Geskiedenis Podcasts

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949-

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949-

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949-

Tot en met die gebeure van 11 September was Carlos the Jackal sonder twyfel die bekendste internasionale terroris ter wêreld. Hy was 'n bekwame, intelligente terroris wat hy al dekades lank een van die mees gesogte mans ter wêreld was en het die westerse idee van 'n terroris verbeeld. Carlos, gebore as Ilich Ramirez Sanchez in die staat Táchira, Venezuela, op 12 Oktober 1949, was die seun van 'n suksesvolle marxistiese prokureur en het 'n welgestelde opvoeding gehad met 'n vader wat sy seuns se marxistiese ideologie en 'n tradisioneel katolieke moeder wou voed. Dit was net natuurlik dat die jong Ramirez belangstel in kommunisme en die Suid -Amerikaanse kommunistiese helde van die dag, soos Che Guevara.

Toe hy 17 was, was Carlos reeds betrokke by die revolusionêre groepe van sy land en het hy aansienlike potensiaal getoon. As gevolg van hierdie en sy pa se invloed, word hy spoedig opgelei in die Kubaanse kamp Mantanzas, wat Guerrilla -oorlogvoering en -sabotasietegnieke sowel as bom- en wapenvaardighede bestudeer het danksy sy KGB -opleiers.

Toe sy ouers skei, verhuis hy saam met sy ma en broers na Londen en neem 'n playboy -leefstyl, meng by ambassadepartytjies en maak kontakte wat hom goed sal dien in sy toekomstige loopbaan, en leer hoe om in die boonste deel van die samelewing te meng. Jare later sou baie van sy vriende uit hierdie tydperk geskok wees toe hulle verneem dat die jong jong seuntjie met 'n smaak vir die dames regtig 'n moordenaar was. Sy vader se invloed het Carlos en sy broers steeds gehelp, aangesien hulle by die Patrice Lumumba -universiteit in Moskou plekke kon kry. Hier het hy sy studentelewe van wyn, vroue en sang voortgesit terwyl hy waarskynlik deur die KGB gewerf is.

In 1969 word hy uit die Venezolaanse kommunistiese party geskors nadat hy 'n rebelliegroep ondersteun het wat in onguns was. In 1970 word Carlos uit die universiteit geskors nadat hy by 'n groep Arabiese studente in die straat betoog het, 'n protes wat as anti-Sowjet beskou word. Dit was die begin van sy lang betrokkenheid by Arabiese terrorisme. Terwyl hy nog aan die universiteit was, het hy 'n aantal Palestynse studente ontmoet wat vasbeslote was om 'n onafhanklike staat te verkry, al beteken dit internasionale terrorisme. Nadat hy geskors is, het hy by die Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) aangesluit, 'n groep wat bekend is vir 'n reeks kapings van lugrederye. Teen Julie 1970 was Ramirez in 'n oefenkamp in Jordanië en na 'n ontmoeting met Abu-Sharif, die werwingsbeampte van die PFLP, het hy bekend geword as Carlos the Jackal. Die PFLP het krag gekry en begin alliansies sluit met ander terreurgroepe soos die Baader-Meinhof-bende en die Italiaanse Rooi Brigade. Carlos se reputasie in die organisasie het gegroei na 'Black September', waar hy geveg het teen die Jordaanse weermag om hul land van terroriste te suiwer.

In 1971 sien Carlos terug in Londen weer 'n mengsel met die hoë samelewing terwyl hy in die geheim inligting versamel oor mense wat die moeite werd is om te vermoor of te ontvoer. In 1972 het die aanval op die Israeliese atlete tydens die Olimpiese Spele in München plaasgevind, en hoewel Carlos nie betrokke was nie, sou die gevolg hom op die kaart plaas. Ter vergelding het die Israeliese geheime diens 'n hooggeplaaste lid van die PFLP vermoor, sodat Carlos beveel is om terug te slaan op 'n gerespekteerde lid van die Joodse gemeenskap in Londen, Edward Sieff, president van Marks & Spencer. In Desember 1973 het Carlos na Sieffs se huis gegaan en hom geskiet, gelukkig nie noodlottig nie. Carlos het dit voorafgegaan deur 'n handgranaataanval op die Londense hoofkwartier van 'n Israeliese bank en 'n motorbom in Parys in 1972, wat 63 mense beseer het. Sy internasionale reputasie is gebore.

Carlos het dit opgevolg deur sy bedryfsbasis na Parys te verskuif, waar hy drie motorbomaanvalle op pro-Israeliese koerante uitgevoer het en 'n handelsmerkgranaataanval op die Deux Magots-restaurant, 2 doodgemaak en 34 beseer het. Hierdie tegniek om in te loop, 'n granaat te gooi en uitstap het Carlos se dapperheid en 'n besondere koelbloedige genadeloosheid getoon. Sy bekendste aanval kom in Oostenryk in Desember 1975. Hier storm Carlos en 'n klein groepie op 'n OPEC -vergadering wat die veiligheidsdetail doodmaak en 70 mense gyselaar neem. Die Oostenrykse owerhede het geskok en onderhandel en nadat hulle 'n politieke boodskap uitgesaai het en groot media -aandag in die wêreld gekry het, het Carlos en sy bende op 'n vliegtuig vertrek toe hulle die gyselaars in Algerië vrygelaat het toe hulle land. Die PFLP was kwaad dat Carlos nie die gyselaars en met sy status as beroemdheid vermoor het nie en hom uit die veld gesit het, maar daar word gerugte dat Carlos $ 1 miljoen van die Libiese president, kol. In 1976 was hy betrokke by 'n skietery van 'n Air France -vliegtuig na Uganda, wat gelei het tot die beroemde aanval op Entebbe deur Israeliese spesiale magte en die oorname van die Franse ambassade in Den Haag, wat tot twee sterftes gelei het (waarna uiteindelik Carlos verhoor). Carlos was bekend as 'n meester van vermomming, deur valse paspoorte en kredietkaarte te gebruik, wat hy gereeld deur die net van opneem geglip het en pogings tot moord vermy het. Gedurende hierdie tydperk is baie aanvalle, kapings en bomaanvalle op hom toegedig of met min bewyse aan hom verbind.

Carlos het nou 'n vryskutterroris geword en terroriste uit verskillende Europese en Arabiese lande bymekaargemaak by sy Organisasie van Arabiese Gewapende Stryd. In 1979 het Carlos met die Duitse terroris Magdalena Kopp getrou. Die wittebroodperiode het nie lank geduur nie, want in 1982 het die egpaar 'n Franse kernkragaanleg probeer opblaas met RPG-7-granate. Die aanval misluk en nie lank nadat Kopp en nog 'n terroris in hegtenis geneem is nie. Carlos was vasbeslote om sy vrou te bevry, en het verskeie aanvalle uitgevoer op Franse bates regoor die wêreld, maar sy vrou het nie haar vryheid gekry nie.

Die net was besig om Carlos toe te gaan toe die Franse geheime diens en die CIA vasbeslote was om hom vas te trek. Toe die Koue Oorlog tot 'n einde gekom het, was sy ou ondersteuners in die Sowjet -blok nie meer bereid om hom te help nie en 1985 het hom in Sirië weggekruip. Hy was nou te beroemd vir iemand om te huur. Teen die 90's was Carlos voortdurend aan die gang en is hy uiteindelik op 14 Augustus 1994 in die Soedan gevange geneem, 45 jaar oud, nog steeds besig met sy ou stokperdjies om te drink en te vrou.

