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Preah Vihear -tempel

Preah Vihear -tempel

Die Preah Vihear -tempel is 'n heilige Angkoriaanse plek op die grens tussen Kambodja en Thailand gewy aan die Hindoe -godheid, Shiva.

Die vroegste geskiedenis van die plek van die Preah Vihear -tempel kan teruggevoer word na die negende eeu nC, hoewel die tempel self en dit wat vandag gesien kan word, meestal dateer uit die elfde eeu.

Die Preah Vihear-tempel is gebou deur die leiers van die Khmer-ryk, eerstens deur koning Suryavarman I (1002-50) en daarna uitgebrei deur Suryavarman II (1113-50).

Die ligging wat bo-op die Dângrêk-berge bestaan, bestaan ​​uit 'n reeks heiligdomme wat bekend staan ​​as 'gopuras' en goed bewaarde, uitgebreide klipgeboue.

Hierdie pragtige ligging is egter ook een van die redes waarom die Preah Vihear -tempel minder gereeld besoek word as ander Angkoriese plekke, soos die jonger eweknie, Angkor Wat. Die eienaarskap van die Preah Vihear -tempel was lank reeds 'n geskilpunt tussen Kambodja en Thailand, wat amper in 'n stadium tot oorlog gelei het.

Amptelik is die Preah Vihear -tempel in Kambodja gevestig, hoewel die webwerf makliker vanaf Thailand bereik kan word. Soldate van beide kante word steeds op die terrein geplaas, en dit is nog steeds 'n redelik wisselvallige gebied. In 2008 het UNESCO die tempel Preah Vihear gelys, wat ook 'n omstrede saak was.


ICC-Preah Vihear, wie is ons?

Die Internasionale Koördinerende Komitee vir die Beveiliging en Ontwikkeling van Preah Vihear (ICC-Preah Vihear) is 'n internasionale koördineringsmeganisme wat in 2014 deur die Royal Government of Cambodia in samewerking met UNESCO geskep is. Hierdie komitee word gelei deur China en Indië (mede-presidentskap) en gevolg deur stigtingslede, waaronder België, Frankryk, Japan, die Republiek van Korea, Thailand en die Verenigde State van Amerika. Die missie van ICC-Preah Vihear is om algemene beleidsaangeleenthede te ondersoek wat verband hou met die beskerming van die uitstaande universele waarde van die eiendom in ooreenstemming met internasionale bewaringsstandaarde en die bevordering van volhoubare ontwikkeling wat deur nasionale (National Authority for Preah Vihear/NAPV) en internasionale vennote.

Die koninklike regering van Kambodja voorsien die permanente sekretariaat van die ICC-Preah Vihear, wat op spesiale versoek ondersteun word deur die uitstuur van 'n professionele personeellid van die UNESCO Phnom Penh-kantoor. Die permanente wetenskaplike sekretaris van die ICC-Preah Vihear koördineer die aktiwiteite van die sekretariaat. In sy pogings om die tempelterrein te beskerm, word die ICC-Preah Vihear bygestaan ​​deur vyf individuele ad hoc-kundiges op die gebied van bewaring, strukturele stabiliteit, geskiedenis en epigrafie, klipbewaring, terreinbestuur en toerisme. Hulle evalueer en ondersoek nuwe projekvoorstelle en projekte ter plaatse en formuleer hul bevindings en aanbevelings in die Tegniese en Plenêre Sessies (onderskeidelik in Maart en September).

Kontakbesonderhede

Nasionale gesag vir die beskerming en ontwikkeling van die kulturele natuurgebied van die Preah Viihear -tempel.

(Phnom Penh) 50 Samdach Paan Ave (214), Phnom Penh Kambodja

(Preah Vihear -tempel) NR62, Thomcheat, Sro Em, Choam Ksan, Preah Vihear

Tel: +855 (23) 219 214 /219 145

Boodskap van Vlaandere

Vlaandere is die noordelike streek van België, met onder meer uitgebreide vaardighede in kultuur, erfenis en internasionale betrekkinge. Vlaandere is 'n betroubare en lojale skenker van UNESCO, wat baie van UNESCO se erfenisinisiatiewe finansier, insluitend hierdie digitale databasis vir die Preah Vihear Wêrelderfenisgebied. As deel van die Belgiese betrokkenheid by die ICC-Preah Vihear, ondersteun Vlaandere graag hierdie databasis wat navorsing en samewerking tussen alle betrokke vennote vergemaklik en moontlik maak.


PREAH VIHEAR: 'N KHMER ERFENIS

Deur Kenneth T. So
25 Julie 2008

DIE KHMER -RYK

Die Khmer-ryk was op sy hoogtepunt tydens die bewind van Jayavarman VII (1181-1215 nC). Sy gebied beslaan die huidige Kambodja, die hele suide van Viëtnam, die huidige Laos, die huidige Thailand en 'n deel van die huidige Maleisië.

Anders as die Khmers, was Thais, destyds bekend as Siameses, nie inboorlinge van die streek nie. Die koninkryk van Thailand, destyds bekend as Siam, het eers in die middel van die 14de eeu in Suidoos-Asië verskyn.

'N Bekende Thaise historikus, Sulak Sivarak, wat 'n genomineerde vir die Nobelprys vir vrede was en die wenner van die Right Livelihood-toekenning, het oor die Khmer-ryk gesê: & quot

Peter Janssan van die Hindustan Times het Sulak Sivaraka weer op 18 Junie 2008 in sy artikel aangehaal: 'Thai invasies van Kambodja, toe die agteruitgang daarvan, het gelei tot die aanneming van baie Khmer kulturele tradisies deur die Thais, waaronder die Hindoe konsep van godskonings en hofrituele, en 'n voortdurende liefde vir Brahman-geïnspireerde swart magie, veral onder Thaise politici & quot. Peter Janssan het verder beskryf dat daar baie meer Khmer-tempels in Thailand geleë is, veral langs die noordoostelike Thailand- Kambodjaanse grens soos Buriram, Surin en Sisaket. Die kaart wat die Khmer -ryk op sy hoogte weergee, word in figuur 1 getoon.


Figuur 1. Khmer -ryk tydens die hoogtepunt van sy beskawing, voor die verskyning van Siam (van Jayavarman II tot Jayavarman VII)

DIE FRANSE BESKERMING

Kambodja was 'n vasalstaat onder Siam tydens die bewind van koning Ang Duong. Kambodja het Battambang, Sisophon en Siem Reap van Siam verloor. Siam het oral in die hof van Oudong spioene geplaas. Om uit die Siam se manakels te kom, het koning Norodom, wat sy pa, koning Ang Duong, opgevolg het, hulp by Frankryk gesoek.

Op 23 Maart 1907, onder die bewind van koning Sisowath, wat sy broer, koning Norodom, Frankryk opgevolg het (as die protektoraat van Kambodja) en Siam 'n grensverdrag onderteken het wat die 1904 -verdrag voltooi het. In die 1904 -verdrag het Siam Tonlé Repou, Mlou Prey, Koh Kong en Stung Trèng aan Kambodja afgestaan. Die 1907-verdrag het daarna die Frans-Siamese kommissie 1907 Frontier Line (figuur 2) opgelewer, wat Preah Vihear onder beheer van Kambodja geplaas het. In die Frans-Siamese verdrag van 1907 het Siam byna al die antieke gebiede van die 16de eeu in Kambodja aan Kambodja afgestaan. Die gebied het Battambang, Sisophon, Siem Reap, Mongkol Borei en Tnot ingesluit (figure 3 en 4).


