op die Al Wusta -argeologiese terrein in Saoedi -Arabië gevind is. [Foto verskaf aan China Daily]

    Ontdekking kan jare lange wydverspreide oortuigings uitdaag

    'N Fossiel van 'n menslike vinger wat deur Britse argeoloë in Saoedi -Arabië gevind is, ondersteun 'n teorie wat al lank deur Chinese navorsers bestaan ​​is dat moderne mense Afrika verlaat en tienduisende jare vroeër na China getrek het as wat voorheen gedink is.

    Die algemene opvatting in die wetenskaplike gemeenskap is dat vroeë Homo sapiens ongeveer 60 000 jaar gelede die eerste keer uit Afrika gemigreer het na wat nou Europa en die Midde-Ooste is, en die suide van China reeds 45 000 jaar gelede bereik het.

    Die ontdekking van 'n 88 000 jaar oue menslike vingerbeen op die Al Wusta-argeologiese terrein in die Nefud-woestyn, Saoedi-Arabië, het hierdie idee op sy kop gedraai. Die ouderdom van die fossiel dui op 'n vroeëre migrasie van Afrika na Eurasië - 'n teorie wat ondersteun word deur ander argeologiese ontdekkings wat in China gemaak is en wat voorheen skepties was.

    "Dit lyk nou waarskynlik dat vroeë moderne mense ongeveer 100 000 jaar gelede in die suide van China was", het professor Chris Stringer gesê, wat navorsing oor menslike oorsprong in die Natural History Museum in Londen gedoen het.

    Die span navorsers by die Al Wusta argeologiese terrein. [Foto verskaf aan China Daily]

    Die fossiel in Al Wusta is ontdek deur 'n span navorsers van die Universiteit van Oxford onder leiding van die argeoloog Huw Groucutt, wie se verslag hierdie week in die tydskrif Nature gepubliseer is. Hy het die gebied al tien jaar lank na menslike fossiele gesoek voordat hy 'n enkele been van die middelvinger van 'n Homo sapien opgegrawe het.

    'Dit was duidelik 'n menslike vingerbeen - dit was onmiddellike opwinding,' het Groucutt gesê. Die been is naby fossiele van seekoeie en buffels gevind, wat daarop dui dat die nou droë gebied eens 'n uitgestrekte vleiland was.

    Die navorsers het gerekenariseerde tomografie - of CT - skandering gebruik om te bevestig dat die been menslik was, gevolg deur 'n proses wat bekend staan ​​as uraanreeks wat sy ouderdom verminder.

    'Baie genetici sal sê dat al die wêreld se mense ongeveer 50 000 tot 60 000 jaar gelede uit hierdie migrasie kom,' het Groucutt gesê. “Die idee het die afgelope paar jaar verbrokkel.”

    Verskeie Chinese argeoloë vermoed al lankal dat vroeë mense tussen 80 000 tot 120 000 jaar gelede in China gevestig het.

    In 2010 publiseer argeoloë Wu Xiujie en Liu Wu van die Chinese Akademie vir Wetenskappe 'n resensie van hominiede argeologiese vondste in China wat dateer uit die sewentigerjare. Hulle het aangevoer dat verskeie ontdekkings - waaronder menslike tande wat in die Zhiren -grot in die outonome Guangxi Zhuang -gebied gevind is - daarop dui dat moderne mense ongeveer 100,000 jaar gelede in China bestaan ​​het.

    Volgens sommige is die gevolgtrekkings egter twyfelagtig, aangesien verskeie van die fossiele eienskappe met argaïese menslike spesies soos Homo erectus gedeel het.

    Die Chinese argeoloë het een van hul grootste deurbrake gemaak tydens 'n opgrawing van die Fuyan -grot in die provinsie Hunan in 2011, waar hulle 47 tande van moderne mense gevind het. Die tande is begrawe onder stalagmiete wat minstens 80 000 jaar oud was, wat daarop dui dat die fossiele ouer was.

    Die bevindings is egter weer eens skepties. Die stalagmiet wat gebruik is vir datering was 'n entjie van die fossiele af, en sommige het aangevoer dat die gebied deur geologiese prosesse versteur kon word.

    "Persoonlik is ek tevrede met die ouderdom en die homo sapien -toeskrywing van die fossiele in China, maar dit was omstrede in die veld en daar is publikasies in goeie tydskrifte wat hierdie bevindings bevraagteken het," het Groucutt gesê.

    'Daar is mense wat baie tevrede is met die idee dat niemand Afrika tot 50 000 jaar gelede verlaat het nie, veral baie prominente stemme in genetika. Dit is dus belangrik dat mense soos ek - wat wel dink dat ons vroeër weg is en na plekke soos China gekom het - regtig seker is. Daar moet nog baie meer navorsing gedoen word en die nuutste tegnieke moet toegepas word, ”het hy gesê.


    Die ontdekking van 47 tande in die Chinese grot verander die prentjie van menslike migrasie uit Afrika

    Hierdie 47 menslike tande wat uit die Fuyan -grot in die provinsie Hunan gevind is, toon dit Homo sapiens het minstens 80 000 jaar gelede in die suide van China aangekom, lank voordat die spesie na Europa gekom het.

    Sewe en veertig gladde tande wat uit 'n grot in die suide van China gegrawe is, onthul dit Homo sapiens het moontlik 80 000 jaar gelede daar aangekom - lank voordat mense hul merk in die noorde van China of Europa kon afdruk.

    Die bevindings wat hierdie week in die tydskrif Nature gepubliseer is, kan navorsers dwing om hul teorieë oor menslike migrasie uit Afrika te heroorweeg. In die besonder kan die ontdekking 'n teken wees dat Neanderthalers 'n baie groter versperring vir Europa ingehou het as wat argeoloë hulle voorheen erkenning gegee het.

    'Dit is 'n spelwisselaar', sê Michael Petraglia, 'n paleolitiese argeoloog aan die Universiteit van Oxford wat nie by die werk betrokke was nie. Die nuwe tandekas "maak 'n omwenteling in wat ons weet van bewegings uit Afrika."

    Wetenskaplikes glo Homo sapiens het tussen 190 000 en 160 000 jaar gelede die eerste keer in Oos -Afrika verskyn, en dan ongeveer 100 000 tot 60 000 jaar gelede in die oostelike Middellandse See versprei, volgens Robin Dennell van die Universiteit van Exeter, wat nie by die koerant betrokke was nie.

    Ontleding van DNA en ondersoeke van klipgereedskap dui daarop dat moderne mense ongeveer 60 000 jaar gelede ooswaarts na Asië begin trek het, gevolg deur 'n suksesvolle pad in die weste na Europa ongeveer 40,000 jaar gelede.

    Paleoantropoloë het na grotte in die suide van China gesoek vir leidrade om die verhaal in te vul. Hierdie grotte is vol fossiele, maar dit was moeilik om die ouderdomme van die versamelde monsters vas te stel, of om selfs te vertel aan watter hominin -spesies die fossiele behoort.

    Die nuut ontdekte tande uit die Fuyan -grot is anders. Die kalksteengrot in die Hunan -provinsie het 'n ideale kombinasie van kenmerke waarmee wetenskaplikes die ouderdom van die fossiele kon vasstel.

    In 'n suur omgewing soos Fuyan Cave, is tande dikwels die beste bewaarde menslike oorskot. Emalje, wat die buitenste oppervlak van 'n tand bedek, is die hardste weefsel in die menslike liggaam, dentin, wat die grootste deel van die tand uitmaak, het 'n bietjie meer krag, maar is steeds harder as been.