Gedurende sy loopbaan was Carlos the Jackal die voorbeeld vir die westerse idee van 'n internasionale terroris - waaghalsig, genadeloos, in staat om op alle vlakke in die samelewing in te meng en met 'n gawe vir tale. Ons moet nie vergeet dat hy verantwoordelik was vir die dood van meer as 80 mense nie. Hy is verhoor weens die moord op twee Franse agente en 'n Libanese polisie -informant wat hy in 1975 vermoor het toe hulle hom probeer vang het. Hy is in 1997 tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf gevonnis. Sedert die sewentigerjare is hy 'n konstante doring in die Franse en Westerse owerhede en 'n inspirasie vir twee geslagte van toekomstige terroriste. Vir sommige was hy 'n vryheidsvegter, vir ander 'n meedoënlose moordenaar en huursoldaat. Soos die vrylating van die OPEC -gyselaars toon, was Carlos beslis geen moordenaar nie, maar hy was ook nie teenstrydig met die dood van burgerlikes nie. Hy was van jongs af sterk gemotiveer deur ideologie en met 'n goeie agtergrond en opvoeding, het hy nie nodig gehad om hom tot terrorisme te wend nie, maar besluit om dit te doen. Hy geniet sy lewensstyl en beeld van sy speelkind en beskou homself graag as die alternatiewe James Bond en baie vermoed dat die roman van Frederick Forsyth, Die Dag van die Jakkals, is gebaseer op die beroemde terroris, net soos die twee films wat op die boek gebaseer is. Vir diegene wat terrorismebestryding bestudeer, illustreer Carlos watter skade 'n goed opgeleide en gemotiveerde man kan aanrig, 'n les wat bitter versterk is deur Bin Laden en die gebeure van 11 September. Carlos het uit sy gevangenis in Frankryk gepraat en Bin Laden genoem as sy natuurlike opvolger om die stryd teen Westerse imperialisme voort te sit


Tracking the Jackal: The Search for Carlos, die mees gesoekte man ter wêreld, David A. Yallop, Random House, 1993, 629 bladsye. Hierdie boek kyk na die skrywer se soektog na die beroemdste terroris ter wêreld. Dit sou 'n jagtog wees wat oor baie lande strek en tien jaar duur. Dit is 'n interessante boek, aangesien dit kyk na die kant van terrorisme en hoe moeilik dit kan wees om een ​​man op te spoor.


Carlos die jakkals

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (12 Oktober 1949-), beter bekend as  "Carlos die jakkals", was 'n Venezolaanse   linkse terroris wat lid was van die Revolutionary Group van die Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) undre Wadie Haddad, wat later sy eie groep gevorm het, die Organization of Armed Struggle.  Sanchez gebruik die skuilnaam "Carlos" om sy terreuraanvalle vir Palestina uit te voer, met sy naam van president Carlos Andres Perez van Venezuela, en na 'n  Voog die korrespondent het "Dag van die jakkals" onder sy besittings gevind, en hy het sy bynaam "Carlos the Jackal" gekry. Carlos het in die tagtigerjare 'n reeks terroriste -aanvalle in Frankryk uitgevoer, behalwe dat hy in die sewentigerjare namens Ba'athist Irak, die Siriese Arabiese Republiek en Libiese Arabiese Jamahiriya saamgewerk het, met veilige huise in Oos -Europa en kontak onderhou het met die KGB en Stasi. Uiteindelik het hy so gevaarlik geword dat die kommunistiese lande hom uit sy heiligdomme in hul lande moes verdryf, en die Amerikaanse president George H.W. Bush het druk op Sirië uitgeoefen om hom uit te lewer. Carlos is in 1994 in Soedan gearresteer vir die moord op 'n Franse DST-intelligensie-agent en twee teen-intelligensie-agente, en hy is tot lewenslange tronkstraf gevonnis.


Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949- - Geskiedenis

Die Venezolaanse gebore Ilich Ram írez S ánchez, meer bekend as Carlos the Jackal, was betrokke by sommige van die skouspelagtigste terreurvoorvalle van die 1970's en 1980's. Hy ontwyk die polisie se vaslegging vir meer as 20 jaar.

S ánchez is op 12 Oktober 1949 in Tachira, Venezuela, gebore. Sy ouers bied 'n studie aan in teenstelling: sy ma, Elba Maria S ánchez, was 'n diep gelowige vrou wat 'n hoë samelewing geniet het, sy pa, Jos é Altagracia Ram írez Navas, was 'n vurige marxis. Hy noem sy seuns Ilich, Vladimir en Lenin, na V. I. Lenin, leier van die Russiese rewolusie in 1917. Vandat hulle gebore is, het Jos é Ram írez bedoel dat sy seuns revolusionêr sou wees. Ondanks sy marxistiese oortuigings het Jos é Ram írez 'n suksesvolle regspraktyk gehandhaaf.

Carlos het Fermin Toro Lyc ée bygewoon, 'n sekondêre skool wat bekend is vir sy linkses.


Inhoud

Vroeë lewe

Ramírez Sánchez, seun van die marxistiese advokaat José Altagracia Ramírez-Navas en Elba Maria Sánchez, is gebore in Michelena, in die Venezolaanse deelstaat Táchira. [13] Ondanks die pleidooie van sy ma om hul eersgebore kind 'n Christelike voornaam te gee, het José hom Ilich genoem, na Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, terwyl twee jonger broers en susters die naam "Lenin" (gebore 1951) en "Vladimir" (gebore 1958) genoem is. [14] Ilich het 'n skool in Caracas bygewoon en in 1959 aangesluit by die jeugbeweging van die nasionale kommunistiese party. die Kubaanse DGI naby Havana. [15] Later daardie jaar is sy ouers geskei.

Sy ma het die kinders na Londen geneem, waar sy aan die Stafford House College in Kensington en die London School of Economics gestudeer het. In 1968 probeer José om Ilich en sy broer by die Sorbonne in Parys in te skryf, maar kies uiteindelik vir die Patrice Lumumba -universiteit in Moskou. Volgens die BBC was dit ''n berugte broeikas vir die werwing van buitelandse kommuniste in die Sowjetunie' (sien aktiewe maatreëls). [16] [17] [18] Hy is in 1970 uit die universiteit geskors.

Uit Moskou reis Ramírez Sánchez na Beiroet, Libanon, waar hy in Julie 1970 as vrywilliger vir die PFLP werk. [19] Hy is na 'n oefenkamp gestuur vir buitelandse vrywilligers van die PFLP aan die buitewyke van Amman, Jordanië. Toe hy klaar was, studeer hy aan 'n afrondingsskool, met die naam H4 en word beman deur die Irakse weermag, naby die grens tussen Sirië en Irak. [19]

By die voltooiing van die guerrilla -opleiding het Carlos (soos hy homself nou genoem het) 'n aktiewe rol gespeel vir die PFLP in die noorde van Jordanië tydens die Swart September -konflik van 1970 en 'n reputasie gekry as 'n vegter. Nadat die organisasie uit Jordanië gestoot is, keer hy terug na Beiroet. Hy is gestuur om opgelei te word deur Wadie Haddad. [20] Hy het uiteindelik die Midde -Ooste verlaat om kursusse by die Polytechnic van Sentraal -Londen (nou bekend as die Universiteit van Westminster) by te woon, en blykbaar voortgegaan om vir die PFLP te werk.

In 1973 het Carlos 'n mislukte poging tot moord op PFLP op Joseph Sieff, 'n Joodse sakeman en vise -president van die British Zionist Federation, uitgevoer. Op 30 Desember het Carlos die huis van Sieff in Queen's Grove in St John's Wood ingeroep en die diensmeisie beveel om hom na Sieff te neem. [21] Carlos vind Sieff in die badkamer, in sy bad, en skiet een koeël op Sieff uit sy Tokarev -pistool van 7,62 mm, wat Sieff net tussen sy neus en bolip afbons en hom bewusteloos laat waai, die pistool steek dan vas en Carlos vlug. [21] [22] [23] Die aanval is aangekondig as weerwraak vir Mossad se sluipmoord in Parys op Mohamed Boudia, 'n PFLP -leier.

Carlos erken die verantwoordelikheid vir 'n mislukte bomaanval op die Bank Hapoalim in Londen en motorbomaanvalle op drie Franse koerante wat beskuldig word van pro-Israeliese neigings. Hy beweer dat hy die granaatwerper by 'n Paryse restaurant was in 'n aanval wat twee en 30 beseer het. Hy het later op 13 en 17 Januarie 1975 deelgeneem aan twee mislukte vuurpyl -granaataanvalle op El Al -lughawens naby Parys.

Op 27 Junie 1975 is Carlos se PFLP-kontak, Libanon, gebore Michel Moukharbal, wat later 'n agent vir die Mossad blyk te wees, gevange geneem en ondervra deur die Franse binnelandse intelligensie-agentskap, die DST. Toe twee ongewapende agente van die DST Carlos tydens 'n Paryse huispartytjie ondervra, onthul Moukharbal Carlos se identiteit. Carlos het toe die twee agente en Moukharbal doodgeskiet. [24] Carlos het van die toneel gevlug en daarin geslaag om via Brussel na Beiroet te ontsnap.

