Geskiedenis Podcasts

Edward Hopper

Edward Hopper

Edward Hopper, 'n Amerikaanse realistiese skilder wie se hoogs individualistiese werke 'n maatstaf van die Amerikaanse realisme is, toon 'n kunsbewustheid wat die hedendaagse Amerikaanse lewe op 'n vreemde manier uitbeeld, gekenmerk deur isolasie, weemoed en eensaamheid.Geboorte en kinderjareEdward is gebore op 22 Julie 1882 in die klein stadjie Hudson River, Nyack, New York. Hopper het geweet dat hy reeds in 1899, die jaar van sy 17de verjaardag, 'n kunstenaar wou wees. 1849-1916), 'n skilder wat die styl van John Singer Sargent nageboots het. Hy en sy medestudente is aangemoedig om 'n realistiese styl te ontwikkel wat die stedelike kultuur uitbeeld.Vroee loopbaanSoos baie jong kunstenaars doen, wou Hopper in Frankryk studeer. In Oktober 1906 is sy wens vervul toe hy met die hulp van sy ouers na die vasteland vertrek het. Na die reise het hy egter nooit weer as vreemdelinge in Europa vertoef nie; Hopper was baie ontroer deur die werke van Diego Velazquez, Francisco de Goya, Honore Daumier en Edouard Manet. Sy vroeë skilderye toon 'n paar van die basiese kenmerke van die realisme wat hy deur sy loopbaan sou dra, 'n gebalanseerde, kombinatiewe styl gebaseer op eenvoudige, groot analitiese vorme; breë kleurgebiede en die gebruik van argitektoniese beginsels in sy tonele.Hoppers se skilderstyl het jare lank oorheers aan dae in die buiteland. Na hierdie poging het Hopper sy pogings hernu deur gebruik te maak van tuisgemaakte Amerikaanse onderdane, waarvoor hy die meeste onthou word.Edward Hopper het sy eerste verkoop in 1913, tydens 'n uitstalling in New York. 'N Paar jaar nadat hy 37 geword het, het Hopper 'n bestaan ​​verdien as 'n kommersiële illustrator.HuwelikIn 1923 het Josephine Nivison, wat hy geken het toe hulle studente onder Chase en Henri was, weer sy lewe ingegaan. In dieselfde jaar as wat hulle trou, verander die wind van geluk vir Hopper.Later loopbaanEdward Hopper se vaandeljaar was 1924. Hopper se loopbaan het begin en dit sou merkwaardig beïnvloed word deur The Great Depression of the Thirties. Edward Hopper het sy stempel op die wêreld afgedruk.Die Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) het 'n uitstalling in 1929 gehou, Skilderye deur negentien lewende Amerikaners, wat Hopper se werk ingesluit het. Alhoewel sy werk buite die hoofstroom van abstraksie in die middel van die 20ste eeu lê, was sy vereenvoudigde skematiese styl een van die invloede op die latere herlewing van die voorstelling en op popkuns.Laaste daeHopper het op sy oudag ingewerk en sy tyd verdeel tussen New York en Truro, Massachusetts. Edward Hopper se roem het nie bly staan ​​toe sy muse opgedroog het nie. Sy vrou, wat 10 maande later oorlede is, het sy werk aan die Whitney Museum of American Art nagelaat, en in 2004 het die wêreld Hopper onthou en geëer toe baie van sy skilderye deur Europa gereis het, by die Museum Ludwig, Keulen, Duitsland en by die Museum. Tate Modern Art Gallery in Londen. Die Hopper -uitstalling het die tweede gewildste in die geskiedenis van laasgenoemde galery geword, met meer as 400 000 besoekers in die drie maande wat dit oop was.


Sien ook Andrew Wyeth en Jackson Pollock.


Edward Hopper en die reuk van eensaamheid

Ek onthou hoe ek die eerste keer die stuk van Edward Hopper gesien het. Dit was natuurlik sy beroemde Nagtjies – jy ken hierdie skildery – dit is laatnag, mense sit in 'n goedkoop restaurant, 'n paartjie wag op hul bestelling. As u ooit 'n nagtawk was, ken u die gevoel van moegheid, reuk van sigarette en alkohol wat verteer word. Moegheid en verlore illusies.

Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942, Art Institute of Chicago

Hopper was 'n meester van eensaamheid. Net hy het melancholie op so 'n manier geskilder dat as u na hierdie mense kyk, u hul geheime kan aanvoel. Omdat u geheime soms baie dieselfde is as die van hulle.

In Outomaties In 1927 sit 'n vrou alleen en drink 'n koppie koffie. Dit is laat en koud buite. Die kamer lyk groot, helder verlig en leeg. Die vrou lyk selfbewus en effens bang, sonder om alleen in 'n openbare plek te wees. Iets blykbaar verkeerd geloop het.

Edward Hopper, Automat, 1927, Des Moines Art Center

In 'N Vrou in die son 'n vrou staan ​​met 'n sigaret in haar hand op 'n kak van harkende lig uit 'n venster naby. Sy het vergeet om dit aan te steek. Dit lyk asof sy haarself vergeet het. Sy vergeet selfs om 'n sigaret aan te steek. Los van die buitewêreld wag sy op die dinge wat moet gebeur.

Edward Hopper, A Woman in the Sun, 1961, Whitney Museum of Art

Ek kan nie dink aan enige ander kunstenaar wat so perfek was om eensaamheid, berusting en wanhoop van moderne mense op te vang nie.


Die onvergelyklike Christus

Meer as 1900 jaar gelede is 'n man gebore in stryd met die natuurwette. Hierdie man het in armoede geleef en is in die duisternis grootgemaak. Hy het nie baie gereis nie. Slegs een keer het Hy die grens van die land waarin hy gewoon het, oorgesteek, gedurende sy kinderjare toe hy in ballingskap in Egipte was.

Hy het nie rykdom of invloed gehad nie, sy familielede was onopvallend en het geen opleiding of formele opleiding gehad nie.

In sy kinderjare skrik Hy 'n koning in die kinderjare. Hy verwonder dokters in sy manlikheid. Hy regeer die gang van die natuur.

Hy genees die menigtes sonder medisyne en het geen koste vir sy dienste betaal nie.

Hy het nooit 'n boek geskryf nie, en tog kon al die biblioteke in die wêreld nie die boeke hou wat oor Hom geskryf is nie.

Hy het nooit 'n liedjie geskryf nie, maar tog het hy die tema vir meer liedjies as al die liedjieskrywers saamgestel.

Hy het nooit 'n kollege gestig nie, maar al die skole wat saamgestel is, kan nie spog met soveel studente nie.

Hy het nooit 'n leër ingeroep nie, ook nie 'n soldaat opgestel nie, en ook nie 'n geweer afgevuur nie, maar tog het geen leier meer vrywilligers gehad wat onder sy bevel was nie, meer rebelle gemaak het om wapens op te gee en oor te gee sonder dat 'n skoot afgevuur is.

Hy het nooit psigiatrie beoefen nie, en tog het Hy meer gebroke harte genees as al die dokters van naby en naby.

