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Adolf Hitler en die Duitse Arbeidersparty (Kommentaar)

Adolf Hitler en die Duitse Arbeidersparty (Kommentaar)


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Hierdie kommentaar is gebaseer op die klaskameraktiwiteit: Adolf Hitler en die Duitse Arbeidersparty

V1: Lees bron 2. Waarom was Adolf Hitler beïndruk met Feder se pamflet, My Political Awakening?

A1: Hitler stem saam met Feder se aanval op marxisme en vakbondwese en hou van sy steun vir Duitse nasionalisme.

V2: Bestudeer die beleid van die Duitse Arbeidersparty (bronne 3, 4, 5 en 7). Beskryf die tipe mense wat by die GWP sou aangesluit het.

A2: Die GWP was op verskillende groepe gerig. Bron 7 bevat besonderhede van die GWP -beleide. Die Sosiaal -Demokratiese Party (SDP) was destyds die gewildste politieke party. Die GWP het verskeie pro-sosialistiese beleide gehad, soos: afskaffing van onverdiende inkomste (7-11), nasionalisering van alle oorlog en verwante bedrywe (7-13), verdeling van winste van alle swaar nywerhede (7-14) en uitbreiding van ouderdom welsyn (7-15).

Die GWP het ook 'n beroep op diegene wat nasionalistiese standpunte gehad het, wat van mening was dat Duitsland na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog sleg behandel is. Dit het byvoorbeeld gevra vir die "afskaffing van die vredesverdragte van Versailles en St. Germain" (7-2) en die terugkeer van oorsese gebiede en "kolonisering vir ons oorskotbevolking" (7-3).

Die GWP was 'n antisemitiese party. Dit het aangevoer dat Jode nie Duitse burgers kan wees nie (7-4). Dat slegs Duitse burgers 'openbare amp' moet beklee (7-6). Dat alle nie-burgers uit Duitsland gesit moet word (7-7 en 7-8).

V3: Beskryf hoe die beleid van die GWP help om die kommentaar in bron 11 te verduidelik.

A3: Kurt Ludecke wys daarop dat die GWP altyd 'n tekort aan geld gehad het. Hulle beleid word as ryk beskou as vyandig beskou, en dit is nie verbasend dat hulle nie bereid was om geld aan die GWP te verskaf nie. Dit was eers later toe Hitler sy beleid verander het dat hy finansiering van die groot korporasies kon lok.

V4: In bron 8 verduidelik Adolf Hitler hoe die GWP -vlag ontwerp is (bron 1). Wat bedoel Hitler deur te sê dat dit "ons beweging uitstekend pas"?

A4: Hitler voer aan (bron 8) dat die hakekorsvlag "ons beweging uitstekend pas, beide nuut en jonk". Hy het bygevoeg dat die vlag "iets soortgelyk is aan die van 'n brandende fakkel".

V5: Bestudeer bron 6. Verduidelik waarom ons weet dat die foto in die tweede helfte van 1920 geneem is?

A5: Die foto toon hoe GWP -lede 'n hakekorsarmband dra. Volgens Hitler (bron 8) is die hakekors-simbool in die somer van 1920 ontwerp en moet die foto dus in die tweede helfte van daardie jaar geneem gewees het.

V6: Gebruik die inligting in bron 9 om die vergadering van bron 10 te verduidelik.

A6: Die GWP was baie vyandig teenoor Jode. In bron 9 beweer dit dat die Jode betrokke was by 'n 'geheime wêreldsameswering' en 'n groot persentasie van die Duitse nywerheid besit het. Bron 10 toon 'n Joodse seekat wat beheer neem oor 'klein Duitse handelaars'.

Q7: Kies gedeeltes uit ten minste twee verskillende bronne wat help verduidelik waarom Hitler leier van die Duitse Arbeidersparty geword het.

A7: Bron 5 wys daarop dat Hitler gehelp het om die sogenaamde Twenty-Five Point Party Program op te stel en te publiseer. Hy is ook in beheer van party -propaganda geplaas. Hitler het ook die hoofspreker van die GWP geword (bron 12). Kaptein Truman Smith (bron 13) beweer dat Hitler "die oorheersende krag in die beweging was, en die persoonlikheid van hierdie man was ongetwyfeld een van die belangrikste faktore wat bygedra het tot die sukses daarvan".


Adolf Hitler en die Duitse Arbeidersparty (Kommentaar) - Geskiedenis

Die German Workers ’ Party, andersins die DAP genoem, was die voorganger van die Duitse “Nazi Party ” (NSDAP). Dit is gestig in die Furstenfelder Hof, 'n hotel in München. Anton Drexler, lid van die Thule Society, het die DAP gestig. Die groep ontwikkel en vertak uit die Free Workers ’ -komitee, 'n ander groep wat deur Drexler gelei en gestig is.

Oor die DAP en sy lede

Onder die eerste lede van die DAP was Drexler se kollegas wat van die spoordepot in München was. Drexler was gemotiveer om die DAP te organiseer deur dr Paul Tafel, wat ook sy mentor was. Tafel was die leier van die Pan-Germanistiese Unie en lid van die Thule Society. Sy hoofdoel was om 'n groep te stig wat in kontak sou wees met die nasionalis en die massas, wat nie deur die middelklaspartye uitgevoer is nie. Aanvanklik was daar slegs 40 lede in die groep.

Karl Harrer het op 24 Maart 1919 by die DAP aangesluit. Hy was ook 'n lid van die Thule Society, sowel as 'n florerende sportjoernalis. Hy wou die groep se invloed op die aktiwiteite van die DAP vergroot. Uiteindelik is die groep herdoop tot “Political Workers ’ Circle, ”en daar was slegs 'n paar lede in hierdie party. Verder is lede se vergaderings by plaaslike bierhuise in München gehou.

Vordering van die DAP

Adolf Hitler was 'n voormalige korporaal wat in die Duitse weermag gedien het, en die taak was om op een van die vergaderings van die DAP te spioeneer. Die byeenkoms is gehou op 'n biersaal op 12 September 1919. Toe hy by die plek kom, word hy in 'n gewelddadige gesprek met een van die gaste beland. Na hierdie voorval was Drexler verbaas oor die uitstekende redenaarsvaardighede wat Hitler getoon het. Uiteindelik is Hitler genooi om 'n gas in die partytjie te word, en hy het die weermag verlaat toe hy by die DAP aangesluit het.

Gedurende hierdie tyd kan elkeen lid word, selfs sonder om 'n kaart of nommer te ontvang. Dit was eers in 1920 toe die getal uitgereik is, en Hitler het die lidnommer 555 gekry. In werklikheid was daar slegs 55 lede van die party, waaronder Hitler. Hy het ook beweer dat hy die sewende lid van die groep was, en dit sou hom die titel as stigterslid gee, maar hierdie konsep word weerlê. Dit was slegs vanweë sy oorspronklike werk genaamd Mein Kampf dat hy die groepskaartjie met die nommer 7 ontvang het. Boonop het sy uiters indrukwekkende toespraak tydens een van die partytjievergaderings hom die geleentheid gebied om roem en het hom 'n prominente figuur in die groep gemaak.

Groei en vertakking uit die groep

Verskeie partylede is verlig deur die politieke oortuigings van Hitler, en meer individue het besluit om by die groep aan te sluit. In 1920 is die Duitse Workers ’ Party gestig, en dit was 'n term wat geleen is van 'n ander Oostenrykse party wat destyds nogal gewild was. Hitler wou egter die naam “Social Revolutionary Party hê, maar Rudolf Jung het hom aangemoedig om NSDAP as 'n beter naam vir die party te beskou.