    Vir sulke fossiele is dit baie belangrik om te verstaan ​​hoe diep hulle begrawe is, want elke rotslaag verteenwoordig 'n ander tydperk. Hoe dieper die voorwerpe gevind is, hoe ouer is hulle. As die lae op een of ander manier geskarrel word, word dit baie moeilik vir graafmachines om die ware ouderdom van die fossiele te vertel.

    Gelukkig het water in die Fuyan -grot 'n laag kalsietvloeistene oor die sanderige klei wat die menslike tande vasgehou het, neergelê en verhoed dat dit versteur word. Oor die stroomsteen het 'n hoop minerale afsettings gegroei, 'n stalagmiet genoem. Radiometriese datering het aan die lig gebring dat die minerale ongeveer 80 100 jaar oud was - wat beteken dat al die materiaal daaronder, tande ingesluit, ouer moet wees.

    Onder die stroomsteen het die wetenskaplikes ook soogdierfossiele van 38 spesies gevind, insluitend Stegodon orientalis ('n familielid van mammoete en olifante) en Ailuropoda baconi ('n voorouer van die reusepanda). Hierdie uitgestorwe groot soogdiere het geleef gedurende 'n tydperk wat bekend staan ​​as die Bo -Pleistoseen, ongeveer 125 000 tot 10 000 jaar gelede.

    Saam het die stalagmietformasies en die fossiele navorsers in staat gestel om die ouderdomme van die menslike tande vas te hou - hulle eienaars moes tussen 80 000 en 120 000 jaar gelede geleef het.

    Hierdie tande, wat honde tande en kiestande insluit, lyk opvallend soos dié van hedendaagse mense, nie die groter, stomp tande van vroeëre hominiene spesies nie, soos Homo erectus. Dit het vir die navorsers bevestig dat die tande vandaan moet kom Homo sapiens wat in Afrika ontstaan ​​het, eerder as uit 'n ander geslagslyn.

    "Die Fuyan -tande dui aan dat moderne mense 30 000 tot 60 000 jaar vroeër in die suide van China was as in die oostelike Middellandse See en Europa," skryf Dennell in 'n kommentaar wat die studie vergesel het.

    Dit is nogal 'n leemte. Dit kan 'n teken wees dat ons Neanderthaler -familielede geblokkeer het Homo sapiens'Aanvanklike pogings om in Europa in te breek. Neanderthalers het die voordeel gehad dat hulle lank tevore aangepas was by die koue, harde Europese klimaat Homo sapiens, 'n spesie wat meer geskik is vir die sonnige savanne, het op die toneel aangekom, het Petraglia gesê. Dit sou hierdie paleo-pioniers swak toegerus gemaak het om teen hul neefs en neefs te kompeteer.

    Voorheen het baie wetenskaplikes geglo dat mense se intog in Europa redelik vinnig tot die dood van die Neanderthalers gelei het.

    "Ek dink regtig dat dit 'n nuwe periode van begrip en meer kreatiewe denke oor die ander moontlikhede van gevestigde modelle open," het die paleoantropoloog María Martinón-Torres van University College in Londen gesê, wat saam met Wu Liu en Xiu-jie die studie gelei het. Wu van die Chinese Akademie vir Wetenskappe.

    Daar kan ander verduidelikings vir wees Homo sapiens'Vertraging om na Europa te kom, het ander gesê.

    "Die oorwegend kouer wintertoestande van die enorme landmassa tussen Europa en Noord -China kan die vroeëre kolonisering van die suidelike gebiede beter verklaar," het Dennell geskryf.

    Hoe dan ook, daar is baie nuwe vrae oor hoe hierdie migrasie na die suide van China vandag met die menslike bevolking verband hou, het Martinón-Torres gesê. Het hierdie mense gesterf voordat hulle vervang is met 'n latere migrasie? Het hulle op een of ander manier gemeng met ander Homo sapiens uit Afrika en later na ander vastelande versprei het?

    'Ons het regtig baie nuwe vrae oor die oorsprong van die huidige bevolking,' het sy gesê. 'Ek dink dit is 'n opwindende tydperk.'


    Sal Asië die geskiedenis van die mens herskryf?

    Politiek, aardrykskunde en tradisie het lankal argeologiese aandag gevestig op die evolusie van Homo sapiens in Europa en Afrika. Nuwe navorsing daag ou idees uit deur aan te toon dat vroeë menslike migrasies baie vroeër deur Asië ontvou het as wat voorheen bekend was.

    Let daarop dat hierdie artikel beelde van menslike oorskot bevat.

    Die Nefud -woestyn is 'n verlate gebied van oranje en geel sandduine. Dit beslaan ongeveer 25 000 vierkante kilometer van die Arabiese Skiereiland. Maar tienduisende jare gelede was hierdie gebied 'n welige land met mere, met 'n klimaat wat moontlik die mens se lewe gunstiger was.

    Op 'n Januarie -middag in 2016 bestudeer 'n internasionale span argeoloë en paleontoloë die oppervlak van 'n ou meerbed op 'n plek genaamd Al Wusta in die Nefud -landskap van sand en gruis. Hulle oë is geskil vir fossiele, stukkies klipwerktuie en enige ander tekens wat uit die vroeë verreikende verlede van die streek kan bly.

    Uiteindelik het Iyad Zalmout, 'n paleontoloog wat by die Saoedi -geologiese opname werk, gewaar wat soos 'n been lyk. Met klein stukkies en kwaste het hy en sy kollegas die vonds van die grond verwyder.

    'Ons het geweet dat dit belangrik was,' onthou Zalmout in 'n e -pos. Dit was die eerste direkte bewys van 'n groot primaat of hominied lewe in die omgewing. In 2018 het laboratoriumtoetse onthul dat hierdie monster 'n vingerbeen was van 'n anatomies moderne mens wat minstens 86 000 jaar gelede sou gelewe het.

    Voor hierdie Al Wusta -ontdekking het bewyse in die vorm van klipgereedskap tussen 55 000 en 125 000 jaar gelede 'n mate van menslike teenwoordigheid in die Nefud voorgestel. Vir antropoloë kan 'mens' en 'hominien' 'n aantal spesies beteken wat nou verwant is aan ons eie. Die vingerbeen was die oudste Homo sapiens vind in die streek.

    Argeoloë het dit gevind Homo sapiens vingerbeen, wat ongeveer 86 000 jaar gelede dateer, op 'n plek genaamd Al Wusta in Saoedi -Arabië. Ian Cartwright/Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History

    Die datering van die been weerspreek 'n gevestigde vertelling in die wetenskaplike gemeenskap. Bevindinge, veral uit die gebied van die hedendaagse Israel, Jordanië en Libanon, bekend as die Levant-streek, het tot die besef gelei dat H. sapiens het eers 120 000 jaar gelede uit Afrika gekom en waarskynlik noordwaarts langs die Middellandse See -kus getrek. Hierdie mense het hulle in die Levant gevestig en hul afstammelinge - of diegene van 'n daaropvolgende vroeë menslike migrasie uit Afrika - het tienduisende jare later na Europa gereis.

    Die verhaal het eers later na dele van Asië, soos Saoedi -Arabië, gereis. Volgens sommige ramings sou anatomies moderne mense dus ongeveer 50 000 jaar gelede nie in die huidige Al Wusta gewees het nie.

    Die vingerbeen voeg dus 'n draai in die verhaal van hoe en wanneer ons spesie die vasteland van Afrika verlaat en met baie begin en stop 'n groot deel van die res van die aarde bevolk het. 'N Nuwe oes ontdekkings, veral uit Asië, dui daarop dat moderne mense ongeveer 200 000 jaar gelede vir die eerste keer Afrika verlaat het en verskeie roetes gevolg het.