Een keer per week hou die handelswiele op en draai die menigte na gemeentes om hulde en eer aan Hom te bring.

Die name van die trotse staatshoofde van Griekeland en Rome het gekom en gegaan. Die name van die verlede wetenskaplikes, filosowe en teoloë het gekom en gegaan, maar die naam van hierdie man is meer en meer.

Alhoewel die tyd meer as 1900 jaar tussen die mense van sy geslag en die toneel van sy kruisiging versprei het, lewe Hy tog. Herodes kon Hom nie vernietig nie, en die graf kon hom nie vashou nie.

Hy staan ​​uit op die hoogste hoogtepunt van hemelse heerlikheid, verkondig deur God, erken deur engele, aanbid deur heiliges en deur demone gevrees as die opgestane, persoonlike Christus, ons Here en Verlosser.

In hierdie seisoen staan ​​die onvergelyklike Christus steeds by menige hart se deur en soek toelating. Sy woorde sê: “Kyk, Ek staan ​​by die deur en klop as iemand my stem wil hoor en die deur oopmaak, en Ek sal na hom toe kom en saam met hom en hy saam met My” (Openbaring 3:20).

“Daar is ook geen ander naam onder die hemel wat onder die mense gegee is waardeur ons gered moet word nie”.

Die Here Jesus Christus is die grootste geskenk wat ooit aan die wêreld gegee is. Hy kan joune wees. IS HY?

“Glo in die Here Jesus Christus, en jy sal gered word” (Handelinge 16:31).


Beroep

Sy vroeë loopbaan was gekenmerk deur stryd. Hy het 'n ateljee gehuur en die reis begin. Die medium wat hy die eerste keer gebruik het, was van olieverf. Hy het sy eerste olieverf in 1895 van 'n Rowboat in Rocky Cove geskilder.

Nadat hy gedwing was om sy vaardigheid te gebruik om in te verdien, het hy die pos van 'n illustreerder aangeneem. Dit was egter nie wat hy wou hê nie, en as 'n ontsnapping het hy op reis gegaan na Europa. Die reis, wat in Parys gesentreer was, was 'n belangrike baken in Hopper se lewe. Met Picasso wat al meesterstukke geskilder het, was die toneel gedek vir moderne kuns. Alhoewel Hopper nie 'n ontmoeting met Picasso gehad het nie, het hy geleer oor moderne kuns en was hy geneig tot die impressionistiese tipe kuns. Daarom gebruik hy die ligter palet, veral geïnspireer deur Monet en Van Gogh, en gee die donker illustrasies prys.

Hopper keer terug van die Europese ekspedisie in 1910. Ongelukkig moes hy strewe na erkenning. Sy skeppings het min waardering gekry. Die weinig erkenning wat hy gekry het, was vir olieverf en etswerk. Hy het sy eerste groot deurbraak op 31-jarige ouderdom behaal toe hy sy olieverfskildery verkoop het. Hy het gehoop dat dit tot verdere sukses sou lei, maar hy het nog steeds baie gesukkel om dit uit te voer.

In 1912 reis hy na Gloucester, Massachusetts, en maak sy eerste buiteskildery met olieverf. Dit is die Squam Light . Dit het sy vele vuurtoringskilderye voorafgegaan.

In 1913 verdien hy 250 $ deur sy eerste selfportretskildery genaamd te verkoop Seil . Hy het hierdie tydperk aanhou werk en is soms uitgenooi om uitstallings op klein plekke te hou. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het hy aanhou plakkate maak vir films en teater, waarvoor hy diep geheg was. Hy het oorlogsplakkate gemaak en daarvoor erkenning gekry.

Onwillig het hy hom tot illustrasies gewend en as vryskut gewerk om geld te verdien. Hopper het gesukkel om sy eie styl te definieer, en verskuif dikwels van een kunsvorm na 'n ander. Hy keer terug na die ets, waarin hy groot lof gekry het. Deur die 1920's het hy in hierdie medium gewerk, en die meeste van sy werke is in hierdie kunsstyl. Dit sluit in Nag op die El Train , Aandwind, en Katboot .

Gedurende hierdie tydperk het hy ook 'n paar van sy beroemde skilderye geskilder en lof gekry. Hy is genooi om 'n enkelpersoonlike uitstalling te hou om sy werke te wys. Hierdie uitstallings kom meer gereeld voor, en hy vind dat hy beter waardeer word.

Die Museum vir Moderne Kuns verkry een van sy beroemde skilderye, Huis by die spoorweg, in 1925. Sy beroemde skilderye was die werk van indrukke. Spel van lig en kleur en skerp gedefinieerde rande was 'n opvallende kenmerk. Hy het uiteindelik die lof ontvang wat hy verdien!


Edward Hopper

Gebore in Nyack, New York, Edward Hopper (1882-1967) word erken as een van die grootste Amerikaanse kunstenaars van die 20ste eeu. Sy vrye en fyn berekende weergawes van stedelike en plattelandse tonele weerspieël sy persoonlike visie op die moderne Amerikaanse lewe.

Hopper is aangemoedig om illustrasie deur sy ouers te studeer, en het kursusse aan die Correspondence School of Illustrating en aan die New York School of Art gevolg. Bekende illustreerder/skilders Arthur Ignatius Keller, Frank Vincent DuMond, Kenneth Hayes Miller, en Robert Henri was onder sy onderwysers. John Sloan, wat gereeld voor 1916 as kommersiële kunstenaar gewerk het, was ook 'n vroeë invloed.

In 1906 het Hopper 'n deeltydse pos by 'n advertensie-agentskap gekry en daarna beelde geskep vir gewilde tydskrifte soos Scribner & rsquos Tydskrif, Everbody's Magazine, en Country -heer, en vir spesiale tydskrifte soos Hotelbestuur, Die Morse Dial, en Wells Fargo Messenger. Hy was 'n baie privaat persoon en het geen skriftelike besinning oor sy loopbaan as illustrator van twee dekades gelaat nie, alhoewel hy geglo het dat 'n volwasse kunstenaar gekoppel is aan die werk van sy vormingsjare.

Tussen 1906 en 1910 het die kunstenaar drie reise na Parys onderneem. Anders as ander Amerikaanse kunstenaars van die tyd, ignoreer Hopper die innovasies van die stad en die meeste avant-garde kunstenaars, en bevoordeel 'n vroeëre generasie Europese skilders, waaronder Rembrandt, Degas en die impressioniste, wie se werk geprys is deur sy voormalige onderwyser Robert Henri.

Hopper was aangetrokke tot realistiese kuns en het etse begin vervaardig en stedelike en argitektoniese tonele in 'n donker palet geskilder. Sy eerste eenpersoonsuitstalling is in Januarie 1920 gehou by die Whitney Studio Club, wat vyf jaar tevore deur Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney gestig is. In Julie 1924 trou Hopper met Josephine Verstille Nivison, 'n medeskilder wat hy op die kunsskool ontmoet het.

