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Kan 'n heerser 'n huldeblyk van 'n onafhanklike prins eis?

Kan 'n heerser 'n huldeblyk van 'n onafhanklike prins eis?

Die Poolse Wikipedia oor die slag van Kowal (1327) sê (myne vertaal, miskien op sommige plekke hertog en prins word nie korrek gebruik nie):

In 1327 begin Władysław I Łokietek [die Poolse koning] met die proses om die [Hertogdom van] Masovia van Pole te ondergeskik te stel. Die suksesvolle proses was om Łokietek 'n kans te gee om die daaropvolgende Poolse lande te verenig, toegang tot die Teutoniese [Orde] grense te vergroot en die betrekkinge met die geallieerde Litaue te verbeter. Die verdeelde Masovia is toe regeer deur: Rawa [Mazowiecka] prins Siemowit II, Czersk prins Trojden I en Płock prins Wacław, wat op 2 Januarie 1326 in Brodnica 'n verdedigingsverdrag met Teutoniese ridders onderteken het. Die verdrag was gerig op aggressiewe en aanspraakmakende politiek van die Poolse koning en sou deur die Orde die onafhanklikheid en integriteit van Mazovië waarborg. Die feit dat onderhandelinge met die Teutonic Knights nie deur Władysław Łokietek aanvaar is nie. Na weiering van hulde aan die Poolse koning deur die heersers van Mazovië, val Poolse troepe in Julie 1327 die Płock -prinsdom Wacław binne, terwyl die Litouwers van Gediminas - land van Siemowit II. In ooreenstemming met die verdrag het die Teutoniese [ridders] hulp verleen aan die prins van Płock.

(Die oorlog is uiteindelik deur Pole gewen, maar Masovia het daarin geslaag om onafhanklik te bly).

Natuurlik verstaan ​​ek dat so 'n soort oorlog in daardie dae algemeen was, en dat daar baie verskillende kon wees casi belli, maar die vraag is of 'n koning (of 'n ander heerser) sou kon aanvraag 'n huldeblyk van iemand?

Die Wikipedia -artikel oor vasale is baie kort, so ook Britannica -artikel, maar ander bronne sê ook nie dat dit verpligtend was om 'n senior (heer) te hê nie en die stelsel word as 'n soort kontrak getoon.

(Moet asseblief nie voorbeelde insluit waar 'n heerser vasaal geword het as gevolg van 'n verlore oorlog nie).


Ek sal begin met twee aannames (OP: korrigeer my asseblief as dit nie die bedoeling was nie).

  1. Die vraag is relatief tot 'n spesifieke tyd (Middeleeue, ongeveer 10de tot 14de eeu), plek (Wes -Europa) en die samelewing (feodalisme).
  2. Die term "prins" kan in 'n breë sin aangeneem word om ander edeles met 'n plaaslike magsbasis in te sluit (baronne, grawe, ...)

Die term "huldeblyk" kan twee verskillende betekenisse hê. Volgens die Collins English Dictionary kan ons ook in 'n feodale konteks beskik

a. die daad van respek en trou wat 'n vasal aan sy heer gedoen het. Sien ook trou

of

b. iets gedoen as erkenning van vasalage

Dit dek miskien redelik goed die twee aspekte van die verhouding tussen hoof- en minderjarige here, vanuit die oogpunt van die minderjarige (afhanklike) party. Aan die een kant het hy die groot heer die nodige respek geskuld, miskien uitgedruk deur 'n plegtige belofte. Aan die ander kant moes hy sy heer bystaan ​​wanneer dit nodig was - wat 'n wedersydse onderneming was deur beide partye.

Hierdie dubbele aard van die verpligtinge van die minderjarige heer word moontlik weerspieël deur die formele daad van trou. In Katalonië uit die 12de en 13de eeu het die taamlik seremoniële vorm van homagium ore et manibus was goed gevestig en is ten minste tot die middel van die 14de eeu in Valencia gedokumenteer [1]. Die minderjarige heer beloof sy getrouheid in die woord "erts", maar plaas homself ook simbolies in die hande van "manibus".

Terug na die vraag:

  • Kan 'n heerser hulde van 'n onafhanklike prins eis in die sin (b) van militêre hulp? Ek dink nie, as die prins werklik onafhanklik van die heerser was, dit wil sê nie afhanklik was van die heerser se militêre mag om sy domein en posisie te behou nie. Dit gebeur gereeld, toe klein vasale aan die rand van 'n koningsinvloedgebied ver genoeg van die mag se middelpunt was en genoeg plaaslike invloed opgebou het. Byvoorbeeld, die tellings aan die einde van die 8ste en 9de eeu, Marca Hispanica, was in teorie vasale van Karel die Grote en sy afstammelinge, maar was in die praktyk baie onafhanklik.
  • Kan 'n heerser eerbetoon eis in die sin (a) van respek en trou? Dit is miskien 'n meer komplekse vraag. Die regsgrondslag van die vasaal se posisie was in die feodale stelsel die gebied wat die hoofheer hom gegee het. As hy openlik met die terme van sy verhouding pronk, sou hy in wese sy eie wettige reg om die grond en die mense te besit ondermyn. Dit is heel anders as om 'n geskikte verskoning uit te dink om nie op die dagvaarding van die heer vir mans te reageer nie ('n slegte oes, plaaslike probleme wat aandag benodig, ... wat ook al). Ek is onder die indruk dat die prins baie seker sou moes wees van sy eie posisie om die gevaar te loop om so ver te gaan.

[1] Culturas Políticas Monárquicas en la España Liberal, Mateu Rodrigo Lizondo, Universitat de Valencia. ISBN: 8437093252


Kan 'n heerser 'n huldeblyk van 'n onafhanklike prins eis? - Geskiedenis

Daar word gesê dat die regering 'n noodsaaklike euwel is. Die gesegde blyk sonder verdienste te wees. Want kan enigiets tegelyk noodsaaklik en boos wees? Alle regerings het min of meer 'n geskiedenis gehad van kwaad doen. Uit hierdie ervaring volg dit egter nie dat hulle goed van hul kwaad onderskei kan word nie. Regerings — veronderstel dat 'n behoorlike beperking van hul aktiwiteite — noodsaaklik is en nie boos nie. Hulle boosheid begin wanneer hulle buite perke tree.[1]
—Leonard Read


7 dinge wat u nie geweet het 'n Middeleeuse prinses kan doen nie

Baie sprokies vertel dat prinsesse jare lank net op torings gewag het en op ridders gewag het om hulle te red, niks meer as dekoratiewe pionne wat hul pa kon verruil nie. Maar die lewens van historiese prinsesse skets 'n heel ander prentjie. Hier, deur die lewens van die vyf dogters van Edward I, deel historikus Kelcey Wilson-Lee sewe lesse oor wat dit was om 'n ware Middeleeuse prinses te wees ...

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 21 Maart 2019 om 09:13

Middeleeuse prinsesse kon 'n kasteel beveel

In 1293 trou Eleanor, die oudste dogter van Edward I, met Henri, die heerser van die klein provinsie Bar in die huidige Noord-Frankryk. Vier jaar later baklei Henri naby Lille toe hy deur vyandige Franse magte gevange geneem en as gevangene na Parys geneem word. Terwyl haar man in die gevangenis was, het Eleanor die verantwoordelikheid vir die beveiliging van die land opgedra.

Soos die skrywer Christine de Pisan uit die 14de eeu geskryf het, moet 'n prinses "weet hoe om wapens te gebruik ... sodat sy gereed kan wees om haar mans te beveel indien nodig." Eleanor het die oorblyfsel van Henri se leër versamel om haar huis - die kasteel by Bar - te verdedig en aan haar pa en ander bondgenote geskryf om geld in te samel vir Henri se losprys, om die erfenis van haar jong kinders suksesvol te beskerm.