Duitse Arbeidersparty

Die Duitse Arbeidersparty het geglo dat hulle beter was as die mense van alle ander nasies, en dat elke individuele poging gedoen moes word om die Duitse staat te verbeter. Die verlies van Germanes in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het gelei tot die Vredesverdrag van Versailles, wat geweldige ekonomiese en sosiale ontberings vir Duitsland veroorsaak het. Duitsland moes herstel aan die geallieerde en geassosieerde regerings wat by die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betrokke was. Gevolglik het Adolf Hitler geleidelik begin om sy bewind aan die bewind in Duitsland te stig en die Nasionale Sosialistiese Duitse Arbeidersparty te stig.

As deel van die oorgawe -bepalings van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, was Duitsland verplig om die Vredesverdrag van Versailles te onderteken, wat Duitsland verantwoordelik gehou het vir die oorlog. Die land het bankrot geraak, miljoene Duitsers was sonder werk en kos, en die land was in wanhoop en onrus. Adolf Hitlers het aan bewind gekom tydens hierdie baie moeilike ekonomiese en sosiale tye. In die herfs van 1919 begin Hitler vergaderings by te woon van 'n klein nasionalistiese groep genaamd die Duitse Arbeidersparty. Hitler het spoedig beheer oor die groep oorgeneem en dit hernoem tot die National Socialist German Workers Party.

Die groep het later bekend gestaan ​​as die Nazi Party. Die Nazi's het 'n vereniging tot een nasie van alle Duitsers gevra. Hulle het geëis dat burgers van nie-Duitse afkoms of van die Joodse godsdiens van die Duitse burgerskap beroof word en het ook gevra dat die Vredesverdrag van Versailles nietig verklaar word. Hierdie eise was die primêre oorsaak vir die Nazi -party om die dokument The Program of the National Socialist German Workers Party in 1920 saam te stel. Hitler het die Jode die skuld gegee vir die euwels van die wêreld. Hy het geglo dat 'n demokrasie tot kommunisme sou lei.

Daarom was 'n diktatuur in Hitlers -oë die enigste manier om Duitsland te red van die dreigemente van kommunisme en Joodse verraad. Die program van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Duitse Arbeidersparty was die instrument vir die Nazi's om die Duitse volk te oortuig om Hitler aan bewind te sit. In punt een van die dokument word gesê: Ons eis die vereniging van alle Duitsers in 'n groot Duitsland op grond van die beginsel van selfbeskikking van alle mense. 1 Hierdie punt verduidelik die Nazi-stelling dat Duitsland slegs Duitse burgers sal bevat, en ook dat hierdie burgers sy of haar selfbeskikking ten opsigte van Duitsland ten volle sal toon.

Punt twee van die dokument verklaar: Ons eis dat die Duitse eopel regte het wat gelyk is aan dié van ander nasies en dat die Vredesverdrag van Versailles opgehef word. 2 Die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Duitse Arbeidersparty wou die vredesverdrag ophou omdat die verdrag Duitsland vir die Eerste Wêreldoorlog verantwoordelik gehou het. Duitsland wou nie miljoene dollars aan vergoeding betaal aan die ander nasies wat by die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betrokke was nie. die dokument noem: Slegs diegene wat volksgenote is, kan burgers word. Slegs diegene wat Duitse bloed het, ongeag die geloofsbelydenis, kan ons landgenote wees.

Daarom kan geen Jood 'n landgenoot wees nie. Dit is soortgelyk aan punt een van die dokument deur uit te druk dat slegs mense wat honderd persent Duits was, burgerskap mag kry. Daarom is alle nie-Duitsers of Jode burgerskap geweier. Punt vyf van die dokument lui: Diegene wat nie 'n burger is nie, moet as buitelanders in Duitsland woon en moet onderhewig wees aan die wet van vreemdelinge. 4 Hierdie punt verduidelik dat die nie-burgers van Duitsland as buitelanders in die land behandel sal word, mits hulle van nie-Joodse godsdiens is.

Punt sewe van die dokument verklaar: Ons eis dat die staat bo alles moet onderneem om te verseker dat elke burger die moontlikheid het om ordentlik te lewe en 'n bestaan ​​te kan verdien. As dit nie moontlik is om die hele bevolking te voed nie, moet vreemdelinge uit die Ryk verdryf word. 5 As hierdie plan egter nie moontlik was nie, sou diegene wat in Duitsland as vreemdelinge of vreemdelinge woon, aangesê word om die land te verlaat. Punt agt van die dokument noem: Enige verdere immigrasie van nie-Duitsers moet voorkom word. Ons eis dat alle nie-Duitsers wat Duitsland sedert 2 Augustus 1914 binnegekom het, genoodsaak is om die Ryk onmiddellik te verlaat.

Enige verdere immigrasie van vreemdelinge na die datum moet onmiddellik Duitsland verlaat. Punt tien van die dokument lui: Die eerste plig van elke burger moet wees om geestelik of fisies te werk. Geen individu mag werk verrig wat in stryd is met die belang van die gemeenskap tot voordeel van almal nie. 7 Dit is duidelik duidelik dat geen Jode volgens die dokument burgerskap in Duitsland toegelaat is nie. Onder die bewind van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Duitse Arbeidersparty sou die Duitse Genootskap volgens hierdie punte bestuur word. Die onmiddellike effek van The Program of the National Socialist German Workers Party was dat Adolf Hitlers aan bewind gekom het.

In 1924 het Duitsland tekens van herstel van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog geïllustreer. Die meerderheid mense het werk, huise, kos en groot hoop vir die toekoms. Noudat die nasie homself herbou het, het Hitler stadig en versigtig begin om beheer te neem. In 1925 stig hy 'n elite -partywag, die Schutzstaffel, bekend as die SS. Binne vier tot vyf jaar het hy ondersteuners in klein dorpies en vakbonde gewen. In 1930 het die wêreldwye Groot Depressie Duitsland getref. Weereens het alle mense wat in Duitsland woon, werkloosheid en honger ondervind. Die volk was in totale chaos.

Die depressie het die deure oopgemaak vir Hitler om diktatuur oor Duitsland te verkry. Niks lyk goed vir die mense van Duitsland nie. Alle hoop het verlore gegaan. Adolf Hitler het verwoed veldtogte gevoer in dorpe in Duitsland. Hy het die massas belowe dat hul nasie sal seëvier en werk en voedsel in oorvloed sal wees. Die mense van Duitsland het in Hitler geglo omdat hulle desperaat was vir redding. Op 30 Januarie 1933 word Hitler aangewys as kanselier van Duitsland. Teen die somer van 1933 verklaar Hitler homself as diktator van Duitsland. In April 1933 het Hitler die Gestapo, die geheime staatspolisie, geskep.

Die Gestapo was verantwoordelik vir die ondersoek van die geskiedenis van die Duitse burgers. As die Gestapo agterkom dat 'n burger van die Joodse godsdiens is of nie honderd persent Duitse bloed bevat nie, is hulle na een van die verskillende konsentrasiekampe in Duitsland gebring. Hitler het konsentrasiekampe geskep om almal wat van die Joodse godsdiens was en wat nie van Duitse afkoms was nie, dood te maak. Die SS het die moorde op hierdie mense in die kampe toegedien deur dit in gaskamers te plaas. Hitler het geglo dat die mense wat hy vermoor het 'n minderwaardige groep was wat slegs boosheid in die wêreld sou veroorsaak.

