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Hoe gevorderd was die mense van die Indusvallei -beskawing in die ingenieurswese?

Hoe gevorderd was die mense van die Indusvallei -beskawing in die ingenieurswese?

Hoe gevorderd was die mense van die Indusvallei -beskawing in ingenieursaspekte in vergelyking met ander beskawings gedurende of voor hul tyd?


Dit sou moeilik wees om te vergelyk met ander destydse beskawings destyds, nl. Egipties of Sumeries, aangesien daar nie veel geskrewe inligting van daardie tyd beskikbaar was nie. Argeologiese bevindings dui egter op baie tegnologiese vooruitgang 1) Sanitasie - gebruik van bedekte dreineringstelsel, (wat nou genoem word) WC, reservoirs, openbare bad, damme en trapputte om maar 'n paar te noem (bron wiki)

2) Wiskunde: sirkulasie van munte en gewigte dui op die gebruik van desimale stelsel, akkurate metings

3) metallurgie: Beskawing het uitgebreide kennis van brons, tin, koper en lood

Aangesien die hele Indust Valley -beskawing naby riviere gewoon het, moet hulle kennis hê van die kanalisering van water en die bou van 'n hoë muur om te beskerm teen vloede.


Ek stem saam met die antwoord van @SiddhantKumar hier. Ek wil 'n paar punte byvoeg wat hy oor die hoof gesien het.


Die Indusvallei beskawing was een van die mees gevorderde beskawings gedurende die brons era.

1) Sanitasie - Daar was ondergrondse rioolstelsels, spoeltoilette en 'n behoorlike rioolafvoerstelsel wat riool uit individuele huise versamel. Hulle was almal eerste in hul soort.

2) Argitektuur - Hul argitektuur is een van die gevorderde destyds en was goed beplan. Hulle het parallelle strate met kruispad. Hulle bakstene was almal ewe groot. Die stadsmure is so gebou om te voorkom dat vloed die stad binnedring. Hulle het ook dokke gebou.

Die meerderheid van die stede is gebou in 'n hoogs eenvormige en goed beplande roosterpatroon

- Wikipedia

Die geriewe soos spoeltoilette en privaat putte was in bykans elke huis beskikbaar. Dit behoort 'n manier te gee hoe dinge daar geïmplementeer is.

3) Waterbestuur - Hulle het baie reservoirs, trapputte, damme en selfs 'n openbare bad gehad. Die meeste huise het ook 'n privaat put gehad.

4) Wiskunde:

Die mense van die Indus -beskawing het groot akkuraatheid bereik in die meting van lengte, massa en tyd. Hulle was een van die eerstes wat 'n stelsel met eenvormige gewigte en afmetings ontwikkel het

Die Indusvallei -mense het (waarskynlik die eerste) liniaal gebruik om lengtes te meet. Die kleinste verdeling op hul ivoorskaal is ongeveer 1,704 mm. Die kleinste ooit in die brons era. Hierdie mense het die desimale stelsel vir byna alle praktiese doeleindes gevolg, terwyl ander beskawings van hierdie tyd nie -uniforms gewigte gebruik het.

5) Metallurgie : Beskawing het uitgebreide kennis van brons, tin, koper en lood.


Verwysings

  1. Sanitasie van die Indusvallei beskawing - Wikipedia
  2. Indian Mathematics Prehistory - Wikipedia
  3. Indus Valley Civilization - Wikipedia
  4. Lys van uitvindings en ontdekkings van die Indus Valley Civilization
  5. Lees Indussian: The Archaic Tamil vanaf c.7000 BCE ISBN: 938073302X, 9789380733029
  6. Voorgeskiedenis en Harappan -beskawing

Volledige gids vir die Indus Valley Civilization

Die Indusvallei-beskawing strek van die hedendaagse noordoostelike Afghanistan tot Pakistan en 'n groot deel van die noordweste van Indië.

Tydens die ontdekking van hierdie beskawing is talle metale soos koper en tin ontdek. Die Bronstydperk het dus ook ongeveer 3300 vC begin met die begin van die beskawing. Die eerste stad wat ontdek is, was die Harappan City, so die ander naam vir hierdie beskawing is Harappan Civilization.

Later het die Bronstydperk verander na die Ystertydperk, waar talle ystermateriaal gemaak en geskep is. Die fase het bekend gestaan ​​as die Late Harappan -kultuur, wat tussen 1900 - 1400 vC was.

Saam met die ontdekking van hierdie beskawing het 'n uitgebreide hoeveelheid navrae en feite gekom. Hieruit word die mees algemene vrae saam met die feite hier genoem.


10. Die grootte en bevolking van die Indusvallei

Die Indusvallei -beskawing beslaan 'n oppervlakte van 1,26 miljoen vierkante kilometer in die moderne Indië, Afghanistan en Pakistan. Meer as 1 056 stedelike sentrums en dorpe van die Indus Valley Civilization is geïdentifiseer, 96 hiervan is opgegrawe. Baie van die dorpe is hoofsaaklik versprei binne die wye gebied van die Indus- en Ghaggar-Hakra-riviere en hul kleiner strome. Die grootste stede met meer as vyf miljoen mense was Rakhigarhi, Harappa, Ganweriwala, Dholavira en Mohenjodaro.

Die vroegste nedersetting in die Indusvallei, bekend as Mehrgarh, is omstreeks 7000 vC gestig. Die meerderheid van die Indusvallei se inwoners was vakmanne en handelaars wat oorwegend in dorpe gewoon het. Aangesien hierdie dorpe gemaak is van maklik vernietigbare materiale, insluitend modder en hout, het hul daaglikse lewenswyse en baie van hul kultuur met min of geen spoor deur die eeue verlore gegaan nie. Uit argeologiese opgrawings het ons egter besef dat die Indus Valley Civilization 'n uiters gesofistikeerde kultuur was met 'n goed georganiseerde manier van doen. Alhoewel die stede baie bevolk was, was die stede nie morsig of ongeorganiseerd nie, anders as die meeste van sy tydgenote in Mesopotamië en Egipte, en sou dit in sommige gevalle die moderne stadsbeplanners in die skande laat kom.


Socail studies

Waarom glo geleerdes dat die Indusvallei 'n hoogs ontwikkelde beskawing gehad het?
A. Dit het baie geskrewe rekords agtergelaat.
B. Sy stede toon 'n hoë vlak van beplanning.
C. Dit het 'n hoogs georganiseerde godsdiens gehad.
D. Sy koninklike grafte bevat baie artefakte.