Byna 30 jaar tevore het 'n ander prinses met die naam Eleanor 'n paar maande lank Dover Castle teen haar eie broer, koning Henry III, gehou tydens die opstand wat gelei is deur haar man, die rebellebaron Simon de Montfort. Na die beslissende geveg in Evesham, waarin Eleanor se man en oudste seun vermoor is, het die onvermoeide prinses nietemin voortgegaan en 'n belegermotor ingebring om die kasteel te verdedig en die kusposisie te gebruik om haar jonger kinders na die buiteland te stuur met geld vir hul onderhoud.

Middeleeuse prinsesse kon trou uit liefde

Joan of Acre, Edward I se tweede dogter, trou eers op 18-jarige ouderdom met 'n veel ouer man-Gilbert de Clare, 'n 46-jarige geskeide wat 'n lastige magnaat in die koninkryk van haar vader was. Toe hy vyf jaar later oorlede is, was sy weduwee uiters geskik: jonk, bewys vrugbaar (as 'n ma van vier) en in besit van een van Engeland se waardevolste boedels. Tesame met haar koninklike konneksies, bewys die prinses 'n sterk versoeking vir magtige Europese heersers en kon sy maklik by 'n ryk hof ver van Engeland beland het.

Maar Joan het verlief geraak op 'n oorweldigende, maar grondlose jong man in die oorblyfsel van haar oorlede man, Ralph de Monthermer. Joan was vasbeslote om nie van haar geliefde te skei nie, en trou met Ralph tydens 'n geheime seremonie wat haar gelofte van eerbetoon aan haar vader oortree het (ryk weduwees wat grond direk van die monarg gehou het, het die koning se toestemming nodig gehad om weer te trou, aangesien hul nuwe mans bemagtig sou word deur beheer van hul boedels). Die koning was woedend, maar uiteindelik vergewe hy sy koppige dogter, wat daarin kon slaag om haar boedels en onafhanklike inkomste te behou, sowel as die man vir wie sy lief was.

Hulle kon lees en skryf

Vroeg in die 14de eeu het Maria van Woodstock, die vierde dogter van Edward I, 'n geskiedenis van die bewind van haar vader opgedra. Dit is in die Anglo-Normandiese dialek van Frans geskryf wat Mary gepraat het, wat daarop dui dat sy die boek self wou lees. Die noue fokus op die belangrikste oomblikke in haar lewe lyk amper outobiografies.

Maria was nie alleen om te lees nie. Alhoewel 'geletterdheid' in die Middeleeuse Engeland vlot in die lees en skryf van Latyn beteken (wat byna niemand behalwe priesters, 'n paar nonne en 'n klein aantal sekulêre mans en vroue kon bereik nie), is Mary en haar susters geleer om te lees deur hul opgevoede moeder, Eleanor van Castilië. Hulle het genoeg Latyn gehad om groot gebede op te sê, omdat hulle geleer het om hul briewe te oefen op psalters en boeke van ure wat daarvoor gekoop is in Cambridge. En hulle was baie vertroud met Anglo-Normandiese romans, geskiedenisse en toegewyde werke, meestal voorgelees in klein groepies saam met ander vroue.

Selfs skaars as lees was die vermoë om die uitdagende lettervorms van 'n Middeleeuse skrywer te skryf, maar prinsesse kon hulself ook toegewy het aan hierdie besonderse vaardigheid. Aankope van skryfborde wat oor 'n paar jaar aangeteken is, toon dat Mary se oudste suster, Eleanor, tydens die laat tienerjare die skryfkuns beoefen het.

Middeleeuse prinsesse sou voortdurend reis

Intrige en tragedie het Elizabeth, die laaste van Edward se dogters en 'n weduwee op slegs 18, in die somer van 1300 huis toe gebring uit Engeland uit Holland. Wanhopig om haar pa weer te sien, reis Elizabeth van die Lae Lande na Londen en dan noord tot by Carlisle, waar sy en die koning herenig is. Die reis van see en land het twee maande se byna konstante reis geneem, maar Elizabeth was, net soos haar susters, gewoond aan die buitengewone afstande wat afgelê is deur jare se rondreis.

Die Engelse hof in 1300 moes nog afgehandel word. Dit was in die komende eeue glad nie meer soos die paleise in Versailles en Whitehall nie, en lyk meer soos 'n rondreisende sirkus met die koning in die middel. Op en af ​​op die platteland het die monarg, sy vrou, hul kinders (van ongeveer agt jaar oud) en groot persone - van ridders, klerke en bediendes van baie verskillende rang - in konvooie te perd en kar gereis. Dikwels het hulle net 'n nag of twee in koninklike kastele, aristokratiese huise en kloosters gestop voordat hulle verder gegaan het. Hulle verhuis om in te gaan op boedels en om hul majesteit aan hul onderdane in die hele land te betoon.

Prinsesse soos Elizabeth het gereeld saam met hul ouers gereis, maar ook onafhanklik met hul eie huishoudings. Hulle sou redelik gemaklik bo-op 'n opgesaalde, smalrugpalperd sit, of minder aangenaam in 'n vaste wielwa, vol met fluweelkussings, wat min gehelp het om die onvermydelike skommelinge op afgeronde grondpaaie te demp.

Hulle kon kastele bou

Nie lank nadat sy aan die einde van die 1290's by haar man se hof in Brussel aangesluit het nie, het Edward se derde dogter, Margaret, 'n plan nodig gehad. Haar man, Jan, die hertog van Brabant, het baie openbare sake gevoer met 'n opeenvolging van minnares wie se invloed haar eie bedreig het. Margaret het 'n alternatiewe hof nodig - 'n forum weg van Jan se minnaresse, êrens waar sy kon voorsit wat wenslik genoeg was om kragtige hofdienaars en selfs haar man te versoek. Nie een van die bestaande hertoglike huise was groot genoeg om te volstaan ​​nie, en daarom het sy haar eie gebou op die terrein van 'n ou jaglodge in Tervuren in België.

Die bou van kastele hou meestal verband met verowering. Die eerste motte- en bailey -kastele in Engeland verskyn in die bewind van William the Conqueror, en Margaret se pa het 'n indrukwekkende vesting van vestings in Noord -Wallis opgestel nadat hy die prinsdom verower het. Maar die konstruksieprogram van Edward het meer as net militêre mag op die Walliese landskap opgelê; sy kastele het delikate tuine, dekoratiewe klipwerk en uitgebreide simboliek, en hul grootsheid was 'n bewys van die mag van die koning selfs ver van Londen. Margaret, wat as kind die Walliese kastele besoek het, het by haar pa geleer en by Tervuren 'n paleis geskep wat haar eie posisie in Brabant bevestig.

Middeleeuse prinsesse kan dobbel

In die somer van 1306 het Maria van Woodstock 'n pelgrimstog onderneem ten koste van haar vader na die groot heiligdom van St Mary in Walsingham. Maar hoewel die prinses op 'n buitengewoon vroeë ouderdom van ses 'n non was, bedek in die Amesbury Priory, was dit geen asketiese, kontemplatiewe reis nie. In die loop van 'n maand, toe hulle van Northampton na Walsingham en terug na Amesbury reis, word Mary en haar meisies deur groepe minstrels vermaak en heerlike feeste geëet met baie wild, braaivleis en vis. In totaal het hulle meer as die bedrag bestee om 'n hele jaar lank 'n ridder se huishouding te finansier.