Hy wou Duitsland as die leidende mag ter wêreld vestig deur hierdie minderwaardige groep mense uit te skakel. Vanaf 1933 het Hitler Duitsland op oorlog voorberei. In 1936 het Duitse troepe Frankryk binnegeval en uiteindelik die gebied verkry. In 1938 val Duitse troepe Oostenryk binne. Oostenryk het toe deel geword van Duitsland. Na elke sukses beplan Hitler 'n nuwe inval. Hy neem beheer oor die res van Tsjeggo -Slowakye in Maart 1939. Op 1 September 1939 val Duitsland Pole binne. Brittanje en Frankryk verklaar twee dae later oorlog teen Duitsland. Teen die lente van 1940 verower Duitse troepe Denemarke, Luxemburg, Noorweë, Nederland en

België. Dit was die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. In Junie 1941 val Duitsland die Sowjetunie binne. Dit was 'n groot fout van Hitlers kant. Binnekort sou sy Nazi -party se heerskappy oor Duitsland verbrokkel. Die Sowjets het die Duitse leër uitgewis. Hierdie Duitse nederlaag was 'n belangrike keerpunt in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Terwyl sy ryk duur, het Adolf Hitler die SS, Gestapo en Nazi -amptenare vir 12 lang, brutale jare gelei. Meer as ses miljoen Jode is vermoor. Dit was twee derdes van die Joodse bevolking in Europa. Hy het ook meer as 'n miljoen nie-Duitse bebloede mense doodgemaak.

Sedert 1938 het die Duitse verset probeer om Hitler dood te maak en die Nazi's omver te werp. In 1945 word Hitler 'n gebroke man. Op 30 April 1945 pleeg Adolf Hitler selfmoord, wat 'n einde maak aan die bewind van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Duitse Arbeidersparty oor Duitsland. Alhoewel die program van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Duitse Arbeidersparty blykbaar ter verbetering van die Duitse Staat was, was dit duidelik nie so nie. Die dokument was bloot 'n middel vir Hitler om beheer oor Duitsland te verkry. Sy styging aan bewind het die lewens van sowel die Duitse as die nie-Duitse mense verwoes, en het vandag nog 'n groot uitwerking op baie mense.

Kies 'n verwysingstyl hieronder om 'n verwysing na hierdie artikel uit te voer:


Was Hitler 'n sosialis?

In die 1800's was die val van feodalisme aan die gang. Die Amerikaners het hul onafhanklikheid van die Brit verkry, die Franse rewolusie het die setel van mag in Wes -Europa geskud. Indië het in die 1850's hul stryd om onafhanklikheid begin. Dit het die weg gebaan vir nuwe idees. Gaan sosialisme binne.

Die Franse rewolusionêre in die eerste plek Maxamillian Robspierre kan beskou word as 'n soort protososialis. Ondanks sy revolusie wat in vuur en bloed eindig, was die sosialistiese boodskap van werkersregte in aanvraag toe ons die eeuwisseling bereik het. Voer Marx en Engles in.

In die middel van die 1800's verwoord Karl Marx Marxisme en die oorgangsrol wat sosialisme speel in 'n eindresultaat kommunistiese utopie. Dit het wydverspreide sosialistiese bewegings in Europa en Asië veroorsaak. Voer die Duitse werkersparty in.

Die Duitse arbeidersparty was die voorloper van die Nazi -party. Nie so baie marxisties of kommunisties as antikapitalisties nie, die party is uiteindelik oorgeneem deur die antisemetiese vleuel onder leiding van Adolf Hitler. Ook gedurende die tyd wat ons verenig het met 'n paramilitêre organisasie genaamd Freikorps, wat grootliks anti -kommunisties was en baie gemeen het met Hitlers se siening van 'n Duitse supermoondheid. Gaan Hitlers aan die bewind en die Nazi -party.

Na die einde van WO1 was Europa (veral Duitsland) in stukke. Hitler kon die brandstof van die sosialistiese beweging benut op 'n tydstip toe die Duitse volk in woede geleef het. Hy het die titel Nasionaal -Sosialisme geneem om sy beweging te bevolk. Die 'nasionale' aspek van 'nasionaal -sosialisme' is egter nie geïgnoreer nie. In die plek van die staatsbedryf het hy die private industrie versterk wat die Duitse oorlogsmasjien in 'n byna 'bedrieglike kapitalistiese' sin sou dryf. Gedwing deur die swaar tiranniese hand van die staat.

Ten slotte Nazisme, was nie sosialisties van aard nie. Dit was 'n ander geformuleerde politieke stelsel wat plaasgevind het in die nasleep van die feodalistiese Europa. Die 'sosialistiese' wanopvatting kom duidelik uit die naam, maar ook uit die valse idee dat Hitler geglo het dat staatsbesit 'n vorm van marxisme was.


Hoe het Hitler die Duitse Republiek ontbind? Kan dit weer gebeur?

Die opkoms van Adolf Hitler en die National Socialist German Workers ’ Party (Nazi Party) het baie faktore behels. Die kombinasie van die ekonomiese depressie wat in 1930 plaasgevind het, die vernedering van die nederlaag in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die groot oorlogsvergoedings wat aan Geallieerdes van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog te danke was, het in Duitsland 'n donker tyd veroorsaak.

Alhoewel die ekonomie wêreldwyd sleg was, het Duitsers geglo dat die hoë werkloosheid en die verwante wanhoop daarvan die skuld was van die Weimarrepubliek wat in beheer was van 1918 tot 1933. Byna twee miljoen van die belowende jeug in Duitsland is in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog dood. en meer as vier miljoen het gewond huis toe gekom. Ernstige voedseltekorte deur die geallieerde blokkades het veral onder die kinders en bejaardes ondervoeding en hongersnood veroorsaak.

Die Duitse weermag voed die armes, Berlyn, 1931. Foto: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-T0706-501 / CC-BY-SA 3.0

Keiser Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern, die kleinseun van die Britse koningin Victoria, word in 1888 keiser en vestig hom vinnig as 'n ondoeltreffende heerser wat geneig was tot emosionele uitbarstings en ander lande in die proses beledig.

Teen 1914 was hy baie buite kontak met die wêreldpolitiek en het geglo dat hy die steun van sy Britse neefs en ander geallieerde lande sou kry toe die Oostenrykse aartshertog Franz Ferdinand in 1914 vermoor word. Teen 1918 moes hy weens die publiek abdikeer. en militêre verlies aan vertroue in sy leierskap. Duitsland is deur die weermag oorgeneem onder generaal Paul von Hindenburg en generaal Erich Ludendorff.

Toenemende probleme en geweld tussen die liberale en konserwatiewe partye het daartoe gelei dat Heinrich Brüning, wat in 1930 kanselier geword het, 'n diep besnoeiing in sosiale programme ingestel het, wat die armes nog meer seergemaak het en 'n groot deel van die publiek kwaad gemaak het. Die sosiale en politieke onrus het 'n jong Oostenryker, wat Wilhelm II die skuld vir Duitsland se nederlaag gegee het, 'n stem in die politiek gegee, en sodra Adolf Hitler sy voet by die deur gekry het, het hy die wêreld verander.

Wilhelm II en Winston Churchill tydens 'n militêre herfsmaneuver naby Breslau, Silezië (Wrocław, Pole) in 1906

Na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Paul von Hindenburg verklaar dat Duitsland die slagoffer was van kommunistiese en Joodse komplotte, en sodoende die saad vir die Holocaust gesaai het. Hitler, 'n kragtige redenaar, het 'n navolging gevind toe hy beloof het om Duitsland terug te bring na die stadium van die wêreldmoondhede.

Hy het uitgebreide propaganda gebruik, wat die Duitse volk laat glo het dat Kommuniste van plan was om Duitsland oor te neem en dat die Joodse burgers van die wêreld 'n sameswering teen Duitsland saamgespan het deur hierdie leuens te gebruik om 'n beweging van isolationisme te bevorder.

Kommuniste is spesifiek aangeval, en hy het die idee bevorder dat hulle die fondament van die Duitse samelewing vernietig. Joseph Goebbels, Hitler se minister van propaganda, het selfs voorgestel dat 'n muur gebou word om ongewenste uit Duitsland te hou.