Ek het die toets hier afgelê, al die antwoorde en ek belowe dat ek u 100 %sal kry
1. A.
2.A, C, D.
3. mense wat vuil werk verrig-Daliete, priesters-Brahmane, handelaars-Vaishyas, arbeid-Sudras
4. Panadees
5.B
6.B
7.1 Siddhartha sien siekte, ouderdom
2. Sidhartha sien die heilige mens
3. Siddhartha word godsdienstig soekend en asketies
4. Siddhartha mediteer onder die Bodhi -boom
8.B
9.B, C
10. D.
11. D.
12. godsdiens
13. 1. Asoka het die mag, en val dan Kalinga aan om die koninkryk uit te brei
2. Asoka betreur bloedvergieting in Kalinga
3. Asoka bekeer hom tot Boeddhisme as gevolg van lyding in Kalinga
4. Asoka skep pilare om onderwerpe van drie sedewette te vertel en maak die koninkryk 'n beter plek om te woon.
14. A.
15.B
16.B
17. C.
U het 100 %op u oefentoets


Die eerste antieke DNA uit die Indusvallei -beskawing verbind sy mense met moderne Suid -Asiërs

Navorsers het die eerste genoom van 'n individu uit die Harappaanse beskawing, ook bekend as die Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), suksesvol opgestel. Die DNA, wat behoort aan 'n individu wat vier tot vyf millennia gelede geleef het, dui daarop dat moderne mense in Indië waarskynlik grootliks afkomstig is van mense uit hierdie antieke kultuur. Dit bied ook 'n verrassende insig in hoe die boerdery in Suid-Asië begin het, wat toon dat dit nie veroorsaak is deur grootskaalse beweging van mense vanaf die vrugbare halfmaan waar die boerdery die eerste keer ontstaan ​​het nie. In plaas daarvan het die boerdery in Suid-Asië begin deurdat plaaslike jagter-versamelaars boerdery aangeneem het. Die bevindings verskyn op 5 September in die joernaal Sel.

"Die Harappans was een van die vroegste beskawings van die antieke wêreld en 'n belangrike bron van die Indiese kultuur en tradisies, en tog was dit 'n raaisel hoe dit verband hou met latere mense sowel as met hul tydgenote," sê Vasant Shinde, 'n argeoloog by Deccan College, Deemed University in Pune, Indië, en die hoofgraafmachine van die perseel Rakhigarhi, wat die eerste skrywer van die studie is.

Die IVC, wat op sy hoogtepunt van 2600 tot 1900 vC 'n groot deel van die noordweste van Suid-Asië beslaan het, was een van die eerste grootskaalse stedelike samelewings ter wêreld. Dit was amper eertyds van antieke Egipte en die antieke beskawings van China en Mesopotamië, en verhandel oor lang afstande en ontwikkel stelselmatige stadsbeplanning, uitgebreide dreineringstelsels, graanskure en standaardisering van gewigte en maatreëls.

Warm, wisselende klimate soos dié wat in baie dele van die laagland in Suid -Asië voorkom, is nadelig vir die behoud van DNA. Ondanks die belangrikheid van die IVC, was dit tot dusver onmoontlik om DNA van individue wat op argeologiese terreine in die streek gevind is, te volg. "Alhoewel daar sukses met antieke DNA van baie ander plekke af was, beteken die moeilike bewaringstoestande dat studies in Suid -Asië 'n uitdaging was", sê senior skrywer David Reich, 'n genetikus aan die Harvard Medical School, die Broad Institute en die Howard Hughes Mediese Instituut.

Die beantwoording van vrae oor die ou mense van die Indusvallei was eintlik die belangrikste rede waarom Reich in 2013 sy eie ou DNA -laboratorium gestig het.

In hierdie studie het Reich, postdoktorale wetenskaplike Vagheesh Narasimhan en Niraj Rai, wat 'n nuwe ou DNA-laboratorium by die Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences in Lucknow, Indië, gevestig het en die voorbereiding van die monsters gelei het, 61 skeletmonsters van 'n webwerf in Rakhigarhi, die grootste stad van die IVC. 'N Enkele monster het belowe: dit bevat 'n baie klein hoeveelheid egte ou DNA. Die span het meer as 100 pogings aangewend om die monster te volg. Reich sê: "Terwyl elkeen van die individuele datastelle nie genoeg DNA geproduseer het nie, het dit genoeg genetiese data tot gevolg gehad om oor die geskiedenis van die bevolking te leer."

Daar was baie teorieë oor die genetiese oorsprong van die mense van die IVC. 'Hulle lyk soos Suidoos-Asiatiese jagter-versamelaars, of hulle lyk soos Iraniërs, of hulle kan selfs soos herders van Steppe lyk-alles was aanneemlik voor die antieke DNA-bevindings,' sê hy.

Die individu wat hier volg, pas by 'n stel van 11 individue van plekke in Iran en Sentraal -Asië wat bekend is dat hulle in kontak was met die IVC, ontdek in 'n manuskrip wat gelyktydig gepubliseer word (ook gelei deur Reich en Narasimhan) in die tydskrif Wetenskap. Daardie individue was genetiese uitskieters onder die mense op die plekke waar hulle gevind is. Hulle verteenwoordig 'n unieke mengsel van afkoms wat verband hou met antieke Iraniërs en afkoms wat verband hou met Suidoos-Asiatiese jagter-versamelaars. Hulle genetiese ooreenkoms met die Rakhigarhi -individu maak dit waarskynlik dat dit migrante uit die IVC was.

Dit is 'n mengsel van afkoms wat ook in moderne Suid-Asiërs voorkom, wat die navorsers laat glo dat mense uit die IVC, soos die Rakhigarhi-individue, die grootste bron vir die hedendaagse Indië was. 'So 'n afkoms in die IVC is individue vandag die primêre afkomsbron in Suid -Asië,' sê Reich. "Hierdie bevinding verbind mense in Suid -Asië vandag direk met die Indus Valley Civilization."

Die bevindinge bied ook 'n verrassende insig in hoe die landbou Suid -Asië bereik het. 'N Algemene siening in argeologie was dat mense van die vrugbare halfmaan van die Midde-Ooste-die tuiste van die vroegste bewyse van boerdery-versprei het oor die Iraanse plato en vandaar na Suid-Asië, wat 'n nuwe en transformerende ekonomiese stelsel saamgebring het.

Genetiese studies het tot dusver gewig aan hierdie teorie toegevoeg deur aan te toon dat Iraanse verwante afkoms die grootste bydraer tot die afkoms in Suid-Asiërs was.

Maar hierdie nuwe studie toon aan dat die afstammelinge van Iraanse verwante afkoms in moderne Suid-Asiërs geskei het van antieke Iraanse boere, herders en jagter-versamelaars voordat hulle van mekaar geskei het-dit wil sê nog voor die uitvinding van boerdery in die vrugbare halfmaan . Die boerdery is dus óf plaaslik in Suid -Asië uitgevind óf bereik dit deur die kulturele oordrag van idees, eerder as deur die groot beweging van Wes -Iraanse boere.