Maar ten spyte van die vrygewigheid van die koning, was Mary drie keer gedurende die maand gedwing om boodskappers na haar pa te stuur en bedel vir beduidende kontantbedrae. Die non het 'n voorliefde vir goud (en het astronomiese skuld by juweliers in Londen opgedoen), maar haar grootste dekadensie was om geld op dobbelstene te verloor. Middeleeuse aristokrate het gespeel op vaardigheidspeletjies soos skaak, en op gelukspeletjies soos dobbelstene. Baie, soos Maria, het probleme ondervind om groot skuld af te betaal, maar min kon staatmaak op die hulpbronne van die kroon om dit te red-die prinses-non was gelukkig dat haar pa keer op keer gelukkig was om haar verliese te dek.

Hulle kon die koning uitdaag

Joan van Acre was nog nooit bang vir haar pa nie. As jongman het sy met die vaders van haar vader gestry, 'n groter huishouding geëis toe sy verneem dat sy minder betaalde bewaarders het as haar susters (en gevolglik minder invloedryk lyk). Sy het ook 'n suster se troue skielik gemis - blykbaar om te bewys dat sy dit kon doen - kort nadat haar eie huwelik haar groter onafhanklikheid gebied het. As volwassene trou sy teen die wense van haar vader (en haar eie eerbetoon), en betaal selde haar groot skuld aan hom terug.

Maar haar mees direkte nadeel van die gesag van die koning was moontlik in Julie 1305, toe Edward beslag lê op die boedels en inkomste van sy seun, die toekomstige Edward II, om die prins te berispe oor sy gedrag en die kommerwekkende bevoordeling van die hofdienaar Piers Gaveston. Verstuur het Joan haar eie seël na haar broer gestuur en hom opdrag gegee om dit te gebruik om te betaal vir alles wat hy wil. Die gebaar was 'n direkte uitdaging vir haar pa, en min kon met so 'n vrymoedigheid weggekom het. Maar die ou koning was genoeg gewoond aan sy dogter se eiesinnige gedrag, en sodra 'n kastige prins Edward sy seël se seël terugbesorg het, word niks meer van die voorval genoem nie.

Kelcey Wilson-Lee is 'n historikus en die skrywer van Daughters of Chivalry: The Forgotten Children van Edward I (Picador, 2019)


  • In die huidige wêreld moet u 'n Vrymesselaar wees om mag of roem te verkry
  • Om by die Vrymesselaars aan te sluit, moet u aanbeveel word en dan verskeie seremonies ondergaan waarin u verskeie eed van geheimhouding herhaal wat u nie kan verbreek nie, anders word u gedood.
  • Vrymesselaars het verskeie geheime handseine wat aan mekaar bekend is, waardeur hulle met mekaar kommunikeer. U kan dit self ondersoek, maar hier is 'n grafiek wat ek gevind het

  • Die meeste mense hoog in Vermaak, Musiek, Media, Onderwys, Politiek en Godsdiens is Vrymesselaars en jy sal verskeie in die video sien hoe hulle hul handgebare doen.
  • Minstens 14 van ons Amerikaanse presidente was Vrymesselaars
  • Kennedy is vermoor omdat hy van plan was om hul geheime bekend te maak
  • Vrymesselaars is verbind en is deel van die Tempeliers, die Jesuïete, Sioniste en die Illuminati
  • Vrymesselary is Satanisme in vermomming
  • Vrymesselaars glo dat Satan die ligdraer is, goed en suiwer, en dat God die onderdrukker is en Jesus die Valse Messias is
  • Hulle glo dat ons tans in die hel is en dat wanneer die New Age kom, Satan sal regeer en God verslaan sal word.
  • Hulle glo dat Satan dapper en edel was om God se heerskappy te verwerp en 'n oorlog in die hemel te veroorsaak waaruit hy geval het en 1/3 van die engele saamgeneem het
  • 90% van die Vrymesselaars weet niks hiervan nie. Eers as u die hoë grade bereik, word u ingelig dat u Satan werklik aanbid
  • Die hoogste graad wat u in FreeMasonry kan bereik, is 33 grade. 33 omdat Satan 1/3 van die engele neergegooi het toe hy geval het.
  • Die Kerk van Satan is gestig deur 'n messelaar van 33 grade
  • Charles Darwin was 'n Vrymesselaar
  • Die handsein wat hierbo in rooi omring is, is die teken van 666
  • Vrymesselaars beskou mense wat nie messelaars is nie as veragtelik, onkundig en onheilig. Hulle haat Christene
  • Vrymesselary is 'n sekskultus. Die alles sienende oog (een van hul simbole) verteenwoordig die manlike orgaan
  • Hulle rig obeliske regoor die wêreld op. Die obelisk is die manlike orgaan
  • Die natuur is hulle morele god. Doen soos jy wil is hul belangrikste gebod
  • Vrymesselaars hou van kinderopoffering en mishandeling. Hulle offer kinders aan hul god Satan. Hulle doen dit met bloedrituele en martel kinders en onskuldiges.
  • Meer as 8 miljoen kinders word jaarliks ​​in die wêreld vermis en word nooit gevind nie
  • Vrymesselaars haat Christenskap en demokrasie
  • Die pousdom en die Britse monarg is almal vrymesselaars
  • Ons US $ 1 is bedek met vrymesselaarsimbole agterop.
  • Die New Age en new agers is deur FreeMasons begin.
  • Miljarde mense moet sterf sodat die New Age kan gebeur
  • Hulle glo dat Jesus boos is omdat hy die menslike natuur ontken en mense met sonde belas, terwyl Lucifer mense van sonde bevry
  • Een van die simbole van metselwerk is die tweekoppige arend, wat 2 teenoorgestelde kante verteenwoordig. Een goed, een sleg, maar albei lei tot dieselfde uitkoms.
  • Bestel uit chaos. Hulle skep die probleem, blameer iemand anders, en spring dan in om die probleem op te los as die mense hulle vra om te help (dink aan Covid en die entstof)
  • Hulle beplan die Nuwe Wêreldorde al lank, lank.
  • Die World Economic Forum -simbool is 'n 666 -simbool (moet in video gesien word)
  • Google se logo is ook 666 (weggesteek)
  • Die stigter van die KKK was 'n Vrymesselaar
  • Mormonisme is gebaseer op die Vrymesselary
  • Vrymesselary omvat Boeddhisme en Sionisme (nie Judaïsme nie)
  • Hulle omhels en glo in die Noahide-wette, wat op die oog af dalk goed klink, maar een daarvan is 'n anti-afgodswet wat die dood deur onthoofding insluit as u dit oortree. (Jesus word deur hulle beskou as 'n afgod)
  • Waarom het Chanel 'n slim Guillotine geskep?
  • Elke leier van die wêreld het die Noahide -wette onderteken

21 opmerkings:

Welgedaan Marylu, welgedaan. Ek onthou 'n paar van die dinge wat jy gepos het wat ek lankal vergeet het. Aan al die Vrymesselaars, vroue van The Eastern Star, Demolays vir jong seuns, Rainbows vir jong meisies en enige ander organisasie wat met die Masonic Lodge verband hou. Jy kan daaruit kom. U hoef nie tot slawe te wees deur die ede wat u afgelê het nie. Daar is vergifnis in Christus. Vra hom net om jou te vergewe. Hy is regverdig, waar en getrou om jou van al jou sondes te vergewe en jou van alle ongeregtigheid te reinig.

Hallo Terry! Ja, jy is heeltemal reg. Dit is nooit te laat om uit hierdie Sataniese kultus te kom nie. Dankie dat u my daaraan herinner het om dit te sê. Jesus wag altyd by die deur vir elkeen wat na Hom draai !! Sterkte vir jou en jou vrou!