Goebbels praat tydens 'n politieke saamtrek (1932). Foto: Bundesarchiv, Bild 119-2406-01 / CC-BY-SA 3.0

Verkiesings het 'n klug geword omdat die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese party intimidasie, leuens en geweld gebruik het om kiesers te beïnvloed. Hitler het alle vrydenkende teenstanders verbrysel, asook skrywers, intellektuele, sakelui en kunstenaars met verskillende menings wat die storm kan sien opkom. Hitler het soveel leuens geskep dat hy dit selfs self begin glo het.

Hy het die pers beheer en ontslae geraak van almal wat die waarheid durf skryf het. Duitse nyweraars, wat eens opgewonde was om 'n anti-kommunis aan die bewind te hê, besef stadig die fout wat hulle begaan het en begin hom teëstaan. Dit het die Night of the Long Messes wat oor drie dae in 1934 plaasgevind het, meegebring.

Hitler het baie van sy teenstanders in sy eie party, sowel as ander wat hy as gevaarlik vir sy regime beskou het, deur sy SS Stormtroopers vermoor om seker te maak dat daar in die toekoms geen politieke opstand sou plaasvind nie. Daar word geglo dat daar tot seshonderd slagoffers van die suiwering was.

Kurt Daluege, hoof van die orde -polisie Heinrich Himmler, hoof van die SS en Ernst Röhm, hoof van die Stormtroopers. Foto: Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-14886 / CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Twee hoog aangeskrewe nie-partydige boeke is onlangs deur gerespekteerde skrywers op die gebied van demokrasie en geskiedenis gepubliseer.

Benjamin Carter Hett het onlangs gepubliseer DIE DOOD VAN DEMOKRASIE Hitler se opkoms tot mag en die ondergang van die Weimar -republiek met Henry Holt and Company, 'n deurdagte geskrewe historiese verslag van Hitler se bewind aan bewind en hoe om die opkoms van fascisme te erken.

Daniel Ziblatt en Steven Levitsky, albei politieke wetenskaplikes, het 'n titel in dieselfde trant gepubliseer, met Random House, Hoe sterf demokrasieë, 'n eerlike, historiese weergawe van hoe diktators wettig aan bewind kom.


Waarvoor vrees radikale konserwatiewes in die onderrig van geskiedenis? | KOMMENTAAR

Konserwatiewes het lank reeds die stryd aangesê oor 'linkse indoktrinasie in ons skole', 'n aanklag wat voormalige president Donald Trump daartoe gelei het om 'n 'pro-Amerikaanse kurrikulum' op te stel-die 1776-kommissie. Groepe soos Turning Point USA het lankal professore gerig wat vermoedelik “anti-Amerikaanse waardes bevorder en linkse propaganda in die klaskamer bevorder”-insluitend, vermoed ek, geskiedenisprofessore soos ek. Maar wat leer ek en my kollegas eintlik in die klas?

In my moderne Europese geskiedeniskursusse leer studente oor die opkoms van Benito Mussolini: Koning Victor Emmanuel III, in die nasleep van die Maart op Rome in Oktober 1922, het Mussolini, leier van die nog klein Nasionale Fascistiese Party van Italië, gevra om 'n nuwe regering te vorm . Dat hy die wetgewer oortuig het om hom die bevoegdheid te gee om 'n jaar lank by besluit te regeer om die orde te herstel en die sosialistiese bedreiging in die land te beëindig. Dit, danksy sy beheer oor fascistiese koerante en sy intimiderende militiese magte, het die fasciste in koalisie met ander partye 'n verpletterende meerderheid behaal tydens die verkiesing van 1924. Hierdie meerderheid is aangevul deur die Acerbo -wet van 1923, wat verklaar dat die party met die grootste deel van die stemme outomaties twee derdes van die setels in die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes ontvang. So het Mussolini op 'n wettiese wyse aan bewind gekom, onder die dreigement van geweld. Toe Mussolini aan die bewind was, gebruik hy sy beheer oor die wetgewende liggame van Italië om wettig 'n einde te maak aan demokrasie.

Hulle leer dat Adolf Hitler, na die mislukte Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, min tyd in die tronk gedien het, danksy 'n simpatieke regter. Daarna het hy sy tyd gebyt en die strukture van die Nazi -party opgebou. Die wanhoop van die Groot Depressie, tesame met gewelddadige botsings tussen regs en links in Duitsland, het die weg gebaan vir die opkoms van die Nazi -party. Hitler het, net soos Mussolini, wettig aan bewind gekom toe president Paul von Hindenburg hom uitgenooi het om die pos van kanselier te aanvaar in Januarie 1933. Personeel en familie van Hindenburg het geglo dat hulle Hitler sou kon beheer, terwyl hy die steun van sy hondsdol basis geniet. Net soos Mussolini, het Hitler die wettige maatreëls wat tot sy beskikking was, ingesluit - insluitend artikel 48, wat die Duitse president in staat gestel het om tydens 'n burgerlike wanorde te besluit - om 'n einde te maak aan demokratiese instellings sodra hy aan bewind gekom het.

Terwyl diegene op die politieke regs beklaag hoe “linkse” professore hul studente breinspoel met “sosialistiese” idees en wette aanvaar om die onderrig van kritiese rasse-teorie te verbied, wonder ek hoe ver hierdie stryd om die bestudering van die geskiedenis te beheer, sal strek. Ek is verbaas oor die idee dat ons ons studente 'indoktrineer'. Alhoewel daar ongetwyfeld uitsonderings is, stel die meeste van ons die feite van die geskiedenis aan ons studente voor. Ons vra hulle om die primêre brondokumente en historiese ontledings te lees, ons leer hulle om dokumente en gebeure te interpreteer, en ons moedig studente aan om hierdie idees in die klasbesprekings uit te lok.

Studente is slim. As hulle soms nuwe opinies ontwikkel as gevolg van hul geskiedenisklasse, is dit nie omdat ons dit in 'n spesifieke rigting druk nie. Studente is volkome in staat om 'n bombastiese nasionalistiese toespraak deur Mussolini te lees en die eggo's in die moderne politieke diskoers te hoor. Studente wat bewus is van pogings in Georgië en elders om die stemming te beperk en om die staat se wetgewers toe te laat om verkiesingsresultate wat hulle nie hou nie, om te keer, kan hierdie veranderinge heel moontlik aansluit by die verskerping van outoritêre partye in die 1920's en 1930's. En ek twyfel nie dat studente die volgende keer dat ek die Beer Hall Putsch bestudeer as ek my klas oor Hitler se Duitsland onderrig, oor die Capitol-oproer van 6 Januarie wil praat en wonder oor die implikasies daarvan op die lang termyn nie. Hulle sal vrae stel oor die voortgesette pogings van die GOP om die geskiedenis af te was en die etiket van "opstand" te verwerp.

Radikaal konserwatiewe politici wil onderwysers se vermoë om oor strukturele rassisme te praat beperk, omdat dit hul seuns en dogters kan laat twyfel oor die rassisme wat nog steeds in die VSA ingebed is. Sal hulle ook klas verbied oor die opkoms van fascisme en totalitarisme in die 20ste eeu, omdat die feite maak hulle te ongemaklik?

Die geskiedenis herhaal nie, maar ons kan beslis uit die verlede leer. Dit bied ons sleutels om ons hede en toekoms te verstaan. Ons moet politici wat die geskiedenis wat ons leer probeer beheer, uitroep om hul eie gebrek aan toewyding aan demokratiese instellings te bedek. Hulle wil hulself afvra waarom hulle bang is vir die gevolgtrekkings wat diegene wat die verlede bestudeer, kan maak.


Die Nazi -party: agtergrond en oorsig

Die National Socialist German Workers ' Party (NSDAP), meer algemeen bekend as die Nazi Party, was tussen 1920 en 1945 'n politieke party in Duitsland.