Vir Reich, Shinde en hul span is hierdie bevindings net die begin. "Die Harappans het 'n komplekse en kosmopolitiese antieke beskawing gebou, en daar was ongetwyfeld variasie daarin wat ons nie kan opspoor deur 'n enkele individu te ontleed nie," sê Shinde. "Die insigte wat uit hierdie enkele individu kom, toon die enorme belofte van antieke DNA -studies van Suid -Asië. Dit maak dit duidelik dat toekomstige studies van 'n veel groter aantal individue uit 'n verskeidenheid argeologiese terreine en plekke die potensiaal het om ons begrip te verander. van die diep geskiedenis van die subkontinent. ”

Hierdie werk is ondersteun deur die NCP -fonds van die Raad van Wetenskaplike en Nywerheidsnavorsing (WNNR), die regering van Indië, Deccan College, Deemed University, die regering van Haryana, die National Science Foundation, die National Institutes of Health, 'n Allen Discovery Center -toekenning, en die John Templeton Foundation.DR is 'n ondersoeker van die Howard Hughes Mediese Instituut. Die skrywers verklaar geen mededingende belange nie.

Sel, Shinde en Narasimhan et al .: "'n Ou Harappan-genoom ontbreek aan afstammelinge van herders van steppe of Iraanse boere" https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(19)30967-5

Sel (@CellCellPress), die vlagskipjoernaal van Cell Press, is 'n tweemaandelikse tydskrif wat bevindings van ongewone betekenis publiseer op enige gebied van eksperimentele biologie, insluitend maar nie beperk nie tot selbiologie, molekulêre biologie, neurowetenskap, immunologie, virologie en mikrobiologie, kanker, menslike genetika, stelselbiologie, sein en meganismes en terapieë. Besoek: http: // www. sel. com/ sel. Kontak [email protected] om Cell Press -media -waarskuwings te ontvang.

Vrywaring: AAAS en EurekAlert! is nie verantwoordelik vir die akkuraatheid van nuusberigte wat op EurekAlert geplaas word nie! deur bydraende instansies of vir die gebruik van enige inligting deur die EurekAlert -stelsel.


Beskawing en vloede in die Indusvallei

EkDie amptelike personeel was benewens dr. Dales as velddirekteur, die museum se argitek Aubrey Trik en Stephen Rees-Jones van Queen ’s Universiteit, Belfast, as konservator. Helen Trik was registrateur en Barbara Dales was administratiewe sekretaris. Walter O. Heinze van Swarthmore het 'n deel van die seisoen as vrywillige fotograaf en veldassistent gedien. Die projek is ondersteun deur die JDR 3rd Fund, National Science Foundation, die Penrose Fund van die American Philosophical Society, die Walter E. Seeley Trust Fund en vrygewige privaat skenkings.

Een van die mees interessante aspekte van argeologiese navorsing is die konstante eb en vloed van ons kennis tussen feite en fiksie. Daar is 'n voortdurende behoefte om die verspreide stukke getuienis waarmee ons die kulturele raamwerk van die mensdom se klim na die moderne wêreld wil herkonstrueer, te heroorweeg en te herevalueer. Dit is nie ongewoon om te vind dat gister se feite en faktore een van vandag se weggooideorieë is nie, of dat wat vandag slegs 'n berekende raaiskoot is, moontlik 'n geverifieerde historiese maksimum van môre is. Geleidelik word hierdie raamwerk versterk en uitgebrei namate ons feitelike kennis van antieke probleme toeneem.

Argeologie moes sy omvang verder uitbrei as dié van die tradisionele “dirt ” benadering tot die oudheid. Ons hoor al hoe meer van nie-argeoloë, veral natuurwetenskaplikes, wat nuwe insigte bied oor wat moeilike of onoplosbare argeologiese probleme was. Hierdie ekstra-argeologiese spesialiste vergroot ons vermoë om die groter betekenis van andersins beperkte en soms esoteriese vrae te verstaan. Net soos 'n stuk driedimensionele moderne Op Art slegs in sy geheel gesien kan word deur dit vanuit baie verskillende uitkykpunte te bekyk, moet 'n argeologiese probleem vanuit ander posisies as dié van die vuilargeoloog beskou word. Die natuurwetenskaplikes kan en bied 'n paar van die broodnodige vars standpunte.

Algemene siening van laatperiode -strukture bo -op HR -heuwel.

'N Voorbeeld van die potensiaal wat inherent is aan gekombineerde argeologiese-natuurwetenskaplike ondersoeke, word gesien in die veldprogram wat die afgelope winter deur die Universiteitsmuseum in Wes-Pakistan uitgevoer is. Die museum het, met die samewerking en hulp van die Pakistaanse departement van argeologie, 'n opgrawings- en omgewingstudieprogram begin met die fokus rondom Mohenjo-daro, ongeveer 180 kilometer noord van Karachi in die Indusvallei. Die omgewings- en geomorfologiese studies is uitgevoer deur Robert L. Raikes, 'n professionele hidroloog wat ook saamgewerk het met die Museum ’s -projek by Sybaris in Italië. Onder ander vrae van suiwer argeologiese aard was ons bekommerd oor die probleem waarom en hoe die Indus of Harappan beskawing afgeneem het en uiteindelik verdwyn het. Een verklaring wat die afgelope paar jaar gewild was, is dat hierdie vroegste beskawing van Suid -Asië sy landskap verval het en so intern verswak het dat dit 'n maklike prooi geword het vir buitelandse indringers, naamlik die Ariërs. Die idee van 'n slagting by Mohenjo-daro wat die gewapende verowering van die stad veronderstel het, is op suiwer argeologiese gronde deur die skrywer in die lente-uitgawe van 1964 betwis Ekspedisie. Ander faktore in die ineenstorting van die Indus -beskawing het die afgelope paar jaar onder die aandag van natuurwetenskaplikes gekom. Voorlopige studies deur Raikes dui daarop dat 'n groot natuurramp en 'n reeks groot oorstromings 'n belangrike faktor kon wees. Vars bewyse was van die veld nodig om hierdie nuwe idees te toets. So is die program van argeologiese opgrawings by Mohenjo-daro gekombineer met geomorfologiese studies van die onderste Indusvallei begin.

Om verskeie redes is Mohenjo-daro as die fokuspunt van die projek gekies. Dit is die grootste en die beste bewaarde stad van die Harappan -tydperk in die Indusvallei en behoort die mees volledige reeks gestratifiseerde materiale te bevat. Die vroeëre opgrawings op hierdie terrein gedurende die 1920's en vroeë 1930's het baie bewyse getoon vir afsettings wat op verskillende vlakke in die ruïnes neergelê is. Verder is daar gehoop dat nuwe inligting verkry kon word oor die nuutste besettings van die stad en die tydperk van dalende welvaart, wat daartoe gelei het dat hierdie eens welvarende metropool uiteindelik opgegaan het.