Ek is grootgemaak in die SBC, en my pa was 'n Vrymesselaar toe ek klein was. Hy het dit op 'n stadium verlaat. My ma glo nie daar is iets verkeerd daarmee tot vandag toe nie. Sy is ook dol oor DJT, en is deur Billy Graham gered. Hy het subtiel werke verlossing geleer. Die vrouens word blykbaar gebruik om die mans te werf, aangesien die man blykbaar moet vra om aan te sluit.

Ek het paranormale aktiwiteite in ons huis gesien toe ek klein was. Blykbaar het niemand anders dit gedoen nie, en ek is ook nie geglo nie.

Walt Disney was ook 'n Vrymesselaar, en sy hele organisasie is boos.

Al wat ek kan sê is Wow, Cheryl. U het eerstehands kennis van die kwaad in u eie huis gehad. Dankie ook vir die herinnering aan Walt Disney. Ek het hom pas by die lys gevoeg.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJOJ53kAA-8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEmqF2FQ02Y lynmelvin.blogspot.com/
Mary, hier is nog 3 goeie video's oor die konvergensie van eindtydtekens. Natuurlik probeer ek net om Bybelse kykers te sien vir 'n skakel-doel.
Dankie vir die uitstekende plasing op die Vrymesselaars. U het 'n uitstekende werk gedoen om die baie lang video te dek! Soveel Bybelse konvergensie, soveel gebeur oral, dit laat jou kop draai! TITUS 2 V 13 !! MARANATHA !!

dankie, Ron. Ek het eintlik al die eerste 2 video's gekyk. Groot verstand, nè? Ek sal binnekort die artikel deur lynn lees. Ons het kleinkinders vandag. :-) Baie dankie vir die oorspronklike artikel oor die Vrymesselaars! Ek bid dat dit en hierdie plasing sommige mense wakker maak. Maranatha.

Ron, DANKIE dat jy die ongelooflike video gedeel het. Wat 'n oogopener.

Jammer, maar moes 'n onderbreking tussen die tweede skakel en die derde skakel van
lynmelvin.blogspot.com/

Hallo MaryLu, sjoe, ek weet al 'n geruime tyd van die gevare/kruisdoeleindes met die Christendom van vrymesselary, maar dit is werklik 'n oogopening. Ek het die verwysing na Barbara Bush opgesoek om die ouerskap te probeer verifieer-ongelooflik. Daar is ook 'n paar ander organisasies wat versigtig moet wees-hoewel dit nie so verraderlik is as metselwerk nie. Toe ek op die universiteit was, het ek by 'n universiteit aangesluit. Nadat ek weer gebore is, jare later, het ek al hoe meer ongemaklik geraak met die lidmaatskap. Ek het nie aktief gebly na die universiteit nie, maar was steeds lid van 'n groep wat sy lidmaatskap op eksklusiwiteit baseer. Ek onthou hoe ek die na -haas -partytjiebesprekings van potensiële kandidate gehaat het oor hul 'kwotasie' of nie. Ek was nie eens 'n Christen nie, maar ek het my baie daaraan gesteur. Toe onthou ek die inwydingseremonie, wat die eerbetoon aan 'n beskermgodin insluit. Ek het uiteindelik die hoofkwartier geskryf om my lidmaatskap te verbied en verduidelik dat ek as Christen nie die organisasie kon ondersteun nie. Dit is so maklik om onskuldig bedrieg te word. Maar soos u daarop wys, hoe hoër een in die vrymesselary is, hoe meer verlig is hulle. Daar kan op hierdie stadium geen & quotinnocent & quot -deelname wees nie. Dit is regtig eng om die lys van bekende messelaars in die verlede en die hede te lees. Hoe in die wêreld moet 'n mens weet op wie om te vertrou? Jesus alleen.

Dankie Judy. Ja, dit is baie maklik om vandag mislei te word! Daarom het Jesus en die Apostels ons keer op keer gewaarsku! Sjoe, ek het dit nie geweet van meisies nie. Dit is baie eng .. veral dat so baie van ons kleintjies die geloftes na ander gode neem. Ek bid elke dag dat mense wakker word .. veral Christene wat vasgevang is in Satan se leuenweb. Ons is gewaarsku, maar so baie slaap. Die Here Jesus wen en sal oorwin!

Alles so baie waar. My pa was 'n vrymesselaar en het bo -op sy plaaslike lodge gekom. Daar was soveel geheimhouding. Al die gesange het geestesongesteldheid en seksuele mishandeling in my huis gebring. 'N Paar jaar gelede, nadat ek die boek van Derek Prince gelees het "Blessing of vloek: u kan kies," het ek my stem bekeer vir my pa se rol in die vrymesselaars, en my lewe het onmiddellik verander. Ek het nog nooit so 'n vloed van die Heilige Gees beleef soos ek daardie dag gehad het nie. Dit was asof Hy teen die vloek oor my gedruk het, en sodra dit opgehef is, kon hy uiteindelik binnekom waar Hy wou wees. Ek lag so hard vir dertig minute agtereenvolgens, onbeheerbaar. Die boek het my deur soveel vloeke gelei wat ons deur die geslagte voor ons geplaas word en dié wat ons op onsself plaas sonder om dit te besef. Vrymesselary is een van hulle, maar 'n groot een. Dit is moontlik dat borskanker uit hierdie vloek kom as gevolg van die ede wat oor die bors afgelê is. Kyk ook na die Georgia Guidestones. Geplant in die platteland van Georgië met die vrymesselaarsplan vir ontvolking vir almal in baie tale. Dit is skrikwekkend.

Katy, Wow. U het dus werklik eerstehandse kennis hiervan. Ek is baie jammer dat u pa so hoog op die Mason -piramide was. Het hy ooit uitgekom? Ek is nie verbaas dat dit demone en vloeke in u huis gebring het nie. Ek het ook die boek van Derek Prince se seëninge of vloeke gelees en ook deur die lys gegaan! Derek was/is my mentor. Ek het byna elke preek en boek wat hy gemaak het. Ek is in elk geval nie verbaas oor die lag van die Heilige Gees nie! Dit is ongelooflik. Ons dien so 'n liefdevolle God! En ja, ek het die Georgia Guidestones gesien, ek dink hulle het gesê dat hulle die bevolking onder 500 miljoen wil hê. Dit lyk asof hulle nou met die ontvolking begin. Terloops, hoe gaan dit met jou seun? E -pos my privaat as u wil.

Ek het jou advies aangeneem oor die byt van my tong, en dit het goed gewerk. :) Sondag het hy gevra of ons kerk wil bywoon by sy oorspronklike nie-konfessionele kerk waarna hy al twee jaar gaan. Ek het seker gesê, toe verneem ek daarna dat hy na twee dienste by die twee kerke gegaan het. Maar dit was goed dat hy ons in ag geneem het. maar kry dit. ons het na die kerk gekom, en die pastoor het gepraat oor die Verdrukking en die wegraping. God is so goed! My hele gesin wat nie na my sal luister nie, het 'n oorvol geluid gekry. :) Ek bly verbaas oor Sy ontvouingsplan. Ek hoef dit nie alles op my te neem nie. Vertrou Hom net.

Dit is wonderlike nuus, Katy !! Sjoe. Ek hou van hoe God werk. Dit is altyd op die mees verrassende manier. Nope. dit is nie op jou nie. God het dit reggekry en Hy het ook u seun!

Hierdie opmerking is deur die outeur verwyder.

U het 'n uitstekende werk gedoen hieroor. Dankie vir al u werk en tyd.

Dankie, Beckie. Seënwense !!

