Geskiedenis Podcasts

Alexander Crummell

Alexander Crummell

Alexander Crummell is gebore in New York in 1819. Sy pa was 'n slaaf, maar sy ma was vir 'n paar geslagte vry. Hy is opgelei aan die African Free School in die stad voordat hy aan die Noyes Academy in Kanaän, New Hampshire, studeer het. Hy het ook tyd by die Onedia -instituut deurgebring.

Hy studeer vir ordening in Boston. Hy het ook as leke -sendeling in Rhode Island gewerk voordat hy deur die biskoplike biskop van Delaware as priester georden is. In 1844 stig hy 'n klein sending in Philadelphia. Hy het gou by die politiek betrokke geraak. Dit het die veldtog vir gelyke stemreg en die afskaffing van slawerny ingesluit.

In 1847 verhuis Crummell, vergesel van sy vrou en vier kinders, na Engeland. Hy het preke en lesings oor slawerny in die Verenigde State gehou. In 1853 ontvang Crummell 'n graad aan Queen's College, Cambridge. Later dieselfde jaar verhuis hy na Liberië waar hy 'n sendeling-opvoeder word.

Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het Crummell toere deur die Verenigde State onderneem om gesprekke te probeer doen om vaardige en opgeleide Afro-Amerikaners te oorreed om hulle in Afrika te hervestig.

Crummell was 'n swart nasionalis en het Pan-Afrikanistiese standpunte gehad. Dit het hom ongewild gemaak by mulatte en wit sendelinge. In 1873 besluit hy om saam met sy gesin na die Verenigde State terug te keer. Hy vestig hom in Washington waar hy 'Missionary-at-Large' word.

Crummell het voortgegaan om hom vir 'n wye verskeidenheid kwessies te beywer. In 1897 was hy 'n belangrike figuur in die totstandkoming van die American Negro Academy.

Alexander Crummell is in 1898 oorlede.


Crummell, Alexander (1819-1898)

Crummell is in New York gebore uit vrye swart afkoms. Hy het 'n goeie algemene opvoeding gehad, en alhoewel rassevooroordeel hom toegang tot die Algemene Teologiese Kweekskool geweier het, is hy in die Episkopale Kerk georden (diaken, 1842 priester, 1844). Geldinsameling in Engeland vir sy nuwe swart gemeente in New York het hom 'n plek in Queens College, Cambridge, gebring, waar hy in 1853 studeer het. Daarna het hy as 'n protestantse biskoplike sendeling na Liberië gegaan, burgerskap geneem en pastorale werk gekombineer met die hoofskap van skole in Monrovia en in Maryland. Van 1862 tot 1866 was hy professor in filosofie en Engels aan die Liberia College, 'n stormagtige tydperk, en van 1867 tot 1873 woon hy in die nedersetting Caldwell, waar hy 'n kerk en skool bou, 'n opvoedkundige uitreik na inheemse mense vestig en twee bedien ander sendingstasies. Crummell het die Liberiese intellektuele en godsdienstige lewe beïnvloed as prediker, profeet, sosiale ontleder en opvoedkundige, en verkondig 'n spesiale plek vir Afrika, met sy godgegewe morele en godsdienstige potensiaal, in die geskiedenis van verlossing. Hy wou hê Liberië moet gekenmerk word deur demokratiese instellings, florerende kunste en briewe, handel en regte, en daarvoor was Christelike onderrig nodig. Sy entoesiasme was onder meer landbou -ontwikkeling, die opening van die binneland vir evangelisasie en handel, onderwys vir vroue en openbare biblioteke. Hy het gehelp om die Protestantse Episkopale Sending as 'n Liberiaanse kerk te rekonstrueer. In sy visie het Afro -Amerikaners 'n besondere verantwoordelikheid vir Afrika, maar as 'n suiwer swartman (soos hy gereeld beweer), probeer hy hom identifiseer met die belange van die inheemse bevolking, en verset hom teen die regering se pogings om mag en hulpbronne te konsentreer in die mulatgemeenskap. In 1873, uit vrees dat sy lewe in gevaar was weens die opkoms van die mulat, keer hy terug na die Verenigde State. Hy was rektor van St. Luke ’s, Washington, DC, tot 1894 en gee les aan die Howard Universiteit van 1895 tot 1897. Hy het sy werk vir Afro -Amerikaanse Christelike geleerdheid en Afrikaanse verlossing voortgesit en die American Negro Academy gestig in 1897.