Hopper was gedurende die volgende vier dekades baie produktief en vervaardig belangrike werke soos Outomaties (1927), Kap Suey (1929), New York film (1939), Girlie Show (1941), Nagtjies (1942), Hotel lobby (1943), Oggend in 'n stad (1944), en Hotel by 'n spoorweg (1952). Die invloed van sy kenmerkende styl word tot vandag toe gevoel, wat verder strek as skildery tot fotografie, film en populêre kultuur.

Koop The Unknown Hopper: Edward Hopper as illustrator -uitstallingskatalogus hier.

Illustrasies deur Edward Hopper

Bykomende hulpbronne

Bibliografie

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970.

Kranzfelder, Ivo. Edward Hopper, 1882-1967: Visie van die werklikheid. New York: Taschen, 1988.

Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: 'n Intieme biografie. New York: Knopf, 1995.

Schmied, Wieland. Edward Hopper: Portrette van Amerika. New York: Prestel, 1995.

Souter, Gerry. Edward Hopper: lig en donker. New York: Parkstone Press International, 2007.

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      VERWANTE KUNSTENAARS
      Verwante tydperke

      Hopper: die hoogste Amerikaanse realis van die 20ste eeu

      Edward Hopper het nie maklik geskilder nie. Elke doek verteenwoordig 'n lang, moerse swangerskap wat in eensame denke deurgebring word. Daar was geen vee kwashale uit 'n koorsige hand nie, geen elektriserende eurekas nie. Hy het idees maande lank oorweeg, weggegooi en weggegooi voordat hy selfs 'n druppel verf op sy palet gedruk het. In die vroeë 1960's besoek die kunstenaar Raphael Soyer Hopper en sy vrou, Josephine, in hul somerhuis op 'n bluf bo die see in Cape Cod. Soyer vind Hopper voor sit en kyk na die heuwels en Jo, soos almal haar noem, agtertoe staar en in die teenoorgestelde rigting staar. 'Dit is wat ons doen,' sê sy vir Soyer. 'Hy sit op sy plek en kyk heeldag na die heuwels, en ek kyk na die see, en as ons mekaar ontmoet, is daar twis, twis, twis.' Uitgedruk met Jo se kenmerkende flits ('n kunstenaar self en eens 'n aspirant -aktrise, sy weet hoe om 'n lyn te lewer), vat die vignet 'n opsomming van Hopper se kreatiewe proses en die paartjie se onstuimige, maar blywende verhouding. Net so het Hopper se goeie vriend, die Amerikaanse skilder en kritikus Guy P ène du Bois, eenkeer geskryf dat Hopper "vir my gesê het dat dit hom jare geneem het om hom in die skildery van 'n wolk in die lug te bring."

      Verwante inhoud

      "Die skilder," het Edward Hopper gereeld opgemerk, "skilder om homself te openbaar deur wat hy in sy onderwerp sien." Chop Suey dateer uit 1929. (Versameling van Barney A. Ebsworth / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) /> Hopper, in sy veertigerjare, in 'n selfportret van 1925-30. (Whitney Museum of American Art, Josephine N. Hopper Legaat / Fotografie deur Robert E. Mates / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Die waterverf wat Hopper in die 1920's in Massachusetts geskep het, het gelei tot sy eerste professionele erkenning (House and Harbour, 1924). (Privaat versameling / met vergunning, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) In New York Corner, 1913, stel Hopper 'n motief van rooi baksteen geboue en 'n patroon van oop en toe vensters voor. (Privaat versameling, Courtesy Fraenkel Gallery en Martha Parrish & James Reinish, Inc. / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Hopper het sy rooi baksteen-ritmiese venster-motief In Early Sunday Morning (1930) gebruik om 'n gevoel van bekendheid en onheilspellende stilte te skep. (Whitney Museum of American Art / Foto deur Steven Sloman / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Die interessante Night Windows (1928) is tegelyk voyeuristies en geheimsinnig, 'n mens kan net raai wat die vrou doen. (Museum of Modern Art, NY. Gift of John Hay Whitney / SCALA / Art Resource / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Hopper "bied stukke van 'n onoplosbare lewe, oomblikke in 'n verhaal wat nie kan afsluit nie", skryf kunskritikus Robert Hughes. Hopper skilder Cape Cod Morning, wat volgens hom in 1950 nader aan wat hy voel as ander werke. (Smithsonian American Art Museum / Art Resource) Nighthawks (1942) (The Art Institute of Chicago / Friends of American Art Collection / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Automat (1927) (Des Moines Art Center, Iowa / Michael Tropea, Chicago / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) The Mansard Roof (1923) (The Brooklyn Museum, New York, Museum Collection Fund / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Captain Upton's House (1927) (Versameling van Steve Martin / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Hills, South Truro (1930) (The Cleveland Museum of Art, Hinman B. Hurlbut Collection / Courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Night Shadows (1921) (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston / Gift of William Emerson)

      Vir al sy versigtige beraadslaging het Hopper meer as 800 bekende skilderye, waterverf en afdrukke, asook talle tekeninge en illustrasies geskep. Die beste daarvan is ongelooflike distillasies van dorpe in New England en argitektuur in New York, met presiese tyd en plek gearresteer. Sy skerp maar intieme interpretasies van die Amerikaanse lewe, wat in die skaduwee gesink is of in die son bril, is minimale dramas wat met maksimum krag versmoor word. Hopper het 'n merkwaardige vermoë om die mees gewone toneel te belê, hetsy by 'n gaspomp langs die pad, 'n onbeskryflike eetplek of 'n sombere hotelkamer met intense raaisel, wat verhale skep wat geen kyker ooit heeltemal kan ontrafel nie. Sy bevrore en geïsoleerde figure lyk dikwels ongemaklik geteken en geposeer, maar hy vermy dit om hulle te grasieus of opvallend te laat lyk, wat volgens hom vals sou wees in die stemming wat hy wou vestig. Die getrouheid van Hopper aan sy eie visie, wat oor die onvolmaakthede van mense en hul bekommernisse bly, het van sy werk 'n spreekwoord gemaak vir eerlikheid en emosionele diepte. Kritikus Clement Greenberg, die voorste eksponent van abstrakte ekspressionisme, het die paradoks gesien. Hopper, skryf hy in 1946, "is nie 'n skilder in die volle sin nie, sy middele is tweedehands, armoedig en onpersoonlik." Tog was Greenberg insiggewend genoeg om by te voeg: "Hopper is bloot 'n slegte skilder. Maar as hy 'n beter skilder was, sou hy heel waarskynlik nie 'n beter kunstenaar gewees het nie."