Hallo MaryLu, u het beslis u navorsing hieroor gedoen. En ek vermoed dat sommige mense nie bly is om te hoor wie met sulke bose korrupsie saamgewerk het nie. Ek weet dat uit al die pastore wat genoem is, baie gered is. So het satan se planne daar teruggekeer. Die meeste kerke trek 'n dun streep met WAARHEID en soveel louwarm op sy beste. Maar daar is die ware soekers wat op hierdie manier moet kom om Jesus te vind, behalwe die WOORD as heilig en geïnspireer deur God. Net soos die ENTER NET en die WORLD WIDE WEB, wat satan bedoel het om ons mee vas te trek, het God dit gebruik vir WAARHEID EN GOEDHEID met ons almal wat HOM soek. Die Vrymesselaars onder die invloed van satan herinner my aan 'n vreeslike vinnig verspreide donker kanker en om dit te ondersoek, dit is baie ingewikkeld, opstandig en groot. Ongelooflike siekte en oorname van die wêreld. Satan trek mense op so 'n subtiele manier en wat blykbaar die waarheid en onskuldig is, voordat hy die mat daaruit trek. Die visioene in my gedagtes van die mense en die bose HEL waarin hulle werklik leef, is meer grafies as wat my gedagtes nie meer kan hanteer nie. Prys Jesus dit is uiteindelik amper verby. Ek weet nie of my maag die video van vyf uur kan hanteer nie, want my kennis hiervan is genoeg om te weet waar dit vandaan kom. Hel op aarde vir diegene wat in sulke vuilheid leef.
Ek het 'n neef wat baie betrokke is as produsent in Hollywood en ek het hom as kind geken. Ek het gesien hoe Holly HELL sy siel oorneem. Foto's van hom die afgelope paar jaar, ek sien geen lig in sy oë nie, net duisternis. Hy verkoop sy siel vir geld en roem. En sy kinders en vrou ook opgeoffer, siende waarheen hul lewens heen gaan. Niks van Jesus nie. Aangesien Israel omring is deur al die vyande van die Ma-Gog-oorlog, dink ek dat dit wat met satan opbou vir sy wêreldwye AC-oorhandiging, agtergelaat kan word, aangesien hierdie bruid die ruk voel. En God help diegene wat agterbly, as hulle sien wie hierdie wêreld oorgeneem het. Ons is nou so naby. Ek is mal daaroor dat u die waarheid hier blootstel vir almal wat moet weet hoe mislei ons is deur hierdie sogenaamde "leiers" van die & quotfaith & quot en die regering. Mag die Here ons bewaar van hierdie bedrog, terwyl ons onsself reinig vir ons laaste HUIS saam met HOM vir ewig in Jesus. ek is lief vir jou Liewe Suster vir jou eerlikheid. Soos iemand my onlangs vertel het, het hulle my bedank vir my eerlikheid. Hierdie een is beslis & quotraw. & Quot; Maar bloot uit die diepste liefde en sorg vir diegene wat bereid is om te luister.

Goed gesê, Cillie! Ek voeg my Amen by alles wat u geplaas het. Sterkte en drukkies vir jou en jou! Sien julle binnekort in die wolke!

Baie dankie Mary Lu dat u die waarheid oor messelaars blootgelê het. dit gaan heeltemal terug na ons stigters en tot vandag toe was die meeste van ons presidente messelaars, net soos baie in die kongres en regters. Die Hegalian Dialectic word uitgespeel as regs teen links, konserwatief teen liberaal, en hulle is almal messelaars, Jesuïete, wat hul rol speel om hul valse draer & satan in te bring. Soveel bedrog en ons is gewaarsku. Jy is regtig wonderlik en ek wens net dat meer mense jou blog lees! God seën jou en bewaar jou!

Dankie, Susan! Die Hegaliese dialektiek! Dit is die term waarna ek gesoek het! Ek kon dit nie onthou nie. Ja, hulle speel almal 'n rol .. goed en kwaad, lei soveel mense op 'n dwaalspoor. Insluitend die meeste van my vriende en familie. ALLES lei tot Satan. Maar ja, soos jy gesê het, ons is gewaarsku en gewaarsku en gewaarsku. As jy my ken, sal jy my nie wonderlik vind nie. LOL God gebruik hierdie mal romanse skrywer net vir sy doel. En ek is opgewonde om sy dienskneg te wees. :-) God seën jou !!


Van die uitbreek van die oorlog tot die Verdrag van Brétigny (1337–60)

Vyandelikhede in die Honderdjarige Oorlog het op see begin, met gevegte tussen privaat persone. Edward III vertrek eers in 1338 op die vasteland. Hy vestig hom in Antwerpen en sluit 'n alliansie (1340) met Jacob van Artevelde, 'n burger van Gent wat die leier van die Vlaamse dorpe geword het. Hierdie stede, in hul angs om die voortgesette voorraad Engelse wol vir hul tekstielbedrywe te verseker, het in opstand gekom teen Louis I, graaf van Nevers, wat Philip ondersteun het. Edward het ook die steun van verskeie regeerders in die Lae Lande gewen, soos sy swaer Willem II, graaf van Henegouwen en Johannes III, hertog van Brabant. Hy sluit ook 'n alliansie aan (1338) met die Heilige Romeinse keiser Louis IV ("die Beierse"). Edward beleer Cambrai in 1339, en op 22 Oktober van daardie jaar kom 'n Franse en 'n Engelse leër binne 'n paar kilometer van mekaar by Buironfosse af, sonder om dit egter aan te durf.

'N Soortgelyke ontmoeting het in 1340 naby Bouvines plaasgevind nadat 'n Engelse leër wat deur Vlaamse milisie gesteun is, nie Tournai kon inneem nie. Intussen het die skepe van Edward die Franse vloot, wat deur Castiliaanse en Genoese eskaders versterk is, op see verslaan op 24 Junie 1340. Dit het hom moontlik gemaak om troepe en voorraad na die vasteland te skuif. Na hierdie oorwinning het die Wapenstilstand van Espléchin (25 September 1340), bewerkstellig deur bemiddeling van Philip VI se suster, Margaret, gravin van Henegouwen, en van pous Benedictus XII, vyandelikhede tydelik opgeskort.

The scene of operations shifted in 1341 to Brittany, where, after the death of Duke John III in April, the help of the French and English kings was invoked, respectively, by Charles of Blois and by John of Montfort, rival claimants for the succession. The troops of both kings invaded the duchy, and their armies were confronting each other near Vannes by December 1342 when the legates of the new pope, Clement VI, intervened and managed to negotiate the Truce of Malestroit (January 19, 1343).

At this stage neither king was anxious to press the conflict to a decisive battle each hoped to achieve his purpose by other means. They embarked on an intensive war of propaganda. Edward tried to enlist French support for his claims by means of proclamations nailed on church doors, while Philip cleverly exploited to his own advantage all the traditions of the French kingship and lost no opportunity for stressing his claim to be the lawful successor of his Capetian ancestors. Edward’s efforts were partly successful in fomenting rebellions in western France (1343 and 1344). These, however, Philip crushed with severity. Edward resumed the offensive in 1345, this time in Gascony and Guyenne, since the murder of Jacob van Artevelde (July 1345) made it difficult for the English to use Flanders as a base for operations. Henry of Grosmont, 1st duke and 4th earl of Lancaster, defeated a superior French force under Bertrand de l’Isle-Jourdain at Auberoche (October 1345) and took La Réole. In 1346 Henry repelled at Aiguillon an army led by John, duke of Normandy, Philip’s eldest son.


How the Royals Wore Their Love and Respect at Prince Philip’s Funeral

The queen has a brooch for every occasion—even the funeral of her husband, Prince Philip. The queen’s mourning clothes, though a stark contrast to her usual pastel ensembles, came accented with a special accessory that paid homage to her partner of 73 years.