Oorsprong in die Duitse werkerpartytjie

Die National Socialist German Workers & rsquo Party (Duits: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei & ndash verkorte NSDAP), algemeen bekend as die Nazi Party, was 'n verregse politieke party in Duitsland wat tussen 1920 en 1945 aktief was, wat die ideologie van die Nasionaal-Sosialisme geskep en ondersteun het

In 1919 het Anton Drexler, Gottfried Feder en Dietrich Eckart die German Worker & rsquos Party (GPW) in München gestig. Drexler, 'n ywerige Duitse nasionalis, was 'n slotmaker wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog lid was van die militaristiese Vaderlandsparty en was bitter gekant teen die wapenstilstand van November 1918 en die revolusionêre omwentelinge wat gevolg het. Drexler volg die standpunte van militante nasionaliste van destyds, soos om die Versailles-Verdrag teë te staan, antisemitiese, anti-monargistiese en anti-marxistiese standpunte te hê, sowel as om te glo in die superioriteit van Duitsers wat hulle beweer dat hulle deel uitmaak van die Ariese en ldquomaster -ras en ldquo (Herrenvolk). Hy het ook geglo dat die internasionale kapitalisme deur die Jode oorheers word en kapitaliste veroordeel het vir oorlogswins in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. klasse. Drexler beklemtoon die behoefte aan 'n sintese van v & oumllkisch nasionalisme met 'n vorm van ekonomiese sosialisme om 'n gewilde nasionalisties-georiënteerde werkersbeweging te skep wat die opkoms van kommunisme en internasionalistiese politiek kan uitdaag

Die Duitse weermag was bekommerd dat dit 'n linkse revolusionêre groep was en het Adolf Hitler, een van sy onderwysbeamptes, gestuur om die organisasie te bespied. Hitler het ontdek dat die politieke idees van die party soortgelyk was aan sy eie, en hy het Drexler en Duitse nasionalisme en antisemitisme goedgekeur en was beïndruk met die manier waarop die party georganiseer is. Hoewel hy daar as 'n spioen was, kon Hitler hom nie terughou as 'n lid 'n punt maak waarmee hy nie saamstem nie, en hy staan ​​op en hou 'n passievolle toespraak oor die onderwerp.

Drexler was beïndruk met die vaardighede van Hitler en lsquos as redenaar en nooi hom uit om by die partytjie aan te sluit. Aanvanklik was Hitler huiwerig, maar deur sy bevelvoerder, kaptein Karl Mayr, het hy daarop aangedring. Hy was slegs die vier-en-vyftig persoon wat by die Duitse Worker & rsquos Party aangesluit het. Hitler is onmiddellik gevra om by die uitvoerende komitee aan te sluit en is later aangestel as die party & rsquos propaganda bestuurder.


Hitler se lidmaatskapkaart in die DAP (later NSDAP)

In die volgende paar weke het Hitler verskeie lede van sy leër in die party ingebring, waaronder een van sy bevelvoerders, kaptein Ernst R & oumlhm. Die koms van R & oumlhm was 'n belangrike ontwikkeling, aangesien hy toegang tot die weermag se politieke fonds gehad het en 'n deel van die geld in die GWP kon oordra. Ander vroeë lede was toekomstige Nazi -leiers Rudolf Hess, Hans Frank en Alfred Rosenberg.

Adolf Hitler was dikwels die hoofspreker tydens partytjievergaderings, en gedurende hierdie tydperk het hy die tegnieke ontwikkel wat 'n oortuigende redenaar gemaak het. Sy reputasie het gegroei en dit het gou duidelik geword dat hy die hoofrede was waarom mense by die party aansluit. Dit het Hitler geweldige mag in die organisasie gegee, aangesien hulle geweet het dat hulle dit nie sou kon bekostig om hom te verloor nie.

Die party kry 'n nuwe naam

In April 1920 pleit Hitler dat die party sy naam moet verander na die National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). Hitler was nog altyd vyandig teenoor sosialistiese idees, veral dié wat rasse- of seksuele gelykheid behels. Sosialisme was egter 'n gewilde politieke filosofie in Duitsland na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Dit word weerspieël in die groei in die Duitse Sosiaal -Demokrate Party (SDP), die grootste politieke party in Duitsland.

Hitler het sosialisme herdefinieer deur die woord & lsquoNational & rsquo voor dit te plaas. Lede van die party het na hulself verwys as Nationalsozialisten (Nasionaal -Sosialiste), selde as Nazi's. Die woord & ldquoNazi & rdquo was voor die opkoms van die party in gebruik as 'n omgangs- en neerhalende woord vir 'n agterlike boer, 'n ongemaklike en lomp persoon. Verwysings na & Nazi-Duitsland & rdquo en die & ldquoNazi-regime & rdquo is gewild onder anti-Nazi's en Duitse ballinge in die buiteland.

Die Nazi -program

In February 1920, the NSDAP published its first program which became known as the &ldquoTwenty-Five Points.&rdquo The party refused to accept the terms of the Versailles Treaty and called for the reunification of all German people. To reinforce their ideas on nationalism, equal rights were only to be given to German citizens. Hitler claimed he was only in favor of equality for those who had &ldquoGerman blood.&rdquo Jews and other &ldquoaliens&rdquo would lose their rights of citizenship, and immigration of non-Germans should be ended. That year, the party announced that only persons of &ldquopure Aryan descent&rdquo could become party members and if the person had a spouse, the spouse also had to be a &ldquoracially pure&rdquo Aryan. Party members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a so-called &ldquonon-Aryan.&rdquo Even before it had become legally forbidden by the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews.

To appeal to the working class and socialists, the program included several measures that would redistribute income and war profits, profit-sharing in large industries, nationalization of trusts, increases in old-age pensions and free education.

On February 24, 1920, the NSDAP held a mass rally where it announced its new program. The rally was attended by over 2,000 people, a great improvement on the 25 people who were at Hitler&rsquos first party meeting.

Adolf Hitler knew that the growth in the party was mainly due to his skills as an orator and he challenged Anton Drexler for the leadership of the party. At a special party congress on July 29, 1921, he replaced Drexler as party chairman by a vote of 533 to 1. Hitler was granted nearly absolute powers as the party&rsquos sole leader. He would hold the post for the remainder of his life.

Hitler soon acquired the title Führer (&ldquoleader&rdquo). He saw the party as a revolutionary organization, whose aim was the overthrow of the Weimar Republic, which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews and the &ldquoNovember criminals&rdquo who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918.

His leadership was briefly interrupted in September 1921 when he was sent to prison for three months for being part of a mob that beat up a rival politician.

When Hitler was released, he formed his own private army called Sturm Abteilung (Storm Section). The SA (also known as stormtroopers or brownshirts) were instructed to disrupt the meetings of political opponents and to protect Hitler from revenge attacks. Captain Ernst Röhm of the Bavarian Army played an important role in recruiting these men, and Hermann Goering, a former air-force pilot, became their leader.

Hitler&rsquos stormtroopers were often former members of the Freikorps (right-wing private armies who flourished during the period that followed the First World War) and had considerable experience in using violence against their rivals.

The SA wore grey jackets, brown shirts (khaki shirts originally intended for soldiers in Africa but purchased in bulk from the German Army by the Nazi Party), swastika armbands, ski-caps, knee-breeches, thick woolen socks and combat boots. Accompanied by bands of musicians and carrying swastika flags, they would parade through the streets of Munich. At the end of the march Hitler would make one of his passionate speeches that encouraged his supporters to carry out acts of violence against Jews and his left-wing political opponents.

As this violence was often directed against Socialists and Communists, the local right-wing Bavarian government did not act against the Nazi Party. However, the national government in Berlin were concerned and passed a &ldquoLaw for the Protection of the Republic.&rdquo Hitler&rsquos response was to organize a rally attended by 40,000 people. At the meeting Hitler called for the overthrow of the German government and even suggested that its leaders should be executed.