Een van die eerste doelwitte van hierdie jaar se werk was om die besettingsdiepte by Mohenjo-daro te bepaal. Die vroegste vlakke is nog nooit bereik nie as gevolg van die huidige hoë vlakke van die ondergrondse grondwater. Dit is belangrik vir ons studies oor die geskiedenis van oorstromings in die onderste Indusvallei dat ons 'n volledige stratigrafiese beeld het van die opeenvolgende besettingsvlakke van die stad. 'N Vervelende tuig is verkry by 'n Pakistaanse ingenieursonderneming en 'n reeks proefborings is onder toesig van Raikes gemaak. Kernmonsters is uitgebring en elke voet of wat ondersoek. Kerfskuddes, baksteenfragmente, armbande en as is gevind tot 'n maksimum diepte van nege-en-dertig voet onder die huidige vlakte. Die borings is ongeveer agt voet onder die laagste spoor van menslike besetting voortgesit. Die huidige grondwatervlak is ongeveer vyftien voet onder die vlakte. Dit sal dus nodig wees om meer as vyf-en-twintig voet deur water geweek te dring om die vroegste beroep te bereik. Raikes, in konsulasie met ingenieurs in Pakistan, ontwerp 'n ontwateringsstelsel vir hierdie doel.

Die vervelige tuig in werking. Baksteenfragmente, erdebakkies, armbande en as is gevind op 'n diepte van nege-en-dertig voet onder die huidige vlakte.

Die opgrawings van die hoogste vlakke is uitgevoer in 'n oppervlakte van twintig meter bo-op die HR-heuwel. Selfs hierdie relatief beperkte blootstelling het nuwe en interessante inligting verskaf oor die jongste tydperk van besetting, 'n beroep wat waarskynlik die algemene omstandighede kenmerk wat aan die einde van die Harappan -periode geheers het. Onmiddellik onder die oppervlakte van die heuwel het ons 'n dun, swak bewaarde vlak gevind, wat dui op 'n plakkertipe beroep. Die geboue is grof opgebou uit tweedehandse, dikwels gebreekte, bakstene. Die vroeëre graafmachines by Mohenjo-daro het soortgelyke oorskot van ander gebiede van die terrein aangemeld. Geen spoor van vreemde voorwerpe wat die aankoms van indringers van nie-Harappaanse mense kan aandui, is gevind nie. Die paar voorbeelde van erdewerk wat op die vloere van die huis voorkom, is van standaard Harappan -tipe. Opvallend was egter die volledige afwesigheid van die swart-en-rooi geverfde erdewerk wat die volwasse Harappan-periode so kenmerk. Argitektonies is dit belangrik om daarop te let dat die verlate kamers en steegpaaie van die vorige besetting voor die bou van hierdie nuutste plakkersvlak heeltemal gevul was met puin en grys vuil. Daarbenewens is grofgemaakte verpakkingsmure gebou om gedeeltes van hierdie vulsels te kyk. Toe sulke vullings tydens ons opgrawing verwyder is, is gevind dat hierdie strukture wat nog ingevul is nog in 'n redelike goeie toestand was en voldoende vir bewoning moes gewees het. Waarom het die laaste inwoner van die stad die moeite gedoen om hierdie gebiede van drie tot vier voet vol te vul? As die algehele prentjie wat ons uit ons ander studies verkry, korrek is, word dit duidelik waarom hierdie uitgebreide invul- en platformontwerp gedoen is. Dit was die laaste van verskeie pogings van die Mohenjo-daro-bevolking om die stad kunsmatig te verhoog om bo die hoogte van die vloedwater te bly. Die vloedbewyse sal hieronder beskryf word. Ek noem dit hier net om ons indruk te beklemtoon dat oorstromings die belangrikste vyand was van die Mohenjo-darians en van al die inwoners van die Harappan-periode in die onderste Indusvallei. Groepe stropers van die nabygeleë Baluchistan -heuwels kon heel moontlik voordeel getrek het uit die chaotiese toestande na die vloede, maar dit was blykbaar nie die oorsaak van sulke toestande nie.

'N Plakkertipe struktuur direk onder die oppervlak. Tweedehandse, dikwels gebreekte, stene is deur hierdie jongste inwoners gebruik.

'N Baksteenwas- of toiletkas en gepleisterde vloer van die laat tyd. Hierdie gebied was heeltemal vol vuil en puin om een ​​van die platforms te wees waarop die nuutste inwoners van die stad hul plakkershuise gebou het.

Ek het genoem dat daar direk onder hierdie skelm geboude plakkersvlak die oorblyfsels is van aansienlike geboue van gebakte baksteen met die geplaveide was- (of toilet-) areas en die uitgebreide dreineringsgeriewe wat tipies is vir hierdie beskawing. Drie tot vier vlakke wat nou met mekaar verbind is, is hierdie seisoen ontbloot. Hierdie vlakke behoort aan wat in die vroeëre opgrawingsverslae oor die laat tyd van die stad genoem is. Dit was nog altyd moeilik om hierdie verslae te gebruik om presies te definieer wat die laat periode kenmerk van die intermediêre en vroeëre periodes van die stad en die beskawing wat dit verteenwoordig. Sekere besonderhede rakende die afname in materiële welvaart van die bevolking van hierdie laat vlakke was egter opvallend tydens die nuwe opgrawings. Aardewerk was byvoorbeeld van tipiese Harappan -vorms, maar die verhouding van geverfde tot gewone ware was baie laag. Die luukse om erdewerk met versierde ontwerpe te versier, was blykbaar buite die vermoë van die laat inwoners van die stad. Een soort erdebak, gewoonlik die Indusvallei -beker genoem, is in groot hoeveelhede in hierdie laat vlakke aangetref. Dit bevestig die vroeëre verslae en die van ander webwerwe wat beweer dat hierdie kenmerkende vaartuig slegs gedurende die laat agteruitgang van die beskawing gebruik is. Ander bewyse van stilistiese verandering en voorkeure wat aan die laat tyd toegeskryf kan word, is ook by ander klasse voorwerpe gevind. Steenstempelseëls met pragtige diervoorstellings wat in intaglio uitgevoer is, is een van die kenmerke van die volwasse Harappaanse beskawing. Verskeie van hierdie seëls is in ons laat vlakke gevind, maar dit is redelik om aan te neem dat sulke pragtige en ongetwyfeld duur voorwerpe deur gesinne en individue gehou is lank na die tyd toe dit vervaardig is. 'N Ander soort seëlseël, goedkoop gemaak van pasta of frituur, met slegs geometriese ontwerpe, blyk eers in die latere tydperk van die stad algemeen te wees. 'N Paar verspreide voorbeelde is voorheen opgeteken (met voorbehoud deur die graafmachines) vanaf intermediêre vlakke by Mohenjo-daro, maar dit is inderdaad skaars. Die geometriese seëls blyk dan 'n potensieel bruikbare dateringsvoorwerp te wees. Kleidierbeeldjies bied nog 'n relatiewe dateringskriterium. Die beeldjies van die volwasse Harappan -tydperk – meestal van bulle – is uitstekende voorbeelde van keramiekkunstenaar. Die sensueel gemodelleerde liggame, die sensitiewe gesigte en die aandag aan detail plaas die beste voorbeelde van hierdie beeldjies in 'n klas van artistieke uitnemendheid met die intaglio -voorstellings van diere op die klipstempels. In ons laat -tyd -vlakke bo -op die HR -heuwel is nie 'n enkele voorbeeld van hierdie uitstekende dierebeeldjies gevind nie. Beeldjies was volop, maar hulle was van 'n growwe, amper speelgoedagtige kwaliteit. Die liggame het 'n swak verhouding en die gesigte wissel van die komiese tot die groteske. Uit die gepubliseerde verslae oor die vroeëre opgrawings by Mohenjo-daro en ander Harappan-terreine is dit duidelik dat sulke beeldjies op alle vlakke van die beskawing aangetref word. Ons opgrawings hierdie jaar toon egter aan dat dit die enigste dierbeeld is wat gedurende die agteruitgang van die beskawing gemaak is. Voorbeelde soos dié wat net aangehaal is, kan nuttig wees vir relatiewe dateringsdoeleindes, maar kan ons niks vertel oor die werklike jaardatums van die stad of die beskawing nie. Vir hierdie doel is koolstofmonsters van hout en graan versamel en sal getoets word deur die radiokoolstof -dateringsprosedure.