Andrew F. Walls, “Crummell, Alexander, ” in Biografiese Woordeboek van Christelike Sendinge, red. Gerald H. Anderson (New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1998), 161-2.

Hierdie artikel word herdruk uit Biografiese Woordeboek van Christelike Sendinge, Macmillan Reference USA, kopiereg © 1998 Gerald H. Anderson, met toestemming van Macmillan Reference USA, New York, NY. Alle regte voorbehou.

Bibliografie

Digitale tekste

_____. “The Black Woman of the South. ” n.p .: n.p., [1883?]. Gepubliseerde uittreksel uit die adres, “ Behoeftes en verwaarlosing van die swart vrou van die Suide. ” Redakteurs sê dit bevat 'n pleidooi vir vroulike werk

Haynes, Elizabeth Ross. Ongesonge helde. New York: Du Bois en Dill Uitgewers, 1921.

Primêr


Crummell se preke is bewaar in die versamelings van die Schomburg Research Center van die New York Public Library en is beskikbaar op mikrofilm. Sy briewe aan die Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society is in die argief van die Episcopal Church in Austin, TX, en 'n afskrif is aan die Cuttington University College in Liberië. The Library of Congress het Crummell se briewe aan die American Colonization Society gemikrofilm, en 'n versameling van sy briewe is in die Jay Family Papers aan die Columbia University.

Crummell, Alexander. The Man: The Hero: The Christian! 'N Eulogie oor die lewe en karakter van Thomas Clarkson: afgelewer in die stad New-York, Desember 1846. New York: Egbert, Hovey & King, 1847.

_____. Die plig van 'n stygende Christenstaat om by te dra tot die welsyn en beskawing van die wêreld die dag van nasionale onafhanklikheid. Londen: Wertheim & Macintosh, 1856 [Massachusetts]: Massachusetts Colonization Society 1857 [druk]).

_____. Adres van ds Alexander Crummell tydens die herdenking van die Massachusetts Colonization Society, 29 Mei 1861. ” In Edward Wilmot Blyden en Alexander Crummell, Liberië, die land van belofte aan vry gekleurde mans, 19-28. Washington, DC: American Colonization Society, 1861.

_____. “Die Engelse taal in Liberië ” [1861]. In Pamflette van protes: 'n bloemlesing van vroeë Afro-Amerikaanse protesliteratuur, 1790-1860. New York: Routledge, 2001.

_____. Die verhoudings en pligte van vry gekleurde mans in Amerika tot Afrika: 'n brief aan Charles B. Dunbar, M. D., Esq., Van New York City. Hartford: Lockwood and Company, 1861.

_____. Die toekoms van Afrika: adresse, preke, ensovoorts, gelewer in die Republiek van Liberië. New York New York: Charles Scribner Negro University Press, 1862 1969.

_____. Die grootheid van Christus en ander preke. np: np, 1882.

_____. A Defense of the Negro Race in America from the Assaults and Charges of Rev. JL Tucker, DD, of Jackson, Miss., In His Paper Before the “Church Congress ” of 1882, on “The Relations of the Church to die gekleurde ras. ” Opgestel en gepubliseer op versoek van die gekleurde geestelikes van die Prot. Episode. Kerk. Washington, DC: Judd & amp; Dettweiler, 1883.

_____. Afrika en Amerika: Adresse en diskoerse. Springfield, MA: Willey & amp, 1891.

__________. Alexander Crummell, 1844-1894: The Shades and Lights of a 50 Years ’ Ministry. np: np, 1894.

_____. “The Destined Superiority of the Negro, A Thanksgiving Discourse. ” In Morele kwaad en verlossende lyding: 'n geskiedenis van teodisie in Afro -Amerikaanse godsdienstige denke. Geredigeer deur Anthony B. Pinn. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2002.

Sekondêr


Adeleke, Tende. UnAfrican Americans: Negentiende-eeuse swart nasionaliste en die beskaafde sending. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1998.

Akpan, M. B. “Alexander Crummell and His African ‘Race Work ’: 'n Evaluering van sy bydrae tot Liberië aan Afrika se verlossing. ” In Black Apostles at Home and Abroad: Afro-Amerikaners en die Christelike Sending van die Revolusie tot Heropbou. Geredigeer deur D. W. Wills en R. Newman, 283-310. Boston: GK Hall, 1982.