Figuur 2. Uittreksel uit die Internasionale Geregshofverslag 1962-Die Frans-Siamese Kommissie 1907 (Skaal 1: 200,000) (met vergunning Bora Touch. Nota in blou bygevoeg deur Bora Touch vir duidelikheid)


Figuur 3. Kaart van Kambodja met die gebied wat Siam in 1907 aan Frankryk afgestaan ​​het


Figuur 4. Kaart van die huidige Kambodja Met vergunning: Amptelike kaart deur die koninklike regering van Kambodja voorgelê aan UNESCO vir Preah VihearWorld Heritage List

Ten spyte van hierdie ooreenkoms, het Thailand in 1934 betwis dat die tempel van Preah Vihear aan haar behoort en hul landmeters die grens oorgedra het om Preah Vihear in Thailand se gebied op te spoor. In 1954 beset Thailand Preah Vihear. Op 6 Oktober 1959 het Kambodja, onder leiding van prins Norodom Sihanouk, 'n versoekskrif aan die Internasionale Hof van Justisie (ICJ) van Den Haag, Nederland, gelewer om oor die geskil uitspraak te lewer. Teen die einde van die jaar het Thailand teruggekeer met 'n eis wat Preah Vihear as 'n nasionale argeologiese terrein noem. Op 15 Junie 1962 het die ICJ 'n uitspraak gelewer waarin erken word dat die Tempel van Preah Vihear aan Kambodja behoort, met behulp van die Frans-Siamese Kommissie 1907 Frontier Line as een van die ondersteunende argumente (Figuur 5). 'N Satellietfoto wat Preah Vihear en sy omliggende gebied toon met afbakening van die grens wat deur die Frans-Siamese kommissie 1907 opgerig is, word in figuur 6. Figuur 7 toon nog 'n satellietfoto van Preah Vihear en die Dangrek-bergreeks. Thailand het nooit teen die uitspraak betoog nie. In die loop van die jare het Thailand egter die kaart wat die ICJ-uitspraak weerspreek, eensydig herontwerp (figure 8-10).


Figuur 5. Gebied van die Tempel van Preah Vihear in die Dangrek -berge (Extrapolasie van die kaart erken deur die Internasionale Hof van Justisie, 15 Junie 1962) Met vergunning: Amptelike kaart deur die koninklike regering van Kambodja voorgelê aan UNESCO vir Preah Vihear World Heritage List


Figuur 6. Satellietfoto van Preah Vihear en die omliggende gebied (met vergunning: Bora Touch)


Figuur 7. Satellietfoto van Preah Vihear en die omliggende gebied (met vergunning: Bora Touch)


Figuur 8. Thaise interne werksdokument - die amptelike Thaise kaart (skaal 1: 10 000) met vergunning Bora Touch. Notas in blou en groen Kleure bygevoeg deur Bora Touch vir duidelikheid


Figuur 9. Thaise interne werksdokument-Die kaart van die Frans-Siamese kommissie wat in 1907 gemaak is (skaal: 1: 200,000) (met vergunning Bora Touch. Notas in blou deur Bora Touch vir duidelikheid)


Figuur 10. Uittreksel uit die Aide Memoire of Cambodia Royal Government 1962 (Skaal: 1: 6,000) (met vergunning Bora Touch. Nota in blou deur Bora Touch vir duidelikheid)

Die tempel van Preah Vihear is oorspronklik gebou onder Yasovarman I, 'n Khmer -koning wat van 889 tot 910 nC regeer het. Die tempel is opgedra aan Shiva (God van vernietiger).

Die omgewing van Preah Vihear was ideaal vir 'n Khmer -monarg wat die tempel aan Shiva opgedra het vanweë die skouspelagtige ligging, bo -op 'n hoë krans, meer as 500 meter bo die ondergrond. Lugfoto's van die Preah Vihear -tempels word in die figure 11 en 12 getoon.


Figuur 11. Lugfoto van Preah Vihear wat oor 'n krans hang op die gebied van Kambodja (met vergunning: amptelike foto deur die koninklike regering van Kambodja voorgelê aan UNESCO vir Preah VihearWorld Heritage List)


Figuur 12. Lugfoto van Preah Vihear

DIE THAI het die tesis van hul oorsprong verdraai

Daar is 'n paar Thais in die akademikus, die pers en die media wat fantaseer in hul regverdiging van Preah Vihear wat aan Thailand behoort deur 'n verdraaide tesis te bevorder wat beweer dat Khmer nie dieselfde is as Khorm nie (let op: die Thaise het vroeër ook Khmer genoem Khamin of Khorm). Hulle sê dat Khmer Khamin is, wat verskil van Khorm. Verder sê hulle dat Khorms die werklike inwoners van die huidige Thailand is en dat hulle die bouers was van Preah Vihear, Angkor, en al die antieke tempels wat in Kambodja en Thailand gevind is. Hulle sê dat Khmers nie die afstammelinge van die Angkor -bouers is nie. Daarom probeer hulle by implikasie regverdig dat Thaise mense die ware afstammelinge is van die Khorms, die oorspronklike inwoners van Thailand en die bouers van Preah Vihear en Angkor.

Die Thaise mense het so 'n verdraaide verstand. Om in hierdie verdraaide proefskrif te glo, is soos om te glo dat 'n koeël wat uit 'n geweer skiet om 'n hoek gebuig kan word. Die Thaise is nie net tevrede om alles wat kosbaar is vir Khmers te steel nie en beweer dat hulle hul eie is, soos Preah Ko Preah Keo, Preah Khan Reach, Khmer klassieke dans en musiek, boks in Khmer -styl en Khmer -skrifte & quotAksor Moul & quot ( die Thai noem dit heilige skrifte in plaas van Khmer -skrifte), maar nou probeer hulle selfs Khmer -identiteit steel. Hulle wil Khmer -mense ontneem van enige afkoms.

OPMERKINGS

'N Paar belangrike opmerkings oor die sentrale kwessie van die Preah Vihear -tempel moet onder die wêreld se aandag gebring word. Die volgende is twee onmiddellike besienswaardighede rakende die aangeleentheid van die tempels van Preah Vihear:

  1. Die pers noem steeds dat Preah Vihear 'n ou Hindoe -tempel was in plaas van 'n Khmer -tempel. Preah Vihear is nie 'n Hindoe -tempel nie, maar 'n Khmer -tempel wat gebou is onder die bewind van Yasovarman I, 'n Khmer -koning in die 9de eeu, gewy aan Shiva, een van die Hindoe -gode. As die pers sê dat Preah Vihear 'n Hindoe -tempel is, beklemtoon dit Khmer se eienaarskap en legitimiteit van die tempel. In die moderne tyd is die woordoorlog baie belangrik. Hierdie verduideliking is baie belangrik en dit moet te alle tye beklemtoon word.
  2. Thailand het aanhou aandring om haar eie kaart te gebruik om die betwiste gebied rondom Preah Vihear in plaas van die Frans-Siamese opdragkaart van 1907 op te eis, waar die Internasionale Hof van Justisie (ICJ) sy vonnis gebaseer het op die toekenning van Preah Vihear aan Kambodja. Die kaart was die produk van die verdrag wat deur Thailand en Frans onderteken is (Kambodja was onder die Franse protektoraat) in 1907. Dit is wettig en bindend. Thailand wil sy eie kaart gebruik wat nie bindend is nie en nie deur die Internasionale Hof van Justisie erken word nie. Kambodja moet nie toegee aan die Thaise aandrang om haar eie kaart te gebruik om die geskil van Preah Vihear en sy omgewing te besleg nie.

KAMBODIE EN THAILAND GESAMENTLIKE GEMEENSKAP

Oorspronklik was Thailand gekant teen die voorstel van Kambodja aan UNESCO om die tempel van Preah Vihear op die Wêrelderfenislys te skryf. Thailand het beswaar aangeteken teen die tale en kaarte in die dokument wat Kambodja aan UNESCO voorgelê het waarin die omstrede gebiede rondom Preah Vihear aan Kambodja behoort (figuur 5 en 13).