Volgens uit te druk, the queen wore her Richmond Brooch on Saturday. It’s one of the largest in her collection, the paper reported, and was a wedding present for her grandmother Queen Mary’s nuptials in 1893. Usually the Queen wears the pin, made of diamonds, with a hanging pear-shaped pearl drop. But that feature was removed for the funeral.

The sparkling accessory lit up the queen’s all-black look, and matched her face mask—also black, with white trim around the edges. The monarch sat alone through the funeral, which was pared-down due to the pandemic, like so many others.

But the queen was not solitary in her statement jewelry. Kate Middleton also brought her own. Actually, it came from the queen: the Duchess wore a four-strand pearl necklace borrowed from Elizabeth’s collection.

Today reports that it was made with pearls gifted from the Japanese government. Princess Diana wore the choker to a dinner in 1982.

Watch: The most powerful images from Prince Philip's funeral

Kate’s matching pearl-drop earrings, which peeked out from underneath her netted black fascinator, were also from the Queen’s jewelry box. For the somber affair, the Duchess was able to sneak in a dash of glamour with her veil and Roland Mouret dress.

One photographer caught Kate right before she exited her vehicle, and she stared straight into the camera’s lens. Such determined, direct eye contact isn’t something the Duchess is known for, but her look set the tone for a dignified, if very different, type of royal funeral.

As had been previously reported, the royals did not wear military dress. Following their father and grandfather’s coffin, Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, Prince Edward, Prince William, and Prince Harry were all seen wearing medals, a compromise reached after an internal debate in the royal family about the appropriate dress for Harry and Andrew.

Camilla Parker Bowles wore pearls and a brooch that also dripped with significance. Soos Hallo noted, she showed up in the so-called Bugle brooch, which honored Philip’s tenure as Colonel-in-Chief of The Rifles, an infantry regiment of the British Army.

For his final public engagement last year, the Duke of Edinburgh passed on his position to Camilla, who is his daughter-in-law. So it’s a significant and symbolic jewelry choice for the day.

Princess Eugenie, a new mother who named her infant son after Philip, wore a netted veil to the ceremony. It was similar to Kate’s, though Eugenie paired hers with an oversized black headband.

Unlike the other women, Eugenie did not wear much jewelry, save for a simple pair of earrings. She did, however, wear a rather trendy Gabriela Hearst trench coat, per the Daaglikse pos.

Penny Brabourne, Countess Mountbatten, a close friend of Philip’s and fellow equestrian, was one of the 30 guests who was not a direct family member. (She is married to Philip’s godson, Norton Knatchbull.) She wore a black pillbox hat and fitted suit, along with a crystal fern brooch.

Of course Meghan Markle, who is pregnant, was unable to travel from Los Angeles with Prince Harry. She might not have been there in person—the former Duchess reportedly watched from home—but Meghan ensured a part of her was present. Per Die Daily Mail, Meghan left a handwritten note on a wreath left at the chapel.

The royal family did not speak at the event. Emotions were expressed in other ways. Some of it was literal, like when Sophie, the Countess of Wessex wiped away tears in the chapel. Some of it was more symbolic, like the queen sitting alone while bidding goodbye to her husband. Or William and Harry chatting after the ceremony, two estranged brothers brought together through grief.

And much of it was through fashion: small nods to history, and hand-me-downs representing the continuation of longstanding royal tradition.

Watch: The wonderful life of Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh


Edward I, King of England. Born 1239, died 1307. Reign 1272 – 1307

One of the most effective English kings, Edward was also one of Scotland's greatest adversaries. Through his campaigns against Scotland he would come to be known after his death as 'Scottorum malleus' – the Hammer of the Scots.

Intelligent and impatient, Edward proved to be a highly effective king. The reign of his father, Henry III, was marked by internal instability and military failure. Upon succeeding to the throne on 1272 Edward did much to rectify these issues. He managed to control and placate the unruly English barons and unite them behind him.

A learned scholar, Edward also took great personal interest in matters of administration and government and introduced reforms and ideas learnt whilst staying abroad in the family-held territory of Gascony. He also made great use of his Parliament – a strategy that helped maintain stability in the country and, more importantly for Edward, brought in regular sums of money to enable Edward to pursue his ambitions. Edward also devised far uglier means of raising money.

In 1275 Edward issues the Statute of Jewry that persecuted the Jewish population of England and imposed severe taxation on them. Proving both lucrative and popular, Edward extended this policy further. In 1290 the Jews were expelled from England – minus their money and property. The money raised from this dark practise was used to fund his his ambition to be overlord of the Scotland and Wales.

As a younger man Edward forged an impressive reputation as a man of action. Domestically and abroad Edward proved himself as a soldier and a leader of men. In 1266 Edward received international accolade for his role in the 8th and 9th Crusades to the Holy Land where he helped secure the survival of the beleagured coastal city of Acre.

It was while returning from the Crusade that Edward learned that his father, Henry III, had died and that he was now the King of England. Ambitious and impulsive, Edward wasted no time in enforcing his will on his neighbours.

As an ominous precursor for his plans for Scotland, Edward attacked Wales.

Edward attacks Wales

During the 1250s Edward's father, Henry III, had mounted military campaigns in an attempt to control and dominate Wales. After a series of disastrous defeats Henry was forced to negotiate a peace that saw the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffydd extend his territories into England. Henry also had to recognise the royal status of Llewelyn as Prince of Wales. Llywelyn in turn was to acknowledge Henry as his overlord.

Edward had experienced these failed campaigns first hand as part of his father's retinue and was determined not to repeat the same mistakes. Using the pretence of Llywelyn's refusal to pay homage to him in 1274 Edward raised a sizeable army and invaded Wales. Llywelyn was defeated and stripped of his territories.

In another uncanny foreshadowing of events to come in Scotland Edward's complete conquest of his neighbour was to be thrown into doubt by a courageous campaign for liberation.

In 1282 Llywelyn's brother Dafydd sparked a rebellion to rid Wales of English dominance. With Edward caught off-guard the rising had initial success. The death of Llywelyn in battle turned the tide for Edward however. Soon after Dafydd was captured and executed. Without strong leadership the Welsh rising failed.

To consolidate his stranglehold, Edward built a series of impressive castles across Wales (such as Caernarfon Castle) and in 1284 Edward issued the Statute of Rhuddlan that effectively annexed Wales and made it a province of England. The title Prince of Wales was handed to Edward's eldest son, Prince Edward (later Edward II) – a practise that continues to this day.

Edward plots against Scotland

In 1287 Alexander III, King of Scots, died suddenly after falling from his horse at Kinghorn. The succession crisis that followed presented Edward with a golden opportunity to expand on his conquest of Wales.

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With the absence of an immediate heir, the Scots throne looked likely to pass to Alexander's infant granddaughter, Margaret (the 'Maid of Norway') – the daughter of the King of Norway.

Rival Scottish claims for the right to succeed as the next monarch led to the Norwegians approaching Edward. Edward planned to wed his own son Edward to Margaret and thus control Scotland via matrimonial rights.

The Scots nobles, fearful of such a takeover, agreed that Margaret should be queen – but at the expense of Edward's marriage plans. Events were thrown into turmoil when Margaret died en route to Scotland.

Edward the Kingmaker

With the succession crisis still looming large and rival claimants still in fierce competition the Guardians of Scotland needed to find someone to adjudicate the claims and help break the deadlock. The perfect candidate was Edward.

As an internationally respected king and a recognised expert on legal matters of state Edward was a logical choice. With the benefit of hindsight this may seem to be the worst of decisions until you consider that England and Scotland had enjoyed an extended period of relatively peaceful co-existence. Claims of English overlordship over Scotland were seen to be a thing of the distant past. The Guardians were in for a very rude shock.

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In a series of political manouverings Edward insisted that he be recognised as feudal overlord of the Scots before a new Scots king be appointed. The Guardians refused but Edward, the legal expert, got his wish.