Asanti, Molefi Kete. 100 grootste Afro -Amerikaners: 'n Biografiese ensiklopedie. Amherst, NY. Prometheus Boeke, 2002.

Ejofodomi, Luckson. Die sendelingloopbaan van Alexander Crummell in Liberië, 1853-1877. ” Ph.D. diss. Boston Universiteit, 1974.

Haynes, Elizabeth Ross. Ongesonge helde. New York: Du Bois en Dill Uitgewers, 1921.

Litwack, Leon F. en August Meier. Swart leiers van die negentiende eeu. Urbana, IL: Universiteit van Illinois, 1988.

Moses, Wilson J. Alexander Crummell: 'n Studie van beskawing en ontevredenheid. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

_____. Kreatiewe konflik in Afro -Amerikaanse denke: Fredrick Douglass, Alexander Crummell, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois en Marcus Garvey. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Oldfield, John R. Alexander Crummell (1819-1898) en die skepping van 'n Afro-Amerikaanse kerk in Liberië. 1990.

_____ (red.). Beskawing en swart vooruitgang: geselekteerde geskrifte van Alexander Crummell in die suide. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Rigsby, Gregory U. Alexander Crummell: 'n Pionier in die negentiende-eeuse Pan-Afrika-gedagte. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Scruggs, O. M. “ ‘We the Children of Africa in this Land ’: Alexander Crummell. ” In Afrika en die Afro-Amerikaanse ervaring. Geredigeer deur L. A. Williams. 1977.

Woodson, Carter Godwin. Die geskiedenis van die negerkerk. Washington, DC: The Associated Publishers, c1921.

Skakels


“Alexander Crummell. ” 'n Biografiese opstel met 'n beeld van 'n gesketsde portret van 'n middeljarige Crummell.

Alexander Crummell: ‘The Attitude of the American Mind Toward the Negro Intellect ’ (1898). ” 'n Kort biografiese opstel stel hierdie uittreksel bekend op BlackPast.org:

Moses, Wilson J. “Alexander Crummell. ” Amerikaanse nasionale biografie aanlyn. Februarie 2000.

Thompson, Stephen. “Alexander Crummell. ” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (somer 2011 -uitgawe), geredigeer deur Edward N. Zalta.


Min bekende swart geskiedenisfeit: Alexander Crummell se Thanksgiving Day -toespraak

Op die dankseggingsdag in 1875, Alexander Crummell, stigter van die American Negro Academy, het 'n historiese toespraak gehou met die naam “The Social Principle Among a People and Its Dearing on their Progress and Development. Sy doel was dat swartes op Thanksgiving Day sou besin oor rassevooruitgang in Amerika.

Crummell is in 1819 in New York gebore as die kleinseun van 'n Wes -Afrikaanse hoof. Hy is opgevoed deur Quakers, wat gelei het tot sy sterk godsdienstige bande en werk in die Episkopale kerk. Teen 1853 studeer Crummell aan die Queens College in Cambridge.

As 'n biskoplike priester het Crummell jare lank gepleit vir die emigrasie van swartes na Afrika en vir Afrika-selfhulp. Teen 1873 loop hy 'n opposisie in Liberië en keer terug na Washington DC om as 'sendeling in die algemeen vir die bruin mense' te werk.

Hy het in sy leeftyd verskeie artikels gepubliseer: “The Future of Africa: Being Addresses, Preekings, ens. Gelewer in die Republiek van Liberië ” (1862) “The Greatness of Christ and Other Preekings ” (1882) en &# 8220Afrika en Amerika: Adresse en diskoerse ” (1891).

Twaalf jaar tevore, president Abraham Lincoln het Thanksgiving 'n nasionale vakansiedag gemaak, ondanks die teenkanting van die suidelike blankes. Southern Blacks het egter die dag waargeneem soos Lincoln bedoel het. In sy toespraak verdryf Crummell die oortuiging dat swart mense hul kleur moet vergeet om progressief te wees.

Crummell het gesê: “ Die enigste plek waarvan ek weet in hierdie land waar u kan vergeet dat u bruin is, is die graf! ”

Dit lyk asof die mense as liggaam oorgelewer is aan dieselfde nederige, diensbare lewensberoepe waarin hul vaders vertrap het, omdat hulle weens gebrek aan samewerking nie in staat is om die hoër beroepe van sake te betree nie en dus boete, armoede, minderwaardigheid afhanklikheid en selfs diensbaarheid is hul algemene kenmerk in die hele land, saam met 'n vreeslike toestand van sterftes.