Die sogenaamde Indus-bekers. Dit is slegs op laat vlakke op Harappan -terreine bekend en bied een van die min betroubare dateringskriteria vir die interne chronologie van die Indus -beskawing.

Seël seëls vanaf die laat periode vlakke. Sulke seëls blyk produkte van die kwynende jare van die Indus -beskawing te wees.

Een van die mees onverwagte vondste van die seisoen het gekom op die tweede opgrawingsdag. Slegs ongeveer twee voet onder die oppervlak van die heuwel is 'n groep van drie menslike geraamtes gevind, 'n middeljarige man, 'n jong vrou en 'n klein kind. 'N Paar meter verder, in dieselfde laag, is later nog twee volwasse geraamtes gevind. Dit was duidelik nie begrafnisse in die formele sin van die woord nie. Die geraamtes was vasgevang in 'n dik opeenhoping van stene, gebreekte aardewerk en puin en het beslis nie op straat- of vloervlak gerus nie. Hierdie opeenhoping het blykbaar nie tot die tyd van die strukturele oorblyfsels in die nabyheid van die geraamtes behoort nie. Wat eintlik met hierdie ongelukkige persone gebeur het, moet 'n raaisel bly. Al wat ons veilig kan sê, is dat hul geraamtes gevind is in 'n argeologiese konteks wat na 'n onbepaalde tyd na die sogenaamde laat tydperk by Mohenjo-daro moet dateer. Hulle behoort moontlik tot die tyd van die jongste plakkersnedersetting, maar te min van hierdie boonste vlak is behou om dogmatiese aansprake vir datering moontlik te maak. Dit is redelik om te glo dat die sewe-en-dertig geraamtes wat in die vroeëre opgrawings gevind is, ook onder soortgelyke omstandighede gevind is. Daar is beslis geen brandstof bygevoeg deur die nuwe ontdekkings by die brande van die hipotetiese vernietiging van die stad deur indringers nie.

'N Kleibulbeeld van die uitstekende kwaliteit wat tipies is vir die volwasse Harappan -tydperk. Sulke beeldjies is nie gevind in die laat periode-vlakke by Mohenjo-daro nie. 'N Dierlike beeldjie van die ruwe handgemaakte variëteit wat tipies is vir die laat tydperk by Mohenjo-daro.

Dit moet toegegee word dat verdere opgrawings by Mohenjo-daro, of enige ander Harappan-tydperk, min kans het om die belangrike vraag te beantwoord waarom en hoe hierdie omvangrykste van die vroegste ou-wêreld beskawings uit die historiese toneel verdwyn het. Verskillende tipes navorsing, soos die geomorfologiese studies van Raikes, kan die sleutel tot hierdie kwellende probleem wees. Sy aandag is eers op hierdie probleem gevestig deur gepubliseerde beskrywings van dik neerslae van alluviale klei op verskillende vlakke in die ruïnes van Mohenjo-daro. Die hoogste van hierdie strate van vloeddeposito's is nou ongeveer dertig voet bo die vlakte. Tot dusver was daar geen bevredigende verklaring vir die aanwesigheid van sulke afsettings nie. Raikes het ongeveer 150 blootgestelde klei-neerslae aangeteken op wyd geskeide plekke in die ruïnes van Mohenjo-daro. Sommige hiervan was meer vervalle modderstene en meer as vloedafsettings. Hulle is nietemin belangrik, want ons kan nou sien dat die bou van sulke hoë platforms op hierdie en ander terreine nou verband hou met die hele oorstromingsprobleem. Daar is reeds melding gemaak van die kunsmatige verpakking en platformgebou op die nuutste vlakke by Mohenjo-daro. Oorweldigende bewyse vir sulke boupraktyke is onthul in ons skoonmaak van die westelike rand van die HR -heuwel.

Die eerste van vyf menslike geraamtes wat net onder die oppervlak van die HR -heuwel ontdek is.

'N Monumentale soliede moddersteenplatform, of wal, lê aan die rand van die stadshoop. 'N Ondersoekende opgrawing het getoon dat dit minstens vyf-en-twintig voet hoog is. Op die huidige vlakte word dit gekonfronteer met 'n soliede baksteenmuur van vyf tot ses voet dik, wat op 'n afstand van meer as driehonderd meter langs die voet van die heuwel opgespoor is. Hierdie enorme kompleks, veral as dit die hele onderste deel van die stad Mohenjo-daro omring, kan nie bloot as 'n verdedigende struktuur teen militêre aanval verduidelik word nie. Dit blyk dat die mure en platforms bedoel was om die vlak van die stad kunsmatig te verhoog as beskerming teen vloede. Dit is nog te vroeg om die volgorde van natuurlike gebeurtenisse wat die vloede rondom Mohenjo-daro sou veroorsaak, in detail uiteen te sit, maar 'n paar voorlopige voorstelle moet gemaak word. Dat die hoofoorsaak van die oorstromings van 'n tektoniese aard was, kan op grond van bewyse nie redelik betwyfel word nie, ” sê Raikes in sy tussentydse verslag. Hierdie opheffings, of eerder reeks opheffings, het plaasgevind tussen Mohenjo-daro en die Arabiese See, moontlik naby die moderne stad Sehwan. Of hierdie opheffings die gevolg was van die berge of die uitbarsting van 'n vulkaniese modder, moet nog gesien word. Geoloë is nietemin dit eens dat die opheffing wel plaasgevind het. Die “dam ” wat deur hierdie opheffingsproses geskep is, het die waters van die Indusrivier ondersteun. Die mate van verdamping, sedimentasie en waterverliese deur die dam is tegniese aangeleenthede wat baie meer ondersoek verg. Hierdie faktore is belangrik by die skatting van die tempo van waterstygings en -verspreiding in die reservoir wat agter die dam geskep is. deur geleidelike inbreuk op die stroomaf met baie waarskuwing. Uiteindelik sou die reservoir, wat heel moontlik meer as honderd myl lank kon gewees het, al die dorpe en dorpe in die onderste Indusvallei verswelg, verswelg geraak het. Die invloei van water sou die verliese as gevolg van sypeling en verdamping oorskry, en die stygende waters sou die dam oortref het. 'N Tydperk van vinnige waterverlies en afname van die sedimentasie in die vallei sou volg.