OPEC -aanval en skorsing uit PFLP

Uit Beiroet het Carlos deelgeneem aan die beplanning vir die aanval op die hoofkwartier van OPEC (Organisasie van die Petroleumuitvoerlande) in Wene. Op 21 Desember 1975 lei hy die span van ses persone (wat Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann insluit) wat die vergadering van OPEC-leiers aangeval het; hulle neem meer as 60 gyselaars en vermoor drie: 'n Oostenrykse polisieman, 'n Irakse OPEC-werknemer en 'n lid van die Libiese afvaardiging. Carlos eis dat die Oostenrykse owerhede elke twee uur 'n mededeling oor die Palestynse saak op Oostenrykse radio- en televisienetwerke lees. Om die bedreigde teregstelling van 'n gyselaar elke 15 minute te vermy, het die Oostenrykse regering ingestem en die mededeling is uitgesaai soos vereis.

Op 22 Desember het die regering aan die PFLP en 42 gyselaars 'n vliegtuig voorsien en dit na Algiers gevlieg, soos vereis vir die vrylating van die gyselaars. Die voormalige vlieënier van die Royal Navy, Neville Atkinson, destyds die persoonlike vlieënier vir die leier van Libië, Muammar al-Gaddafi, het Carlos en 'n aantal ander gevlieg, waaronder Hans-Joachim Klein, 'n ondersteuner van die gevange Baader-Meinhof-groep en 'n lid van die Revolutionary Cells, en Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann, van Algiers. [25] Atkinson het die DC-9 na Tripoli gevlieg, waar nog gyselaars bevry is, voordat hy na Algiers teruggekeer het. Die laaste gyselaars is daar bevry en van die terroriste is asiel verleen.

In die jare na die OPEC -aanval het Bassam Abu Sharif, 'n ander PLFP -agent, en Klein beweer dat Carlos 'n groot bedrag geld ontvang het vir die veilige vrylating van die Arabiese gyselaars en dit vir sy persoonlike gebruik bewaar het. Daar word beweer dat die bedrag tussen US $ 20 miljoen en $ 50 miljoen beloop het. Die bron van die geld is ook onseker, maar volgens Klein was dit van "'n Arabiese president". Carlos het later aan sy prokureurs gesê dat die geld namens die Iraniërs deur die Saoedi's betaal is en dat dit 'onderweg herlei en deur die rewolusie verlore gegaan het'.

Carlos het Algerië na Libië verlaat en daarna na Aden, waar hy 'n vergadering van senior PFLP -amptenare bygewoon het om te regverdig dat hy nie twee senior OPEC -gyselaars tereggestel het nie - die minister van finansies van Iran, Jamshid Amuzgar, en die minister van olie van Saoedi -Arabië, Ahmed Zaki Yamani. Sy afrigter en PFLP-EO-leier Wadie Haddad het Carlos geskors omdat hy nie gyselaars geskiet het toe daar nie aan die vereistes van die PFLP voldoen is nie, en sy missie misluk. [26]

Na 1975

In September 1976 word Carlos gearresteer, in Joegoslavië aangehou en na Bagdad gevlieg. Hy het besluit om hom in Aden te vestig, waar hy sy eie probeer vind het Organisasie van gewapende stryd, wat bestaan ​​uit Siriese, Libanese en Duitse rebelle. Hy het ook kontak gemaak met die Stasi, die geheime polisie van Oos -Duitsland. [27] Hulle voorsien hom van 'n kantoor en veilige huise in Oos -Berlyn, 'n ondersteuningspersoneel van 75 en 'n diensmotor, en laat hom toe om 'n pistool in die openbaar te dra. [27]

Van hier af word vermoed dat Carlos sy aanvalle op verskeie Europese teikens beplan het, insluitend dié op die Radio Free Europe -kantore in München in Februarie 1981. Op 16 Februarie 1982 het twee van die groep - die Switserse terroris Bruno Breguet en Ramírez Sánchez se vrou Magdalena Kopp — is in Parys in 'n motor met plofstof in hegtenis geneem. Na die inhegtenisneming is 'n brief aan die Franse ambassade in Den Haag gestuur om te eis dat hulle onmiddellik bevry moet word. Intussen het Carlos die Franse regering tevergeefs vir hulle vrygelaat.

Ter weerwraak is Frankryk getref deur 'n skouspelagtige golf van terreuraanvalle, insluitend: die bombardering van die PG-trein TGV op 29 Maart 1982 (5 dood, 77 beseer) die motorbom van die Libiese koerant Al-Watan al- Arabi in Parys op 22 April 1982 (1 dood, 63 beseer) die bombardement van die Gare Saint -Charles in Marseille op 31 Desember 1983 (2 dood, 33 beseer), en die bombardering van die Marseille -Paris TGV -trein (3 dood, 12 beseer) op dieselfde dag. [28] In Augustus 1983 val hy ook die Maison de France in Wes-Berlyn aan, en vermoor een man en beseer twee-en-twintig. [27] Binne dae na die bombardemente het Carlos briewe aan drie afsonderlike nuusagentskappe gestuur waarin hulle verantwoordelikheid vir die bombardemente aanvaar as wraak vir 'n Franse lugaanval teen 'n PFLP -oefenkamp in Libanon die vorige maand.

Historici se ondersoek na Stasi -lêers, wat onlangs na die Duitse hereniging toeganklik was, toon 'n verband aan tussen Ramírez Sánchez en die KGB, via die Oos -Duitse geheime polisie. Toe Leonid Brezjnev Wes -Duitsland in 1981 besoek, het Ramírez Sánchez geen aanvalle onderneem nie, soos die KGB versoek het. Westerse intelligensie het gedurende hierdie tydperk aktiwiteit verwag. [27] Op 'n stadium het die Roemeense Securitate Carlos aangestel om Roemeense dissidente wat in Frankryk woon, te vermoor.

Met voorwaardelike ondersteuning van die Irakse regime en na die dood van Haddad, het Ramírez Sánchez die dienste van sy groep aan die PFLP en ander groepe aangebied. Sy groep se eerste aanval was moontlik 'n mislukte vuurpylaanval op die Franse kernkragstasie Superphénix op 18 Januarie 1982.

Hierdie aanvalle het gelei tot internasionale druk op Oos -Europese state wat Ramírez Sánchez huisves. Hy woon meer as twee jaar in Hongarye, in die tweede distrik van Boedapest, bekend as die kwart van die edeles. Sy belangrikste uitsondering vir sommige van sy finansiële hulpbronne, soos Gaddafi of dr. George Habash, was die vriend van sy suster, Dietmar Clodo, 'n bekende Duitse terroris en die leier van die Panther Brigade van die PFLP. Hongarye het Ramírez Sánchez laat 1985 verdryf, en hy is in Irak, Libië en Kuba heiligdom geweier voordat hy beperkte steun in Sirië gevind het. Hy vestig hom in Damaskus saam met Kopp en hul dogter, Elba Rosa.

Die Siriese regering het Ramírez Sánchez gedwing om onaktief te bly, en hy is daarna as 'n geneutraliseerde bedreiging beskou. In 1990 het die Irakse regering hom genader vir werk, en in September 1991 is hy uit Sirië geskors. Na 'n kort tydjie in Jordanië, word hy beskerm in Soedan waar hy in Khartoem gewoon het.

Westerse rekeninge beweer al lank dat Ramírez Sánchez 'n KGB -agent is. Sommige aanvalle is moontlik aan hom toegeskryf weens die gebrek aan iemand om krediet op te eis. Sy eie spog met waarskynlik nie -bestaande missies wat die probleem verder verwar het.