    Die Levant is nie noodwendig sentraal nie - en punte oos kon onvoorsiene belangrikheid vir vroeë menslike migrasies gehad het. Soos die antropoloog Michael Petraglia van die Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History dit stel: ''n Nuwe verhaal ontvou.'

    Hierdie bevindings kan lig werp op groot onbeantwoorde vrae, soos waarom mense hierdie migrasies gemaak het, hoe die vorige omgewingstoestande was en hoe H. sapiens interaksie met ander hominiene. Maar die veranderende vertelling beklemtoon ook hoeveel van ons kennis vandaan kom - en word beperk deur -waar argeoloë en ander navorsers het gewerk. Die geografiese klem word lankal nie deur die wetenskap beïnvloed nie, maar deur toegang, finansiering en tradisie.

    (HER) DINK MENS

    Gee ons nuutste stories elke Vrydag in u inkassie.

    Die eerste aanduiding dat die lang verhaal van menslike reise uit Afrika iets krities gemis het, kom uit die goed bestudeerde Levant-streek, in die Misliya-grot in Israel. In 2018 het argeoloë onthul dat hulle 'n menslike kakebeen in hierdie grot gevind het.

    Die been - gedateer met drie verskillende metodes in die loop van 'n dekadelong -ondersoek - is tussen 177 000 en 194 000 jaar oud, wat die tydlyn van wanneer die mens hier vir die eerste keer hier geleef het, minstens 50 000 jaar terugdruk. En ouer klipgereedskap wat in lae onder die kakebeen gevind is, dui daarop dat mense nog langer in hierdie gebied kon wees.

    Dit is dus moontlik dat mense Afrika verlaat het en selfs vroeër as die datum van hierdie kakebeen na die Levant gereis het - en elders. Hierdie gedagtegang het in Julie 2019 nog meer trefkrag gekry, toe 'n groep geleerdes nuwe bevindings gepubliseer het oor 'n skedel wat in die sewentigerjare in Griekeland ontdek is. Die fossiel, volgens die nuwe werk, is menslik en meer as 210 000 jaar oud.

    Benewens hierdie veranderende tydlyn, heroorweeg navorsers waar mense het gereis toe hulle Afrika verlaat het. Die Al Wusta -vonds is slegs een voorbeeld.

    Navorsers het ontdek dat hierdie H. sapiens tande, wat in China gevind word, is minstens 85 000 jaar oud. S. Xing en X-J. Wu

    In 2015 het navorsers in China hul bevinding van 47 mensetande, wat tussen 85 000 en 120 000 jaar oud is, in 'n grot in die Hunan -provinsie gepubliseer. Tot hierdie ontdekking was die oudste moderne menslike fossiele wat in Suid -Asië gevind is, slegs ongeveer 45 000 jaar oud.

    Hierdie nuwe bevindings 'verplig ons' om te heroorweeg wanneer en hoe ons versprei het ', sê die forensiese antropoloog María Martinón-Torres, direkteur van die National Research Center on Human Evolution in Burgos, Spanje, en 'n lid van die span wat ontdek en bestudeer die tande. Sy voeg by: 'Daar kan meer as een' uit Afrika' -verspreiding wees ... mense, soos enige ander dier, het moontlik uitgebrei sover daar geen hindernisse was nie, ekologies of geografies, wat hulle verhinder het om dit te doen.

    In 2018 het navorsers in Indië gepubliseer oor die ontdekking van 'n versameling gevorderde klipgereedskap. Hulle sê dat hierdie vonds dui op 'n hominien -teenwoordigheid wat minstens 170 000 jaar terugstrek - millennia vroeër as wat vorige navorsing voorgestel het. En sommige bewyse dui daarop dat vroeë mense moontlik direk na Asië gegaan het deur van Afrika oor die Arabiese Skiereiland te gaan, wat die Levant heeltemal omseil, waar soveel van die vroegste bewyse van mense buite Afrika vandaan kom.

    'N Kombinasie van nuwe ontdekkings het die begrip van die tydsberekening, roetes en geografiese omvang wat daarmee gepaard gaan, verskuif H. sapiens'Verspreiding uit Afrika. Maar vir argeoloë dui die vondste ook op 'n blindekol. Soos Martinón-Torres sê, "Hierdie bevindings is ook 'n groot waarskuwing oor Asië."

    Daar is ook 'n toenemende bewustheid van die behoefte om die geografiese omvang van paleontologie en argeologie wat verband hou met vroeë menslike migrasies en evolusie uit te brei. "As 'n lang tyd", voeg Martinón-Torres by, "word Asië beskou as 'n doodloopstraat met 'n sekondêre rol in die hoofstroom van menslike evolusie."

    "Daar is 'n groot vooroordeel in argeologiese veldwerk en waar dit voorkom, en ons teorieë oor menslike evolusie is gebaseer op hierdie geografiese vooroordele," sê Petraglia, wat saam met Zalmout en kollegas van die Saoedi -kommissie vir toerisme en nasionale erfenis die Al Wusta -vingerbeen gevind het .

    S ewige faktore het tot hierdie vooroordeel bygedra, verduidelik die argeoloog en skrywer Nadia Durrani, wat mede-outeur was Argeologie: 'n kort inleiding met die antropoloog Brian Fagan. Argeologie het meer as 'n eeu gelede begin "as 'n Westerse wetenskaplike dissipline", sê sy.

    Die eerste argeoloë, wat Europees en Amerikaans was, fokus hoofsaaklik op Mediterreense Europa en lande wat in die Bybel genoem word, insluitend die hedendaagse Iran, Irak, Egipte, Israel en die Wesoewer. 'Mense was geïnteresseerd in die Bybel en klassieke kwessies', waaronder antieke Griekeland en Rome, sê Durrani. Namate argeoloë in hierdie gebiede ontdekkings gemaak het, het die belangstelling in die streke gegroei, en instellings het op dieselfde plekke ontstaan, wat weer verdere navorsing daar aangewakker het.

    "Lande waar paleoantropologiese navorsing al dekades lank gedoen is, sal waarskynlik belangrike vondste hê wat ook deur die mense self bekend is en waardeer word," sê Katerina Harvati, direkteur van paleoantropologie aan die Universiteit van Tübingen. 'En daarom het [hulle] waarskynlik meer finansieringsgeleenthede.'

    Die teenoorgestelde is ook waar. Dit kan moeilik wees om kollegas of voornemende befondsers te oortuig van die potensiaal van 'n plek as dit min ondersoek is en 'n gebrek aan sekere vorme van infrastruktuur het. Omgewings- en natuurlike hindernisse kan ter sprake kom. Petraglia wys daarop dat werk in gebiede wat nie goed ondersoek is nie, van die begin af kan vereis dat u met take soos opnames en kartering begin, en dat daar dikwels geen vorige werk is nie.

    Politieke aangeleenthede kan argeoloë help of belemmer. Durrani het byvoorbeeld in die negentigerjare aan veldwerk in Jemen deelgeneem en later toere by argeologiese terreine daar gelei. Hierdie werk het in 2008 tot stilstand gekom weens politieke onstabiliteit in die gebied. Geweld en konflikte vorm ernstige hindernisse vir toegang, sê sy.