The poor state of preservation of the newly discovered skeletons is illustrated by these two examples. Their decayed and battered condition is partly explained by the fact that they were found almost directly beneath the surface of the mound.

It can be only a guess but it has been estimated that the time required to silt up the reservoir could possibly be as little as one hundred years. During this period, places like Mohenjo-daro may have been temporarily abandoned but this has not yet been displayed archaeologically. At any rate, once the waters began to subside, rebuilding was undertaken. Unfortunately the uplifting-flooding cycle repeated its destructive course, possibly as many as six times. As Sir Mortimer Wheeler, who excavated at Mohenjo-daro in 1950, has recently put it, the population was being worn out by the natural environment (opposite to his original suggestion that the population was wearing out the landscape). A study of silt deposits at other sites near Mohenjo-daro, such as Jhukar and Lohumjo-daro, suggests the same flooding regime. It is essential that detailed surveys and test trenchings of other sites in the lower Indus Valley be made. If consistent patterns of siltation and rebuildings can be worked out for other sites in this area, we will have gone a long way toward substaining the crucial role of tectonic movement and flooding in the life and death of at least the southern part of the Harappan “empire.”

The five human skeletons uncovered this year were associated with the thick accumulation of bricks and debris between these parallel walls near the surface of the HR mound.

Other factors were involved in the decline of the Harappan fortunes in the north. Flooding may have been a problem there too but not to the overwhelming degree it was in the south. Unfortunately, the archaeological evidence for the end of the northern cities is even more laconic than that for the south. There is an apparently consistent pattern, however, that is common to each of the few Harappan settlements which has been excavated in the north. There seems to be a sharp termination of occupation at these sites during what is recognized on present evidence as the mature phase of the Harappan civilization. Then there was a long period of abandonment followed after several centuries by the settlement of entirely new cultural groups. Most common seem to be the makers of a distinctive painted grey-ware pottery.

A gigantic solid mud-brick embankment was found along the edge of the HR mound. A pit was dug twenty-five into the brickwork without reaching the bottom of the structure.

The southern regions would seem to hold out the best promise of archaeological answers to the question of what happened to the Indus population after their civilization was defeated by the relentlessly re-occurring floods. Over eighty Harappan period sites have been located by Indian archaeologists in the Gujarat area of western India. Many of these sites are of the Late period and clearly preserve evidence suggesting a gradual transition of the once proud Harappan traditions into those which were indigenous to that part of India. The strength and vitality of the Harappan culture was vanishing ot the point where even the use of writing lost its importance. It is perhaps hopeful to reflect on the possibility that at least in the days of four thousand years ago man’s most overwhelming and stifling enemy was to be found in the forces of nature rather than in the vagaries of his fellow man.


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When the world didn’t wake, we measured to 20 th part of a gram. when the world didn’t know where to live we constructed two stair buildings. Suddenly, what happened to the largest ancient civilization, the most advanced Bronze Age civilization and the civilization which has accounted for over five million population at its peak. Scientists said that the civilization existed between 3300BCE-1300BCE. What happened after that?? Does anybody knows?? The contemporary civilizations to the Indus valley civilizations, Egyptian and Mesopotamian, left some clues while the Indus valley left questions… let us dig deep into the earth to unearth the secrets of ‘the greatest civilization world has ever seen’…

We need to go back as less as 7000 BC to unearth the secrets. But the early Harappa civilization was dated back to 3300BC. From that time it has existed for over two millenniums. The mystery that unrevealed is that what made them to extinct without leaving any traces to future races.

Prosperity of Indus civilization:

Harappa civilization has well flourished by the year 2600BC. By that time there was many no of cities out of which 1052 cities were found as of now. And the historians say that the population in the cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro crossed one million each, You can imagine how big they were in that period. The cities were very well planned including drainage facilities. The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today.


One of the most debatable topic is the monuments. Harappans didn’t build any great monuments unlike its contemporaries (Egyptians). There is no conclusive evidence for that. The trading was taking place at very good levels with the contemporaries.

People of Indus civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass and time. They measured weights as low as 0.05 kg, they measured lengths as less as 1.074 mm. They extracted several metals like copper, bronze, lead, tin etc. their engineering skills were remarkable.

They had very sophisticated writing system. Archeologists have found up to 600 different indus symbols from the things they unearthed. Though their script is not able to understand properly, it is quite similar to Dravidian languages. Even some of the symbols in that script were found in Dravidian languages.

The roots of Hinduism lies in indus civilization, the seal found resembles the god Shiva. And there was a clear evidence that those people worshipped mother goddess, name includes Parvati, Sakti. Shiva lingam and Swastick symbols were found from excavated area.


Can mystery be solved…..

The reasons behind the decline of Harappa civilization are clearly unknown. There are many theories, among which ‘Aryans invasion’ was the most popular one. According to that theory, Aryans are the people belong to central Asia, who were able to ride horses, invaded indus people. And historians say that those were Sanskrit speaking people, those are the ones who wrote Vedas, sacred texts of Hinduism. Interestingly Rig-Veda, first of all four, was written in the period ranging from 1700BC-1100BC, after the decline of indus valley civilization. However, there is no evidence from Vedas about the invasion theory. In Sanskrit Aryas means nobles but not the invaders. However, how can they portray themselves as villains in the entire episode, not to say, Vedas were written by Aryans only. Theories of violent ends have been partly proved by the discovery in Mohenjo-Daro of human remains that indicated a violent cause of death. However such evidence was not consistent as most other cities showed an absence of a massacre.

Another popular thesis or speculation is the climatic changes and the change of direction of Indus River. It is said by the historians that major ecological changes had happened around 2000 BC, like tectonic changes caused the creation of a dam in the lower Indus, thus flooding the plains and cities. Evidence to prove this hypothesis has been found. But here the question is, how can that adverse ecological changes can happen in just one century, like changing the course of the river. Also the average rain fall began decreasing, eventually created a desert.

One more thing one needs observe is about River Saraswathi. According to the Rig-Veda and other literature available, there was three major rivers named Saraswathi, along with Ganga (Ganges) and Yamuna. But now we can’t find river Saraswathi, instead, there is a desert (Thar). According to the Mahabharata, the Saraswathi dried up in a desert (at a place named Vinasana or Adarsana)after having disappeared in the desert, reappears in some places and joins the sea "impetuously". Might those climatic changes created a desert, in a well flourished land.


As the Indus civilization was the very recently excavated one (1842), it still needs much more research to find any clues about the fall of that civilization and to give any conclusive statements regarding that. Till then, it’ll be one among the great untold mysteries of the world…


How Extensive Was the Indus Valley Civilization’s Influence?