Arrestasie en gevangenisstraf

Die Franse en Amerikaanse intelligensie -agentskappe het 'n aantal transaksies aan die Soedanese owerhede aangebied. In 1994 sou Carlos 'n geringe testikeloperasie in 'n hospitaal in Soedan ondergaan. [29] Twee dae na die operasie het Soedanese amptenare vir hom gesê dat hy na 'n villa verskuif moet word vir beskerming teen 'n moordpoging en dat hy persoonlike lyfwagte sal kry. Een aand later het die lyfwagte in sy kamer gegaan terwyl hy geslaap het, hom kalmeer en vasgemaak het en hom uit die villa geneem het. [30]

Op 14 Augustus 1994 het Soedan hom oorgeplaas na Franse agente van die DST, wat hom na Parys gevlieg het vir verhoor. Hy is aangekla van die moorde in 1975 op die twee polisiemanne in Parys en op Moukharbal en is na die La Santé -gevangenis gestuur om die verhoor af te wag. In 1996 het 'n meerderheid van die Europese Kommissie vir Menseregte sy aansoek van die hand gewys wat verband hou met die proses van gevangenskap. [31]

Die verhoor begin op 12 Desember 1997 en eindig op 23 Desember, toe hy skuldig bevind is en tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf gevonnis is sonder die moontlikheid van parool. [32] Hy is later van La Santé na die Clairvaux -gevangenis verskuif. [33]

In 2001, nadat hy hom tot Islam bekeer het, [34] trou Ramírez Sánchez met sy prokureur, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, tydens 'n Moslem-seremonie, hoewel hy nog met sy tweede vrou getroud was. [35]

In Junie 2003 publiseer Carlos 'n versameling geskrifte uit sy tronksel. Die boek, waarvan die titel vertaal word na Revolusionêre Islam, poog om geweld te verduidelik en te verdedig in terme van klaskonflik. In die boek spreek hy steun uit vir Osama bin Laden en sy aanvalle op die Verenigde State.

In 2005 het die Europese Hof vir Menseregte 'n klag van Ramírez Sánchez aangehoor dat sy lang jare van eensame opsluiting 'onmenslike en vernederende behandeling' is. Alhoewel die hof hierdie eis verwerp het, was dit vroeg in 2006 in appèl.

In 'n toespraak van 2009 het die Venezolaanse president Hugo Chávez Ramírez Sánchez geprys en gesê dat hy onregverdig skuldig bevind is en nie 'n terroris nie, maar 'n "revolusionêre vegter" is. [36]

Nuwe verhoor

In Mei 2007 het die regter teen terrorisme, Jean-Louis Bruguière, 'n nuwe verhoor gelas vir Ramírez Sánchez op aanklagte van "moord en vernietiging van eiendom met behulp van plofbare stowwe" in Frankryk in 1982 en 1983. By die bombardemente is elf mense dood en meer as 100 mense beseer. . [37] Ramírez Sánchez ontken enige verband met die gebeure in sy verhoor in 2011 en voer 'n hongerstaking van nege dae uit om sy gevangenisstraf te protesteer. [38] Die verhoor, wat na verwagting ses weke sou duur, het op 7 November 2011 in Parys begin. [34] Drie ander lede van Ramírez Sánchez se organisasie is verhoor by absentia terselfdertyd: Johannes Weinrich, Christina Frohlich en Ali Kamal Issawi. [34] Duitsland het geweier om Weinrich en Frohlich uit te lewer, en Issawi, 'n Palestyn, "is na bewering op die vlug." [34] Ramírez Sánchez ontken steeds enige betrokkenheid by die aanvalle. [34] Op 15 Desember 2011 is Ramírez Sánchez, Weinrich en Issawi skuldig bevind en lewenslange gevangenisstraf opgelê. Frohlich is vrygespreek. [39] Ramírez Sánchez het teen die uitspraak geappelleer en 'n nuwe verhoor het in Mei 2013 begin. [40] Hy het sy appèl op 26 Junie 2013 verloor en regters in 'n spesiale anti-terrorisme hof het sy lewenslange vonnis bekragtig. [41]


Carlos die jakkalsOrganisasie van Arabiese gewapende stryd

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez was die seun van 'n welgestelde Venezolaanse kommunistiese partyleier. Illich Ramirez Sanchez, beter bekend in die wêreld as Carlos the Jackal, was in die 1960's en 1970's verantwoordelik vir talle terreurdade in Europa. Volgens meer onlangse standaarde lyk dit nogal taamlik, indien nie eienaardig nie.

Sanchez se bynaam, opgelei in Kuba, kom van 'n karakter in die Frederick Forsyth -roman The Day of The Jackal uit 1971. Forsyth se boek is in die vroeë sestigerjare in Frankryk afspeel. Die Organization de l'arm e secr te het probeer om DeGaulle, wat die land van Algerië onafhanklikheid verleen het, dood te maak, maar dit het misluk. Die gevolg was dat DeGaulle die naaste bewaakte man ter wêreld was. As 'n desperate daad huur hulle The Jackal, die kodenaam van 'n huurmoordenaar wat ingestem het om die Franse president De Gaulle te vermoor.

Een van die berugste terroriste in die geskiedenis, "Carlos the Jackal", het aan moorde in Europa en die Midde -Ooste deelgeneem. Tydens die Koue Oorlog was ontvoering, sluipmoord, skietery, gasheer, bomaanval en gewapende roof die belangrikste metodes van terrorisme. Carlos the Jackal - voormalige terroriste van die Volksfront vir die Bevryding van Palestina (PFLP), was die hoof van die berugte gyselaarkrisis van Wene in Desember 1975, die Organisasie van Petroleumuitvoerlande (OPEC). Die Jakkals het 'operasionele en politieke verantwoordelikheid' aanvaar vir die operasies van die PFLP in Europa. In die vroeë tagtigerjare het die terreurgroep onder leiding van die berugte 'Carlos the Jackal' bomme aan boord van Frankryk se passasierstreine geplant.

Carlos, die berugste terroris van sy tyd, het vermoedelik gewerk vir Mohamar Qaddaffi van Libië, Saddam Hussein van Irak, president Assad van Sirië, Fidel Castro van Kuba, George Habash en die Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), die Italiaanse Rooi Brigade, Columbia se M-19 Beweging, die BaaderMeinholf Bende, en 'n aantal ander "kommunistiese en sosialistiese" werkgewers.

Carlos was egter 'n vryskut en werk vir enigiemand, en het nooit 'n permanente wederkerige lojaliteit van die nasiestaat tot stand gebring nie. Ilich Ramirez Sanchez was destyds meer lewendig as toegewyde ideoloog. Maar as 'n selfverklaarde 'professionele revolusionêr' was hy verantwoordelik vir vier-en-twintig sterftes en 257 gewondes tydens sy loopbaan van geweld.

Carlos het sy eie terreurgroep gestig, wat hy die Organisasie van Arabiese Gewapende Stryd genoem het. Hulle het in 1982 probeer om 'n kernkragsentrale te kaap, maar dit het misluk. Die groep het daarna 'n reeks bombardemente in Parys uitgevoer. Teen hierdie tyd is Carlos gedwing om uit Europa te vlug en uiteindelik in Damaskus gevestig. Hy het tussen 1985 en 1991 in Sirië gewoon, waarna hy na Jordanië en daarna die Soedan verhuis het.

Douglas Farah, senior genoot, International Assessment and Strategy Center, het in 20012 opgemerk dat 'Charles the Jackal' een van die eerstes was wat die moontlike samesmelting van radikale Shite Islamitiese denke verwoord het met Marxistiese aspirasies om kapitalisme en Amerikaanse hegemonie te vernietig. In sy geskrifte onderskryf S nchez Ramirez marxisme wat gekoppel is aan revolusionêre, gewelddadige Palestynse opstande, en in die vroeë 2000's nadat hy 'n Moslem, militante Islamisme geword het. Tog het hy nie sy Marxistiese wortels laat vaar nie, en geglo dat Islamisme en Marxisme saam 'n wêreldwye anti-imperialistiese front sou vorm wat die Verenigde State, globalisering en imperialisme definitief sou vernietig.

In sy deurslaggewende boek "Revolutionary Islam" uit 2003, geskryf uit die gevangenis waar hy 'n lewenslange vonnis uitgedien het vir die moord op twee Franse polisiemanne, het Sanchez Ramirez Osama bin Laden en die 9-11 aanvalle op die Verenigde State geprys as 'n groot prestasie van wapens en deel van 'n geregverdigde 'gewapende stryd' van Islam teen die Weste. 'Van nou af gaan terrorisme min of meer 'n daaglikse deel van die landskap van u verrottende demokrasieë wees', het hy geskryf.