      Hopper was so peinsend soos die mense wat hy op doek gesit het. Die raaiselagtige kwaliteit van die skilderye is inderdaad versterk deur die openbare persoonlikheid van die kunstenaar. Hoog en stewig gebou met 'n massiewe kaalkop, herinner hy waarnemers aan 'n stuk graniet en was omtrent op die punt om te kom. Hy was nie behulpsaam vir joernaliste wat besonderhede of staaltjies soek nie. 'Die hele antwoord is op die doek,' antwoord hy hardnekkig. Maar hy het ook gesê: "Die man is die werk. Iets kom nie uit niks nie." Die kunshistorikus Lloyd Goodrich, wat Hopper in die 1920's beywer het, het gedink dat die kunstenaar en sy werk saamspan. 'Hopper het nie 'n praatjie gehad nie,' het Goodrich geskryf. "Hy was bekend vir sy monumentale stiltes, maar soos die spasies in sy foto's, was dit nie leeg nie. Toe hy wel praat, was sy woorde die produk van lang meditasie. Oor die dinge wat hom interesseer, veral kuns. sê, uiters uitgedruk, maar met gewig en akkuraatheid, en in 'n stadige, onwillige monotoon uitgespreek. "

      Wat kontroversie betref, is daar min meer oor. Hopper se ster het lank lank helder gebrand. Hy is waarskynlik die opperste Amerikaanse realis van die 20ste eeu, en omvat aspekte van ons ervaring so outentiek dat ons skaars 'n tuimelhuis naby 'n verlate pad of 'n skaduwee oor 'n bruinsteenfasade kan sien behalwe deur sy oë. Gegewe die ikoniese status van Hopper, is dit verbasend om te verneem dat daar in meer as 25 jaar geen omvattende opname van sy werk in Amerikaanse museums buite New York gesien is nie. Hierdie droogte is herstel deur "Edward Hopper", 'n terugblik wat tans tot 19 Augustus in die Museum of Fine Arts, Boston is, en gaan voort na Washington, DC se National Gallery of Art (16 September 2007-21 Januarie 2008) ) en die Art Institute of Chicago (16 Februarie-11 Mei 2008). Die vertoning, wat bestaan ​​uit meer as 100 skilderye, waterverf en afdrukke, waarvan die meeste uit ongeveer 1925 tot 1950, die periode van die grootste prestasie van die kunstenaar, dateer, is die mees indrukwekkende komposisies van Hopper.

      "Die klem val op fynproewerskap, 'n outydse term, maar ons het streng gekies," sê Carol Troyen, kurator van Amerikaanse skilderkuns in die Museum of Fine Arts, Boston en een van die organiseerders saam met Judith Barter en die Art Institute die National Gallery se Franklin Kelly — van die uitstalling. "Hopper word erken as 'n briljante skepper van beelde, maar ons wou hom ook voorstel as 'n kunstenaar wat toegewy is aan die kunsvlyt waarvan die werk persoonlik gesien moet word. Sy kuns is baie subtieler as wat enige reproduksie onthul."

      Edward Hopper is gebore op 22 Julie 1882 in Nyack, New York, 25 myl noord van New York, in 'n familie van Engelse, Nederlandse, Franse en Walliese afkoms. Sy oupa aan moederskant het die huis gebou wat vandag behoue ​​gebly het as 'n baken en 'n gemeenskaps -kunssentrum, waar hy en sy suster, Marion, wat twee jaar ouer was, grootgeword het. Hopper se pa, Garrett Henry Hopper, was 'n handelaar in droë goedere. Sy ma, Elizabeth Griffiths Smith Hopper, het dit baie geniet om te teken, en albei sy ouers het hul seun se artistieke neigings aangemoedig en sy vroeë sketse van homself, sy gesin en die plaaslike platteland bewaar. Edward, wat op 12-jarige ouderdom meer as ses voet lank was, is deur sy klasmaats geterg en geknoei. Sy andersheid versterk waarskynlik afsonderlike strewes en trek na die rivier, skets, vaar en skilder. Selfs as 'n kind, onthou Hopper, het hy opgemerk "dat die lig op die boonste deel van 'n huis anders was as die op die onderste deel. Daar is 'n soort opgewondenheid oor sonlig op die boonste gedeelte van 'n huis."

      Hoewel Hopper se ouers die geskenke van hul seun herken en kuns laat studeer het, was hulle verstandig genoeg om te vereis dat hy spesialiseer in illustrasie as 'n manier om 'n bestaan ​​te maak. Nadat hy in 1899 aan die hoërskool gestudeer het, het Hopper ingeskryf vir 'n kommersiële kunsskool in New York en het hy ongeveer 'n jaar daar gebly, waarna hy oorgegaan het na die New York School of Art, gestig in 1896 deur die Amerikaanse impressionis William Merritt Chase. Hopper het illustrasie bestudeer, maar het ook geleer om te skilder van die invloedrykste onderwysers van die dag, waaronder Chase, Robert Henri en Kenneth Hayes Miller. Beide Chase en Henri is beïnvloed deur Frans Hals, Vel ázquez en die Franse impressionisme, veral soos voorbeeld deur Édouard Manet. Henri het sy studente aangemoedig om hulself te bevry van vermoeide akademiese formules, en het 'n realisme aangeneem wat in die nader aspekte van Amerikaanse stede gedompel het vir die onderwerp daarvan. As 'n suksesvolle kunstenaar wat terugkyk, het Hopper bedenkinge met Henri as skilder gehad, maar hy het altyd toegegee dat sy leermeester 'n sterk voorstander was van 'n verligte manier van sien. Geïnspireer deur Henri se motiverende krag, het die jeugdige Hopper ses jaar by die skool gebly en uit die lewe getrek en portrette en genretonele geskilder. Om homself te onderhou, het hy daar kuns geleer en ook as kommersiële kunstenaar gewerk. Hopper en sy vriend Rockwell Kent was albei in die klas van Miller, en sommige van hul vroeë debatte het skilderagtige probleme veroorsaak wat vir Hopper van groot belang was. 'Ek was nog altyd geïnteresseerd in 'n leë kamer,' onthou hy. "Toe ons op skool was. [Ons] het gedebatteer hoe 'n kamer lyk as daar niemand is om dit te sien nie, niemand kyk in nie, selfs nie." In 'n leë kamer kan afwesigheid dui op teenwoordigheid. Hierdie idee het Hopper sy hele lewe lank, van sy twintigerjare tot sy laaste jare, besig gehou, soos blyk uit Kamers by die see en Son in 'n leë kamer, twee majestueuse foto's uit die 1950's en 60's.

      'N Ander belangrike deel van die opvoeding van 'n ontluikende kunstenaar was om na die buiteland te gaan. Deur geld uit sy kommersiële opdragte te bespaar, kon Hopper drie reise na Europa onderneem tussen 1906 en 1910. Hy woon hoofsaaklik in Parys, en in briewe huis toe rapsodiseer hy oor die skoonheid van die stad en die waardering van sy burgers vir kuns.

      Ondanks Hopper se plesier in die Franse hoofstad, het hy min kennis geneem van die innovasie of fermentasie wat ander inwonende Amerikaanse kunstenaars betrek het. Ten tyde van Hopper se eerste besoek aan Parys, het die Fauves en die ekspressioniste reeds hul debuut gemaak, en Picasso was op pad na die kubisme. Hopper het onvergeetlike terugblik op Courbet, wat hy bewonder het, en C ézanne, oor wie hy gekla het, gesien. 'Baie Cannes is baie dun,' het hy later aan die skrywer en kunstenaar Brian O'Doherty gesê. "Hulle het nie gewig nie." In elk geval het Hopper se eie Paryse foto's 'n voorstelling gegee van die skilder wat hy sou word. Daar het hy die portretstudies en die donker palet van die Henri -jare opsy gesit om te konsentreer op argitektuur, wat brûe en geboue uitbeeld wat in die sagte Franse lig gloei.