The Indus Valley Civilization – also sometimes referred to as the “Harappan Civilization” for one of its primary cities – was one of the world’s first civilizations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Beginning about 3200 BC, groups of people in the Indus River Valley of what are today northwest India and southeast Pakistan began to form cities, eventually coalescing into a defined culture and reaching all the hallmarks of civilization.

Although the Indus Valley people developed writing, the script remains undeciphered so details about their civilization remain enigmatic. Modern scholars do not know if the civilization was ever under the rule of one king or ruler as ancient Egypt and as ancient Mesopotamia was at different times, and details about the Indus Valley religion, social structure, and economy also remain a mystery. With that said, archaeologists have discovered that that the Indus people had well-built and organized cities and that they developed intricate trade networks throughout south Asia and into the Near East.

By the period modern scholars know as the Mature Harappan Phase (ca. 2600-1900 BC), the entire Indus Valley was part of complex system. Archaeological evidence shows that the people of the Indus Valley exerted great cultural and economic influence not just around the Indus River, but throughout what are today Pakistan and India. Contemporary texts from Mesopotamia also demonstrate that the Indus Valley/Harappan people also had trade ties with the Near East and may have had some influence on that region.

The Indus Valley/Harappan Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization began around the modern sites of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Ganweriwala, and Kalibangan, among other places, beginning around 3200 BC. The first phase of the civilization is known as the “Early Harappan phase” and lasted until about 2600 BC. This era of Indus Valley Civilization is known as an “era of regionalization,” were the various important sites in the Valley developed somewhat independently, but a clear Harappan cultural identity was emerging as evidenced by unique pottery. Because of this, some scholars view the Early Harappan phase as a transition from the Neolithic Period to the Mature Harappan phase. [1]

The “Mature Harappan phase” of the Indus Valley Civilization took place from about 2600 BC until around 1900 BC. Although there was continuity of Indus Valley cultural traditions from the Early to the Mature Harappan phases, many of the unique hallmarks of the civilization were established after 2600 BC. All of the larger cities and many of the smaller villages featured street layouts according to the cardinal directions, which suggests that the cities were built with some type of advanced astronomical knowledge. [2] Advanced drainage systems and elaborate baths were also a common feature in the larger cities and the three largest cities – Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Ganwierwala – are believed to have had 30,000 to 50,000 people, possibly being capitals of regional kingdoms. [3]

There is no question that it took an incredible amount of technical and political sophistication to build the cities of the Indus Valley, but unfortunately, the inability to read the Indus texts has left scholars guessing as to the type of government that existed. Since there are no known kings or dynasties that ruled in the ancient Indus Valley, some archaeologists believe it was a “stateless” civilization. [4] The Indus Valley Civilization may have lacked a central government and existed more like a collection of city-states as with the Maya in Meso-America or during some periods in Mesopotamia, but the collection of cities wielded an immense amount of influence culturally in south Asia and economically in the Near East.

The Indus Valley’s Cultural Influence

Although the Indus Valley mysteriously collapsed in the early second millennium BC, many scholars believe that some of its cultural traditions were continued by the later peoples and kingdoms of India. Ritual bathing was an important aspect of Indus Valley culture that may have been one of the many features of Harappan religion that were incorporated into the later Vedic and Hindu religions of India. [5] The many seal impressions excavated from Indus Valley sites also indicate religious influences that later Indians possibly adopted. One of those seals, known today as the “Shiva seal,” depicts a human figure wearing an elaborate headdress seated in a yogic position.

Although not all scholars are convinced that the figure represents Shiva or that it is even religious in nature, those who believe it is and that it represents a Harappan religious influence on later Indian religion point to other examples in the Indus Valley that may indicate origins for some Vedic traditions. Structures discovered at the site of Kalibangan have been interpreted by some as being fire altars, which would predate those used by the Aryans at a much later period. [6] Unfortunately, in the absence of a written text, it is impossible to confirm how much, if any, religious influence the Harappans had on later Indian religions.

The Harappans were the first people to develop writing on the Indian subcontinent. Archaeologists have discovered more than 4200 inscribed objects in the Indus Valley, most from Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The Indus writing system employed 419 signs, but unfortunately, even after several valiant attempts to link the writing and language to known languages scholars are still left wondering as to its origins. [7] Some scholars have attempted to link the later Sanskrit language or Dravidian languages to the undeciphered Indus script, [8] which if proven would confirm that that Indus people had an even greater influence on later Indian culture than previously believed. Still, even if the Indus language and script is discovered to not be related to any of the later Indian languages – Indo-European or Dravidian – it was the first written language on the subcontinent and may have influenced the konsep of later writing in India.

The Indus Valley and International Connections

Geographically speaking, the Indus Valley Civilization’s greatest influence can be seen in far away Mesopotamia. The Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization coincided with the Akkadian and Amorite dynasties in Mesopotamia and the Middle Kingdom in Egypt. [9] Several cuneiform inscriptions in the Akkadian language describe how King Sargon of Akkad (ruled ca. 2296-2240 BC) received ships from the land of Meluhha, which modern scholarly consensus places in the Indus Valley. The interaction between the two civilizations became so common that Akkadian texts document Indus interpreters in Mesopotamia. [10] A cuneiform text from the city of Lagash from the same period demonstrates that the Indus Valley people were also involved in trade with that Mesopotamian city.

“When he (Gudea) was building the temple of Ningirsu, Ningirsu, his beloved king, opened up for him (all) the (trade) routs from the Upper to the Lower Sea. . . He imported (lit.: brought out) esi wood from the mountains of Meluhha and built . . . He imported nir stone and made it into a mace with three lion-heads from the Hahhum mountains, he imported gold in dust-form and mounted with it the mace with the three lion-heads. From the mountains of Meluhha, he imported gold in dust-form and made (out of it) a container (for the mace).” [11]

Other texts from Mesopotamia also mention how red stone from the Indus Valley was sent to Mesopotamia, proving that the two civilizations had deep economic ties. Archaeological evidence from the Indus Valley, though, indicates that the connections between the regions may have been even earlier and stronger than previously thought. Excavations of the cemeteries at Harappa and examinations of the human remains indicates that the Harappan people may have been involved in an economic and cultural sphere that was centered in the Iranian Plateau. [12] The human remains from the Harappa cemeteries were compared with other samples from Bronze Age Near Eastern peoples and showed that the Harappans had some biological affinities to Mesopotamian peoples. This discovery seemed to confirm for some scholars the unproven theory that the Sumerians were originally from India, while other scholars believe it may show a link between the Elamites and the Dravidians, although it is not known if the Harappans actually were a Dravidian speaking people. [13]

Excavations at Harappa have also uncovered standardized weights, etched carnelian beads, and different pottery that suggest a connection between the Indus Valley and the people of the Bronze Age Persian Gulf. [14] When all of the archaeological evidence from the Indus Valley is considered along with the archaeological and textual evidence from Mesopotamia, then it is clear that the Harappans exerted an influence that went well beyond the marches of their civilization.