Figuur 13. Kaart wat deur die koninkryk van Kambodja gebruik word op grond van die kaart wat deur die ICJ erken is as 'n integrale deel van die verdragsbeslegting in sy uitspraak van 15 Junie 1962 (met vergunning: amptelike kaart deur die koninklike regering van Kambodja voorgelê aan UNESCO vir die opskrif van die tempel van Preah Vihear op die Wêrelderfenislys)

Om die steun van Thailand in te win, het Kambodja ingestem om haar aanspraak op die betwiste gebiede rondom die Tempel van Preah Vihear opsy te sit. 'N Gesamentlike mededeling is op 18 Junie 2008 deur H.E. Onder -premier Sok An, wat Kambodja verteenwoordig, en deur H.E. Minister van Buitelandse Sake Noppadon Pattama, wat Thailand verteenwoordig. Die verteenwoordiger van die Verenigde Nasies se Organisasie vir Opvoeding, Wetenskap en Kultuur (UNESCO), assistent-direkteur-generaal vir kultuur, Françoise Rivière, was die getuie. Die gesamentlike mededeling word hierin aangebied.

Klik op die prentjie om dit groter te sien



Figuur 14. Kaart ingedien saam met die gesamentlike kommunikasie (let op: die figuurnommer en die titel van die figuur word deur die skrywer bygevoeg vir duidelikheid)

DIE BETEKENIS VAN DIE GESAMENTLIKE GEMEENSKAP

Nadat die gesamentlike mededeling onderteken is, het die Thaise konstitusionele hof op 8 Julie 2008 met 8-1 gestem dat die gesamentlike kommunikasie wat deur minister van buitelandse sake, Noppadon Pattama, onderteken is om die aansoek van Kambodja om die tempel van Preah Vihear in te skryf as 'n wêrelderfenislys, ongrondwetlik goedkeur. Die uitspraak lui dat die regering die raad moet raadpleeg en goedkeuring van die parlement moet kry voordat hulle 'n ooreenkoms met die buiteland onderteken. 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied.

Ten spyte van Thailand se beswaar, het die UNESCO goedgekeur dat die Tempel van Preah Vihear as 'n wêrelderfenislys op die 32ste vergadering van die vergadering in Quebec, Kanada, op 7 Julie 2008, ingeskryf is.

Dit het gelyk asof Kambodja en Thailand dieselfde filosofie gehad het, maar twee heeltemal verskillende doelwitte.

Die filosofie van beide kante was om te verdeel en te oorwin. Kambodja wou daarin belangstel dat UNESCO die Tempel van Preah Vihear eers as 'n wêrelderfenisgebied noem en later die kwessie van die territoriale geskil rondom Preah Vihear behandel. Aan die ander kant was Thailand veral geïnteresseerd in Kambodja om die territoriale geskil van die aansoek by UNESCO uit te sluit.

Die doel van die Kambodjaanse regering was om te verwag dat die UNESCO -goedkeuring om die Tempel van Preah Vihear op die Wêrelderfenislys te skryf 'n stilswyende manier was om Kambodja se aanspraak op die betwiste gebiede rondom Preah Vihear te legitimeer. Vanuit die oogpunt van die Thaise regering word die handtekening van die Kambodjaanse adjunk -premier op die gesamentlike mededeling egter beskou as 'n deurbraak wat die deur vir Thailand oopgemaak het om die betwiste gebiede rondom Preah Vihear wat sy by die Internasionale Hof van Justisie verloor het, terug te kry. op 15 Junie 1962.

Die eerste vraag het nou ontstaan. Sal die gesamentlike mededeling wat deur die Thaise minister van buitelandse sake, Noppadon Pattama, onderteken is, sedert die Thaise regering haar steun vir die aansoek van Kambodja by UNESCO om die opskrif van die Tempel van Preah Vihear op die Wêrelderfenislys teruggetrek het, nietig word? Dit vereis dat twee persone tango.

Die tweede vraag het gevolg. Is die Joint Communiqué onderteken deur die adjunk -premier Sok An grondwetlik ingevolge die wette van Kambodja? Vereis die regering van Kambodja, net soos Thailand, konsultasie en goedkeuring van die parlement voordat enige verdrae met buitelandse regerings onderteken kan word? 'N Verdrag handel oor die nasionale veiligheid van die land. Daarom is dit te belangrik dat die regering alleen daaroor besluit sonder konsultasie en goedkeuring van die parlement.

Die derde vraag het gevolg. Alhoewel Kambodja die eis van Thailand oor die betwiste gebiede rondom die Tempel van Preah Vihear nie erken het nie, sou die Joint Communiqué die aanspraak van Thailand ietwat geloofwaardig wees? Paragraaf 3 in die Joint Communiqué is baie ontstellend omdat dit sê dat die kaart in figuur 14 ander kaarte vervang, spesifiek die "Schéma Directeur pour le Zonage de Preah Vihear" en al die "kernsone" wat in alle grafika genoem word. Beteken dit dat die Kambodjaanse regering die kaart van die Frans-Siamese Kommissie Frontier1907 Line verwerp? Paragraaf 4 is ook ontstellend omdat dit voldoen aan die eis van Thailand oor die betwiste gebied, in die weste en noord van die Tempel van Preah Vihear (Figuur 15). Die gesamentlike mededeling kan nie in die huidige formaat en begrip gelaat word nie, want dit is nadeliger vir Kambodja, maar voordeliger vir Thailand. Net soos die Thaise, moet die Kambodjaanse konstitusionele hof verklaar dat die gesamentlike mededeling ongrondwetlik was om verdere uitdagings uit Thailand te vermy. Die territoriale integriteit van Kambodja is belangriker as die vermelding van die tempel van Preah Vihear as 'n wêrelderfenisgebied deur UNESCO.


Figuur 15. Onlangse kaart vir dieselfde gebied Unilate saamtrek voorberei en aangebied deur die koninkryk van Thailand. Die geelkleurige gebied dui die eis deur Thailand aan (met vergunning: amptelike kaart van die koninklike regering van Kambodja wat by UNESCO ingedien is vir die opskrif van die tempel van Preah Vihear op die wêreldberiglys)

AFSLUITING

Kambodja doen die regte ding om hulp van die Verenigde Nasies (VN) te soek. Dit is nie in die belang van Thailand dat die VN ingryp in die aangeleentheid van Preah Vihear nie, want sy weet dat Kambodja meer legitimiteit en historiese aanspraak op Preah Vihear en sy omliggende gebied het as Thailand. Die VN sal die uitspraak van die Internasionale Hof van Justisie (ICJ) van 1962 en die onlangse erkenning van die UNESCO wat Preah Vihear op die Wêrelderfenislys ingesluit het, moet oorweeg en nakom. As die VN hom by Kambodja sou bevind, sou hulle Thailand waarskynlik sou vra om hom uit die betwiste gebied te onttrek.

Thailand speel hardbal omdat sy weet dat Kambodja militêr nie by haar pas nie. Kambodja het geen ander keuse as om die VN se hulp te vra nie. Met die VN se hulp sal Thailand dit nie waag om verder in die Kambodja -gebied in te dring nie. As daar oorlog sou ontstaan, sou Thailand deur die wêreld veroordeel word en sy sal haar gesig verloor. Boonop wag die Moslems nou op die regte geleentheid om weer probleme in die suidelike deel van Thailand te veroorsaak, as laasgenoemde besluit om oorlog te voer met Kambodja. Thailand kan nie bekostig om oorlog te voer met Kambodja nie. Thailand kan op kort termyn wen, maar sy sal op die lange duur verloor.

Thailand vrees die VN, want onder die vyf permanente lede kan Kambodja daarop reken dat Frankryk, China en Rusland haar sal ondersteun. Wat die standpunte van die VSA en die Verenigde Koninkryk betref, kan niks seker wees nie, maar as hierdie twee lande die wette en historiese feite reg interpreteer, moet hulle tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat Thailand geen aanspraak en grondslag het oor Preah Vihear en die omliggende gebied wat sy afgestaan ​​het nie na Kambodja tydens die Frans-Siamese verdrag van 1907.