Die herhaalde, openbare lof van Ch vez vir Secheche Ramirez was 'n deurslaggewende element van die Bolivariese ideologie en 'n aanvaarding van sy onderliggende uitgangspunt as belangrik vir Chévez se ideologiese raamwerk. Ch vez het sy ambassadeur in Frankryk beveel om die vrylating van Sánchez Ramirez te versoek en het by verskeie geleenthede na die veroordeelde terroris verwys as 'n 'vriend' en 'n ware revolusionêr. '

In 'n brief van 1999 aan S nchez Ramirez het Chévez die terroris begroet as 'n 'Uitgelese Compatriot' en geskryf dat 'in die dieptes van u solidariteitsbrief kon ek die pols hoor van ons gedeelde insig dat alles sy tyd het : tyd om klippe op te stapel of te gooi, revolusie aan te steek of om dit te ignoreer om dialekties 'n eenheid tussen ons strydende klasse na te jaag of om die konflik tussen hulle op te wek - 'n tyd wanneer u reguit kan veg vir beginsels en 'n tyd waarin u moet kies die regte stryd, met 'n skerp gevoel vir die oomblik van waarheid, wag op dieselfde manier as wat Ariadne, met dieselfde beginsels belê, die draad lê wat haar uit die labirint lei. "

Vir meer as 'n halwe eeu het Special Forces en die CIA -legende Billy Waugh sy lewe daaraan toegewy om Amerika se kwaadwilligste vyande op te spoor en uit te skakel. Hy was gelukkig aan die begin van die negentigerjare in 'n onstuimige, verswelgende Khartoem, en het die sterre-terroris Carlos the Jackal dopgehou en die opkomende Osama bin Laden dopgehou.

Billy Waugh se volharding, kennis van menslike karaktereienskappe en die vermoë om 'n onopvallende stedelike waarnemingspos te vestig, het hom in staat gestel om die internasionale terroris Carlos the Jackal te vind en reg te stel vir latere aanhouding deur die Franse veiligheidsmagte. Waugh vertel dat hy dit in die vroeë negentigerjare aangepas het (omdat sy voorstelle om dit te vermoor nie aanvaar is nie).

Carlos het twintig jaar lank die intelligensie -agentskappe en die polisie ontwyk voor sy gevangenskap in Soedan in 1994. Die jakkals is in beslag geneem deur sy eie lyfwagte en is aan die Franse intelligensie oorhandig. Op 14 Augustus is die Jakkals oorhandig aan agente van die Franse Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST).

Die Jakkals het in Mei 2013 na die hof teruggekeer om appèl aan te teken teen sy skuldigbevinding vir 'n reeks dodelike bombardemente in Frankryk 30 jaar gelede. Die 63-jarige, wat in Frankryk in die tronk was sedert hy in 1994 in Soedan gevange geneem is, is in 2011 skuldig bevind aan aanvalle in 1982 en 1983 op twee Franse passasierstreine, 'n treinstasie in Marseille en 'n Libiese tydskrifkantoor in Parys.

Carlos, wat reeds destyds lewenslank weens moord uitgedien is, kry 'n ander lewenslange vonnis vir sy rol in die aanvalle wat 11 mense dood en byna 150 beseerdes veroorsaak het, wat hom die mantel van die mees gesoekte vlugteling ter wêreld besorg het.

Carlos the Jackal het moontlik 'n derde lewenslange vonnis opgelê terwyl hy op 13 Maart 2017 in Parys teregstaan ​​vir 'n granaataanval in 1974 waarin twee mense dood en 34 beseer is. Die 67-jarige Venezolaan het na bewering 'n granaat van 'n granaat gegooi mezzanine na 'n besige restaurant in 'n winkelsentrum in Saint-Germain-des-Pres, Parys op 15 September 1974. Die granaataanval-saak is aanvanklik vanweë gebrek aan bewyse van die hand gewys, maar is later heropen ná sy arrestasie in die Soedanese hoofstad in 1994 van Khartoem.

Die vervolging beweer dat die granaataanval verband hou met 'n groter erf, wat 'n gyselaarsituasie by die Franse ambassade in Den Haag insluit op 13 September 1974. 'n Lid van die Japannese Rooi Leër, 'n kommunistiese militante groep, is in hegtenis geneem by 'n Twee maande tevore die lughawe in Parys. This group was alleged to have had ties to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), of which Carlos was a key member.


Ilich Ramirez Sanchez (Carlos the Jackal) 1949-

Until the events of September 11th, Carlos the Jackal was without doubt the most famous international Terrorist in the world. A skilful, intelligent terrorist for hire, he was one of the most wanted men in the world for several decades and he epitomised the western idea of a terrorist. Born Ilich Ramirez Sanchez in Caracas, Venezuela, on October 12, 1949, Carlos was the son of a successful Marxist lawyer, and had a wealthy upbringing with a father keen to feed his sons' Marxist ideology and a traditionally catholic mother. It was only natural for the young Sanchez to become interested in Communism and the South American communist heroes of the day such as Che Guevara.

By the time he was 17 Carlos was already involved with his country's revolutionary groups and showed considerable potential. Due to this and his father's influence he was soon being trained in the Cuban camp Mantanzas studying Guerrilla warfare and sabotage techniques as well as bomb and weapon skills thanks to his KGB trainers.
When his parents divorced he moved to London with his mother and brothers and took up a playboy life style, mixing at embassy parties and making contacts which would serve him well in his future career, and learning how to mix in the upper part of society. Years later many of his friends from this period would be shocked to learn that the dashing young play boy with a taste for the ladies was really a killer. His father's influence continued to aid Carlos and his brothers, as they were able to get places at Moscow's Patrice Lumumba University. Here he continued his student life style of wine, women and song while most likely being recruited by the KGB.
In 1969 he was expelled from the Venezuelan Communist party after supporting a rebel group which had fallen out of favour. 1970 saw Carlos expelled from university after he joined a faction of Arab students protesting in the street, a protest that was seen as anti-soviet. This was the beginning of his long involvement with Arab terrorism. While still at the university he had met a number of Palestinian students who were determined to gain an independent state even if that meant international terrorism. After being expelled he joined the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) a group known for a series of airline hijackings. By July 1970 Ramirez was at a training camp in Jordan and after a meeting with Abu-Sharif the PFLP's recruiting officer he became known as Carlos the Jackal. The PFLP gained strength and started to form alliances with other terrorist groups such as the Baader-Meinhof gang and the Italian Red Brigade. Carlos' reputation within the organisation grew after "Black September" where he fought against the Jordanian army trying to purge their country of terrorists.
1971 saw Carlos back in London once again mixing with high society while secretly gathering information on people worth assassinating or kidnapping. 1972 saw the attack on the Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics and although Carlos wasn't involved, the aftermath was to put him on the map. In retaliation the Israeli secret service killed a high-ranking member of the PFLP so Carlos was ordered to strike back at a respected member of the Jewish community in London, Edward Sieff the president of Marks & Spencer. In December 1973 Carlos went to Sieffs house and shot him, luckily not fatally. Carlos had preceded this by a hand grenade attack on the London headquarters of an Israeli bank and a car bomb in Paris in 1972, which injured 63 people. His international reputation was born.
Carlos followed this up by moving his base of operations to Paris where he carried out three car bomb attacks against pro-Israeli newspapers and a trademark grenade attack on the Deux Magots restaurant killing 2 and injuring 34. This technique of walking in, throwing a grenade and walking out demonstrated Carlos' bravery and a particular cool blooded ruthlessness. His most famous attack came in Austria in December 1975. Here Carlos and a small band stormed an OPEC meeting killing the security detail and taking 70 people hostage. Shocked the Austrian authorities negotiated and after broadcasting a political message and getting massive world media attention Carlos and his gang left on a plane releasing the hostages in Algeria when they landed. The PFLP were angry that Carlos hadn't killed the hostages and with his celebrity status and expelled him, but it is rumoured that Carlos picked up $1 million from Libyan President Col Qadhafi for the OPEC assault. In 1976 he was involved in a skyjacking of an Air France jet to Uganda, lead to the famous raid on Entebbe by Israeli Special Forces and the take over of the French embassy in The Hague, which resulted in two deaths (for which eventually Carlos was brought to trial). Carlos was renown as a master of disguise, using fake passports and credit cards he frequently slipped through the net of capture and avoided assassination attempts. During this period many attacks, hijacking and bombings were blamed on him or linked to him with little real evidence.
Carlos now became a freelance terrorist, gathering terrorists from various European and Arab countries to his Organization of Arab Armed Struggle. 1979 saw Carlos get married to the German terrorist Magdalena Kopp. The honeymoon period didn't last long as 1982 saw the couple trying to blow up a French nuclear plant with RPG-7 grenades. The attack failed and not long after Kopp and another terrorist were arrested. Determined to free his wife Carlos carried out several attacks against French assets around the world but failed to win his wife her freedom.
The net was now closing in on Carlos as the French secret service and the CIA were determined to capture him. As the Cold War came to an end his old backers in the Soviet block were no longer willing to help him and 1985 saw him in hiding in Syria. He was now too famous for anyone to hire. By the 90s Carlos was constantly on the move and was finally captured on August 14th 1994 in the Sudan, aged 45, still up to his old hobbies of drinking and womanising.
During his career Carlos the Jackal was the template for the western idea of an international terrorist - daring, ruthless, able to mix in society at all levels and with a gift for languages. We should not forget that he was responsible for the deaths of over 80 people. He was tried for the murder of two French agents and a Lebanese police informant who he had killed in 1975 when they tried to capture him. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1997. Since the 1970s he has been a constant thorn in side of French and Western authorities and an inspiration to two generations of would-be terrorists. To some he was a freedom fighter, to others a ruthless murderer and mercenary. Certainly Carlos was no mad dog killer as the release of the OPEC hostages shows, but he was also not adverse to killing civilians. Heavily motivated by ideology from an early age and with a good background and education he had no need to turn to terrorism but choose to. Enjoying his play boy life style and image he liked to see himself as the alternative James bond and many suspect that Frederick Forsyth's novel, The Day of the Jackal, is based on the famous terrorist as are the two films based on the book. For those studying counter terrorism Carlos illustrates what damage one well-educated and motivated man can do, a lesson bitterly reinforced by Bin Laden and the events of September 11th. Speaking from his prison cell in France Carlos has named Bin Laden as his natural successor to continue the fight against western imperialism