      Nadat hy in 1910 na die Verenigde State teruggekeer het, het Hopper nooit weer Europa besoek nie. Hy was vasbeslote om sy weg as Amerikaner te vind, en daar kan 'n oorgang na 'n meer individuele styl gevind word New York Corner, geskilder in 1913. In die doek stel hy die motief van rooi baksteen geboue en die ritmiese fuga van oop en toe vensters bekend wat hy in die laat 1920's op 'n sensasionele toonhoogte sou bring Die stad, vanaf Williamsburg -brug en Vroeg Sondagoggend. Maar New York Corner is 'n oorgang; die weer is mistig eerder as sonnig, en 'n menigte kom ongewoon bymekaar voor 'n stoep. Toe hy jare later gevra is wat hy dink van 'n uitstalling van die kunstenaar Reginald Marsh in 1964, het die meester van swanger, leë ruimtes geantwoord: "Hy het meer mense op een prent as wat ek in al my skilderye het."

      In Desember 1913 verhuis Hopper van Midtown na Greenwich Village, waar hy 'n woonstel met 'n hoë plafon op die boonste verdieping huur in Washington Square 3, 'n baksteenhuis met 'n uitsig oor die verdieping. The combined living and work space was heated by a potbellied stove, the bathroom was in the hall, and Hopper had to climb four flights of stairs to fetch coal for the stove or pick up the paper. But it suited him perfectly.

      Hopper sold one painting in 1913 but didn't make another major sale for a decade. To support himself, he continued to illustrate business and trade journals, assignments he mostly detested. In 1915 he took up printmaking as a way to remain engaged as an artist. His etchings and drypoints found greater acceptance than his paintings and at $10 to $20 each, they occasionally sold. Along with the bridges, buildings, trains and elevated railroads that already were familiar elements in his work, the prints feature a bold development: Hopper began portraying women as part of the passing scene and as the focus of male longing. The etching Night on the El Train is a snapshot of a pair of lovers oblivious to everyone else. In Evening Wind, a curvaceous nude climbs onto a bed on whose other side the artist seems to be sitting as he scratches a lovely chiaroscuro moment into a metal plate. In these etchings, New York is a nexus of romantic possibilities, overflowing with fantasies tantalizingly on the brink of fulfillment.

      Between 1923 and 1928, Hopper often spent time during the summer in Gloucester, Massachusetts, a fishing village and art colony on Cape Ann. There he devoted himself to watercolor, a less cumbersome medium that allowed him to work outdoors, painting humble shacks as well as the grand mansions built by merchants and sea captains. The watercolors marked the beginning of Hopper's real professional recognition. He entered six of them in a show at the Brooklyn Museum in November 1923. The museum bought one, The Mansard Roof, a view of an 1873 house that showcases not only the structure's solidity, but the light, air and breeze playing over the building. A year later, Hopper sent a fresh batch of Gloucester watercolors to New York dealer Frank Rehn, whose Fifth Avenue gallery was devoted to prominent American painters. After Rehn mounted a Hopper watercolor show in October 1924 that was a critical and financial smash, the artist quit all commercial work and lived by his art for the rest of his life.

      Hopper's career as a watercolorist had been jump-started by the encouragement of Josephine Verstille Nivison, an artist whom Hopper had first courted in 1923 in Gloucester. The two wed in July 1924. As both were over 40, with established living habits, adjusting to each other took some effort. Their marriage was close—Josephine moved into her husband's Washington Square quarters and did not have a separate work space for many years—and turbulent, for they were physical and temperamental opposites. Towering over her, he was stiff-necked and slow-moving she was small, snappy and birdlike, quick to act and quicker to speak, which some said was constantly. Accounts of Jo Hopper's chattering are legion, but her vivacity and conversational ease must have charmed her future husband, at least initially, for these were traits he lacked. "Sometimes talking with Eddie is just like dropping a stone in a well," Jo quipped, "except that it doesn't thump when it hits bottom." As time passed, he tended to disregard her she resented him. But Hopper probably could not have tolerated a more conventional wife. "Marriage is difficult," Jo told a friend. "But the thing has to be gone through." To which Hopper retorted, "Living with one woman is like living with two or three tigers." Jo kept her husband's art ledgers, guarded against too many guests, put up with his creative dry spells and put her own life on hold when he roused himself into working. She posed for nearly every female figure in his canvases, both for his convenience and her peace of mind. They formed a bond that only Edward's death, at age 84, in 1967 would break. Jo survived him by just ten months, dying 12 days before her 85th birthday.

      Jo Hopper's availability as a model likely spurred her husband toward some of the more contemporary scenes of women and couples that became prominent in his oils of the mid- and late 1920s and gave several of them a Jazz Age edge. In Automat en Chop Suey, smartly clothed independent women, symbols of the flapper era, animate a heady cosmopolitan milieu. Chop Suey had an especially personal meaning for the Hoppers—the scene and the place derive from a Columbus Circle Chinese restaurant where they often ate during their courtship.

      Hopper ignored much of the city's hurly-burly he avoided its tourist attractions and landmarks, including the skyscraper, in favor of the homely chimney pots rising on the roofs of commonplace houses and industrial lofts. He painted a number of New York's bridges, though not the most famous, the Brooklyn Bridge. He reserved his greatest affection for unexceptional 19th- and early 20th-century structures. Echoing his Gloucester watercolors (and decades ahead of the historic preservation movement), he treasured vernacular buildings, drawing satisfaction from things that stayed as they were.

      By the late 1920s, Hopper was in full command of a powerful urban vision. He had completed several extraordinary paintings that seemed almost carved out of the materials they were depicting, brick by brick and rivet by rivet. Manhattan Bridge Loop (1928) and Early Sunday Morning (1930) match the monumental scale of New York itself, whereas Night Windows (1928) acknowledges in an almost cinematic way the strange nonchalance that results from lives lived in such close proximity: even when you think you are alone, you are observed—and accept the fact. The unsettling nature of Night Windows derives from the position of the viewer—directly across from a half-dressed woman's derrière. The painting suggests that Hopper may have affected movies as much as they affected him. When German director Wim Wenders, a Hopper fan, was asked why the artist appeals to so many filmmakers, he said: "You can always tell where the camera is."