The Party Grows

The Nazi Party grew significantly during 1921 and 1922, partly through Hitler&rsquos oratorical skills, partly through the SA&rsquos appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany&rsquos economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar regime became apparent. The party recruited former World War I soldiers, to whom Hitler as a decorated frontline veteran could particularly appeal, as well as small businessmen and disaffected former members of rival parties. Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden men could get free beer. The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members.

The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. Julius Streicher in Nuremberg was an early recruit and became editor of the racist magazine Der Stürmer. In December 1920, the Nazi Party had acquired a newspaper, the V & oumllkischer Beobachter, of which its leading ideologist Alfred Rosenberg became editor. Others to join the party around this time were World War I flying ace Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler.

Hitler was impressed by Himmler&rsquos fanatical nationalism and his deep hatred of the Jews. Himmler believed Hitler was the Messiah that was destined to lead Germany to greatness. Hitler, who was always vulnerable to flattery, decided that Himmler should become the new leader of his personal bodyguard, the Schutzstaffel (SS).

In 1922, the Italian National Fascist Party came to power under Benito Mussolini. The Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists and adopted both for use by the Nazis.

On November 8, 1923, the Bavarian government held a meeting of about 3,000 officials. While Gustav von Kahr, the leader of the Bavarian government was making a speech, Adolf Hitler and armed stormtroopers entering the building. Hitler jumped onto a table, fired two shots in the air and told the audience that the Munich Putsch was taking place and the National Revolution had begun.

Leaving Hermann Goering and the SA to guard the 3,000 officials, Hitler took Gustav von Kahr, Otto von Lossow, the commander of the Bavarian Army and Hans von Lossow, the commandant of the Bavarian State Police into an adjoining room. Hitler told the men that he was to be the new leader of Germany and offered them posts in his new government. Aware that this would be an act of high treason, the three men were initially reluctant to agree to this offer. Hitler was furious and threatened to shoot them and then commit suicide: &ldquoI have three bullets for you, gentlemen, and one for me!&rdquo After this the three men agreed.

Soon afterwards Eric Ludendorff arrived. Ludendorff had been leader of the German Army at the end of the First World War. He had therefore found Hitler&rsquos claim that the war had not been lost by the army but by Jews, Socialists, Communists and the German government, attractive, and was a strong supporter of the Nazi Party. Ludendorff agreed to become head of the German Army in Hitler&rsquos government.

While Hitler had been appointing government ministers, Ernst Röhm, leading a group of stormtroopers, had seized the War Ministry and Rudolf Hess was arranging the arrest of Jews and left-wing political leaders in Bavaria.

Hitler now planned to march on Berlin and remove the national government. Surprisingly, Hitler had not arranged for the stormtroopers to take control of the radio stations and the telegraph offices. This meant that the national government in Berlin soon heard about Hitler&rsquos putsch and gave orders for it to be crushed.

The next day Adolf Hitler, Eric Ludendorff, Hermann Goering and 3,000 armed supporters of the Nazi Party marched through Munich in an attempt to join up with Röhm&rsquos forces at the War Ministry. At Odensplatz they found the road blocked by the Munich police. As they refused to stop, the police fired into the ground in front of the marchers. The stormtroopers returned the fire and during the next few minutes 21 people were killed and another hundred were wounded, included Goering.

When the firing started Adolf Hitler threw himself to the ground dislocating his shoulder. Hitler lost his nerve and ran to a nearby car. Although the police were outnumbered, the Nazis followed their leader&rsquos example and ran away. Only Eric Ludendorff and his adjutant continued walking towards the police. Later Nazi historians were to claim that the reason Hitler left the scene so quickly was because he had to rush an injured young boy to the local hospital.

After hiding in a friend&rsquos house for several days, Hitler was arrested and put on trial for high treason. If found guilty, Hitler faced the death penalty. While in prison Hitler suffered from depression and talked of committing suicide. However, it soon became clear that the Nazi sympathizers in the Bavarian government were going to make sure that Hitler would not be punished severely.

At his trial Hitler was allowed to turn the proceedings into a political rally, and although he was found guilty he only received the minimum sentence of five years. Other members of the Nazi Party also received light sentences and Eric Ludendorff was acquitted.

The Nazi Party was banned on November 9, 1923.

Hitler was sent to Landsberg Castle in Munich to serve his prison sentence. While there he wrote Four Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity, and Cowardice. Hitler&rsquos publisher reduced it to My Struggle (Mein Kampf). The book is a mixture of autobiography, political ideas and an explanation of the techniques of propaganda. The autobiographical details in Mein Kampf are often inaccurate, and the main purpose of this part of the book appears to be to provide a positive image of Hitler. For example, when Hitler was living a life of leisure in Vienna he claims he was working hard as a laborer.

In Mein Kampf Hitler outlined his political philosophy. He argued that the German (he wrongly described them as the Aryan race) was superior to all others. &ldquoEvery manifestation of human culture, every product of art, science and technical skill, which we see before our eyes today, is almost exclusively the product of Aryan creative power.&rdquo

Adolf Hitler warned that the Aryan&rsquos superiority was being threatened by intermarriage. If this happened world civilization would decline: &ldquoOn this planet of ours human culture and civilization are indissolubly bound up with the presence of the Aryan. If he should be exterminated or subjugated, then the dark shroud of a new barbarian era would enfold the earth.&rdquo

Although other races would resist this process, the Aryan race had a duty to control the world. This would be difficult, and force would have to be used, but it could be done. To support this view, he gave the example of how the British Empire had controlled a quarter of the world by being well-organized and having well-timed soldiers and sailors.

Hitler believed that Aryan superiority was being threatened particularly by the Jewish race who, he argued, were lazy and had contributed little to world civilization. (Hitler ignored the fact that some of his favorite composers and musicians were Jewish). He claimed that the &ldquoJewish youth lies in wait for hours on end satanically glaring at and spying on the unconscious girl whom he plans to seduce, adulterating her blood with the ultimate idea of bastardizing the white race which they hate and thus lowering its cultural and political level so that the Jew might dominate.&rdquo

According to Hitler, Jews were responsible for everything he did not like, including modern art, pornography and prostitution. Hitler also alleged that the Jews had been responsible for losing the First World War. Hitler also claimed that Jews, who were only about 1% of the population, were slowly taking over the country. They were doing this by controlling the largest political party in Germany, the German Social Democrat Party, many of the leading companies and several of the country&rsquos newspapers. The fact that Jews had achieved prominent positions in a democratic society was, according to Hitler, an argument against democracy: &ldquoa hundred blockheads do not equal one man in wisdom.&rdquo

Hitler believed that the Jews were involved with Communists in a joint conspiracy to take over the world. Like Henry Ford, Hitler claimed that 75% of all Communists were Jews. Hitler argued that the combination of Jews and Marxists had already been successful in Russia and now threatened the rest of Europe. He argued that the communist revolution was an act of revenge that attempted to disguise the inferiority of the Jews.

In Mein Kampf Hitler declared that: &ldquoThe external security of a people in largely determined by the size of its territory. If he won power Hitler promised to occupy Russian land that would provide protection and lebensraum (living space) for the German people. This action would help to destroy the Jewish/Marxist attempt to control the world: &ldquoThe Russian Empire in the East is ripe for collapse and the end of the Jewish domination of Russia will also be the end of Russia as a state.&rdquo

To achieve this expansion in the East and to win back land lost during the First World War, Hitler claimed that it might be necessary to form an alliance with Britain and Italy. An alliance with Britain was vitally important because it would prevent Germany fighting a war in the East and West at the same time.

Hitler was released from prison on December 20, 1924, after serving just over a year of his sentence. The Germany of 1924 was dramatically different from the Germany of 1923. The economic policies of the German government had proved successful. Inflation had been brought under control and the economy began to improve. The German people gradually gained a new faith in their democratic system and began to find the extremist solutions proposed by people such as Hitler unattractive.