Inhoud

Vroeë lewe

Ramírez Sánchez was born in Caracas, Venezuela. Α] Despite his mother's pleas to give their firstborn child a Christian first name, his father, a Leninist lawyer, called him Ilich, after Lenin (two younger siblings were named "Lenin" and "Vladimir"). Β] He attended a school in Caracas and joined the youth movement of the national communist party in 1959. After attending the Third Tricontinental Conference in January 1966 with his father, Ramírez Sánchez reportedly spent the summer at Camp Matanzas, a guerrilla warfare school run by the Cuban General Intelligence Directorate near Havana. Γ] Later that year, his parents divorced. His mother took her children to London to study in Stafford House College in Kensington and the London School of Economics. In 1968 his father tried to enroll him and his brother at Sorbonne University, but eventually opted for Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow. He was expelled from the university in 1970.

He then traveled to a guerrilla training camp run by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in Amman, Jordan. He claimed to have fought alongside the PFLP members as they resisted the Jordanian government's efforts to expel them in 1970. He eventually left Jordan to attend courses at the Polytechnic of Central London and apparently continued to work for the PFLP.

In 1973 Carlos was associated with the PFLP, which had conducted a failed assassination attempt on Jewish businessman and vice-president of the British Zionist Federation Joseph Sieff. This was prompted by the Mossad assassination of Mohamed Boudia, a theatre director accused of being a PFLP leader, in Paris. Ramírez Sánchez also admits responsibility for a failed bomb attack on the Bank Hapoalim in London and car bomb attacks on three French newspapers which were accused of pro-Israeli leanings. He claimed to be the grenade thrower at a Parisian restaurant in an attack that killed two and injured 30. He later participated in two failed rocket propelled grenade attacks on El Al airliners at Orly Airport near Paris on Jan. 13 and 17, 1975.

On June 27, 1975, Carlos's PFLP contact, Lebanon-born Michel Moukharbal, was captured and successfully interrogated. When three policemen tried to apprehend Carlos at a house in Paris in the middle of a party, he shot two detectives, fled the scene and managed to escape via Brussels to Beirut.

OPEC raid

From Beirut, Carlos participated in the planning for the attack on the headquarters of OPEC in Vienna. On December 20, 1975 he led the six-person team (which included Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann) that assaulted the meeting of OPEC leaders and took over sixty hostages. Carlos demanded from the Austrian authorities to read a communiqué about the Palestinian cause on the Austrian radio and television network every two hours. After negotiations this communiqué was broadcast as requested.

On December 22 the rebels and forty-two hostages were given an airliner and flown to Algiers, Algeria. Ex-Royal Navy pilot Neville Atkinson, who at that time was personal pilot for Libya's leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, was given the task of flying Carlos and a number of other terrorists, including Hans-Joachim Klein, a supporter of the imprisoned Baader-Meinhof group and member of the Revolutionary Cells, and Gabriele Kröcher-Tiedemann, from Algiers. Δ] The terrorists were finally dispatched in Baghdad. Thirty hostages were freed the DC-9 was then flown on to Tripoli, where more hostages were freed before flying back to Algiers where the remaining hostages were freed and the rebels were granted asylum.

In the years following the OPEC raid, Abu Sharif and Joachim Klein claimed that Carlos had received a large sum of money in exchange for the safe release of the Arab hostages and had kept it for his personal use. There is still some uncertainty regarding the amount that changed hands but it is believed to be somewhere between 20-50 million dollars. Who paid the money is also uncertain but according to Klein it came from "an Arab President." Carlos later told his lawyers that the money was paid by the Saudis on behalf of the Iranians and was, "diverted en route and lost by the Revolution." Ε ]

Carlos soon left Algeria for Libya and then Aden, where he attended a meeting of senior PFLP officials to justify his failure to execute two senior OPEC hostages: the finance minister of Iran, Jamshid Amuzgar, and the oil minister of Saudi Arabia, Ahmed Zaki Yamani. PFLP-EO leader Wadi Haddad expelled him.

After 1975

In September 1976 Carlos was arrested and detained in Yugoslavia, then flown to Baghdad. From there he chose to settle more permanently in Aden, where he set about forming his own group, the Organization of Arab Armed Struggle, composed of Syrian, Lebanese and German rebels. He also formed a contact with East Germany's Stasi. At one stage, the Romanian Securitate hired him to assassinate Romanian dissidents in France and destroy Radio Free Europe offices in Munich. With conditional support from the Iraqi regime and the death of Haddad, Carlos offered the services of his group to the PFLP and other groups.

The group did not perform its first acts until early in 1982, with a failed attack on a French nuclear power station, the Superphénix.

When two of the group, including Magdalena Kopp, Carlos's wife, were arrested in Paris, the group set off a number of bombs in retaliation against French targets. Operations in 1983 included attacks on the "Maison de France" in West Berlin in August in which one man was killed and 22 injured.

On December 31, 1983 bombs on two TGV trains exploded killing 4 passengers and injuring dozens more. Within days of the bombings, Carlos sent letters to three separate news agencies claiming responsibility for the bombings as revenge for a French air strike against a PFLP training camp in Lebanon the previous month. Ζ]

These attacks led to pressure on East European states that tolerated Carlos. For over two years he lived in Hungary, in Budapest's noble quarter, the second district. His main go-between for some of his money-sources like Gaddhafi or Dr. George Habashwas the friend of his sister, "Dietmar C". C., known German terrorist and the leader of the Panther Brigade of the PFLP. Carlos was expelled from Hungary in late 1985 and was refused aid in Iraq, Libya and Cuba before he found limited support in Syria. He settled in Damascus with Kopp and their daughter, Elba Rosa.

The Syrian government forced Carlos to remain inactive and he was soon no longer seen as a threat but rather a pathetic figure. However, in 1990 the Iraqi government approached him and in September 1991 he was expelled from Syria and eventually found a temporary home in Jordan. He found better protection in Sudan and moved to Khartoum.

During his career, most of it during the Cold War, western accounts persistently claimed he was a KGB agent but the link is tenuous at best. It is now clear that he had no part in the Munich Massacre (the attack on Israeli athletes in Munich in 1972) or the 1976 hijacking of Air France Flight 139 to Entebbe. Some attacks may have been attributed to him for lack of anyone else to claim the credit. His own boasts about probably nonexistent "missions" confuse the matter even more.