En die oorsaak van hierdie minderwaardigheid van doel en van aksie is tweeledig, en beide die skuld, tot 'n mate, van onverstandige en nie-filosofiese leiers ... Wat hierdie ras in hierdie land nodig het, is mag, die kragte wat gevoel kan word. En dit kom van karakter, en karakter is die produk van godsdiens, intelligensie, deug, gesinsorde, meerderwaardigheid, rykdom en die toon van industriële magte. Dit is kragte wat ons nie besit nie. Ons is die enigste klas wat in hierdie land as klas in hierdie groot elemente verlang.


Die merkwaardige verhaal van Alexander Crummell

'N Toespraak op die Universiteit van Cambridge se Festival of Ideas vanaand fokus op die buitengewone lewe van Alexander Crummell - die seun van 'n slaaf - wat een van die eerste swart studente was wat aan Cambridge studeer het.

. miskien het geen leerplek in die wêreld nie ... meer vir menslike vryheid en menslike welstand gedoen as hierdie instelling.

Alexander Crummell, 1847

Niemand weet wanneer die eerste swart student aan Cambridge studeer het nie, maar daar word vermoed dat swart voorgraadse studente reeds in die vroeë 18de eeu aan of aan die rand van die universiteit gestudeer het. Daar word gesê dat 'n Jamaikaan met die naam Francis Williams in die vroeë 1700's opgevoed is in Cambridge. 'N Gemengde ras -violis genaamd George Augustus Bridgetower het 'n graad ontvang vir musiek wat hy in 1812 gekomponeer het.

Die eerste swart student in Cambridge vir wie amptelike universiteitsrekords bestaan, is Alexander Crummell. Hy was 'n biskoplike prediker en seun van 'n Amerikaanse slaaf en het in die middel van die 18de eeu aan Queens 'College gestudeer. Daar is groot bewyse van sy tyd in Cambridge - en sy naam verskyn in Alumni Cantabrigiensis, 'n lys van alle bekende Cambridge -studente, gepubliseer in 1922.

Dr Sarah Meer, universiteitsdosent in Engels, hou vanaand (Donderdag, 20 Oktober) 'n praatjie oor Crummell as deel van die Festival of Ideas en val saam met Black History Month.

Sy het gefassineer geraak deur Crummell toe sy verwysings na sy lewe en loopbaan ondervind tydens haar navorsing oor Amerikaanse skrywers uit die 19de eeu. Sy was vinnig geïntrigeerd deur die manier waarop sy verhaal met ontwikkelinge in letterkunde en politiek gekruis het, veral die Britse betrokkenheid by veldtogte teen Amerikaanse slawerny.

'Crummell was in die 1840's een van die baie Afro-Amerikaanse reisigers na Brittanje, en net soos meer bekende figure soos Frederick Douglass, het hy probeer om Britse steun te kry vir die afskaffing van slawerny. Maar Crummell was ongewoon in sy keuse om 'n graad te bly lees, 'het Meer gesê.

Crummell is in New York gebore. Sy pa was 'n vrygelate slaaf, na bewering 'n Afrika-prins wat uit Afrika gebring is om by 'n welgestelde handelaar in die stad te werk, en sy ma was 'n vrygebore vrou van Long Island. Dit is nie bekend waar hulle families in Afrika ontstaan ​​het nie. Alhoewel Crummell se pa ongeletterd was, het sy ouers aspirasies vir hul vyf kinders gehad en in die 1820's het die jong Alexander een van die African Free Schools bygewoon, laerskole wat deur New Yorkse afskaffingskundiges opgerig is om die kinders van vrygemaakte slawe op te voed. Daar is hy aangemoedig deur 'n Engelsman genaamd Charles Andrews, 'n streng dissiplinêr.

Baie swart kinders het omstreeks 14 jaar die formele opleiding verlaat om in lae ambagte te begin werk, alhoewel Crummell se klasmaats 'n begaafde generasie was: een het 'n onderwyser geword, een 'n dokter en verskeie predikante. Teen al die kanse het Crummell en twee swart vriende 'n plek by 'n hoërskool in New Hampshire gekry. Die plaaslike gemeenskap was woedend omdat die skool aangeval is, die skoolhuis in 'n moeras gesleep is en die drie swart studente uit die stad verdryf is.