Die VN kan nie die ICJ -uitspraak ignoreer wat Preah Vihear erken het wat tot Kambodja behoort nie, want anders sou dit chaos veroorsaak vir die internasionale oppergesag van die wette. Die Frans-Siamese kommissie 1907 Frontier Line ondersteun die bewering van Kambodja oor die betwiste gebiede rondom die tempel van Preah Vihear.

Daar is geen twyfel nie, beide gebaseer op die hof en historiese feite, dat die tempel van Preah Vihear 'n Khmer -erfenis is en aan Kambodja behoort, en dat die betwiste gebied ook aan Kambodja behoort.


Preah Vihear: 'n oorsig

Bangkok Post het gister 'n artikel bevat oor die geskiedenis van die betwiste Preah Vihear -tempel sowel as die geskiedenis van die geskil.

'N Fyn lyn
Bangkok Post, 22 Mei 2008

'N Fyn streep
Die soewereiniteitsgeskil oor die heilige plek Preah Vihear duur voort
VERHAAL DEUR PICHAYA SVASTI, FOTO'S HOF VAN MUANG BORAN PUBLISHING HUIS

Ses-en-veertig jaar gelede het die Wêreldhof beslis dat Preah Vihear, oftewel Prasat Phra Viharn, onder Kambodjaanse soewereiniteit val.

Maar die betekenis van Preah Vihear lê verder as die toutrekwedstryd waarmee Thailand en Kambodja daaroor betrokke was. Die antieke tempel is 'n historiese simbool van onderlinge verhoudings tussen verskillende mense en oortuigings. Dit verteenwoordig ook 'n sosiale en kulturele geskiedenis van die mensdom.

“Preah Vihear behoort nie aan Kambodja of Thailand nie, en dit behoort aan heilige magte. Dit was 'n heilige plek vir pelgrimstog, het die antropoloog en argeoloog Srisakra Vallibhotama gesê.

Volgens hom was Preah Vihear, oftewel Sri Sikharesvara, 'n gebied waar mense van beide kante rituele kon uitvoer.

Waterskeidingslyne word tradisioneel deur ou mense beskou as niemand se land nie, wat aan niemand behoort nie. Om die gebiede oor te steek, moes rituele uitgevoer word.

Gestig in die bewind van die Kambodjaanse koning Yasovarman (889-900) onder die Devaraja (goddelike koningskap) kultus, staan ​​Preah Vihear op die Peuy Ta Di-krans van die Phra Viharn-berg. Die berg is deel van die Phanom Dong Rek -reeks wat tussen die Laer Khmervlakte en die Korat -plato lê.

Diegene wat die Laer Khmervlakte en die Koratplato wou oorsteek, moes rituele uitvoer of bywoon. Heiligdomme is gebou as huise vir geeste genaamd Phi Ton Nam (waterskeidingsgeeste) en het ook gedien as nie -amptelike grensposte.

In die ou tyd het konings en mense hulde gebring aan die geeste daar. Phra Viharn -berg is die tuiste van Phi Ton Nam en dan van 'n god wat die plaaslike mense beskerm het.

Historikus Dhida Saraya skryf in die boek Preah Vihear (Sri Sikharesvara) dat die Khmer -konings die heiligdom gebou het, maar die heiligdom omvat verskillende mense en verskillende oortuigings. Die ware betekenis en betekenis van die berg Phra Viharn is dus universeel.

Prasat Phra Viharn was as pelgrimstog 'n universeel en internasionaal heilige plek. Verskeie groot Khmer -konings het daar die mag van Shiva, die Universele God, gevestig oor die plaaslike gode en voorouers van die mense.

Volgens haar boek, tydens die bewind van koning Suryavarman I (1010-1050), was vooroueraanbidding en animisme sentrale oortuigings van die Devaraja-kultus. Die koning het 'n skakel tussen homself, as die Godskoning, en Sri Sikharesvara van die berg Phra Viharn gevestig.

Koning Suryavarman II (1113-1150) het die Sri Sikharesvara-heiligdom uitgebrei en gesentraliseer, wat die tempel die kern van die staatskultus, die Devaraja en die rituele sentrum van voorvaderlike aanbidding maak.

Dit het die gewoonte geword om hulde te bring aan die Kamaratengjagata Sri Sikharesvara, terwyl die boere hul jaarlikse fees vier.

Volgens Srisakra het mense van beide kante na Preah Vihear gekom om rituele uit te voer, soos hulle tot vandag toe doen. Daarom wonder hy waarom Frankryk geglo het dat die heiligdom aan Kambodja behoort.

Die moeilikheidmaker was Frankryk, omdat hulle die konsep van grense bekendgestel het. Ou mense het net 'n simbool gesoek voordat hulle van die een gebied na die ander oorgegaan het, maar Frankryk het die streep getrek om te aanvaar, het die argeoloog gesê.

Om kolonisasie te oorleef, het Siam gekies vir Westerse kennis en het gevolglik in die gedrang gebring van gedagtes en teorieë wat deur die supermoondhede gestel is.

Solank Thailand die interpretasie van Frankryk sanksioneer dat enige webwerf met Khmer -inskripsies tot die ou Khmer -ryk behoort, sal daar geen oplossing wees nie, het hy opgemerk.

Dit was Frankryk wat die verhaal begin versprei het dat Angkor die middelpunt van die beskawing was en dat enige grond met Khmer -inskripsies onder die Khmer -ryk was. Hierdie model is deur Frankryk geskep en deur ons aanvaar, en#8221 het die akademikus bygevoeg.

Volgens hom het die Engelse professor O. W. Wolters aan die Cornell -universiteit, New York, inskripsies ontleed en gevind dat Suidoos -Asiatiese ryke nie gesentraliseerde state is nie, maar eerder gereguleer is onder die Mandala -stelsel wat Indiese tradisies waarneem. Dit was 'n netwerk van groot en klein streke wat die koning van die konings vereer het, bekend as Jakrapatdiraj of Rajathiraj.

Siamese konings was lief vir Laotiaanse en Khmer -koninklikes soos hul eie familielede, en 'n paar Kambodjaanse konings is in die Siamese hof opgevoed.

Trouens, die verhouding tussen Thai en Khmer was nie erfgenaam nie, maar was eerder gebaseer op ondertrouery, het hy opgemerk.

Imperialistiese lande het die Mandala-stelsel in hierdie streek egter geïgnoreer en politieke en administratiewe strukture in Europese styl ingestel om die Asiatiese koninklikes en die elite-klas te manipuleer.

Hulle het ook 'n ander hulpmiddel aangewend en#8211 grensafbakening – tydens konflik met ander lande in Suidoos -Asië. Kaarte het 'n belangrike bewys geword vir die maak van ooreenkomste of eise ingevolge wette, het Srisakra gesê.

Hy het daarop gewys dat Thailand Preah Vihear aan Kambodja verloor het omdat Siam die Franse kaart herken het, wat die heiligdom in Kambodjaans getrek het.

In 1904 het Siam nie daarin geslaag om verteenwoordigers na grensafbakening -opnames deur Frankryk te stuur nie. Dit het Frankryk in staat gestel om Phra Viharn op die kaart op te neem, gemaak deur Frankryk en Kambodja, wat in 1907 aan Siam gewys is, al was dit in stryd met die beginsel van waterskeidingslyne.

Gebaseer op die teorie van die waterskeidingslyn, lê die Phra Viharn -berg op Thaise gebied. Volgens die Franse kaart is die berg binne die Kambodjaanse grens geleë.

Om te bewys dat die heiligdom van Phra Viharn, van die voet van die berg tot bo, op Thaise gebied is, gooi net water uit die top van die berg en kyk aan watter kant dit dreineer. Die feit is dat die water na die Korat -plato en na die Lam Trao -reservoir in Si Sa Ket vloei, het Srisakra opgemerk.

In 1959 het Kambodja die geskil na die Wêreldhof geneem. Dit het die kaart wat deur Frankryk ingevolge die Verdrae van 1904 en 1907 in kaart gebring is, as belangrike bewyse voorgestel.