While there were two rival claimants (Robert Bruce and John Balliol) Edward's role was adjudicate. If there were more than two then, under medieval law, only a judge could be expected to pronounce a verdict. As a judge Edward had to have authority – and in royal matters authority meant overlordship.

Edward found other claimants for the vacant throne to put pressure on Bruce and Balliol. The plan worked and one by one they came forward to swear allegiance. From that point, with all principle claimants as his vassals, it did not matter who became king. Ultimately Balliol took the crown.

Edward's subsequent heavy-handed treatment of the Scots (demanding taxes and soldiers to help fight his wars) led to the first inklings of rebellion.

In 1295 the Scots signed a mutual aid treaty with France (later to be known as the Auld Alliance). This pact with Edward's enemy brought about swift retaliation from Edward.

Edward destroyed Berwick, slaughtering thousands of the town's inhabitants, before pushing deeper into scotland. The Scots met Edward in battle at Dunbar but was decisively beaten. repeating his accomplishments in Wales, Edward had now conquered Scotland.

In a similar tactic to the those he employed in Wales Edward stripped the country of its treasures and symbollic icons of nationhood as easily as he stripped Balliol of his status as king. Most notably the crown jewels and the Stone of Destiny was removed to be sent back to England. The message was clear – there was to be no other king in Scotland but Edward.

Edward's campaigning, however, had left him seriously short of funds. He could no-longer afford to build costly castles to control his new domain as he had in Wales.

Wars of Independence

Just as he had with the welsh, Edward had underestimated the Scots. Within a year rebellions to English control broke out – notably led by Andrew Murray in the north and William wallace in the south of the country.

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Edward left the matter of crushing the rebellion to his representative, John de Warenne, rather than take control personally. At Stirling Bridge Warenne's force was routed by Wallace and Murray's army.

Edward marches north and took control of his army and defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk. Wallace was later captured and executed. Once again Edward assumed that Scotland was conquered.

An interesting point to note is that the expense incurred in subjugating the Welsh meant that the same pattern of conquest and castle-building was not open to Edward. The success of that campaign could not so easily be emulated.

Enter the Bruce

Waiting in the wings for Edward was Robert the Bruce. Bruce's ambition to be king was finally realised in 1306. News of the coronation of a new Scots king brought Edward's army northward.

A series of swift victories saw Edward victorious and the new King of Scots on the run. Once again Edward assumed the job was done.

News of Bruce's return with a handful of followers was given scant regard. Edward would rue this inattentiveness. Within a year Bruce had defeated larger English forces and regained control of swathes of Scotland. A minor rebellion had become a sizeable rising. Not even the capture and execution of key Bruce supporters (including members of Bruce's own family) could reverse the tide.

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In Bruce Edward had met a formidable, ruthless and determined opponent – a man cut from the same cloth.

A Job Worth Doing.

Despite ill health and advancing years Edward, Hammer of the Scots, marched his army north to rid himself of Bruce once and for all.

In 1307, with Scotland in sight, Edward died at Burgh-on-Sands. The campaign for the conquest of Scotland passed on to his son, Edward II. The Scots were relieved to find that the brutal and effective military prowess displayed by the father were absent in the son.

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In 1314 Bruce routed a larger English force at Bannockburn. Recognition of Scotland's sovereignty came years later in 1328.

On his death bed accounts credit Edward's dying wish to be that his bones be left unburied as long as Scotland was unconquered. Mercifully this request was ignored. As arguably, England's greatest king (and Scotland's greatest enemy) his temporary interment would have lasted an awful long time.


In the Defense of The Prince

feared than loved "? In any context, this could look like remorseless however, the deeper the meanings are reached once with a glance at Machiavelli's morals and arguments achieved. Inside this essay, I will discuss the deserves, shortfalls and contravene arguments of the philosopher political philosophy and system. Also, I will be able to check up on Machiavelli's personal history furthermore to grasp abundant any what and the way drive this argument. It is scarcely scarily eerie to relish the philosopher


Could a ruler demand a homage from an independent prince? - Geskiedenis

KORT GESKIEDENIS

The ancient regal system of Tonga (or the Friendly Islands) evolved into a tri-partite system of three rulers, styled the Tu'i Tonga, the Tu'i Ha-a Takala'ua and the Tu'i Kanokupolu. All three shared the same descent from the creation through the Tu'i Tonga line, they branched out later.

The Tu'i Tonga was the lord of the soil, and enjoyed divine honours. He took no part in the civil government of the country and could not arbitrate in any civil quarrel, but could absolve sinners who had broken the taboo. The Tu'i Kanokupolu held temporal power, wielding absolute power over the life and death of the people. Only a son, or grandson of a Tu'i Tonga, by a daughter of the Tu'i Kanokupolu, could succeed as Tu'i Tonga. The Tu'i Tonga could only have two children by one wife, she being taken away from him after the birth of their second child. The eldest daughter of the Tu'i Tonga, held a higher spiritual rank than her father and was styled the Tu'i Tonga Fefine. She was forbidden from marrying any mortal, but may if she chose, have children by irregular unions. Her eldest daughter was styled the Tamaha, the highest dignity on earth, to whom both her mother and grandfather, had to pay homage.

Tonga was once a powerful Empire ruling faraway lands, including Samoa, parts of Fiji and the Cook islands, Niue and Fotuna. The people of Fotuna breached convention by killing the sacred Tu'i Tonga Takala'ua ca. 1535. This act of sacrilege was a watershed in Tongan history. His son and successor, Tu'i Tonga Kau'-ulu'-fonua, decided to separate the religious and secular functions of his office by dividing power between himself and his half-brother. Mo'ungamotu'a, accordingly became the first Tu'i Ha-a Takala'ua, responsible for military and civil affairs, and government of the people. The Tu'i Tonga thereafter retreated from civil government by becoming the divine head of state, a position not unlike that of a constitutional monarch who was also head of a state church.

The Tu'i Kanokupolu dynasty springs from Ngata, son of the 6 th Tu'i Ha-a Takala'ua Moungatonga. Ngata was appointed as the first Tu'i Kanokupolu by his father and delegated with temporal rule over the people ca. 1610. The office was not strictly hereditary, but was usually assumed by the nominee of the previous holder, and then confirmed by the nobles. Appointments seem to have alternated between members of the Tu'i Kanokupolu and Tu'i Ha-a Takala'ua lines.

At first, authority was divided on a regional basis between the Tu'i Kanokupolu and Tu'i Ha-a Takala'ua. However, by the later eighteenth century, the Tu'i Kanokupolu completely eclipsed the latter.

During the late eighteenth century, a regional nobleman entitled Finau-'Ulukalala made himself supreme on Vav'au, establishing his own independent kingdom on that island. He deposed or expelled several successive Tu'i Tonga and Tu'i Kanokupolu. Eventually, his position became so strong that he refused to pay even nominal obeisance to the Tu'i Tonga. He then refused to a any successor to be installed after the death of the incumbent in 1810. The sacred Tu'i Tonga title was left vacant for seventeen years.

This state of affairs continued until the ruler of Ha'apai Taufa'ahau' Tupou', began to extend his authority over the other islands. On the death of his father-in-law, Finau-'Ulukalala in 1833, Taufa'ahau' became ruler of Vava'u. He was converted by Wesleyan missionaries and was baptised as Sia'osi (George), in honour of King George III of Great Britain. He repudiated all but his favourite wife, who took the name of Salote (Charlotte) in honour of George III's Queen. Succeeding his uncle as Tu'i Kanokupolu in 1845, he then began to consolidate his position over Tongatapu and the other outlying islands. This was a long and painful process, which pitted Christians against tradistionalists and Protestants versus Roman Catholics.