'Alhoewel slawerny in die noordelike state van die VSA afgeskaf is, was daar geen vooroordeel en diskriminasie nie, en was menings teen slawerny dikwels ongewild. Crummell en sy vriend Henry Highland Garnet het tydens 'n openbare ontmoeting teen slawerny gepraat, en dit kan die spanning in die stad veroorsaak het. Die ervaring was baie skokkend, maar Crummell en sy vriende het volhard en oorgegaan na 'n meer produktiewe ervaring by 'n skool in New York, ”het Meer gesê.

Crummell en sy gesin het die Episcopal Church omhels. Dit was belangrik omdat dit verbintenisse met Anglikane in Brittanje geopen het, en veral omdat die kerk sterk wortels in die 19de -eeuse Cambridge gehad het. Die Episcopal -verbinding sou later Crummell se eie pad na Cambridge glad maak. As hy 'n Metodis of 'n Presbiteriaan was, soos baie van sy klasmaats, sou hy nie 'n Cambridge -graad kon aflê nie. Hy het ook 'n briljante intellek en formidabele vasberadenheid. Maar hierdie eienskappe alleen sou nie genoeg gewees het om hom universiteit toe te jaag en hom die nodige hulpbronne te gee om 'n graad te voltooi nie. Crummell sou kragtige mentors en borge in Brittanje wen wat voorbereidende onderrig gereël het en die aanbod van 'n plek aan Queens 'College verseker het.

Ondanks sy intelligensie, stewige vasberadenheid en verbintenisse, was Crummell se weg om predikant te word ver van maklik: hy is toegang tot die General Theological Seminary in New York geweier en het slegs nie -amptelike toegang tot klasse by Yale Theological Seminar gekry. Uiteindelik is hy georden, en in 1848 het hy na Brittanje gekom om geld in te samel vir sy kerk in New York. 'N Groep Britse evangeliste het gereël om hom by Cambridge te borg, met voorbereidende opleiding en 'n onderhoud aan Queens' College, waar hy as 'n 30-jarige man by baie jonger studente aangesluit het, met 'n vrou en drie kinders.

Crummell se tyd in Cambridge kom op 'n laagtepunt in terme van wat die universiteit sy studente gebied het. Net soos ander, sou Crummell min onderrig gehad het en sou hy lesings met privaat afrigting aangevul het. Studente (slegs mans tot 1869) was vermoedelik Anglikane en was ingedeel volgens die lae van die samelewing waaruit hulle gekom het. Edelmanne, mede -gewone mense, pensioenarisse en sizars het verskillende toga gedra, verskillende gelde betaal en verskillende regte gehad. Crummell was 'n pensioenaris - een posisie bo die sizars wat op ryker studente gewag het.

Cambridge was egter 'n belangrike sentrum vir die beweging teen slawerny. Thomas Clarkson en William Wilberforce studeer albei aan Cambridge - hulle is onder andere beïnvloed deur die afskaffingkundige meester van Magdalene, Peter Peckard. Hulle nalatenskap het van Cambridge 'n ontvanklike omgewing gemaak en Crummell het die universiteit hoog geag en in 1847 geskryf dat "miskien geen leerstoel in die wêreld ... meer vir menslike vryheid en menslike welstand gedoen het as hierdie instelling nie".

Baie Afro-Amerikaanse reisigers na Brittanje het destyds gesê dat daar minder openlike vooroordeel in Brittanje was as in die VSA, en dit moes beslis 'n verligting gewees het om weg te kom van die openlike skeiding van fasiliteite wat Amerikaners 'Jim Crow-wette' noem. Maar daar was ook voorbeelde van neerbuigende, onnadenkende en selfs vyandige reaksies.

Argiewe van kerklike verslae en korrespondensie beeld Crummell uit as 'n komplekse en lastige karakter, en sy verhaal bevat baie teenstrydighede. Ondanks sy passievolle kampioenskap van swart potensiaal, kon hy geen deugde in tradisionele Afrika -kulture sien nie. Hy het seker gemaak dat sy twee dogters hoër onderwys ontvang - maar dit lyk asof hy sy eerste vrou met wrede minagting behandel het.