'N Ander belangrike bewys was 'n groepfoto van die Franse goewerneur van Kampongthom, 'n paar Franse amptenare in uniform en prins Siam ’s, naby 'n Franse vlag wat op volle mas in die Phra Viharn -kompleks gewaai is. In 1929 besoek prins Damrong, destyds die president van die Royal Academy en 'n voormalige minister van binnelandse sake, 'n aantal historiese plekke in Si Sa Ket, waaronder Prasat Phra Viharn.

Op 15 Junie 1962 het die Wêreldhof beslis dat die ruïnes van Prasat Phra Viharn onder die Kambodjaanse soewereiniteit is op grond van die feit dat Thailand nooit 'n protesoptog teen die genoemde kaart ingedien het nie. Tog het die hofuitspraak ruimte gegee vir argumente oor die omliggende grond waar die grens nie gevestig is nie.

In sy onderhoud met Matichon Daily op 9 Januarie 1992 het MR Seni Pramoj, die prokureur wat die saak vir Thailand hanteer het, gesê: 'Daar is nog steeds 'n mate van misverstand dat die hele Phra Viharn -berg aan Kambodja behoort. Dit is nie so nie. Die Wêreldhof het nie so 'n uitspraak gelewer nie. Die Wêreldhof het slegs 'n besluit geneem om die besitreg oor die heiligdom en die omliggende gebied terug te gee, nie die hele berg nie. ”

Die twis het weer ontstaan ​​nadat Kambodja tydens die Unesco -konferensie van verlede jaar in Nieu -Seeland verlede jaar 'n mosie ingedien het om Preah Vihear as 'n nuwe wêrelderfenisgebied aan te wys. Tot nou toe is die benoeming vasgesluit. 'N Besluit word egter binne die volgende maand van die Wêrelderfeniskomitee verwag.

Tharapong Srisuchat, direkteur van die departement vir beeldende kunste en die kantoor van argeologie, het gesê dat die Thaise kant, deur middel van diplomatieke prosedures, probeer om onderlinge samewerking te bewerkstellig om Preah Vihear aan te wys as 'n wêrelderfenisgebied, want die uitspraak van die Wêreldhof dek slegs die heiligdom, nie die berg nie.

Volgens hom moet elke wêrelderfenisgebied bestaan ​​uit sy kern, kernsone en buffersone, wat sirkelvormig moet wees, maar die voorstel van Preah Vihear in Kambodja is in die vorm van 'n waaier met die kernsone aan die onderkant.

Die omgewing van die tempel op Thaise gebied, insluitend die plek van antieke gemeenskappe aan die voet van die Phnom Dong Rek-bergreeks, steenhoutsnye op die Pha Mor I-Daeng-krans, kliphoutbronne en die Sa Trao-reservoir, is ook belangrik en moet saam met die heiligdom in die benoeming gaan.

Hy het daarop gewys dat pogings van Kambodja om slegs die heiligdom te registreer, die historiese waarde van Preah Vihear kan beskadig en bestuursplanne kan bederf.

Thaise owerhede en geleerdes hoop egter steeds op 'n gelukkige einde.

Srisakra stel Thailand voor om met Kambodja te onderhandel oor die verklaring van die betwiste gebied as 'n niemandsland en die deel van voordele as dit 'n wêrelderfenisgebied word.

Thailand moet gereed wees om die saak te bespreek en genoeg bewyse hê om aan te toon dat Preah Vihear nie 'n uitstaande wêrelderfenisgebied kan wees sonder sy omgewing nie, het hy gesê.

CHRONOLOGIE VAN GELEENTHEDE MET BETREKKING TOT DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN PREAH VIHEAR

1833 tot 1846 Siam en Viëtnam was besig met 'n 14-jarige oorlog, bekend as die Annam-Siam-oorlog, wat daartoe gelei het dat Siam soewereiniteit oor Kambodja herbevestig het. In die vroeë Bangkok -tydperk was Kambodja onder Thaise beheer. Tydens die bewind van koning Rama III en IV het Siamese konings die Kambodjaanse konings gekroon.

1861 Frankryk regeer oor Saigon en Suid -Viëtnam en stel belang in Laos en Kambodja.

7 Desember 1863 'n Verdrag is onderteken tussen Siam en Kambodja, wat die status van Kambodja as 'n afhanklike staat van Siam bevestig.

Frankryk het Siam genooi om die kroning van prins Narodom by te woon.

1867Siam en Frankryk het 'n ooreenkoms onderteken dat die hele Kambodja, behalwe Seam Reap, Battambong en Srisophon, onder Franse beskerming was.

1893 Frankryk het die oostelike oewer van die Mekongrivier beslag gelê en Siam gedwing om 'n verdrag te teken om besit te verleen.

1907 Siam en Frankryk onderteken nog 'n verdrag waarvolgens Siam die besitreg oor Seam Reap, Battambong en Srisophon aan Frankryk moes gee in ruil vir die herverkoop van Dan Sai, Trat en alle eilande wat wissel van Laem Ling tot Kood Island.

1929 Prins Damrong het 'n aantal historiese plekke in Si Sa Ket besoek. By Prasat Phra Viharn is hy verwelkom deur die Franse goewerneur van Kampongthom en 'n paar Franse amptenare in uniform. 'N Franse vlag is in die kompleks gehys. Hierdie voorval is later as bewys in die Wêreldhof aangevoer.

1939Luang Vichitr Vadakarn, the director-general of the Fine Arts Department, inspected the map of the area and discovered that a stream, instead of the watershed line, was used as the boundary. The government, headed by Field Marshall Plaek Pibulsonggram, tried to reach agreement with the French government in Indochina. The Thai government made an announcement and openly put the area under its protection on October 11, 1940.

1940The Fine Arts Department registered Prasat Phra Viharn as a national historical monument. The announcement was made once again in the Royal Gazette on December 22, 1959.

1941Thailand was allied with Japan in World War Two under the Tokyo Pact, and regained all lands lost to France during the reign of King Rama V. After the defeat of Japan, Thailand had to return these to France.

1949France raised the issue of the Phra Viharn Mountain, protesting Thailand’s occupation of the site. After this, Thai-Cambodian relations deteriorated steadily.

1958Cambodia made several claims that the Phra Viharn Mountain belonged to it. In August, Bangkok declared a state of emergency in six provinces along the Cambodian border.

December 1, 1958Cambodia terminated diplomatic ties with Thailand.

October 6, 1959The Cambodian government took the case to the World Court.

June 15, 1962The World Court handed down a ruling that Preah Vihear was under Cambodian sovereignty.

July 15, 1962Thailand evacuated everything from Phra Viharn Mountain, including a Thai flag placed on the cliff.

1970-1975Cambodia re-established diplomatic ties with Thailand and opened Preah Vihear as tourist attraction.

1975-1991The civil war in Cambodia became a barrier to visits to Preah Vihear.

1992Cambodia reopened Preah Vihear as a tourist spot after civil war.

2007Cambodia, during the Unesco conference in Christchurch, New Zealand, filed a motion to nominate Preah Vihear as a World Heritage site.

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Comments 1

Written by The Phnom Penh Post
Thursday, 10 July 2008

Communique from Norodom Sihanouk
Phnom Penh, 8 July 2008

I. Certain journalists are writing that the main entrance to the Preah Vihear temple faces Thailand and not Cambodia.

II. The Thais have said, say and have written and write that one of the “proofs†of Thai ownership of Preah Vihear is constituted by the fact that access to the temple is infinitely more easy from the Thai side rather than from the Cambodian side.

III. These journalists and these Thais seem to ignore the following historic facts, ones which amply prove that the mountain and the temple of Preah Vihear are 100% Cambodian and belong 100% to Cambodia.

a/. The construction (10th and 11th centuries) of Preah Vihear by two successive Khmer Kings and is a purely Khmer work.

b/. The mountain and the temple of Preah Vihear could be found, during the 10th and 11th centuries, “very much in the interior†of Kampuchea, in the Khmer Empire, of which the borders extended for hundreds of kilometers, to the north, the east and west, much further than the current Cambodian borders with Thailand and Laos.