    Argeoloë ondersoek die Al Wusta dig -terrein. Klint Janulis

    Die nuwe bevindinge dui daarop dat die houding teenoor Asië verander, en dat meer en meer aandag na hierdie streek verwys. Die verskuiwing val saam met ekonomiese en politieke veranderinge. In die afgelope twee dekades nooi China studiebeurse uit na gebiede wat nog nie bestudeer is nie. Meer onlangs het Saoedi -Arabië sekere terreine vir argeologie en toerisme oopgemaak.

    Volgens wetenskaplikes sal die tyd, toegang en toestande verder verbeter. In die tussentyd onthul hierdie navorsing dat anatomies moderne mense Afrika vroeër as wat hulle verwag het, verlaat en langs die Arabiese Skiereiland, suid langs die noorde, gereis het.

    Sommige van hierdie vondste het egter skeptisisme veroorsaak. Jeffrey Schwartz, emeritus -professor aan die Universiteit van Pittsburgh, waarsku daarteen om dramatiese gevolgtrekkings uit die bevindings te maak. 'Ek dink ons ​​noem te veel dinge H. sapiens," hy sê.

    In teenstelling hiermee vermoed Mina Weinstein-Evron, 'n argeoloog aan die Universiteit van Haifa, wat saam met die Misliya Cave-kakebeen ontdek het dat die onlangse bevindings H. sapiens maar stem saam dat die verhaal van anatomies moderne menslike verspreiding nog lank nie duidelik is nie. “Ons weet niks. Ons het hier 'n stuk bewyse en 'n kolletjie bewyse daar, 'sê sy. 'En dan gebruik ons ​​hierdie groot woorde soos' migrasie 'en' verspreiding '. Ons praat asof hulle 'n kaartjie gekoop het. Maar hulle het nie geweet waarheen hulle op pad was nie. Vir hulle was dit waarskynlik nie eens 'n beweging nie, miskien was dit 10 kilometer per generasie.

    Daarbenewens dui sommige genetiese bevindings daarop aan dat selfs as mense vroeër uit Afrika en na Asië gereis het as wat voorheen gedink is, dit moontlik was dat hierdie vroeë menslike migrasies uit 'n evolusionêre perspektief nie suksesvol was nie. Volgens gevolgtrekkings van drie verskillende groepe wetenskaplikes wat in Natuur in 2016 het die DNA van Eurasiërs 60 000 tot 80 000 jaar gelede verskil van dié van Afrikane. Met ander woorde, alle mense wat vandag lewe, is afstammelinge van H. sapiens wat uit Afrika getrek het binne daardie venster - sowel as ander hominiene, soos Neanderthalers.

    Geleerdes erken dit H. sapiens het moontlik baie verskillende roetes uit Afrika geneem, hier in rooi getoon. Catherine Gilman/SAPIENS

    Tog is die vroeëre migrasies interessant, sê Luca Pagani, 'n biologiese antropoloog wat een van die Natuur artikels. 'Alhoewel dit nie ons idee sal verander van watter migrasies 'n sukses was nie, toon dit 'n groter verskeidenheid pogings tot verspreiding,' sê hy, en dit is 'n noodsaaklike deel van die verhaal van vroeë moderne mense.

    Die redes waarom sekere vroeë menslike migrasies misluk het, kon egter die belangrikste vrae in die argeologie belig. Martinón-Torres en haar kollegas wat in China werk, het byvoorbeeld beweer dat vroeë moderne mense moontlik met Neanderthalers of ander hominiene meegeding het, wat hul bewegings kon beïnvloed.

    P etraglia vermoed intussen dat vroeë moderne mense moontlik op die Arabiese terrein gedy het totdat water verdwyn namate die woestyn uitbrei. 'As u wil weet hoe klimaatsverandering ons eendag kan beïnvloed, dan het ons 'n hele storie hier oor die uitwerking van klimaatsverandering op mense,' sê hy. Kortom, die afstammelinge van hierdie onverskrokke mense het moontlik nie oorleef nie, maar hul verhale kan ons steeds die toekoms inlei.

    Regstelling: 20 April 2020
    'N Vorige weergawe van hierdie verhaal bevat 'n onakkuraatheid op die kaart van die Kaspiese See. Die kaart is reggestel.


    Inhoud

    "Onlangse Afrikaanse oorsprong," of Uit Afrika II, verwys na die migrasie van anatomies moderne mense (Homo sapiens) uit Afrika na hul opkoms by c. 300 000 tot 200 000 jaar gelede, in teenstelling met 'Out of Africa I', wat verwys na die migrasie van argaïese mense uit Afrika na Eurasië ongeveer 1,8 tot 0,5 miljoen jaar gelede. Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) uit die suide van Ethiopië is die oudste anatomies moderne Homo sapiens-skelet wat tans bekend is (196 ± 5 ka). [33]

    Sedert die begin van die 21ste eeu het die prentjie van "onlangse enkel-oorsprong" -migrasies aansienlik meer ingewikkeld geraak, nie net as gevolg van die ontdekking van moderne-argaïese mengsels nie, maar ook as gevolg van die toenemende bewyse dat die "onlangse buite- Die migrasie van Afrika het plaasgevind in 'n aantal golwe wat oor 'n lang tydperk versprei is. Vanaf 2010 was daar twee hoofaanvaarde verspreidingsroetes vir die migrasie van vroeë anatomies moderne mense uit Afrika: via die "Noordelike Roete" (via Nylvallei en Sinai) en die "Suidelike Roete" via die Bab al Mandab-seestraat . [34]

    • Posth et al. (2017) stel dit vroeg voor Homo sapiens, of ''n ander spesie in Afrika wat nou verwant is aan ons', sou ongeveer 270 000 jaar gelede eers uit Afrika getrek het. [35]
    • Die vondste by die Misliya -grot, wat 'n gedeeltelike kakebeen met agt tande bevat, is ongeveer 185 000 jaar gelede gedateer. Lae wat tussen 250 000 en 140 000 jaar gelede in dieselfde grot dateer, bevat gereedskap van die Levallois -tipe, wat die datum van die eerste migrasie nog vroeër kan plaas as die gereedskap met die moderne menslike kakebeenbevindings geassosieer kan word. [36] [37]
    • 'N Ooswaartse verspreiding van Noordoos -Afrika na Arabië 150 000–130 000 jaar gelede, gebaseer op die vondste by Jebel Faya, gedateer tot 127 000 jaar gelede (ontdek in 2011). [12] [13] Die vondste uit die Zhirendong -grot, Suid -China, dateer moontlik meer as 100 000 jaar gelede aan hierdie golf. [34] Ander bewyse van moderne menslike teenwoordigheid in China dateer uit 80 000 jaar gelede. [18]
    • Die grootste verspreiding uit Afrika het ongeveer 50–70 000 jaar gelede plaasgevind via die sogenaamde Suidelike Roete, hetsy voor [38] of na [27] [28] die Toba-gebeurtenis, wat tussen 69 000 en 77 000 jaar gelede plaasgevind het. [38] Hierdie verspreiding volg op die suidelike kuslyn van Asië en bereik Australië ongeveer 65,000-50,000 jaar gelede, of volgens sommige navorsing, vroeg op 50,000 jaar gelede. [24] [25] Wes-Asië is ongeveer 50 000 jaar gelede deur 'n ander afleiding van hierdie golf 'herbeset', en Europa is ongeveer 43 000 jaar gelede bevolk uit Wes-Asië. [34] beskryf 'n bykomende migrasiegolf na die suidelike kusroete, naamlik 'n noordelike migrasie na Europa omstreeks 45 000 jaar gelede. [nota 3] Hierdie moontlikheid word egter uitgesluit deur Macaulay et al. (2005) en Posth et al. (2016), who argue for a single coastal dispersal, with an early offshoot into Europe.