'Crummell is moontlik beïnvloed deur die verre en outoritêre leermeesters en beskermhere wat hy as kind teëgekom het, en hy was beslis verbitterd deur herhaalde verwerping, as student, as priester in opleiding en later in die poste waarvoor hy aansoek gedoen het. Hy was knap met kollegas en diktatoriaal met sy familie en gemeentes. En tog, teen die einde van sy lewe, het die jonger skrywer WEB Du Bois Crummell as voorbeeld van genade en vergifnis voorgehou, ”het Meer gesê.

In Cambridge blyk Crummell 'n minder bekende persoonlikheid te wees. Hy het vooroordeel, maar ook liefde en innige simpatie ontmoet toe sy vierjarige seun in 'n ongeluk dood is. Hy het ook buite sy studies aktief gebly, as kurator in Ipswich gewerk en lesings oor slawerny oor die hele land gehou. Met sy vertrek uit Cambridge was hy byna 20 jaar in Liberië as kerkman en onderwyser. Hy was een van die eerste professore aan die Liberia College, wat nou die Universiteit van Liberië is. Op 'n reis terug na New York in 1861, word Crummell begroet deur die swart papier, die Anglo-Afrikaans, met die opskrif 'A Hearty Welcome Home', en die koerant het deeglik opgemerk dat hy 'BA van Cambridge University, Engeland' was. Vir 'n swart man, en een van nederige oorsprong, om in Cambridge te studeer, was merkwaardig en het 'n sein aan ander gestuur dat topinstellings soos Cambridge nie heeltemal buite bereik was nie.

Meer het gesê: 'Die betekenis van Crummell, polities en histories, lê in sy opvoedingskampioenskap, sy verbintenis tot vryheid en sy verset teen materialisme. Sy skryfwerk oor die waarde van hoër onderwys sou nie in die huidige debatte uit die oog val of 'n graad slegs 'n individu of 'n hele samelewing bevoordeel nie. In die hedendaagse omgewing sou sy siening oor die kerstening van Afrika Eurosentries en kolonialisties lyk - tog lewer hy 'n belangrike bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van Liberië en wat hy 'die verhoging van sy ras' sou genoem het. "

Dr Sarah Meer sal hieroor praat Alexander Crummell, die abolitionist vanaand (Donderdag, 20 Oktober) 18:30 tot 19:30 by die Fakulteit Engels, Sidgwick Site, Cambridge. Geen koste. Bespreek vooraf 01223 335070 of stuur 'n e-pos aan [email protected]

Hierdie werk is gelisensieer onder 'n Creative Commons -lisensie. As u hierdie inhoud op u webwerf gebruik, skakel dan weer na hierdie bladsy.


Alexander Crummell, Episcopalian Priest, Cambridge University Graduate deur Rebecca Bayeck, CLIR Postdoctoral Fellow in Data Curation for African American and African Studies, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture 24 Augustus 2020

Alexander Crummell is op 3 Maart 1819 in New York gebore aan Boston Crummell en Charity Hicks. Sy pa was uit 'n koninklike familie van die Temne 1 -etniese groep in Wes -Afrika, waar hy gewoon het totdat hy 13 jaar oud was toe hy as slawerny verkoop is. Terwyl Alexander se twee pa vry geword het in sy volwassenheid, is sy ma vry gebore uit 'n gesin van vrye swart inwoners in Long Island, New York. Alhoewel Boston Crummell nie kon lees of skryf nie, het hy tutors aangestel en sy kinders opgevoed, wat op sy beurt Engelse klassieke vir hom voorgelees het, en hy kon uit sy geheue outeurs soos Shakespeare, Milton en Pous 3 herhaal.

Op 13 -jarige ouderdom het Alexander Crummell aangesluit by die African Free School 4 van Mulberrystraat, waar hy sy laerskoolopleiding voltooi het. In 1831 is hy ingeskryf by die Canal Street High School wat deur dominee Peter Williams, 5 gestig is, met die hulp van Alexander se pa, Thomas Downing, 6 en ander swart leiers wat 'n wit instrukteur aangestel het om Grieks en Latyn te onderrig. Crummell het Canal Street School tot 1835 bygewoon, waarna hy op uitnodiging na die stad Canaan, New Hampshire, verhuis het om in te skryf by die Noyes Academy, 'n skool wat deur afskaffingskundiges vir alle rasse geskep is. Crummell het gesweer om 'n groot intellektueel te word nadat hy 'n bespreking onder wit advokate gehoor het. Volgens Booker (2000) het 7 een van die prokureurs die senator pro-slawerny John C. Calhoun 8 aangehaal wat gesê het: "as hy 'n neger kon kry, wat die Griekse sintaksis ken, sou hy dan glo dat die neger 'n mens was en as 'n man behandel moet word ”(p.52). Sodra hy by die skool aangesluit het, het Crummell sy intellektuele eienskappe getoon. Op 4 Julie 1835 het Crummell byvoorbeeld, saam met ander swart studente, Henry Highland Garnet 9 en Thomas S. Sidney 10 'n uitstekende toespraak gelewer tydens 'n Onafhanklikheidsdagbyeenkoms wat gereël is deur abolitioniste in Plymouth, New Hampshire. Woedend oor die toespraak belê blankes in die omgewing die aand 'n vergadering en nog een op 13 Julie. Nadat hulle naburige dorpe in kennis gestel het van hul plan om van hierdie swart studente - Crummell, Sidney en Garnet - op 10 Augustus 1835 ontslae te raak, vernietig hulle die skool, en Crummell keer daarna terug na New York.