As a consequence, the mountain and the Preah Vihear temple could be found not on the Cambodia-Siam (Thai) border but “deep in the interior†of the Kingdom (of the Khmer Empire) and the “main entrance†of Preah Vihear “looked†not towards Siam (Thailand) but to Kampuchea.

c/. The International Court in the Hague, which in 1962, rendered justice to Cambodia, did not ignore all this, and let me, once again, offer them a respectful and admiring homage.

d/. Thanks to Khmer Sovereignty and the Khmer empire (Angkorian in particular) , present day Thailand is very rich in Angkorian style Khmer temples and monuments.

[It is] absolutely wrong and gives proof to the meanness, which, in Thailand, causes to Cambodia and its people undeserved and anachronistic troubles concerning the temple of Preah Vihear, instead of devoting ourselves to the harmonious and fruitful development of our friendship and our (authentic) brotherhood (Thai-Cambodian).

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By Khmerization
7th Marc, 2011

Preah Vihear temple was constructed by the Khmer kings Suryavarman I (1002 -1050) and Suryavarman II (1113 -1150) and was controlled by subsequent Khmer rulers until the late 18th century. It fell under Siam’s (Thailand’s) control around 1794 when Siamese rulers, taking advantage of a weak and fractured Cambodia, annexed Battambang, Sirisophorn, Tonle Ropov, M’lou Prey (parts of present day’s Stung Treng province) provinces and Siem Reap province which administered Preah Vihear temple before Preah Vihear province was created in 1962 (1).

Due to internal feuding and prolonged and protracted internal strife, Cambodia has become so weak in the later part of 18th and 19th centuries that Cambodia’s eastern part of the Mekong River was controlled by Annam (Vietnam) and the western part of the Mekong River was controlled by Siam (Thailand).

Die Franse Protectorate and the War with Siam

Fearing that Cambodia might eventually be totally swallowed by Vietnam to the east and Thailand to the west, King Norodom (Sihanouk’s great grandfather) had invited King Napoleon III of France to establish a protectorate over Cambodia in 1863.

In 1867, the Siamese rulers recognized France’s protectorate over Cambodia, but Siam still maintained control over Battambang, Sirisophorn, Tonle Ropov, M’lou Prey provinces. In 1883, King Norodom had signed a treaty to put Cambodia under the French colony. Since then, France had always wanted to recover Cambodia’s and Laos’ lost provinces from Siam. In 1886, France fought a brief war with Siam when combined French, Cambodian and Laotian troops pushed Siamese troops beyond the left bank of the Mekong River in Laos in an attempt to liberate all Laotian and Cambodian provinces on the western side of the Mekong River, including Cambodia’s Tonle Ropov and M’lu Prey provinces and Laotian Champassak province.

In 1893, France fought another naval war with Siam on the Gulf of Thailand when French naval forces defeated Siamese naval forces and captured Siamese provinces of Trat and Chantaburi and French naval vessels had reached Bangkok through Menam on 8th July 1893 and gave King Chulalongkorn the ultimatum of France’s wish to re-integrate provinces on the left bank of the Mekong River to France control (2). On 29th July 1893, Siamese King Chulalongkorn had accepted the term of France’s ultimatum. On 3rd October 1893, France and Siam signed a treaty to return all Laotian provinces and the Cambodian provinces of Tonle Ropov and M’lou Prey to French control. France did not demand Siam to return Battambang and Siem Reap province, where Preah Vihear temple was situated, to Cambodia yet, but it had put a clause in the treaty to ban Siam from stationing any Thai troops in the provinces.

However, under the provision of article 3 of the 1893 treaty, France has the rights to recover all Laotian and Cambodian provinces annexed by Siam and provided unrestricted French powers to ensure the protection of all Laotian and Cambodian ethnic minority living in those provinces. The article stipulates “about the rights of France to provide protection to Khmers, Annamites (Vietnamese) and Laotians living inside Siam. France has the obligations to provide protection to these people by laws not to be oppressed by Siamese authority”. This clause means that Siam had lost its sovereignty over all Laotian and Cambodian provinces annexed by Siam. Furthermore, it would mean the return of all of these provinces to Laos and Cambodia.

Realising that Siam had been hard-pressed by France, Siamese King Chulalongkorn embarked on a tour to Russia, Germany, England and then France to garnish support and to lobby them to press France to abandon its ambition to recover all annexed Laotian and Cambodian provinces. In France, he asked French President Félix François Faure to cancel the 1893 Treaty. The French president agreed to cancel the 1893 treaty if Siam agreed to return Battambang, Siem Reap and Chantaburi to French control.

The Return of Battambang and Preah Vihear

In 1902, France cancelled the 1893 treaty and renounced its rights to protect all Khmers, Laotians and Vietnamese living in Siam, by only accepting the return of M’lou Prey and Tonle Ropov provinces, which cover only 20,000 km2. This agreement outraged the French public and the French parliament refused to ratify it. In 1904, France had negotiated a treaty and forced Siam to return M’lou Prey and Tonle Ropov to Cambodia. Under a secret clause in this treaty, Siam is required to transfer all police powers to France in Battambang, Siem Reap and Sirisophorn provinces.

In 1906, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau ordered the French Protectorate Authority to enter into a negotiation with Siam for the return of many more Cambodian annexed provinces. The 1907 Franco-Siamese treaty was concluded on 23rd March which required Siam to return Battambang, Siem Reap (Preah Vihear province was still under Siem Reap) and Sirisophorn provinces to Cambodia. The French parliament ratified the treaty 20 days later. The Mixed Franco-Siamese Commission, which was established a few years earlier, began conduct border surveys to demarcate the Cambodian-Siamese borders and to plant border posts. After the demarcation works were completed, the Franco-Siamese Commission commissioned the topographic maps called the Dangrek Map. The Dangrek Maps (Annex 1) were produced and they put Preah Vihear temple under Cambodian sovereignty. Siam was given 11 copies of the maps and it had accepted the maps in their entirety (3).

The 1907 Franco-Siamese Treaty

The 1907 Franco-Siamese Treaty only allows the return to Cambodia of the provinces annexed by Siam after 1794. Under the treaty, Siam can retain all other 13 provinces it had annexed before 1794, including Kauk Khan (Sisaket), Surin, Nokor Reach Seima (Korat) , Buriram, Sakeo, Sankeac, Krat (Trat), Chantaburi, Neang Rong (Rayong) and so on, which had been annexed before 1794 (4). Under this treaty, Preah Vihear temple was put under Cambodia’s sovereignty.

The Thai Occupation of Preah Vihear temple and the 1962 ICJ Verdict

In 1954, less than one year after Cambodia gained independence from France and taking advantage of a weak Cambodia, Thailand sent its troops to occupy Preah Vihear temple. After 5 years of unsuccessful negotiations, Cambodia filed a complaint to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague in 1959. On 15th June 1962, the ICJ, with the majority votes of 9 to 3, awarded the ownership of Preah Vihear temple to Cambodia. The judgment was accepted by Thailand and the 4.6 sq. km2 so-called “disputed zone” had not been claimed by Thailand for 46 years. The maps commissioned by the Franco-Siamese Mixed Border Commission in 1907 and provided to Thailand in 1908, and were used by the ICJ to reach its verdict in 1962, put the so-called “4.6 sq.km2 disputed zone” squarely under Cambodian sovereignty. With the majority votes of 9 to 3, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has adjudged:

“Thailand is under an obligation to withdraw any military or police forces, or other guards or keepers, stationed by her at the Temple, or in its vicinity on Cambodian territory”.

Thailand was obligated to withdraw all its troops and return all stolen artefacts to Cambodia. And in order to celebrate and to commemorate the ICJ victory over Thailand as well as to prevent future takeover of the temple by Thailand, the Cambodian government had created a new province in 1962 called Preah Vihear province, to honour the temple.