Arrest and imprisonment

The French and U.S. intelligence agencies offered a number of deals to the Sudanese authorities. In 1994, Carlos was scheduled to undergo a minor testicular operation on a varicose vein on his scrotum in a hospital in Sudan. Η] Two days after the operation, Carlos was told by Sudanese officials that he needed to be moved to a villa for protection from an assassination attempt, and he would be given personal bodyguards. One night later, his own bodyguards burst into his room while he slept and he was tranquilized, tied up, and taken from the villa. ⎖] On August 14, 1994 he was handed over to French agents of the DST and flown to Paris. He was charged with the Paris murders of two policemen and PFLP guerrilla turned French informant Michel Moukharbal in 1975 and sent to La Santé de Paris prison to await trial.

The trial began on December 12, 1997 and ended on December 23 at which time he was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment.

In 2001, Ramírez Sánchez was married in a Muslim ceremony to his lawyer, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, although he was still legally wed to his second wife. ⎗ ]

In June 2003, Carlos published a collection of writings from his jail cell. The book, whose title translates to Revolutionary Islam, seeks to explain and defend violence in terms of class conflict. In the book, he voices support for Osama bin Laden and his attacks on the United States. He also supported Saddam Hussein for resisting the USA, calling him the "Last Arabic Knight".

In 2005, the European Court of Human Rights heard a complaint from Ramírez Sánchez that his long years of solitary confinement constitute "inhuman and degrading treatment". Although the Court rejected this claim, it was on appeal as of early 2006. Carlos is currently held in Clairvaux Prison, where he is part of the general inmate population.

Revolutionary Islam boek

Carlos is reported to have converted to Islam. In June 2003, Revolutionary Islam, a book "compiled and edited by a French journalist, Jean-Michel Vernochet, on the basis of letters, interviews and texts" by Carlos, went on sale. ⎘] In it Carlos praises Osama bin Laden and the September 11 attacks and advocates Revolutionary Islam as a "new, post-Communist answer to what he calls US `totalitarianism`", telling readers "from now on terrorism is going to be more or less a daily part of the landscape of your rotting democracies."

However some have questioned the authenticity of the book in light of the fact that "the French prison system is supposed to strictly control all correspondence between inmates and the outside world." ⎘] Another observer has questioned the depth of Carlos's Muslim knowledge, claiming "his knowledge of Islamic doctrine, theology, history, and political philosophy is almost nonexistent." Carlos mistakenly refers to the first four caliphs (known as the Rashidun, or "rightly guided" caliphs) who were only distantly related to each other, as members of a "dynasty known as the `Rashidis.`" He also "confuses Hajjaj Ibn Yussef, the brutal governor of Kufa, with Mansur Al-Hallaj, the mystic who was crucified for blasphemy." ⎙ ]

New trial

In May 2007 anti-terrorism judge Jean-Louis Bruguiere ordered a new trial for Carlos on charges relating to "killings and destruction of property using explosive substances" in France in 1982 and 1983. The bombings killed 11 and injured more than 100 people. ⎚ ]


Carlos The Jackal: One Of The Most Notorious Terrorists In History (Pictures)

Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, otherwise known as Carlos the Jackal, first hit international headlines in 1975 when he led a commando raid in Vienna on an Opec oil cartel meeting, taking dozens of ministers hostage to Algeria and extracting a ransom of £10m. His infamy was sealed when the raid ended in three deaths.

He went on to become one of the world's most notorious militants as he masterminded deadly attacks across Europe, avoiding capture throughout the 1970s and 1980s.

For the past three decades years, he has been the face of violent Marxist struggle. He became a romanticised, exotic figure with his penchant for Havana cigars, womanising, berets, and alcohol adding to his enigmatic allure. Outside his revolutionary supporters though, he is simply seen as a cold-blooded terrorist.

Working in the name of far-left groups and Palestinian liberation, he claimed to have been responsible for killing more than 1,500 people in the name of his cause.

His latest trial in Paris deals with four attacks in the 1980s, thought to be part of his war against the French authorities to free two comrades, including his future wife, who were arrested planning to attack the Kuwaiti embassy.

Born in Caracas, Venezuela in 1949, Ramirez became a poster-boy for international militant Marxism as 'Carlos the Jackal'. Ramirez took 'Carlos' as his nom de guerre, and "The Jackal" was added by British journalists, after a Guardian writer saw a copy of Frederick Forsyth's book 'The Day of the Jackal' in his London flat.

In the 1960s, the family moved to London, where Ramirez was partly brought up. The son of a wealthy Marxist lawyer, Jose Altagracia Ramirez Navas, he and his brothers were home-schooled by Communist tutors and all given revolutionary Communist names: Ilich, Lenin and Vladimir.

Ramirez headed to Moscow's Patrice Lumumba University, famed as a training ground for leftist revolutionaries and guerillas all over the world, but he was expelled in 1970.

He later moved to Lebanon, where he joined the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. His brother Vladimir explained to The Guardian that "he decided that the best way to defeat imperialism was to take up arms and the best place to do it was the Middle East."

He became increasingly in a range of international terrorist organisations, such as West Germany's Red Army Faction. Files released from police archives in Hungary, East Germany and Romania allegedly outline his involvement in a series of attacks.

With the collapse of European communism in 1989, Ramirez found life on the run more difficult. Eventually he took refuge in Sudan, where he was seized from a hospital room in 1994 and hauled to Paris on a private jet inside a sack by French agents.

Jailed for life in 1997 for three murders in Paris, he divorced his first wife Magdalena Kopp while in jail through the Muslim ritual of renunciation. He then married his French lawyer, Isabelle Coutant-Peyre, whom he met and married in jail in 2001.

In a recent interview with French radio regarding his latest trial, he vowed to fight the charges with his characteristic revolutionary fervour, he insisted "I'm still in a combative state of mind".

He has also remained as controversial as ever. Last month he praised Osama Bin Laden in France's Liberation newspaper, as a martyr who served as an "example . for authentic resisters against imperialism."


SUDAN SEIZES TERRORIST 'CARLOS THE JACKAL'

PARIS, AUG. 15 -- Illich Ramirez Sanchez, who as "Carlos the Jackal" was synonymous with spectacular international terrorism for nearly a quarter of a century, has been arrested in Sudan and was extradited to France today to stand trial for the murder of two French counterespionage agents.

The baby-faced killer was blamed for 83 deaths in the 1970s and early 1980s, when he was perhaps the world's most notorious and elusive criminal. He was arrested without a fight Sunday in Khartoum, the Sudanese capital, and flown to Villacoublay military airport near Paris early today on an official French executive jet, according to French Interior Minister Charles Pasqua.

His arrest apparently marked the end of a long underground career. He first burst onto the international stage with the kidnapping of ministers attending a Vienna meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries in 1975. His career also included a number of assassinations and a series of operations designed to free a German woman whom he later married.

Carlos's arrest apparently came when the hired gun had outlived his usefulness to international sponsors. These once spanned a spectrum from extremist Palestinian guerrilla organizations to established radical Arab regimes and East European states of the Soviet Bloc.

Middle East specialists suggested that in the peaceful new atmosphere governing East-West and Arab-Israeli relations, Carlos simply had become expendable. High-ranking Sudanese officials, who refused to be identified, told reporters in Khartoum that an unnamed Arab country last December provided Carlos with a diplomatic passport and forced him onto a plane to Khartoum.

The U.S. government has put Sudan on a list of countries supporting terrorism, and Sudan's official news agency quoted Justice Minister Abdel Aziz Shido today as calling for the removal of Khartoum from that list. But the brand of messianic Islamic fundamentalism that has gotten the Khartoum authorities in trouble with the West has nothing to do with the Marxist-influenced revolutionary ideology that helped inspire Carlos's operations.

State Department officials in Washington said Sudan's surrender of Carlos is insufficient to erase the country from the department's list, Washington Post staff writer Daniel Williams reported.

The Clinton administration, they added, believes Sudan shelters members of terrorist groups including the Fatah-Revolutionary Council, the organization headed by Sabri Banni, known as Abu Nidal, as well as Hezbollah, an Iranian-backed Lebanese group whose security units have been blamed for terrorist attacks. Iran also operates terrorist training camps in Sudan, administration officials said.

Carlos has spent most of the last 10 years in Syria, U.S. officials said. In 1991, photos in German magazines showed him living in Damascus. He left Syria at the beginning of this year, apparently losing the patronage of Syrian President Hafez Assad, the U.S. officials said.

The U.S. government has no outstanding warrant for Carlos's arrest because he never targeted Americans, they added.