Afsluiting

The Indus Valley Civilization has the distinction of being one of the world’s true primary civilizations, but it is also perhaps the most enigmatic. Unlike ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley was unknown until the nineteenth century and even now it remains somewhat elusive due to its so far undeciphered script. Despite the obstacles of uncovering the Indus Valley Civilization, archaeologists have been able to make great headway over the last several decades and have revealed a civilization that was very influential not only in south Asia but throughout the Bronze Age Near East. Harappan merchants and traders established trade links with Mesopotamia and in the process, there also appears to have been significant genetic and cultural interaction as well. All of these factors ensured that the Harappan people’s influence would continue long after their cities were gone.


El Mirador, Guatemala

El Mirador is the largest pyramidal structure in the world by volume and the largest of five Pre-Classical Mayan cities identified to date. It is located inside the Mirador-Rio Azul National Park and it was completed in 300 BCE. Archeologists and historians who have studied the site reckon that the architectural design and culture proves that the Mayan civilization dates back 1,000 years earlier than thought. The entire site spans 500,000 acres and consists of a 10 square mile civic center and 35 triadic pyramids. Out of these pyramids, the largest &mdash La Danta &mdash is 230 feet tall and it has a volume of 2,800,000 cubic meters. The site also has remains of an elaborate transport network that is billed to have been the world&rsquos first highway system. It is estimated that 15 million man-days went into building La Danta alone.

Ancient civilizations were more sophisticated societies than what has been portrayed in some mainstream Hollywood films. In fact, some past civilizations left behind structural marvels that have stumped modern mechanical and civil engineering experts up-to present day.

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Amazing Facts from Historic Journey of Toilets from Indus Valley Civilization to Modern India

Today is the World Toilet Day. The world celebrates the day to get rid of insanitation, deliver lessons of personal hygiene and save environment from open defecation. Evolution of toilet as a basic need of existence is a most important chapter in the history of human civilization. This basic sanitary system is a link between life and health, society and environment. In India, the journey of toilets began from the Indus Valley Civilization and has been continuing till date.

The history of toilets in India is as old as the Indus Valley Civilization, which had grown in and around Harappa and Mahenjodaro. The archaeological remains of the Indus Valley Civilization bear evidence to the use of water-borne toilets by the Harappan people living at Lothal, which is only 62 km from Ahmedabad. Each house in Harappa had a private toilet with link to the covered drains outside. The architects of the Indus Valley were in the know of sanitary engineering science, which got buried in the grave of the Indus Valley Civilization, thereby leading to the practice of open defecation.

According to some historians, the invention of sitting-type toilet dated back to the Minoan Civilization in Greece, which is older than the Indus Valley Civilization. The Minoans of Crete are credited for the first flushing human waste management system. Rome has its own history of public and private toilets in the bygone times. In ancient Rome, the public toilets had side-by-side seats without any partition. Each seat had a hole, and water kept flowing to flush away excreta. Archaeologists have confirmed the existence of the same toilet system in the Egyptian Civilization, too.

Legend says that the slaves in Rome used to hold urine pots made of silver whenever the members of the royal / aristocratic families felt like urinating while playing cards at dinner parties. Evidences of the use of stools with keyhole for urination and defecation have been unearthed in Thailand and Sri Lanka. The ruins of the Housesteads Roman Fort in Britain have the remains of public loos consisting of seats with holes and without partition. The men used to gossip about everyday matters while using the loos and had sticks padded with sponge to clean the behind.

England witnessed a major development of toilet system in the late 1500s. The invention of the first modern indoor flushing system is credited to John Harrington, who devised the toilet flushing mechanism and installed it for Queen Elizabeth 1. In the 1800s and 1900s, flushing toilets were no longer confined in the royal households. It was gradually reaching out to the common man.

Some stories in the scriptures of India refer to the close relation between men’s frequency of using toilets for defecation and their saintliness / manliness. In those days, wrestlers were believed to be weak if they defecated frequently due to their poor digestive system. Net so, saints were not expected to defecate much because they were supposed to eat as much as needed. Infrequent defecation was considered a saintly habit in some communities of ancient India, while it was a sign of manliness in some other communities. It is said that the menfolk of the Chaga tribe blocked their anus when they attained manhood, in order to exercise their superiority over the fair sex. The ancient Greeks used to believe in the practice of swallowing something and not taking it out.

It was a dark period of human hygiene in the history of civilization from 500 AD to 1500 AD. Protrusions were used for defecation in aristocratic households and forts across India. The excreta were dumped on to the ground and into rivers. The fort of Jaisalmer bears testimony to this offbeat reference to the Indian history of toilets and defecation. In the medieval period, toilets were simple pits with wooden seats on ground. Buitendien, the primitive practice of covering human waste with earth was prevalent in some parts of the Mughal Empire. In the medieval castles of Europe, toilets were vertical chutes with stone seats on the top. These were called “garderobe,” which became wardrobe in the course of time. In Europe, the well-to-do people would wipe their behinds with rags.

The history of toilets for public use is full of twists in several countries. Poor maintenance of public toilets has always been a concern about the wellbeing of people. The Mughal Emperor Jehangir had commissioned the construction of a public loo to be used by as many as 100 families, 125 km away from Delhi, in 1556. But poor maintenance drove the people to defecate in the open. In 1872, the French municipalities mandated private organizations to fund maintenance of public toilets for 20 years.

Several countries implemented measures to improve sanitary conditions. Provision of toilets and construction of cesspools were made compulsory in 1519. The British issued the first sanitation law in 1848 in England. The first sanitation law came to effect in India in 1878. The municipalities were mandated to construct toilets in the slums of Calcutta (now Kolkata), the capital of British India. Toilets got curtains in 1880. The trend came to be known as Belleepoque in France and Edwardian in England. With the onset of 1900, bathroom with loo became an institution all over Europe. Dit was genoem Gushalkhana by the Mughal kings in their times.

The history of toilets has come a long way with evolution of human living and hygiene. Though the developed countries of the world have put an end to open defecation, the developing countries including India, Indonesia, China and Korea are still grappling with the challenges of controlling open defecation. In 2001, the World Toilet Organization was formed to encourage construction of toilets for the sake of public well-being in the developing nations. The journey of toilets will continue in India until every household has access to basic sanitary facilities.

The capital of India got a museum of toilets in 1992. It exhibits different toilet models from 50 countries across the world in three sections – Ancient, Medieval and Modern – spanning from 3000 BC till the 20 th century end. The Sulabh International Museum of Toilets in New Delhi is one of the most offbeat places to visit in India. – Indian Eagle

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2 thoughts on &ldquo Amazing Facts from Historic Journey of Toilets from Indus Valley Civilization to Modern India &rdquo

Minoan civilization is not older than Indus Valley Civilization.

Please mention INDUS TOILET as WORLD first PERSONAL TOILET SYSTEM with a drainage & multiple personal toilets ending in a common space for final exit. ( not public or common village toilet or public toilet with no draiage ) . Otherwise a JUNGLE TOILET IN STONE AGE become WORLD FIRST TOILET.