George persuaded the hereditary ruler of Niu'atuputapu to cede his sovereignty in 1862. Three years later he had himself installed as Tu'i Tonga on the death of his longtime adversary. George then set about melding the islands into a single kingdom, formally merging the ancient titles of Tu'i Tonga and Tu'i Kanokupolu with the Crown, along with his other titles of Tu'i Ha'apai and Tu'i Vava'u. He converted all his people to Christianity, outlawed serfdom and slavery, promulgated a constitution, established parliament, implemented land reforms, expanded education and negotiated treaties with the major European powers. Towards the end of the century the wars and revolutions that had plagued Tonga were a distant memory. The King reigned over a realm at complete peace, crime was rare and murder unknown. The only public forces were a ceremonial guard without ammunition and an unarmed police force. His long and glorious reign ended in 1893 with the old King mourned throughout the Pacific, as its very own 'Grand Old Man'.

King George Tupou II, succeeded on the death of his great grandfather. Although a gifted composer and lyricist, with wide ranging artistic and aesthetic interests, he was no statesman. He left the cares of state in the hands of a Wesleyan missionary called The Rev Shirley Baker. Baker soon made himself a virtual dictator, energetic and inventive, but prone to drive sane bureaucrats to distraction. Ever short of funds, his native inventive genius devised a special brand of accountancy to manage the kingdom's financial affairs. Administrative chaos, financial mismanagement, dissaffection and baying creditors resulted with an inevitable British intervention. Baker was forcibly removed from the islands in 1899, government expenditure curtailed, the size of the cabinet and parliament trimmed. When these reforms still failed to restore financial calm, the King was persuaded into accepting a British Protectorate in 1900. These were grim days for Tonga, a series of natural disasters compounding made-made ones and devastating the population.

George II expired in 1918, leaving his throne to his eldest surviving daughter, Queen Salote. She was to reign for forty-seven glorious years. Her long reign would witness two World Wars and saw the islands steadily making progress in all fields. The population slowly recovered and expanded to the point where it became a burdon. Economic growth, good government and financial regularity became the envy of far larger realms. For half her reign, her constant helpmate and partner being the unflappable Prince Tungi, Prime Minister and Prince Consort. The Queen's government was personal and she was widely interested in all things. She took a close personal interest in the welfare of all her subjects as individuals, noble or commoner, rich or poor, young and old. During this time, through her wonderful charm, kindness and serene dignity, Tonga became famed the world over. The tiny realm, becoming the "Friendly Islands" in name, as well as, in fact. The old Queen died universally lamented at home, throughout the islands of the Pacific, indeed throughout the world.

King Taufa'ahau' Tupou' IV, Queen Salote's eldest son, inherited her enviable mantle in 1965. Highly educated in Tonga, New Zealand and Australia, he served his mother as a Minister of the Crown and as Prime Minister for over two decades. Five years later he steered his country to full independence, free of British protection and into a hostile world.

Tonga's years since 1970 have not been easy ones. A burgioning population has placed immense pressure on resources and forced many to emigrate. Falling commodity prices have affected revenues and forced the country to look to other means of generating income. Relations with Taiwan were abandoned in favour of the PRC and with Cuba, both in the hope of attracting more foreign aid. Foreign investors from Hong Kong and the US have been invited to the country with generous incentives. Yet many of these ventures have proved illusory, sharp-witted foreign business types taking advantage of the more easygoing Tongans. The traditional system of government has come under fire, though mostly from abroad. These troubles have not been helped by an almost continuous barrage of vicious criticism and mocking superiority spewed out from certain sections of society in Australasia. Often, these have been delivered with a veiled undercurrent of that ugly haughtiness now mercifully unfashionable in other Western democracies. A Commonwealth friend, even a small erring one, deserves to be treated with sympathy and undertanstanding. Her problems should be discussed friend to friend, not by harranging from the rooftops or by bullying by powerful neigbours. Tonga's contribution during the great struggle of the Second World War was greater, per head of population, than any other. Those loudly claiming that honour for themselves should be reminded of that. Blessed in abundance with very lucrative natural resources of all kinds, they ought to also sympathise with the problems of one who has been given none.

RULES OF SUCCESSION:
The 1875 Constitution specifies that the succession is confined to the descendants of King Sia'osi Taufa'ahau' Tupou' [George Tupou' I], through his son Crown Prince Tevita 'Unga, his son Prince 'Uelingatoni Ngu and through their legitimate issue. It established primogeniture, males succeeding before females. In the event of failure of lawful descendants, the succession passes to the lawful heirs of Ratu Enele Ma'afu'o-Tu'itonga, cousin and brother-in-law of King George Tupou' I. A Prince Regent may be appointed in the event that the sovereign has not reached the age of eighteen.

STYLES AND TITLES:
The Sovereign: By the grace of God, King of Tonga, with the style of His Majesty.
The consort of the Sovereign: Queen of Tonga, with the style of Haar Majesty.
The Heir Apparent: Crown Prince, together with the style of His Royal Highness.
The younger sons of the Sovereign: Prince, with the style of His Royal Highness.
The grandons of the Sovereign in the male line: Prince, with the style of His Royal Highness.
The daughters and grand daughters of the Sovereign in the male line: Princess, with the style of Her Royal Highness.
(Note: it is usual for the sons and grandsons of the sovereign to be granted traditional noble titles, after they come of age).

NOBILITY:
After the promulgation of the 1875 Constitution, King George Tupou I created 20 ancient chiefly titleholders into hereditary nobles, adding a further 10 in 1880. 6 matapule titleholders were similarly honoured. King George Tupou II granted two noble titles during his reign, and Queen Salote created one. During the current reign, King Sia'osi Taufa'ahau Tupou IV has advanced two existing hereditary nobles to the rank and title of Baron, primarily as a means of ensuring proper recognition by foreigners. The styles enjoyed by these individuals are as follows:
Barons: The Right Honourable Baron (hereditary title) of (territorial seat).
Wives of Barons: The Right Honourable Baroness (husband's hereditary title) of (husband's territorial seat).
Sons and daughters of Barons: The Honourable (given names) (father's hereditary title).
Other nobles: The Honourable (hereditary title) in English, or Nopele (hereditary title) in Tongan.
Wives of nobles: The Honourable (given names) (husband's hereditary title).
Sons and daughters of nobles: The Honourable (given names) (father's hereditary title) in English, or Ko 'Eiki (given names) (father's hereditary title) in Tongan.
(Note: members of the Privy Council, Cabinet Ministers, Judges and island Governors also enjoy the style of The Honourable, while holding office).


Kings and Princes of Wales

Although the Romans invaded Wales in the first century AD, only South Wales ever became part of the Roman world as North and Mid-Wales is largely mountainous making communications difficult and presenting obstacles to any invader.

After the Roman period the Welsh kingdoms that emerged were the ones that commanded stretches of useful lowland, especially Gwynedd in the north, Ceredigion in the south-west, Dyfed (Deheubarth) in the south and Powys in the east. Powys would always be at a disadvantage however, due to its close proximity to England.

The great princes of medieval Wales were all westerners, mainly from Gwynedd. Their authority was such that they could wield authority well beyond the borders of their kingdoms, enabling many to claim to rule all Wales.

Below is a list of the kings and princes of Wales from Rhodri the Great to Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, followed by the English Princes of Wales. After the Conquest of Wales, Edward I created his son ‘Prince of Wales’ and since then, the title ‘Prince of Wales’ has been given to the heir apparent to the English and British throne. HRH Prince Charles currently holds the title.

Sovereigns and Princes of Wales 844 – 1283

The Prince of Wales’ Feathers
(“Ich Dien” = “I serve”)


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