    Beginning 135,000 years ago, tropical Africa experienced megadroughts which drove humans from the land and towards the sea shores, and forced them to cross over to other continents. [39] [note 4]

    Modern humans crossed the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb in the southern Red Sea, and moved along the green coastlines around Arabia, and thence to the rest of Eurasia. Fossils of early Homo sapiens were found in Qafzeh and Es-Skhul Caves in Israel and have been dated 80,000 to 100,000 years ago. These humans seem to have either become extinct or retreated back to Africa 70,000 to 80,000 years ago, possibly replaced by southbound Neanderthals escaping the colder regions of ice-age Europe. [40] Hua Liu et al. analyzed autosomal microsatellite markers dating to about 56,000 years ago. They interpret the paleontological fossil as an isolated early offshoot that retracted back to Africa. [41]

    The discovery of stone tools in the United Arab Emirates in 2011 at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah, indicated the presence of modern humans at least 125,000 years ago, [12] leading to a resurgence of the "long-neglected" North African route. [13] [42] [14] [15] This new understanding of the role of the Arabian dispersal began to change following results from archaeological and genetic studies stressing the importance of southern Arabia as a corridor for human expansions out of Africa. [43]

    In Oman, a site was discovered by Bien Joven in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools belonging to the late Nubian Complex, known previously only from archaeological excavations in the Sudan. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates placed the Arabian Nubian Complex at approximately 106,000 years old. This provides evidence for a distinct Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia, around the earlier part of the Marine Isotope Stage 5. [44]

    According to Kuhlwilm and his co-authors, Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans then living outside of Africa around 100,000 years ago: humans which had already split off from other modern humans around 200,000 years ago, and this early wave of modern humans outside Africa also contributed genetically to the Altai Neanderthals. [45] They found that "the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought". [45] According to co-author Ilan Gronau, "This actually complements archaeological evidence of the presence of early modern humans out of Africa around and before 100,000 years ago by providing the first genetic evidence of such populations." [45] Similar genetic admixture events have been noted in other regions as well. [46]

    In China, the Liujiang man (Chinese: 柳江人 ) is among the earliest modern humans found in East Asia. [47] The date most commonly attributed to the remains is 67,000 years ago. [48] High rates of variability yielded by various dating techniques carried out by different researchers place the most widely accepted range of dates with 67,000 BP as a minimum, but do not rule out dates as old as 159,000 BP. [48] Liu, Martinón-Torres et al. (2015) claim that modern human teeth have been found in China dating to at least 80,000 years ago. [49]

    Coastal route Edit

    By some 50-70,000 years ago, a subset of the bearers of mitochondrial haplogroup L3 migrated from East Africa into the Near East. It has been estimated that from a population of 2,000 to 5,000 individuals in Africa, only a small group, possibly as few as 150 to 1,000 people, crossed the Red Sea. [50] [51] The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and the Persian Plateau to India, which appears to have been the first major settling point. [52] Wells (2003) argued for the route along the southern coastline of Asia, across about 250 kilometres (155 mi) [ twyfelagtig - bespreek ] , reaching Australia by around 50,000 years ago.

    Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits, the Red Sea is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide, but 50,000 years ago sea levels were 70 m (230 ft) lower (owing to glaciation) and the water was much narrower. Though the straits were never completely closed, they were narrow enough to have enabled crossing using simple rafts, and there may have been islands in between. [53] [34] Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea, [54] indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing.

    The dating of the Southern Dispersal is a matter of dispute. [38] It may have happened either pre- or post-Toba, a catastrophic volcanic eruption that took place between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba. Stone tools discovered below the layers of ash disposed in India may point to a pre-Toba dispersal but the source of the tools is disputed. [38] An indication for post-Toba is haplo-group L3, that originated before the dispersal of humans out of Africa and can be dated to 60,000–70,000 years ago, "suggesting that humanity left Africa a few thousand years after Toba". [38] Some research showing slower than expected genetic mutations in human DNA was published in 2012, indicating a revised dating for the migration to between 90,000 and 130,000 years ago. [55] Some more recent research suggests a migration out-of-Africa of around 50,000-65,000 years ago of the ancestors of modern non-African populations, similar to most previous estimates. [21] [56] [57]

    Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups spread by three routes after leaving Africa: "South Route" (from Iran via India to Oceania), "North Route" (from Iran to Altai) and "West route" (from Iran to the Middle East). [58] [59]

    Spreading route Y-DNA haprogroups
    Staying in Africa A, B, E
    South Route C1b2, F, K, M, S, H, L
    North Route D, C1a1, C2, N, O, Q
    West Route C1a2, I, J, G, R, T

    Western Asia Edit

    A fossil of a modern human dated to 54,700 years ago was found in Manot Cave in Israel, named Manot 1, [60] though the dating was questioned by Groucutt et al. (2015).

    South Asia and Australia Edit

    It is thought that Australia was inhabited around 65,000–50,000 years ago. As of 2017, the earliest evidence of humans in Australia is at least 65,000 years old, [22] [23] while McChesney stated that

    . genetic evidence suggests that a small band with the marker M168 migrated out of Africa along the coasts of the Arabian Peninsula and India, through Indonesia, and reached Australia very early, between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago. This very early migration into Australia is also supported by Rasmussen et al. (2011). [26]

    Fossils from Lake Mungo, Australia, have been dated to about 42,000 years ago. [61] [62] Other fossils from a site called Madjedbebe have been dated to at least 65,000 years ago., [23] though some researchers doubt this early estimate and date the Madjedbebe fossils at about 50,000 years ago at the oldest. [24] [25]

    Oos -Asië Edit

    Tianyuan man from China has a probable date range between 38,000 and 42,000 years ago, while Liujiang man from the same region has a probable date range between 67,000 and 159,000 years ago. According to 2013 DNA tests, Tianyuan man is related "to many present-day Asians and Native Americans". [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] Tianyuan is similar in morphology to Liujiang man, and some Jōmon period modern humans found in Japan, as well as modern East and Southeast Asians. [68] [69] [70] [71]

    Europa Wysig

    According to Macaulay et al. (2005), an early offshoot from the southern dispersal with haplogroup N followed the Nile from East Africa, heading northwards and crossing into Asia through the Sinai. This group then branched, some moving into Europe and others heading east into Asia. [27] This hypothesis is supported by the relatively late date of the arrival of modern humans in Europe as well as by archaeological and DNA evidence. [27] Based on an analysis of 55 human mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of hunter-gatherers, Posth et al. (2016) argue for a "rapid single dispersal of all non-Africans less than 55,000 years ago."

    Mitochondrial haplogroups Edit

    Within Africa Edit

    The first lineage to branch off from Mitochondrial Eve was L0. This haplogroup is found in high proportions among the San of Southern Africa and the Sandawe of East Africa. It is also found among the Mbuti people. [72] [73] These groups branched off early in human history and have remained relatively genetically isolated since then. Haplogroups L1, L2 and L3 are descendants of L1–L6, and are largely confined to Africa. The macro haplogroups M and N, which are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descend from L3. L3 is about 70,000 years old, while haplogroups M and N are about 65-55,000 years old. [74] [57] The relationship between such gene trees and demographic history is still debated when applied to dispersals. [75]

    Of all the lineages present in Africa, only the female descendants of one lineage, mtDNA haplogroup L3, are found outside Africa. If there had been several migrations, one would expect descendants of more than one lineage to be found. L3's female descendants, the M and N haplogroup lineages, are found in very low frequencies in Africa (although haplogroup M1 populations are very ancient and diversified in North and North-east Africa) and appear to be more recent arrivals. [ aanhaling nodig ] A possible explanation is that these mutations occurred in East Africa shortly before the exodus and became the dominant haplogroups thereafter by means of the founder effect. Alternatively, the mutations may have arisen shortly afterwards.