Oor sy beproewing by die Noyes Academy in New Hampshire, skryf Crummell:

Ons het 'n baie hartlike ontvangs by Kanaän ontmoet van twee wit studente, en met die grootste hoop begin met ons studies. Maar ons verblyf was die kortste. Die demokrasie van die staat kon die wat hulle 'n 'Nigger School' op die grond van New Hampshire noem, nie verduur nie, en daarom het die woord, veral van die politici van Concord, uitgegaan dat die skool verbreek moet word. Veertien swart seuns met boeke in hul hande het die hele granietstaat gek gemaak! Op 4 Julie, met wonderlike smaak en vreugde, het die boere uit 'n wye omgewing bymekaargekom by Kanaän en besluit om die akademie as 'n openbare oorlas te verwyder! . Hulle was twee dae lank besig om hul ellendige werk te verrig. …. Toe ons Kanaän verlaat, het die skare aan die buitewyke van die dorp bymekaargekom en 'n stuk stuk poeier op ons wa afgevuur. Ons het teruggekeer huis toe oor die Green Mountains van Vermont, langs die vallei van Connecticut, deur Troy, af in die Hudson na New York ”(Crummell, 1891, bl. 280-281).

In 1836 het Crummell aangesluit by die Oneida Institute in Whitesboro, gestig in 1833 deur die afskaffer Beriah Green. 11 Hy studeer in November 1838 en keer weer terug na New York. In dieselfde jaar word hy aangestel as wykbevelvoerder vir die nuutgestigte New York Association for the Political Improvement of Colored People. In 1839 was hy 'n kandidaat vir die Heilige Orde, 12 onder leiding van dominee Peter Williams, rektor van die St. Phillips -kerk, is as kandidaat in die bisdom van Massachusetts ontvang en in 1842 as diaken aangestel. In 1839 het hy het ook aansoek gedoen om toelating tot die Algemene Teologiese Kweekskool van die Episkopale Kerk, maar hy is toegang geweier. Sy voormalige klasmaats by die Oneida -instituut protesteer teen sy uitsluiting. Hy het uiteindelik privaatonderrig op Rhode Island by dominee gekry. Dr A.H. Vinton (13) en is in 1844 tot priester georden.

Internasionale reise

Crummell se internasionale reise was ook gewortel in die uitdagings wat hy in die gesig gestaar het en in die Verenigde State sowel as Engeland probeer aanspreek het. Crummell het sy priesterlike pligte in Rhode Island begin, maar was ontevrede met die paar swartes in die gemeente. Pogings om 'n afspraak elders te verseker, het weens sy kleur verskeie kere misluk. Crummell is moeg terug na New York, waar hy 'n gemeente van arm en swart mense begin het.

In 1847, op uitnodiging van vriende, besoek hy Engeland om geld in te samel vir sy kerk in New York. Terwyl hy in Engeland was, het hy in 1848 aan die Cambridge University, Queens College, ingeskryf, waar hy in 1853 'n baccalaureusgraad behaal het. Crummell preek en doseer tydens sy verblyf in Engeland. Tog het die koue klimaat sy gesondheid beïnvloed, en op advies van sy dokter om na 'n warmer klimaat te gaan, vertrek hy later uit Engeland na Liberië.