However, on 15th July 2008, one week after Unesco inscribed Preah Vihear temple on 7th July 2008, Thailand sent its troops to re-invade and re-occupy the Preah Vihear surroundings, the temple vicinity, and triggered a border conflict till today.

The so-called 4.6 sq.km2 disputed zone

The 1962 ICJ verdict (5) stated clearly that Thailand is under an obligation to withdraw troops from “the Temple, or its vicinity on Cambodian territory.” Maps from the 1907 treaty put the temple and its areas, the so-called 4.6 sq. km2, or the temple’s “vicinity”, claimed by Thailand, inside Cambodia. So, the 4.6 sq. km2 did not exist and the 1962 ICJ verdict was clear: the so-called 4.6 sq. km2 areas or the temple’s “vicinity” currently claimed by Thailand have been judged to belong to Cambodia.

By the 1962 verdict of the ICJ, the 1907 Franco-Siamese Treaty and the 1908 map, the 4.6 sq. km2 did not exist and therefore Thailand’s current act of aggression against Cambodia by forcibly occupying the 4.6 sq. km2 zone constitutes an invasion of a sovereign state that could proceed to cause a regional instability. Cambodia, as a member of the international community, should seek international legal remedy one more time to settle the matter once and for all.


Posted By Khmerization to KI Media at 3/10/2011 06:49:00 PM


Preah Vihear Temple

Preah Vihear Temple is situated at Preah Vihear Province of Cambodia at the most spectacular location of any Khmer site at the Thailand border. It is about 100 km northeast of Siem Reap.

It’s a large temple that sits on the top of Chuor Phnom Dangrek which is used to divide the Khorat Plateau from the lowland Cambodian plain. It is around 550 meters from the ground level of Cambodia side and makes a more secluded Angkor Wat alternative.

Taking around 300 years to complete the construction by a few famous Khmer king, Preah Vihear temple was built at first from 893 by the king Yasovarman I who ruled the country from 889 to 910.

The vast majority of temple society was established by king Suryavarman and finally the temple was finished during the reign of king Suryavarman II, the famous king who was the founder of amazing temple of Angkor Wat at Siem Reap province. King Suryavarman II, known as a great khmer king conquered the Khorat Plateau, Lopburi and even further north in Thailand. He then protracted the Khmer Empire to the south into the northern part of the Malay Peninsula and the border of Pagan in Myanmar.


Preah Vihear: Visiting Cambodia’s contentious Angkorian ruins

Situated atop a 525m high plateau in the Dangrek Mountains, Preah Vihear is one of the most dramatically located Khmer temple complexes known to have been constructed. At least two hours are needed to explore this 800m long sanctuary that was built by seven successive Khmer rulers over the course of two centuries. So why is the temple controversial?

The Dangrek Mountains act as a natural border between Cambodia and neighbouring Thailand and as a result the temple has been the centre of a lengthy ownership dispute between the two countries. Dating back to the 1950s, this contention has gone way beyond heated exchanges of words and strained political relations. Both countries had a strong military presence in the area for a long period of time and have very nearly gone to war on more than one occasion over the ownership of the temple. In 1962, the International Court of Justice in The Hague ruled that the temple was situated on Cambodian soil, but not long after this ruling Cambodia was dragged into its darkest period of history by Pol Pot and his evil regime. During this time, the temple remained accessible from the Thai side until it was occupied by the Khmer Rouge in May 1975 (*).

(*) The Khmer Rouge made many attempts to capture Preah Vihear prior to May 1975 but because of the temple’s hilltop (fortress-like) location, they were unsuccessful. It is said that Preah Vihear temple was the last place in the country to fall to the Khmer Rouge.

A monk in contemplation at Preah Vihear temple

Off-limits to everyone during this time, the temple eventually reopened to visitors in 1998 but again, access was only possible from the Thai side. This was a relatively peaceful period in the temple’s chequered modern day history. Indeed Kirsty and I first visited Preah Vihear in 2007 from Thailand. We had to leave our passports at the Thai checkpoint but apart from that, we were free to wander around at will. However, in 2008 the temple received UNSECO World Heritage status. This re-ignited hostilities between the two nations but this time the dispute was centred on the land that surrounded the temple rather than the site itself. Up until 2011, there were periodic exchanges of gunfire between Thai and Cambodian troops which resulted in fatalities and injuries on both sides. With each country blaming the other for the military outbreaks, the International Court of Justice once more intervened and in 2011 ordered both countries to withdraw their military forces without delay.

One of the first structures you come across after entering the site

This didn’t exactly happen according to plan (*) but a Mexican stand-off style truce has been in place since then and the temple is now receiving more visitors than ever before, albeit from the Cambodian side as the access from the Thai side remains closed indefinitely.

(*) Cambodia still has a large military presence around the temple. We saw plenty of troops, bunkers and heavy artillery during our visit in February 2016. We cannot vouch for the situation on the Thai side.

Security at Preah Vihear Temple

As mentioned above, Preah Vihear temple has been peaceful since 2011 and thousands of visitors have come to see the site. That said, the situation is still a delicate one, particularly for the Thais who arguably lost this dispute, so it is always prudent to check the latest security situation before signing up for a visit.

Location of Preah Vihear Temple

It can be a little tricky to pinpoint Preah Vihear temple on a map particularly as there is a town called Preah Vihear City which is over 100km from the temple itself. On Google maps the closest place to the temple that is easily identifiable is Angkrong which is where the ticket booth and turn off to Preah Vihear temple is located. The closest place to Preah Vihear temple with any accommodation is the small town of Sra Em (see below). Click on the map below to see Preah Vihear’s location in relation to other places in Cambodia.

How to get to Preah Vihear Temple and Where to Stay

Once remote and difficult to reach, the construction of excellent roads from all directions (Siem Reap, Anlong Veng, Stung Treng) (*) now means that visiting Preah Vihear temple is more straightforward than it used to be.

(*) These roads were not only constructed to service the military movement in the region but also to ensure access for the Cambodian people – the temple is a massive source of nationalist pride for the Khmers.

The road to Preah Vihear

However, public transport in this region is limited. There are a few public buses and some shared taxis servicing Preah Vihear City and Sra Em from Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Kompong Thom but there is no public transport to the temple itself. You either need to visit on a tour, have your own transport, take a taxi or rely on moto (motorbike taxi) drivers to get you there.

It is possible to visit Preah Vihear as a day trip from Siem Reap. You couldn’t do this on public transport but there are numerous travel agencies in Siem Reap offering tours. It’s a long day and will involve a lot of driving. Alternatively, consider staying overnight in either Preah Vihear City or the small town of Sra Em. Preah Vihear City is 115km from the Preah Vihear temple ticket booth while Sra Em is 30km away. Accommodation options are generally superior in Preah Vihear City but it is obviously further away from the site. The exception is the Preah Vihear Boutique Hotel in Sra Em, which is the most upmarket place to stay in the region. It’s quite expensive for what you get and it’s a bit rundown these days but it’s worth considering a splurge for one night.

Upon arrival at the ticket booth, you’ve still got to arrange separate transport to take you up the mountain to the temple itself. The road up to the temple is in good condition (smooth and paved), but the reason alternative transport is required is that the final stretch travels up an incredibly steep incline which regular cars cannot handle. The options are either a 4WD pickup truck or a moto.

Die prys van a moto is US$5 per person whilst a truck costs US$25 for up to six people. Both prices include waiting time. The transportation arrangements are well organised, with trucks clearly labelled with numbers. Although it was busy with tour groups and locals when we arrived (we visited during Chinese New Year), we didn’t have to wait too long before we were on our way. We took a truck and the journey to the top took around 15 minutes.

Note the last transportation to the temple leaves at 3.30pm and visitors are ushered out at around 4.30pm. An hour is not long enough to do the temple justice so arrive earlier if you are planning to visit in the afternoon.

If you have your own 4WD vehicle or motorbike you are allowed to drive to the foot of the temple by yourself but be warned, it is very steep!