    Southern Route and haplogroups M and N Edit

    Results from mtDNA collected from aboriginal Malaysians called Orang Asli indicate that the hapologroups M and N share characteristics with original African groups from approximately 85,000 years ago, and share characteristics with sub-haplogroups found in coastal south-east Asian regions, such as Australasia, the Indian subcontinent and throughout continental Asia, which had dispersed and separated from their African progenitor approximately 65,000 years ago. This southern coastal dispersal would have occurred before the dispersal through the Levant approximately 45,000 years ago. [27] This hypothesis attempts to explain why haplogroup N is predominant in Europe and why haplogroup M is absent in Europe. Evidence of the coastal migration is thought to have been destroyed by the rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch. [76] Alternatively, a small European founder population that had expressed haplogroup M and N at first, could have lost haplogroup M through random genetic drift resulting from a bottleneck (i.e. a founder effect).

    The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia until reaching India. [52] Haplogroup M is found in high frequencies along the southern coastal regions of Pakistan and India and it has the greatest diversity in India, indicating that it is here where the mutation may have occurred. [52] Sixty percent of the Indian population belong to Haplogroup M. The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands also belong to the M lineage. The Andamanese are thought to be offshoots of some of the earliest inhabitants in Asia because of their long isolation from the mainland. They are evidence of the coastal route of early settlers that extends from India to Thailand and Indonesia all the way to eastern New Guinea. Since M is found in high frequencies in highlanders from New Guinea and the Andamanese and New Guineans have dark skin and Afro-textured hair, some scientists think they are all part of the same wave of migrants who departed across the Red Sea

    60,000 years ago in the Great Coastal Migration. The proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards from Arabia to India in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3:1. Crossing into Southeast Asia, haplogroup N (mostly in the form of derivatives of its R subclade) reappears as the predominant lineage. [ aanhaling nodig ] M is predominant in East Asia, but amongst Indigenous Australians, N is the more common lineage. [ aanhaling nodig ] This haphazard distribution of Haplogroup N from Europe to Australia can be explained by founder effects and population bottlenecks. [77]

    Outosomale DNA wysig

    A 2002 study of African, European and Asian populations, found greater genetic diversity among Africans than among Eurasians, and that genetic diversity among Eurasians is largely a subset of that among Africans, supporting the out of Africa model. [78] A large study by Coop et al. (2009) found evidence for natural selection in autosomal DNA outside of Africa. The study distinguishes non-African sweeps (notably KITLG variants associated with skin color), West-Eurasian sweeps (SLC24A5) and East-Asian sweeps (MC1R, relevant to skin color). Based on this evidence, the study concluded that human populations encountered novel selective pressures as they expanded out of Africa. [79] MC1R and its relation to skin color had already been discussed by Liu, Harding et al. (2000), bl. 135 harvp error: no target: CITEREFLiu,_Harding_et_al.2000 (help) . According to this study, Papua New Guineans continued to be exposed to selection for dark skin color so that, although these groups are distinct from Africans in other places, the allele for dark skin color shared by contemporary Africans, Andamanese and New Guineans is an archaism. Endicott et al. (2003) suggest convergent evolution. A 2014 study by Gurdasani et al. indicates that the higher genetic diversity in Africa was further increased in some regions by relatively recent Eurasian migrations affecting parts of Africa. [80]

    Pathogen DNA Edit

    Another promising route towards reconstructing human genetic genealogy is via the JC virus (JCV), a type of human polyomavirus which is carried by 70–90 percent of humans and which is usually transmitted vertically, from parents to offspring, suggesting codivergence with human populations. For this reason, JCV has been used as a genetic marker for human evolution and migration. [81] This method does not appear to be reliable for the migration out of Africa, in contrast to human genetics, JCV strains associated with African populations are not basal. From this Shackelton et al. (2006) conclude that either a basal African strain of JCV has become extinct or that the original infection with JCV post-dates the migration from Africa.

    Admixture of archaic and modern humans Edit

    Evidence for archaic human species (descended from Homo heidelbergensis) having interbred with modern humans outside of Africa, was discovered in the 2010s. This concerns primarily Neanderthal admixture in all modern populations except for Sub-Saharan Africans but evidence has also been presented for Denisova hominin admixture in Australasia (i.e. in Melanesians, Aboriginal Australians and some Negritos). [82]

    The rate of admixture of Neanderthal admixture to European and Asian populations as of 2017 has been estimated at between about 2–3%. [83]

    Archaic admixture in some Sub-Saharan African populations hunter-gatherer groups (Biaka Pygmies and San), derived from archaic hominins that broke away from the modern human lineage around 700,000 years, was discovered in 2011. The rate of admixture was estimated at around 2%. [31] Admixture from archaic hominins of still earlier divergence times, estimated at 1.2 to 1.3 million years ago, was found in Pygmies, Hadza and five Sandawe in 2012. [84] [30] From an analysis of Mucin 7, a highly divergent haplotype that has an estimated coalescence time with other variants around 4.5 million years BP and is specific to African populations is inferred to have been derived from interbreeding between African modern and archaic humans. [85]

    Stone tools Edit

    In addition to genetic analysis, Petraglia et al. also examines the small stone tools (microlithic materials) from the Indian subcontinent and explains the expansion of population based on the reconstruction of paleoenvironment. He proposed that the stone tools could be dated to 35 ka in South Asia, and the new technology might be influenced by environmental change and population pressure. [86]


    Oldest human fossil outside of Africa found in Israel cave [VIDEO]

    A recent fossil of a jawbone complete with teeth discovered at a cave in Israel has revealed that our ancestors left Africa at least 50,000 years earlier than previously thought. According to the study published in the journal Science, scientists have dated the jawbone to 177,000-194,000 years ago.

    A team of researchers discovered the fossil, an adult upper jawbone with several teeth, at the Misliya cave in Israel, one of several prehistoric cave sites located on Mount Carmel.

    "This finding -- that early modern humans were present outside of Africa earlier than commonly believed -- completely changes our view on modern human dispersal and the history of modern human evolution," lead researcher Israel Hershkovitz, Professor at Tel Aviv University said.

    Based on fossils found in Ethiopia, the common consensus of anthropologists has been that modern humans appeared in Africa roughly 160,000-200,000 years ago. They also said that modern humans evolved in Africa and started migrating out of Africa around 100,000 years ago.

    "But if the fossil at Misliya dates to roughly 170,000-190,000 years ago, the entire narrative of the evolution of Homo sapiens must be pushed back by at least 100,000-200,000 years," Hershkovitz said.

    He added: "In other words, if modern humans started travelling out of Africa some 200,000 years ago, it follows that they must have originated in Africa at least 300,000-500,000 years ago."

    The earliest remains of modern human that have been found so far outside of Africa, at the Skhul and Qafzeh caves in Israel, were dated to 90,000-120,000 years ago.

    "Our research makes sense of many recent anthropological and genetic finds," Hershkovitz said.

    "About a year ago, scientists reported finding the remains of modern humans in China dating to about 80,000-100,000 years ago. This suggested that their migration occurred earlier than previously thought, but until our discovery at Misliya, we could not explain it," Hershkovitz added.