Carlos, who was born in Venezuela on Oct. 12, 1949, and named Illich in honor of Soviet state founder Vladimir Illich Lenin, operated under many aliases and disguises.

Committed to the Palestinian cause and opposed to what he denounced as "imperialism and Zionism," the son of a prosperous Communist lawyer became undesirable in the post-Cold War world.

Carlos's network of safe houses and official support in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and especially East Germany -- all of which once made him such a successful terrorist -- collapsed abruptly with the destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

His file with Stasi, the East German secret police, became public knowledge, and his relations with their Hungarian counterparts were shown on Hungarian state television.

Even his devotion to the Palestinian cause became suspect in a Middle East in which overall peace between Arab states and Israel is close to being taken for granted, and in which the Jewish state has recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Even in his heyday, Carlos was more adept at spectacular coups calculated to grab publicity than in the dogged organizational work that distinguished his more deadly Palestinian rival, Abu Nidal.

Pasqua told French television viewers that Carlos's arrest was accomplished thanks to a letter that the interior minister wrote to his Sudanese counterpart, Tayeb Ibrahim Mohamed Khair, "about two weeks ago."

Pasqua also credited cooperation of intelligence organizations of unnamed governments with helping France locate Carlos before Sudanese authorities arrested him at a rented house, apparently on Sunday, and handed him over to Interpol.

Khair justified the arrests on the grounds that Carlos and an undisclosed number of colleagues were indulging in "suspicious activities" and planning "terrorist plots against some foreign institutions in the Sudan." He did not elaborate.

Carlos joined Venezuela's Communist Party as a teenager and was sent in 1968 to Patrice Lumumba University, the Soviet Union's school for Third World students.

Less than two years later, his taste for high living prompted his dismissal from that breeding ground for Soviet intelligence agents, but not before he made enduring friendships with Palestinian students there -- especially those of the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

After training in its camps in Jordan, Carlos later told interviewers, he took part in the guerrillas' disastrous war and defeat at the hands of Jordan's professional army in 1970.

Known as "Black September," the name later given to Palestinian units sent to avenge the humiliation, the setback ushered in a decade of terrorism that included many of Carlos's early operations.

But Carlos soon lent his talents to groups as varied as the Japanese Red Army, the Basque separatists of the ETA, the German Baader-Meinhof gang and the Turkish Popular Liberation Front.

His name was linked with the Japanese Red Army's occupation of the French Embassy in the Netherlands in 1974 and a nearly successful rocket attack on an El Al airliner at Orly airport in Paris.

In June 1975, Carlos was holing up in Paris, in the Left Bank apartment of a girlfriend, when he shot and killed an accomplice-turned-informer and two inspectors investigating the attack on the plane.

Carlos was sentenced in his absence in 1992 to life imprisonment for the inspectors' deaths. He now will be retried.

Pasqua said Carlos's arrest was a high priority for French security through nearly two decades of right- and left-wing governments. On arrival in France, Carlos was questioned by France's counterespionage service and transferred to La Sante prison in Paris.

Carlos staged a string of bloody operations in 1982 following the arrest of Bruno Breguet, a Swiss, and Magdalena Kopp, a girlfriend who was a former member of Germany's radical Red Army Faction guerrillas. They were sentenced to four years in prison for transporting a car full of explosives that was found in an underground garage on the Champs-Elysees.

In an effort to secure the release of the woman who later became his wife and bore a daughter, Carlos surfaced for the first time in six years. He wrote a letter in March 1982 to then-French Interior Minister Gaston Defferre, authenticated by his fingerprints, warning of terrorist attacks unless Breguet and Kopp were freed.

That same month, a bomb exploded aboard the Paris-Toulouse express train, killing six people and wounding 15 amid suggestions that Carlos was responsible and had meant to kill then-Prime Minister Jacques Chirac -- who turned out not to be aboard.

The next month, a bomb exploded in a rush-hour crowd just off the Champs-Elysees, killing a pregnant woman and wounding 63 people.

On New Year's Eve 1983, bombs exploded in Marseille's rail terminal and on the Paris-Marseille express.

Kopp and Breguet were released in May 1985, and Kopp flew to Damascus to join Carlos.

His nickname, "the Jackal," was bestowed on him because of the similarity of his coldblooded modus operandi with that of the fictional character in Frederick Forsyth's novel "The Day of the Jackal" who was hired to assassinate President Charles de Gaulle.

Illich Ramirez Sanchez cultivated a reputation of nearly legendary proportions as Carlos the Jackal, globe-trotting terrorist, and many reports concerning him have been exaggerated. Here are the main operations attributed to him over the years.

* Wounding of British millionaire Edward Sieff, a Jew whose family owns Marks and Spencer stores, in London.

* Takeover of the French Embassy in The Hague.

* Killing of two French intelligence agents who were investigating attacks on planes of Israel's El Al airlines at Paris's Orly Airport.

* Held responsible for an attack on OPEC headquarters in Vienna, in which three people were killed and 11 taken hostage. The cartel's oil ministers were taken to North Africa in a hijacked plane in a $1 billion ransom drama.

* Hijacking of an Air France jetliner to Entebbe, Uganda.

* Bombing of the Paris-Toulouse express train that killed six people and wounded 15.

* Bombing just off the Champs Elysees in Paris killed a pregnant woman and wounded 63 other people.

* Bombings in Marseille's main railroad terminal and on the Paris-Marseille express killed five people and wounded 50.

* Bombing of French cultural center in West Berlin killed one and wounded 23.


Ilich Ramírez Sánchez

(born 1949). The 1994 seizure in Sudan of international terrorist Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, better known as Carlos the Jackal, marked the final chapter of a manhunt that had lasted for two decades. Ramírez achieved infamy for his role in lethal attacks carried out during the 1970s and ’80s, but the folklore that surrounded him grew during his years in hiding and may have inflated accounts of the scope of his activity. Ramírez used the name Carlos as his alias. The press nicknamed him the Jackal, after the title of a Frederick Forsyth novel, The Day of the Jackal (1971), which told of an assassin sent to kill President Charles de Gaulle of France. Carlos was involved in such a plot, but it failed.

Ilich Ramírez Sánchez was born in Caracas, Venezuela, on October 12, 1949. From 1968 to 1970 he attended Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow, Russia. Late in 1970 he went to Beirut, Lebanon, and joined the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a guerrilla organization dedicated to the destruction of the State of Israel. His first known assignment, in 1973, was to assassinate Edward Sieff, a London businessman and head of Great Britain’s Zionist Federation. Carlos botched the task and only wounded his victim. His most successful episode occurred on December 21, 1975, when he and a group of Palestinian and German terrorists broke into the offices of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna and kidnapped 11 Middle East oil ministers. Three people were killed in the attack. The terrorists commandeered an airplane and flew to Algiers, Algeria, where the hostages were released in exchange for $20 million in ransom. The kidnappers surrendered in Algiers but were released within a few days. Other actions in which Carlos was known to have participated include the killing of two French intelligence agents and another man in Paris in 1975 the 1982 bombing of a Paris–Toulouse express train, killing five people and the 1983 bombings of a train station in Marseille, France. Carlos was also suspected of involvement in a number of other acts of international terrorism.

In March 1982 Carlos began issuing threats against the French government, demanding the release from prison of the terrorists Magdalena Kopp and Bruno Breguet. Kopp had been a member of the Baader-Meinhof Gang. In 1985, after incidents that killed 12 people and wounded 125 or more, the French government complied. Kopp flew to Damascus, Syria, where Carlos made his headquarters, and the two were married.

From the late 1980s onward little was heard about Carlos. He spent most of the decade after 1985 living in Damascus. In 1992, while he continued to elude authorities, a French court sentenced him in absentia to life imprisonment for the 1975 Paris murders. In 1993 he went to Khartoum, Sudan, traveling under a false passport. French intelligence agents learned of his presence and asked the Sudanese government to arrest him and turn him over to French authorities. This they did on August 14, 1994, and he was taken to France and imprisoned. In 1997 a second trial upheld the sentence of life in prison. In November 2011 Carlos went on trial for his alleged involvement in four bombings in the early 1980s that killed more than 10 people in France. Carlos was convicted the following month and given another life sentence. French authorities brought additional charges against Carlos in October 2014, in connection with a 1974 grenade attack in Paris.


Kyk die video: Carlos the Jackal (Januarie 2022).