      With the creation of such distinctive paintings, Hopper's reputation soared. Two on the Aisle sold in 1927 for $1,500, and Manhattan Bridge Loop brought $2,500 in 1928. That same year, Frank Rehn took in more than $8,000 for Hopper's oils and watercolors, which yielded the artist about $5,300 (more than $64,000 today). In January 1930, House by the Railroad became the first painting by any artist to enter the permanent collection of New York's newly established Museum of Modern Art. Later that year, the Whitney Museum of American Art bought Early Sunday Morning for $2,000 it would become a cornerstone of that new institution's permanent collection. The august Metropolitan Museum of Art purchased Tables for Ladies for $4,500 in 1931, and in November 1933, the Museum of Modern Art gave Hopper a retrospective exhibition, an honor rarely bestowed on living American artists. He was 51.

      Since 1930, the Hoppers had spent summer vacations in South Truro, Massachusetts, near the tip of Cape Cod. A small town situated between Wellfleet and Provincetown, Truro had kept its local character. In 1933 Jo received an inheritance, which the couple used to build a house there it was completed the next year. The Hoppers would spend nearly every summer and early autumn in Truro for the remainder of their lives.

      By the end of the 1930s, Hopper had changed his working methods. More and more, instead of painting outside, he stayed in his studio and relied on synthesizing remembered images. He pieced together Cape Cod Evening (1939) from sketches and recollected impressions of the Truro vicinity—a nearby grove of locust trees, the doorway of a house miles away, figures done from imagination, dry grass growing outside his studio. In the painting, a man and woman seem separated by their own introspection. Hopper's "equivocal human figures engaged in uncertain relationships mark his paintings as modern" as strongly as his gas pumps and telephone poles, writes art historian Ellen E. Roberts in the current show's catalog.

      The notions of disconnection and inaccessiblity are most fully realized in Nighthawks (1942), Hopper's most famous painting. Soos die Mona Lisa of Whistler's Mother of American Gothic, it has taken on a life of its own in popular culture, with its film-noir sensibility sparking scores of parodies. The figures, customers at a late-night eatery, flooded by an eerie greenish light, look like specimens preserved in a jar. Hopper has banished every superfluous detail: the huge plate-glass window is seamless, and there is no visible entrance to the restaurant. Like characters in a crime movie or existential novel, the figures seem trapped in a world that offers no escape.

      As Hopper aged, he found it increasingly difficult to work, and as his output decreased in the late 1940s, some critics labeled him as passé. But younger artists knew better. Richard Diebenkorn, Ed Ruscha, George Segal, Roy Lichtenstein and Eric Fischl appropriated Hopper's world and made it their own. Eight decades after his most evocative canvases were painted, those silent spaces and uneasy encounters still touch us where we are most vulnerable. Edward Hopper, matchless at capturing the play of light, continues to cast a very long shadow.

      Avis Berman is the author of Edward Hopper's New York en die redakteur van My Love Affair with Modern Art: Behind the Scenes with a Legendary Curator by Katharine Kuh (2006).


      Moonlight Etchings of the Forgotten Artist who Taught Edward Hopper

      Martin Lewis died in obscurity in 1962 a retired art teacher who had found some success in his early career, but was largely forgotten after the Great Depression took away the demand for his craft, leaving Lewis to spend his last three decades teaching other people how to etch. History chose Edward Hopper, but Martin Lewis was his mentor.

      “After I took up my etching, my painting seemed to crystallise,” Hopper is quoted in his biography. It was Martin Lewis, an Australian emigré who had moved to New York in 1909, that helped Edward learn the basics of etching. The two became good friends on the artists circuit where eachothers’ work was presented to the public at various art clubs and small exhibitions.

      Lewis had taken up printmaking by 1915 and was using the etching press to produce prints which became widely admired and collected by the East coast elite. While making a name for themselves in New York City, Hopper asked his friend if he could study alongside him to learn his techniques, making Lewis his mentor for a brief while. As his student, Hopper learned the finer points of etching and both artists used the great American metropolis at night as their muse.

      Years later, when Hopper was preparing for a one-man show in Pittsburgh at the height of his career, he rejected the notion that Lewis’s work had influenced his own or that he had studied “under Lewis” as implied by the exhibit’s biographical essay. “Lewis is an old friend of mine,” he countered. “When I decided to etch, he, who had already done some, was glad to give me some tips, on the purely mechanical processes, grounding the plates, printing etc”. By this time, the two artists were no longer friends however. According to Edward’s wife Josephine, Lewis and his wife Lucille had given the Hoppers up, “quite understandably. It had been too much of a blow to have E.H so successful.”

      Nearly 50 years after his death, Lewis’s print, Shadow Dance (pictured above), sold for $50,400 at an auction in New York, setting a record price for the artist at auction. He had found a renewed, posthumous appreciation in the new millennium, whereas decades earlier, auction houses couldn’t sell off his prints at all and entire lots failed to reach their reserve price.

      Much of his work may yet to be discovered. In 1920s, he was supported and collected by numerous etching societies and museums, but so many works are now held privately, out of public view. We would love to see more, wouldn’t you?

      Prints for sale can be found on The Old Print Shop.


      Edward Hopper - History

      In comparison with the contemporary Dutch American painters, De Kooning and Mondrian, Hopper’s paintings are realistic, and immediately evoke a sense of identification, at least for many of us. Hopper’s work was initially focused on cityscapes, but later he ventured out in the countryside and produced a number of interesting pictures based on small town life.

      Hopper’s best and best-known painting is entitled, “Nighthawks”. The painting shows a few people sitting on counter stools at the counter of a diner style restaurant. It is obviously well after midnight based on the eerily dark and quiet street. The diner is brightly lit and stands apart from the quiet but dark street, from where the artist viewed the people in the diner. Although, to this author, some of his other paintings are also outstanding, the “Nighthawks” painting is viewed as Hopper’s best and best known.

      Edward Hopper was raised in early Dutch Hudson River country. He was born in the small Hudson River town of Nyack, New York. It is reported that his ancestors were of English, Dutch and Welsh backgrounds. Hopper showed an aptitude for art early in his life, and told his parents that he wanted to become an artist, and wanted to attend an art institute. His parents being practical, and probably realistic, urged him to learn illustration, so that he at least would be able to support himself and his family, after he grew up. Following high school, he enrolled at the Corresponding School of Illustrating in New York City. Although it was apparently a correspondence school, Hopper attended the school in person, commuting daily from Nyack to the school in New York City by train.

      After spending one year at the Illustration School, he switched to the New York School of Art, also referred to as the Chase School, because the school was founded by William Merritt Chase [1849-1916], a reasonably well known American artist. While at the school, Hopper worked with Robert Henri [1869-1929], and it was Henri who gave direction to Hopper’s development as an artist. Hopper’s contemporaries at the School were such later luminaries as George Bellows and Rockwell Kent. Hopper remained at the School for several years, supporting himself with teaching, and working as an illustrator. While at the school he also learned much from his teachers and contemporaries. Along the way he even managed to travel to Europe several times to view the artistic developments, then going on in Europe, and notably in Paris. Although he admired what the impressionists were doing, he was not sufficiently impressed to follow their style of painting. He started out as a realist, and remained a realist, as an artist, for the remainder of his life.