    ɿirst of our kind' found in Morocco

    Fossils of five early humans have been found in North Africa that show Homo sapiens emerged at least 100,000 years earlier than previously recognised.

    It suggests that our species evolved all across the continent, the scientists involved say.

    Prof Jean-Jacques Hublin, of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, told me that the discovery would "rewrite the textbooks" about our emergence as a species.

    "It is not the story of it happening in a rapid way in a 'Garden of Eden' somewhere in Africa. Our view is that it was a more gradual development and it involved the whole continent. So if there was a Garden of Eden, it was all of Africa."

    Prof Hublin was speaking at a news conference at the College de France in Paris, where he proudly showed journalists casts of the fossil remains his team has excavated at a site in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco. The specimens include skulls, teeth, and long bones.

    Earlier finds from the same site in the 1960s had been dated to be 40,000 years old and ascribed to an African form of Neanderthal, a close evolutionary cousin of Homo sapiens.

    But Prof Hublin was always troubled by that initial interpretation, and when he joined the MPI he began reassessing Jebel Irhoud. And more than 10 years later he is now presenting new evidence that tells a very different story.

    The latest material has been dated by hi-tech methods to be between 300,000 and 350,000 years old. And the skull form is almost identical to modern humans.

    The few significant differences are seen in a slightly more prominent brow line and smaller brain cavity.

    Prof Hublin's excavation has further revealed that these ancient people had employed stone tools and had learned how to make and control fire. So, not only did they look like Homo sapiens, they acted like them as well.

    Until now, the earliest fossils of our kind were from Ethiopia (from a site known as Omo Kibish) in eastern Africa and were dated to be approximately 195,000 years old.

    "We now have to modify the vision of how the first modern humans emerged," Prof Hublin told me with an impish grin.

    Before our species evolved, there were many different types of primitive human species, each of which looked different and had its own strengths and weaknesses. And these various species of human, just like other animals, evolved and changed their appearance gradually, with just the occasional spurt. They did this over hundreds of thousands of years.

    By contrast, the mainstream view has been that Homo sapiens evolved suddenly from more primitive humans in East Africa around 200,000 years ago and it is at that point that we assumed, broadly speaking, the features we display now. What is more, only then do we spread throughout Africa and eventually to the rest of the planet. Prof Hublin's discoveries would appear to shatter this view.

    Jebel Irhoud is typical of many archaeological sites across Africa that date back 300,000 years. Many of these locations have similar tools and evidence for the use of fire. What they do not have is any fossil remains.

    Because most experts have worked on the assumption that our species did not emerge until 200,000 years ago, it was natural to think therefore that these other sites were occupied by an older, different species of human. But the Jebel Irhoud finds now make it possible that it was actually Homo sapiens that left the tool and fire evidence in these places.

    "We are not trying to say that the origin of our species was in Morocco - rather that the Jebel Irhoud discoveries show that we know that [these type of sites] were found all across Africa 300,000 years ago," said MPI team member Dr Shannon McPhearon.

    Prof Chris Stringer from the Natural History Museum in London, UK, was not involved in the research. He told BBC News: "This shows that there are multiple places in Africa where Homo sapiens was emerging. We need to get away from this idea that there was a single ɼradle'."

    And he raises the possibility that Homo sapiens may even have existed outside of Africa at the same time: "We have fossils from Israel that are probably the same age and they show what could be described as proto-Homo sapiens features."

    Prof Stringer says it is not inconceivable that primitive humans who had smaller brains, bigger faces, stronger brow ridges and bigger teeth - but who were nonetheless Homo sapiens - may have existed even earlier in time, possibly as far back as half a million years ago. This is a startling shift in what those who study human origins believed not so long ago.

    "I was saying 20 years ago that the only thing we should be calling Homo sapiens are humans that look like us. This was a view that Homo sapiens suddenly appeared in Africa at some point in time and that was the beginning of our species. But it now looks like I was wrong," Prof Stringer told BBC News.


    Now-Extinct Relative Had Sex with Humans Far and Wide

    A mysterious extinct branch of the human family tree that once interbred with ours apparently lived in a vast range from Siberia to Southeast Asia, mating with just as widely spread a group of modern humans, scientists find.

    This new research also demonstrates that contrary to the findings of the largest previous genetic studies, modern humans apparently settled Asia in multiple waves of migration, investigators added.

    These lost relatives, known as the Denisovans, were discovered from at least 30,000-year-old bones and teeth unearthed in the Siberian Denisova cave in 2008. Analysis of DNA taken from these fossils suggested they shared a common origin with Neanderthals, but were nearly as genetically distinct from Neanderthals as Neanderthals were from living people.

    Although we modern humans are the only surviving members of our lineage, other now-extinct human groups once lived alongside our ancestors, including Neanderthals, Denisovans and an as-yet- unnamed lineage recently discovered in Africa. Modern humans even occasionally interbred with these relatives, with estimates suggesting that Neanderthal DNAmakes up1 percent to 4 percent of modern Eurasian genomesand Denisovan DNA 4 percent to 6 percent of modern New Guinean and Bougainville Islander genomes in the islands of Melanesia. [See images of mysterious human ancestor]

    Now, using state-of-the-art genome analysis methods, an international team of scientists confirmed that Denisovans must have roamed widely, from Siberia to tropical Southeast Asia. They apparently left a genetic footprint not only in present-day Melanesia, but also in Australia, the Philippines and elsewhere.

    "They must have extended over a large geographic range," researcher David Reich, an evolutionary geneticist at Harvard Medical School, told LiveScience. Indeed, these findings suggest "Denisovans were spread more widely geographically and ecologically than any other hominin, with the exception of modern humans," said molecular anthropologist Mark Stoneking at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. (Hominins include those species after the human lineage Homo split from that of chimpanzees.)

    Tracing Denisovan genes

    The new study was initiated byStoneking, an expert on genetic variation in Southeast Asia and Oceania who has assembled diverse samples from that region. Stoneking, Reich and their colleagues analyzed DNA from 33 present-day populations in south Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania, including Borneo, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Polynesia.

    "Denisovan DNA is like a medical imaging dye that traces a person's blood vessels &mdash it is so recognizable that you can detect even a little bit of it in one individual," Reich said. "In a similar way, we were able to trace Denisovan DNA in the migrations of people."

    Their analysis shows that, in addition to Melanesians, Denisovans contributed DNA to Australian aborigines, a Philippine "Negrito" group called Mamanwa, and several other populations in eastern Southeast Asia and Oceania. However, groups in the west or northwest, including other Negrito groups such as the Onge in the Andaman Islands and the Jehai in Malaysia, as well as mainland East Asians, did not interbreed with Denisovans.

    Overall, this suggests that Denisovans interbred with modern humansin Southeast Asia at least 44,000 years ago, before the time of the separation of the Australians and New Guineans.

    "The fact that Denisovan DNA is present in some aboriginal populations of Southeast Asia but not in others shows that there was a checkerboard of populations with and without Denisovan material more than 44,000 years ago," Stoneking said, adding the discrepancy could be explained if the Denisovans lived in Southeast Asia. [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans]

    "We often think of population mixtures as a kind of recent phenomenon in human history, such as in the Americas, but what the genetic data is telling us more and more with the Neanderthals and Denisovans is that it happened over many times in history as a common feature of our evolution," Reich said.

    "There might be a tendency to think that mating between modern humans and archaic humans such as Neanderthals and Denisovans is a very strange behavior and therefore there must be something unusual or different about populations that engaged in such behavior," Stoneking added. "Instead, I think the picture we are getting from both this work as well as from analyses of genetic data from all modern human populations is that there are two things humans like to do &mdash migrate and mate &mdash and the product of these two is going to be admixture."