On February 16, 1925, Hitler convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the ban on the NSDAP and the party was formally refounded on the 26th with Hitler as its undisputed leader. The new Nazi Party was no longer a paramilitary organization and disavowed any intention of taking power by force.

Hitler attempted to play down his extremist image and claimed that he was no longer in favor of revolution but was willing to compete with other parties in democratic elections. This policy was unsuccessful and in the elections of December 1924 the NSDAP could only win 14 seats compared with the 131 obtained by the Socialists (German Social Democrat Party) and the 45 of the German Communist Party (KPD).

In an attempt to obtain financial contributions from industrialists, Hitler wrote a pamphlet in 1927 entitled The Road to Resurgence. Only a small number of these pamphlets were printed, and they were only meant for the eyes of the top industrialists in Germany. The reason that the pamphlet was kept secret was that it contained information that would have upset Hitler&rsquos working-class supporters. In the pamphlet Hitler implied that the anti-capitalist measures included in the original twenty-five points of the NSDAP program would not be implemented if he gained power.

Hitler began to argue that &ldquocapitalists had worked their way to the top through their capacity, and on the basis of this selection they have the right to lead.&rdquo Hitler claimed that national socialism meant all people doing their best for society and posed no threat to the wealth of the rich. Some prosperous industrialists were convinced by these arguments and gave donations to the Nazi Party, however, the vast majority continued to support other parties, especially the right-wing German Nationalist Peoples Party (DNVP).

In the 1928 German elections, less than 3% of the people voted for the Nazi Party. This gave them only twelve seats, twenty fewer than they achieved in the May 1924 election. However, the party was well organized, and membership had grown from 27,000 in 1925 to 108,000 in 1928.

The Propagandist

The party&rsquos nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess, but he had no real power in the party. By the early 1930s, the senior leaders of the party after Hitler were Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels and Hermann Göring. Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party&rsquos regional leaders, the Gauleiters, each of whom commanded the party in his Gau (&ldquoregion&rdquo). Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg in 1926. Streicher was Gauleiter of Franconia, where he published Der Stürmer. Beneath the Gauleiter were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter (&ldquocounty leaders&rdquo), Zellenleiter (&ldquocell leaders&rdquo) and Blockleiter (&ldquoblock leaders&rdquo). This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors.

One of the new members was Joseph Goebbels. Hitler first met him in 1925. Both men were impressed with each other. Goebbels described one of their first meetings in his diary: &ldquoShakes my hand. Like an old friend. And those big blue eyes. Like stars. He is glad to see me. I am in heaven. That man has everything to be king.&rdquo

Hitler admired Goebbels&rsquo abilities as a writer and speaker. They shared an interest in propaganda and together they planned how the NSDAP would win the support of the German people.

Propaganda cost money and this was something that the Nazi Party was very short of. Whereas the German Social Democrat Party was funded by the trade unions and the pro-capitalist parties by industrialists, the NSDAP had to rely on contributions from party members. When Hitler approached rich industrialists for help he was told that his economic policies (profit-sharing, nationalization of trusts) were too left-wing.

The Great Depression Fuels Nazism

The fortunes of the NSDAP changed with the Wall Street crash in October 1929. Desperate for capital, the United States began to recall loans from Europe. One of the consequences of this was a rapid increase in unemployment. Germany, whose economy relied heavily on investment from the United States, suffered more than any other country in Europe.

Before the crash, 1.25 million people were unemployed in Germany. By the end of 1930 the figure had reached nearly 4 million. Even those in work suffered as many were only working part-time. With the drop in demand for labor, wages also fell and those with full-time work had to survive on lower incomes. Hitler&rsquos message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks, resonated with wide sections of the electorate.

In the general election that took place in September 1930, the Nazi Party won 18.3% of the vote and increased its number of representatives in parliament from 14 to 107. Hitler was now the leader of the second largest party in Germany.

The German Social Democrat Party was the largest party in the Reichstag, it did not have a majority over all the other parties, and the SPD leader, Hermann Mueller, had to rely on the support of others to rule Germany. After the SPD refused to reduce unemployment benefits, Mueller was replaced as Chancellor by Heinrich Bruening of the Catholic Centre Party (BVP). However, with his party only having 87 representatives out of 577 in the Reichstag, he also found it extremely difficult to gain agreement for his policies. Hitler came to be seen as de facto leader of the opposition and donations poured into the Nazi Party&rsquos coffers.

The inability of the democratic parties to form a united front, the self-imposed isolation of the Communists and the continued decline of the economy, all played into Hitler&rsquos hands and he used this situation to his advantage, claiming that parliamentary democracy did not work. The NSDAP argued that only Hitler could provide the strong government that Germany needed. Hitler and other Nazi leaders travelled round the country giving speeches putting over this point of view.

What said depended very much on the audience. In rural areas he promised tax cuts for farmers and government action to protect food prices. In working class areas, he spoke of redistribution of wealth and attacked the high profits made by the large chain stores. When he spoke to industrialists, Hitler concentrated on his plans to destroy communism and to reduce the power of the trade union movement. Hitler&rsquos main message was that Germany&rsquos economic recession was due to the Treaty of Versailles. Other than refusing to pay reparations, Hitler avoided explaining how he would improve the German economy.

Hitler Runs for President

With a divided Reichstag, the power of the German President became more important. In 1931 Hitler challenged Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hindenburg was now 84 years old and showing signs of senility. However, a large percentage of the German population still feared Hitler and in the election Hindenburg had a comfortable majority.

In August 1931 the Nazi Party decided to have its own intelligence and security body. Heinrich Himmler therefore created the SD (Sicherheitsdienst). Richard Heydrich was appointed head of the organization and it was kept distinct from the uniformed SS (Schutzstaffel).

Heinrich Bruening and other senior politicians were worried that Hitler would use his stormtroopers to take power by force. Led by Ernst Röhm, it now contained over 400,000 men. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles the official German Army was restricted to 100,000 men and was therefore outnumbered by the SA. In the past, those who feared communism were willing to put up with the SA as they provided a useful barrier against the possibility of revolution. However, with the growth in SA violence and fearing a Nazi coup, Bruening banned the organization.

Hitler now had the support of the upper and middle classes and ran for president against the incumbent Paul von Hindenburg in March 1932, polling 30.1% in the first round and 36.8% in the second against Hindenburg&rsquos 49% and 53%. The NSDAP won 230 seats, making it the largest party in the Reichstag however, the German Social Democrat Party (133) and the German Communist Party (89) still had the support of the urban working class and Hitler was deprived of an overall majority in parliament.

The SA had engaged in running street battles with the SPD and Communist paramilitaries, which reduced some German cities to combat zones. Although the Nazis were among the main instigators of this disorder, Hitler convinced the frightened and demoralized middle class that he would restore law and order. Germans voted for Hitler primarily because of his promises to revive the economy (by unspecified means), to restore German greatness and overturn the Treaty of Versailles and to save Germany from communism.

In May 1932, Paul von Hindenburg sacked Bruening and replaced him with Franz von Papen. The new chancellor was also a member of the Catholic Centre Party and, being more sympathetic to the Nazis, he removed the ban on the SA. The next few weeks saw open warfare on the streets between the Nazis and the Communists during which 86 people were killed.

In an attempt to gain support for his new government, Franz von Papen called another election, which was held on July 20, 1932. This time the NSDAP won 37.4% of the vote and became the largest party in parliament by a wide margin. Combined with the Communists, the Nazis had a blocking majority that made the formation of a majority government impossible.

Hitler demanded that he should be made Chancellor but von Hindenburg refused and instead gave the position to Major-General Kurt von Schleicher. Hitler was furious and began to abandon his strategy of disguising his extremist views. In one speech he called for the end of democracy a system which he described as being the &ldquorule of stupidity, of mediocrity, of half-heartedness, of cowardice, of weakness, and of inadequacy.&rdquo

The behavior of the NSDAP became more violent. On one occasion, 167 Nazis beat up 57 members of the German Communist Party in the Reichstag. They were then physically thrown out of the building.