      It was not until 1913, when he was 31 years old, that Hopper exhibited at the Armory Show, and sold his first painting. Even after that first success, Hopper’s work did not gain acceptance by the critics and art buyers until 10 years later. In 1923, at age 41, Hopper sold his second painting, a watercolor, painted with a medium that he had switched to then. The title of that work was “The Mansard Roof”. In the following year Hopper exhibited a group of watercolors at a New York City gallery, and every painting he exhibited was sold. A subsequent gallery exhibit, this time a solo exhibit at the Rehn Gallery in New York City, also sold out. This was the time Hopper clearly had arrived as a painter, and as an artist.

      In 1924, with his reputation as a painter solidly established, he settled in Greenwich Village, where he remained for the rest of his life, as a full time and well-established painter. In 1925, he renewed his friendship with a former student from the Art Institute. Her name was Jo Nevison. They got married the same year, in 1925, when Nevison was 40 and Hopper was 42 years old.

      In 1925, Hopper painted what is also considered one of his major pictures, entitled, “The House by the Railroad”. In 1929, Hopper was included in a major exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The exhibition was named, “Paintings by Nineteen Living Americans”. The following year, in 1930, Hopper’s, “The House by the Railroad” entered the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art. Also in 1930, the Whitney Museum of American Art purchased Hopper’s painting entitled, “Early Sunday Morning”. In 1933, Hopper was given a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, and it 1950, the Whitney Museum of American Art gave Hopper a more extensive retrospective exhibition.

      Based on the above, Hopper clearly had become one of the major American graphic artists of the twentieth century. His life can best be described by the following quote from Lloyd Goodrich, shown in the paragraph below.

      “No artist has painted a more revealing portrait of twentieth century America. But he was not merely an objective realist. His art was charged with strong personal emotion, with a deep attachment to our familiar everyday world, in all its ugliness, banality, and beauty”.

      Edward Hopper was born in Nyack, New York, on July 22, 1882. He married Jo Nevison in 1925. So far as is known the couple had no children. Hopper passed away in New York City on May 15, 1967, at the age of 84 years. He bequeathed his art remaining in his possession to the Whitney Museum of American Art, in New York City, upon his death.

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      Edward Hopper

      Realist painter who studied with Robert Henri and Kenneth Hayes Miller at the New York School of Art. One of the country’s most honored artists, Hopper was internationally acclaimed in his lifetime and was elected to both the National Institute of Arts and Letters ( 1945 ) and the American Academy of Arts and Letters ( 1955 ). He poetically painted the isolation and detachment of modern life Nighthawks ( 1942 ) is arguably his best-known composition.

      Joan Stahl American Artists in Photographic Portraits from the Peter A. Juley & Son Collection (Washington, D.C. and Mineola, New York: National Museum of American Art and Dover Publications, Inc., 1995 )

      A quintessential American realist, Hopper painted a repertoire of subjects ranging from the lighthouses and Victorian manses of the New England coast to the movie houses, offices, cafeterias, and highways of New York City. Hopper was associated with the Ash Can artists early in his career he studied with Robert Henri at the New York School of Art from 1900 to 1906 and greatly admired John Sloan’s etchings of New York City. In the 1920 s he achieved recognition with his architectural paintings in which light is used dramatically to characterize his subjects. Whether depicting daylight scenes or nocturnal environments, his paintings have an introspective, contemplative aura that is enhanced by his frequent use of solitary figures set against blank walls. Mood was as important to Hopper as subject, as the statement he wrote for the catalogue of his 1933 retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art makes clear: ​ “ My aim in painting has always been the most exact transcription possible of my most intimate impressions of nature.”

      Virginia M. Mecklenburg Modern American Realism: The Sara Roby Foundation Collection (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press for the National Museum of American Art, 1987 )

      Edward Hopper started his career as an illustrator, but soon switched to painting and studied with the artist Robert Henri at the New York School of Art. He made three trips to Paris between 1906 and 1910 , where he stayed with a French family and painted scenes of the city. Back in the United States , he resumed his commercial work, creating engravings and illustrations of everyday American life. These proved such a success that he was encouraged to return to easel painting, and by 1927 he had established himself with an exhibition in New York City . Hopper painted characteristic American subjects, from movie theaters and restaurants to New England lighthouses. His images capture dramatic areas of light and shadow and often evoke a strong sense of isolation and loneliness, even when there is more than one figure portrayed.

      Edward Hopper: The Watercolors

      In the 1920s, inspired perhaps by the particular light and quality of Gloucester, Massachusetts, Edward Hopper began painting watercolors. He has been celebrated since then as one of the most eloquent of America’s realists.

      Crosscurrents: Modern Art from the Sam Rose and Julie Walters Collection

      In eighty-eight striking paintings and sculptures, Crosscurrents captures modernism as it moved from early abstractions by O’Keeffe, to Picasso and Pollock in midcentury, to pop riffs on contemporary culture by Roy Lichtenstein, Wayne Thiebaud, and Tom Wesselmann—all illustrating the com

      Graphic Masters: Highlights from the Smithsonian American Art Museum

      Graphic Masters celebrates the extraordinary variety and accomplishment of American artists’ works on paper.


      About the Author Amanda Hadley

      Amanda graduated from the University of Kansas, where she studied English literature and got a masters degree in library sciences. She enjoys reading, cooking and playing with her nephews. Her best friend is her little dog Brady.

      About Our Authors

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      Edward Hopper - Biography and Legacy

      Edward Hopper was born into a comfortable, middle-class family in Nyack, New York, in 1882. His parents introduced Edward, and his older sister Marion, to the arts early in life they attended the theatre, concerts and other cultural events, and visited museums. His father owned a dry goods store where Hopper sometimes worked as a teen. Hopper described him as "an incipient intellectual. less at home with his books of accounts than with Montaigne's essays." Both his parents were supportive of his artistic inclinations.

      As a boy, Hopper was quiet and reserved. He was over six feet tall by his early teens, had few friends, and spent much of his time alone with his books and art. His home in Nyack stood on a hill overlooking the Hudson River, just north of New York City. At the time Nyack was a vibrant hub of transit and industry. There was an active train station, three shipbuilding companies, a port for steamboats, and the cross-Hudson ferry. Young Edward spent his days by the river, sketchpad in hand, observing and drawing the rigging and building of boats. This early period is documented in numerous drawings of boats and ships as well as several handmade wooden model boats. As a teen he built a full-sized catboat and briefly considered pursuing a career in naval architecture. The seriousness with which the artist approached his artistic ambitions had already revealed itself by age 10 when he began to sign and date his drawings.

      Vroeë tydperk

      After graduating high school in 1899, Hopper's parents encouraged him to study commercial illustration instead of fine art. Accordingly, he spent a year at the New York School of Illustration in Manhattan before transferring to the more serious New York School of Art to realize his dream. His teachers there included the American Impressionist William Merritt Chase (who founded the school) and Robert Henri, a leading figure of the Ashcan school, whose proponents advocated depicting the grittier side of urban life. Hopper's classmates at the school included George Bellows, Guy Pene du Bois, and Rockwell Kent.