    "The prediction I would make, which is already largely fulfilled, is that every human population shows signs of admixture, either with other modern human populations and-or with archaic humans, and that this is very normal behavior for humans," Stoneking told LiveScience.

    Waves of migration

    In addition, the patterns the scientists found can only be explained by at least two waves of migration of modern humans into Asia. The first gave rise to the aboriginal populations that currently live in Southeast Asia and Oceania, and later migrations gave rise to relatives of East Asians who now are the primary population of Southeast Asia.

    "This shows the power of sequencing ancient DNA as a tool for understanding human history," Reich said. [History's Most Overlooked Mysteries]

    Such findings support the idea of modern humans dispersing eastward to Asia by a southern route through India to Australia and Melanesia. This concept was previously supported by archaeological evidence, but never had strong genetic support until now.

    "The archaeological evidence suggested that the first people got to Australia and New Guinea incredibly early, with tools that were less advanced technologically than later seen in the Middle East, Europe and Asia," Reich said. "The genetic work now supports that, showing there were multiple waves of migration to Asia and Oceania, with some quite earlier than others."

    The researchers now want to pinpoint the time at which interbreeding with Denisovans occurred, "and to figure out if the genes that modern humans received from Denisovans have contributed anything of importance," Stoneking said.

    The scientists detailed their findings online Sept. 22 in the American Journal for Human Genetics.

    Volg LiveScience vir die nuutste wetenskaplike nuus en ontdekkings op Twitter @lewenswetenskap ensovoorts Facebook.


    Oldest known human fossil outside Africa discovered in Israel

    A prehistoric jawbone discovered in a cave in Israel has prompted scientists to rethink theories of how the earliest human pioneers came to populate the planet, suggesting that our ancestors left Africa far earlier than previously thought.

    The fossil, dated to nearly 200,000 years ago, is almost twice as old as any previous Homo sapiens remains discovered outside Africa, where our species is thought to have originated.

    Until recently, several converging lines of evidence – from fossils, genetics and archaeology – suggested that modern humans first dispersed from Africa into Eurasia about 60,000 years ago, quickly supplanting other early human species, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, that they may have encountered along the way.

    However, a series of recent discoveries, including a trove of 100,000-year-old human teeth found in a cave in China, have clouded this straightforward narrative. And the latest find, at the Misliya cave site in northern Israel, has added a new and unexpected twist.

    “What Misliya tells us is that modern humans left Africa not 100,000 years ago, but 200,000 years ago,” said Prof Israel Hershkovitz, who led the work at Tel Aviv University. “This is a revolution in the way we understand the evolution of our own species.”

    The find suggests that there were multiple waves of migration across Europe and Asia and could also mean that modern humans in the Middle East were mingling, and possibly mating, with other human species for tens of thousands of years.

    “Misliya breaks the mould of existing scenarios for the timing of the first known Homo sapiens in these regions,” said Chris Stringer, head of human origins at the Natural History Museum in London. “It’s important in removing a long-lasting constraint on our thinking.”

    Larger teeth

    The fossil, a well-preserved upper jawbone with eight teeth, was discovered at the Misliya cave, which appears to have been occupied for lengthy periods. The teeth are larger than average for a modern human, but their shape and the fossil’s facial anatomy are distinctly Homo sapiens, an analysis of the fossil in the journal Science concludes.

    Sophisticated stone tools and blades discovered nearby suggest the cave’s inhabitants were capable hunters, who used sling projectiles and elegantly carved blades used to kill and butcher gazelles, oryx, wild boars, hares, turtles and ostrich. The team also discovered evidence of matting made from plants that may have been used to sleep on. Radioactive dating places the fossil and tools at between 177,000 and 194,000 years old.

    Prof Hershkovitz said the record now indicates that humans probably ventured beyond the African continent whenever the climate allowed it.

    “I don’t believe there was one big exodus out of Africa,” he said. “I think that throughout hundreds of thousands of years [humans] were coming in and out of Africa all the time.”

    Reconstructions of the ancient climate records, based on deep sea cores, show that the Middle East switched between being humid and extremely arid, and that the region would have been lush and readily habitable for several periods matching the age of the Misliya fossil.

    The idea of multiple dispersals is supported by recent discoveries such as the teeth unearthed in China, human fossils in Sumatra from about 70,000 years ago, archaeological evidence from Northern Australia at 65,000 years and fossils previously discovered near Misliya dating to 90,000-120,000 years ago.

    The scenario also raises the possibility that the eastern Mediterranean may have acted as a crossroads for encounters between our own ancestors and the various other human species, such as Neanderthals, who had already reached Europe.

    “We’re like a train station that everyone’s passing through,” said Prof Hershkovitz.

    Neanderthals

    Scientists have already shown that interbreeding with Neanderthals, whose lineage diverged from our own 500,000 years ago, occurred some time in the past 50,000 years. As a legacy, modern-day Eurasians carry 1-4 per cent of Neanderthal DNA.

    However, a recent analysis of DNA taken from a Neanderthal leg bone found in a German cave hinted at much earlier encounters between the two species, dating back more than 200,000 years. The new fossil adds plausibility to this theory.

    “It means modern humans were potentially meeting and interacting during a longer period of time with other archaic human groups, providing more opportunity for cultural and biological exchanges,” said Rolf Quam, Binghamton University anthropology professor and a co-author of the study.

    The discovery also raises intriguing questions about the fate of the earliest modern human pioneers. Genetic data from modern-day populations around the world strongly suggest that everyone outside Africa can trace their ancestors back to a group that dispersed around 60,000 years ago. So the inhabitants of the Misliya cave are probably not the ancestors of anyone alive today, and scientists can only speculate why their branch of the family tree came to an end.

    Prof David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard University and an expert in population genetics and ancient DNA, said: “It’s important to distinguish between the migration out of Africa that’s being discussed here and the ‘out-of-Africa’ migration that is most commonly discussed when referring to genetic data. This [Misliya] lineage contributed little if anything to present-day people.”

    “These early exits are sometimes termed ‘unsuccessful’ or ‘failed’,” said Mr Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London. “Some of these groups could have gone extinct through natural processes, through competition with other humans, including later waves of modern humans, or they could have been genetically swamped by a more extensive 60,000 year old dispersal.” – Guardian


    Are these our ancestors?

    The owner of the jaw bone wasn't necessarily part of the modern human population that went on to populate the world, said Professor Hiscock.

    They may have moved back to Africa. Or maybe they died out.

    "If that's true, why did they die out and why were our ancestors able to move out when these people didn't, given that they're anatomically the same as us?" he said.

    Perhaps, he added, our ancestors acquired cultural characteristics in Africa that allowed them to colonise the globe that these early modern humans didn't have.

    Tools found near the jaw bone, in Misliya Cave, also add to the story.

    The style of stone tool, called Levallois, is a very economical way of making tools, said University of New South Wales palaeontologist Darren Curnoe.

    "You can get a piece of rock and quite quickly, knock off a fully formed tool. Per lump of rock, you can produce a lot more tools."

    Levallois tools have been uncovered in Europe that are almost 300,000 years old.

    It was assumed they were made by Neanderthals, because modern humans didn't make it that far until around 50,000 years ago, Dr Curnoe said.

    But the new Misliya Cave fossil find raises the possibility that modern humans could have made it to Europe a lot earlier, he added.

    "We don't have the evidence yet, but it's certainly possible. We can't dismiss that idea outright."


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