Entrance fee for Preah Vihear Temple

Until recently, visiting the temple used to be by donation only but the authorities have now introduced an official US$10 per person entrance fee which you pay at a separate counter before arranging your transport. The ticket is checked at the foot of the hill. You should also carry your passport with you as this may be checked.

Is Preah Vihear Temple worth visiting?

This depends on how much time you have and your level of interest in Angkorian temples. Put bluntly, if you have limited time in Cambodia, and in particular at the temples of Angkor, then I would say it is not worth trying to include a visit to Preah Vihear. It is quite a hassle to get there and involves a reasonable amount of expense. Closer to Siem Reap, the Roluos temples, Beng Mealea and Koh Ker are examples of lesser-known temples that are worth seeing and require less time and expense to visit.

On the other hand, if you are into your temples (as we are) and want to see all of the big hitters then Preah Vihear is a must. Equally, if you have plenty of time in Cambodia and are travelling from Siem Reap to the Laos border, the province of Ratanakiri or across to Kratie for example then Preah Vihear is a great place to break the journey.

In short, if you have plenty of time and are up for an adventure, go for it! If you only plan on visiting Phnom Penh and Siem Reap then don’t spend one of your precious Angkor days visiting Preah Vihear.

And finally …

Apologies for the poor quality of our photos. There was a huge amount of slash-and-burn farming going on in the countryside surrounding the temple during our visit and as a result, the quality of the air was poor and the visibility hazy.

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Preah Vihear Temple

Preah Vihear Temple is located in Northern part of Cambodia, in the province of Preah Vihear and is about 625 km from the capital city of Phnom Penh. It is situated in a pleasant environment with an attractive countryside slightly east of the midsection of the Dongrek Mountains, a forested range of hills averaging 1,500 2,000 feet (450 600 m) that divides Thailand and Cambodia. The temple was built on the hillside overlooking Cambodia some 600 meters below, from the edge of a gigantic cliff. It is about 625 meters above sea level.

The Temple of Preah Vihear is dedicated to Shiva. The Temple is composed of a series of sanctuaries linked by a system of pavements and staircases over an 800 meters long axis and dates back to the first half of the 11th century AD. Nevertheless, its complex history can be traced to the 9th century, when the hermitage was founded. The Khmer began building Prasat (temple) Preah Vihear in 9th century atop of a mountain cliff, overlooking a vast plain and mountain range. At the time, Cambodian western territory extended as far as present Burma and northern territory as far as Chieng Mai, Thai 's province. For centuries, it was a sanctuary dedicated to Hindu god Shiva. The construction was accelerated during the reigns of the kings Suryavarman I (1002 -1050) and Suryavarman II (1113 -1150). Its architecture resembles the style of Koh Ker (early 10th century), and Banteay Srey (late 10th century). It adapted to the natural environment and religious function.

Suryavarman II, the main architect of most Khmer temples during his reign, wanted to increase the prestige and natural beauty of the Khmer temples, changed the original small sanctuary into one of the greatest Khmer temples of all times. The result was the finest carving statues that depicted the highest standard and unique Khmer architecture. There are many exceptional quality carved stone ornamentations which made the temple extraordinary. Undoubtedly, the temple has the most remarkable setting of all the Khmer architects anywhere in Cambodia.

The temple complex runs about 800 meters north-south axis. It has four levels and four courtyards. The temple has four levels and four courtyards. Palace Building was the King 's residence when he came to pay homage to the mighty God. The two wings were the shelters for the pilgrims. The main temple is used for the high-ranking supreme divinities.

The front stone stairway is a main passage on the North side. The stairway is 8 meters wide and 78 meters long. The first flight has 162 steps. The first landing is a large stone statue. Another 54 flight of steps 4 meters wide and 27 meters long leads up to the second landing. It is also decorated with stone statue. The Nagaraj Courtyard is a stone-paved, 7 meters wide by 31.8 meters long leads up to the first level. The stair rails are in the form of seven-headed snakes called "Ngu Suang " facing North towards the temple. A shorter avenue leads to level 3, the first courtyard of the temple which resembles Angkor Wat architecture. A short causeway decorated with nagas leads to the inevitable level 4 where the second courtyard, known as Galleries, and the Main Sanctuary are located.

The art of carving found at Preah Vihear buildings represents an outstanding masterpiece of Khmer architecture, both in plan and in the detail of its decoration. The building materials, mainly carved stones, express well the values of the property. The site is exceptional for the quality of its architecture, which is adapted to the natural environment and the religious function of the temple, as well as for the exceptional quality of its carved stone ornamentation. The temple complex located at the remote area and has been abandoned for so long that the integrity of the property has been compromised. It has been rediscovered and going forward, protective measures for the Temple must be adequately addressed.

This main 11th century temple site was a dispute between Cambodia and Thailand. During the French colonial era, Cambodia lost a vast area of territory. Today, the temple is situated on the edge of a plateau at Cambodian-Thai border. The geographic location is a subject of an emotional dispute between Thailand and Cambodia. In 1904, Siam and the French colonial authorities, based on their border commission works, placed Prasat Preah Vihear on Thai side. In 1907, French officers drew up a new map, showing the temple on Cambodia side. In 1954, Thai forces occupied the temple following the withdrawal of French troops from Cambodia. Cambodia protested, and in 1959, asked the International Court of Justice to rule on the ownership.

Former U.S. secretary of state Dean Acheson was an attorney for Cambodian government. Thailand 's legal team included a former British attorney general, Sir Frank Soskice. Based on the Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1904 and 1907, the border line between Cambodia and Thai along the Dongrak Mountains, on June 15, 1962, the Justice at the Hague officially found that Preah Vihear Temple situated inside Cambodia territory, by a vote of 9 to 3.

The Preah Vihear site is flat and is easily accessible from Thai ' side. From Cambodia ' side, it is hilly and rough to get to the top. Over the years when Cambodia plunged into a civil war, visitors come to visit Preah Vihear from Thailand. Preoccupied with the war and unrest, Cambodian government was not able to effectively control its border and the tourism is booming at the Thailand 's side. When the war was over, the Cambodian government took control and has attempted to make the site easily accessible. On July 8, 2008, the World Heritage Committee decided to add Prasat Preah Vihear to the World Heritage Site list, sparkling another emotional claim of ownership. Without a doubt, the temple has the most remarkable setting of all the Khmer architects anywhere in Cambodia. Moreover, an International Court ruled in 1962 awarded the ownership to Cambodia.


Aktiwiteite

Our pick: Explore the new World Heritage Preah Vihear, a Hindu temple on the top of mountain in the border and untouched area of Angkor Beng Mealea with 1000 carvings in the sandstone.

Historical tour

Historical tour to the Prasat Preah Vihear temple complex

Arts & Crafts

Visit Chum Ka Mo - a silk-weaving centre of landmine and polio victims

Excursions

Photo tour, art tour, archeology tour

Soft Adventure

Walking, biking and land excrusion to north Cambodia


Reference List

Bjorge, E 2014, The evolutionary interpretation of treaties, Oxford UP, Oxford.

Ciorciari, JD 2014, ‘Request for interpretation of the judgment of 15 June 1962 in the case concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand)’, The American Journal of International Law, vol. 108, nr. 2, pp. 288-295.

Klabbers, J 2013, International Law, Cambridge UP, Cambridge.

Rylatt, JW 2013, ‘Provisional measures and the authority of the international Court of Justice: Sovereignty vs. efficiency’, Leeds Journal of Law and Criminology, vol. 1, no.1, pp. 45-69.

Traviss, AC 2012, ‘Temple of Preah Vihear: Lessons on provisional measures’, Chicago Journal of International Law, vol. 13, nee. 1, pp. 317-344.

Wolfrum, R, Seršić, M & Šošić, T 2015, Contemporary developments in international law, Brill, Boston.


Kyk die video: Khemarak Sereymon - Preah Vihear Saksei Snaeh (Oktober 2021).