      In 1905, Hopper began working as an illustrator for a New York City advertising agency but never really liked illustrating and longed for the freedom to paint from his imagination. Unfortunately, success was slow in coming and he was forced to earn his living as an illustrator for nearly 20 more years until his painting career took off.

      Hopper travelled to Europe three times between 1906 and 1910, enjoying two extended stays in Paris. The influence of the Impressionists led him to the streets to draw and paint en plein air, or, as Hopper described it, "from the fact." Years later he would call his work from this period, a form of "modified impressionism." He was especially attracted to Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas's unusual compositional arrangements in their depictions of modern urban life. During a visit to Amsterdam, Hopper also admired Rembrandt's Nightwatch, which called "the most wonderful thing of his I have seen, it's past belief in its reality - it almost amounts to deception."

      After returning from his final trip abroad in 1910, Hopper moved permanently to New York City and, in 1913, settled at 3 Washington Square North. This would be his home and studio for the rest of his life. That same year he sold his first painting, Sailing (1911), for $250 at the Armory show in New York. Though he never stopped painting, it would be 11 years before he sold another painting. During that time he continued to earn his living illustrating and, in 1915, he took up printmaking, producing some 70 etchings and dry points over the next decade. Like the paintings for which he would later become renowned, Hopper's etchings embody a sense alienation and melancholy. One of his better known etchings, Night Shadows (1921) features the birds'-eye viewpoint, the dramatic use of light and shadow, and the air of mystery which would serve as inspiration for many film noir movies of the 1940s. Hopper continued to receive great acclaim for his etchings over the years and considered them an essential part of his artistic development. As he wrote, "After I took up etching, my painting seemed to crystallize."

      Volwasse tydperk

      In 1923, Hopper visited Gloucester, Massachusetts. There he became reacquainted with Josephine (Jo) Nivison, whom he had met years earlier as an art student of Robert Henri. He worked in watercolor that summer and it was Jo who encouraged him later that year to join her in participating in a show at the Brooklyn Museum. He exhibited six watercolors there, including The Mansard Roof (1923), which the museum purchased for $100.

      In 1924, Hopper married Jo. From that time on she became his primary model and most ardent supporter. In that same year he had a solo exhibition of watercolors at the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery in New York. The show sold out and the Rehn Gallery continued to represent him for the rest of his life. This success enabled Hopper to finally give up illustrating.

      Over the next several years, Hopper's painting style matured and his signature iconography emerged--from isolated figures in public or private interiors, to sun-soaked architecture, silent streets, and coastal scenes with lighthouses. In 1930, House by the Railroad (1925) became the first painting accessioned to the permanent collection of the newly founded Museum of Modern Art. The early 1930s were, indeed, a period of great success for Hopper, with sales to major museums and in 1933, a retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art.

      Despite his commercial success, Hopper and Jo lived a frugal lifestyle, only allowing themselves the indulgence of attending theatre and films. Hopper particularly loved going to movies. His first documented visit to one was in Paris in 1909. As he explained, "When I don't feel in the mood for painting, I go to the movies for a week or more. I go on a regular movie binge."

      Early in their marriage the Hoppers spent summers painting in New England, mostly Gloucester and coastal Maine. They also travelled across the country and to Mexico, where they painted watercolors side by side. From 1934, they began spending summers at the house and studio Hopper designed for them in South Truro, Cape Cod in Massachusetts.

      Late Period

      Hopper continued to be productive during the war years and remained unperturbed by the potential threats following the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was precisely during this period that he worked on his most well known painting, Nighthawks (1942). Through the 1950s and early 1960s, Hopper continued to see acclaim and success, despite the arrival of Abstract Expressionism, Pop, and Minimalism to the New York art scene. The universal appeal of his subjects continued to find an avid audience.

      Hopper was not a prolific painter. He often found it hard to settle on a subject to paint and then spent a great deal of time working out the details of the composition through numerous studies. By the end of his life he averaged just two oils a year. Hopper died on May 15, 1967 and Jo Hopper died just 10 months later, bequeathing their artistic estate to the Whitney Museum of American Art. Hopper is buried, along with Jo, his sister and his parents, in Nyack's Oak Hill Cemetery.

      The Legacy of Edward Hopper

      Hopper has inspired countless painters, photographers, filmmakers, set designers, dancers, writers, and musicians and the term "Hopperesque" is now widely used to connote images reminiscent of Hopper's moods and subjects. In the visual arts, Hopper's influence has touched artists in a range of media including Mark Rothko, George Segal, Banksy, Ed Ruscha, and Tony Oursler . The painter Eric Fischl remarked, "You can tell how great an artist is by how long it takes you to get through his territory. I'm still in the territory that he opened up." Richard Diebenkorn recalled the importance of Hopper's influence on his work when he was a student stating, "I embraced Hopper completely . It was his use of light and shade and the atmosphere . kind of drenched, saturated with mood, and its kind of austerity . It was the kind of work that just seemed made for me. I looked at it and it was mine." In the exhibition and catalogue, Edward Hopper & Company: Hopper's Influence on Photography (2009), Jeffrey Fraenkel examines how Edward Hopper inspired a whole school of photographers including Robert Adams, Diane Arbus, Harry Callahan, William Eggleston, Walker Evans, Robert Frank, Lee Friedlander, and Stephen Shore. Fraenkel writes, "More than almost any American artist, Hopper has had a pervasive impact on the way we see the world--so pervasive as to be almost invisible."

      Hopper has had no less of an impact on cinema. Generations of filmmakers have drawn inspiration from Hopper's dramatic viewpoints, lighting, and overall moods, among them, Sam Mendes, David Lynch, Robert Siodmak, Orson Welles, Wim Wenders, and Billy Wilder. Sy skildery, House by the Railroad (1925) inspired Alfred Hitchcock's house in Psycho (1960) as well as that in Terrence Malick's Days of Heaven (1978).

      Hopper's open-ended narratives have also appealed to writers and musicians. Tom Waits titled an album Nighthawks at the Diner and Madonna named a concert tour after the painting Girlie Show (1941). Joyce Carol Oates refers directly to Hopper in her poem, Edward Hopper's Nighthawks 1942. Many others have created whole collections of stories or poems using Hopper paintings as starting points. Hopper's Nighthawks has been appropriated and used hundreds of times in all forms of media within popular culture. An image of the painting or a facsimile of it can be found in an episode of the Simpsons, as the backdrop for a Peeps marshmallows ad, or featuring Marilyn Monroe and James Dean (in Gottfried Helnwein's Boulevard of Broken Dreams (1984)), morphed into a Starbucks, a space station, and in a variety of cartoons in Die New Yorker.

      The artist and writer Victor Burgin properly summed up Hopper's pervasive impact when he said, "We need not look for Hopper in order to find him. We may encounter him by chance at random places where his world intersects our own. We might ask whether or not this photograph by the American documentary photographer Larry Sultan was taken with Edward Hopper's paintings consciously in mind. But the question is irrelevant. To know Hopper's work is to be predisposed to see the world in his terms, consciously or not."


      Kyk die video: Das Auge des Edward Hopper (Oktober 2021).