The stormtroopers also carried out terrible acts of violence against socialists and communists. In one incident in Silesia, a young member of the KPD had his eyes poked out with a billiard cue and was then stabbed to death in front of his mother. Four members of the SA were convicted of the crime. Many people were shocked when Hitler sent a letter of support for the four men and promised to do what he could to get them released.

Chancellor von Papen called another Reichstag election in November, hoping to find a way out of this impasse. The electoral result was the same, with the Nazis and the Communists winning 50% of the vote between them and more than half the seats, rendering this Reichstag no more workable than its predecessor. However, support for the Nazis had fallen to 33.1%, suggesting that the Nazi surge had passed its peak as the worst of the Depression had passed, Nazi-instigated violence increased and some middle-class voters who had supported Hitler in July as a protest now feared putting him into power.

The Nazis interpreted the result as a warning that they must seize power before their moment passed. Had the other parties united, this could have been prevented, but their shortsightedness made a united front impossible.

The German Communist Party made substantial gains in the election winning 100 seats. Hitler used this to create a sense of panic by claiming that German was on the verge of a Bolshevik Revolution and only the NSDAP could prevent this happening.

A group of prominent industrialists who feared such a revolution sent a petition to Paul von Hindenburg asking for Hitler to become Chancellor. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to their request and at the age of forty-three, Hitler became the new Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. As the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum notes:

Hitler was not appointed chancellor as the result of an electoral victory with a popular mandate, but instead as the result of a constitutionally questionable deal among a small group of conservative German politicians who had given up on parliamentary rule. They hoped to use Hitler&rsquos popularity with the masses to buttress a return to conservative authoritarian rule, perhaps even a monarchy. Within two years, however, Hitler and the Nazis outmaneuvered Germany&rsquos conservative politicians to consolidate a radical Nazi dictatorship completely subordinate to Hitler&rsquos personal will.

Consolidating Power

The Reichstag fire on February 27, 1933, gave Hitler a pretext for suppressing his political opponents. The following day he persuaded von Hindenburg to issue the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended most civil liberties.

The NSDAP won the parliamentary election on March 5, 1933, with 43.9% of the vote but failed to win an absolute majority. After the election, hundreds of thousands of new members joined the party for opportunistic reasons, most of them civil servants and white-collar workers. They were nicknamed the &ldquocasualties of March&rdquo or &ldquoMarch violets.&rdquo To protect the party from too many non-ideological turncoats who were viewed by the so-called &ldquoold fighters&rdquo with some mistrust, the party issued a freeze on admissions that remained in force from May 1933 to 1937.

On March 23, the parliament passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave the cabinet the right to enact laws without the consent of parliament. In effect, this gave Hitler dictatorial powers. He subsequently abolished labor unions and other political parties and imprisoned his political opponents. In 1933, the Nazis opened Dachau, which initially housed political prisoners before becoming a concentration camp for Jews.

After the death of President Hindenburg on August 2, 1934, Hitler merged the offices of party leader, head of state and chief of government in one, taking the title of Führer und Reichskanzler. The Chancellery of the Führer, officially an organization of the Nazi Party, took over the functions of the Office of the President, blurring the distinction between structures of party and state even further. The SS increasingly exerted police functions under the leadership of Himmler.

The gradual descent into war began when Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations in 1933. He began to rebuild the German armed forces beyond what was permitted by the Treaty of Versailles and subsequently began the first stages of his plan for the conquest of Europe by reoccupying the German Rhineland in 1936, annexing Austria in 1938 and invading Czechoslovakia in 1939. World War II began when Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939.

Anticipating the Holocaust

To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Poles and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped. They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah&rsquos Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution, which resulted in the murder of six million Jews and millions of other targeted victims.

Ontkenning

Following the defeat of the Third Reich, the party was declared illegal by the Allied powers on October 10, 1945. The Allied Control Council carried out denazification in the years after the war both in Germany and in territories occupied by Nazi forces. Trials also began for the Germans accused of war crimes.

The use of any symbols associated with the party is now outlawed in many European countries, including Germany and Austria.


Nazism as Ideology

Nazism was German fascism. The economic crisis of the Great Depression made available an enormous population of dispossessed and disaffected Germans available for political recruitment and mobilization, including small business owners, independent craftsmen, farmers and even some of the professionals. Rejecting free trade and promising cheap credit plus protection from economic competition from Jews, Nazism promised a non-Marxist "organic socialism" of blood and soil. The sense of exclusion and inferiority this hailed was then directed toward nationalism and anti-Semitism. Contemporary rightwing nationalist movements that have erupted since the Great Recession are strikingly similar, though they direct anger toward immigrants.


Rejecting political participation in Weimar elections, Hitler and the Nazi Party leadership sought to overthrow the government of Bavaria, a state in the Weimar Republic. The Beer Hall Putsch took place on November 9, 1923. After the putsch collapsed, a Munich court tried Hitler and other ringleaders on charges of high treason. Hitler used the trial as a stage to attack the system of parliamentary democracy and promote xenophobic nationalism. Hitler was found guilty, but received a light sentence and was released after serving just one year in detention. He used his time in prison to begin writing Mein Kampf (My Struggle), his autobiography, published in 1926. In the book, he unveiled an explicitly, race-based Nationalist, social Darwinist, and antisemitic vision of human history. He advocated dictatorship at home, military expansion, and seizure of “living space” ( Lebensraum ) in the East. This living space was where the Germans intended to cleanse the east of indigenous and “inferior” populations.

After his release from prison, Hitler reorganized and reunified the Nazi Party. He changed its political strategy to incorporate engagement in electoral politics, programs targeting new and alienated voters, and bridge building to overcome traditional conflicts in German society.

Using language fashioned to reflect the fears and hopes of potential voters, the Nazis campaigned for

  • Renewing national defense capacity
  • Restoring national sovereignty
  • Annihilating Communism
  • Overturning the Versailles Treaty
  • Eliminating foreign and Jewish political and cultural influence in Germany and reversing the moral depravity that it allegedly created
  • Generating economic prosperity and creating jobs

Testing this strategy in the national parliamentary elections of 1928, the Nazis received a disappointing 2.6% percent of the vote.

With the onset of the Great Depression in 1930, Nazi agitation began to have increasing impact in the German population. When the majority coalition government collapsed in March, the three middle-class parties invoked emergency constitutional provisions to hold extraordinary parliamentary elections, hoping to manufacture a governing majority that would permanently exclude the Social Democrats and the political Left from governing. When this maneuver failed, German governments in 1930-1932 resorted to ruling by presidential decree rather than parliamentary consent.


Kanselier van Duitsland

The Nazi share of the vote declined to 33.7 % in the November 1932 parliamentary elections. The decrease blunted Hitler’s appeal and created a political and financial crisis in the Nazi Party. Former Chancellor (June-November 1932) Franz von Papen rescued Hitler. Von Papen believed that Nazi electoral losses rendered them more susceptible to control by the more experienced but unpopular conservative elites. Willing to risk a Nazi-German nationalist coalition with Hitler as Chancellor, von Papen reached agreement with Hitler and the German Nationalists in early January 1933. He persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg that Germany was out of other options. Reluctantly, von Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor on January 30, 1933.

Following his appointment as chancellor, Adolf Hitler began laying the foundations of the Nazi state. He seized every opportunity to turn Germany into a one-party dictatorship.

German president Paul von Hindenburg died in August 1934. Hitler had secured the support of the army with the Röhm purge of June 30, 1934. He abolished the presidency and proclaimed himself Führer of the German people ( Volk ). All military personnel and all civil servants swore a new oath of personal loyalty to Hitler as Führer. Hitler also continued to hold the position of Reich Chancellor (head of government).