In Liberië, waar hy twee dekades as sendeling deurgebring het, beklee hy die posisie van professor in Engels en morele filosofie aan die Liberia College. In 1872 het verskeie uitdagings hom gedwing om na die Verenigde State terug te keer. Hy vestig hom in Washington, DC en stig die St Luke's Church en dien byna twee en twintig jaar as rektor. Hy het gehelp om die konferensie van kerkwerkers onder bruinmense in die Episcopal Church in 1883 te vestig. In 1895, op 76 -jarige ouderdom, bedank Crummell uit die St. Luke's Church, en gee daarna les aan die Howard -universiteit van 1895 tot 1897. Op 5 Maart , 1897, het Crummell die American Negro Academy gestig wat swart wetenskaplikes en wetenskaplikes soos John W. Cromwell, Kelly Miller, WEB Dubois, Henry P. Slaughter en Arthur A. Schomburg, sy laaste president, byeengebring het.

Veg vir burgerregte, identiteit en rasse -gelykheid

Crummell identifiseer sy lewe lank met die stryd om burgerregte en rasse -gelykheid. Sy geskrifte, preke, toesprake en ander literêre werke was paaie wat hy gebruik het om Swart identiteit terug te kry, en verset teen die minderwaardigheid van die Swart ras.

Ter verdediging van die swart ras

Crummell gebruik sy preke gereeld om argumente oor die minderwaardigheid van swart mense teë te staan. Byvoorbeeld, in 'n preek oor die boek Jesaja 67, vers 7, getiteld "Die bestemde superioriteit van die neger," 14 het hy die volgende gesê:

Die negerras, nêrens ter wêreld nie, is 'n gedoemde ras! ... Net die omgekeerde met die neger! ... Die bespreking van vanoggend leer ons dat die negerras, waarvan ons deel is, en wat nog in groot eenvoud en met groot probleme sukkel om plek en posisie in hierdie land, presies ontdek in sy geskiedenis, die beginsel wat ek genoem het. En ons het in hierdie feit die versekering dat die Almagtige belangstel in al die groot probleme van die beskawing en van genade wat onder ons voortduur. Dit alles is God se werk. Hy het hierdie wedloop deur 'n wildernis van rampe gebring en dit uiteindelik in die groot, oop plek van vryheid geplaas, maar nie, jy kan verseker wees, vir uiteindelike agteruitgang en uiteindelike ondergang. U hoef nie die twyfel te verduur dat die werk wat God begin het en nou aan die gang is, vir die verhoging en sukses van die neger is nie. van die negeras. Geen sameswerings van mense of van duiwels nie! Die slawehandel kon hulle nie uitwis nie. Slawerny, angs, angswekkend en kwaadaardig, kon dit net 'n rukkie bly. Maar nou kom, kom, gee ek, deur donker en beproewende gebeurtenisse, maar seker kom ...

Crummell se teologiese opleiding het hom in staat gestel om sy verdediging van die Swart ras op die Bybel te veranker en sodoende ander godsdienstige leiers wat dieselfde boek gebruik het om slawerny en die minderwaardigheid van swart mense te regverdig, weerlê. As prediker kon hy dus tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat:

Oral op aarde is hom, deur die Almagtige, die versekering, selfvertroue en invloed gegee ... Met al hierdie voorsienige aanduidings in ons guns, laat ons God seën en moed hou. Laat ons alles wat klein en ligsinnig is, opsy sit, laat ons elke element van krag in die brein in literatuurkuns en wetenskap in industriële strewes in die grond in samewerking in meganiese vindingrykheid en bowenal in die godsdiens van ons God gryp en so marsjeer op die pad van vooruitgang na daardie meerderwaardigheid en eminente wat ons regmatige erfenis is, en wat blykbaar die belofte van ons God is! (Crummell, 1882, p.352).

Ter verdediging van die swart vrou

Soveel as wat hy die Swart ras verdedig het, het Crummell ook die uitdagings wat swart vroue in die gesig gestaar het, aangespreek. Hy was uit eie reg 'n vroeë voorstander van swart vroueregte. In 'n toespraak voor die Freedman's Aid Society 15 by die Methodist Episcopalian Church, getiteld "The Black woman of the South: Her neglects and her needs," 16 het hy die volgende gesê:

Sy [die Swart vrou] was 'n plukker van katoen. Sy het by die suikermeule en in die tabakfabriek gewerk. As sy weens vermoeidheid of siekte agter haar toegekende taak was, kom daar as straf die vreesaanjaende strepe op haar krimpende, geskeurde vlees. ... Maar sommige van julle sal vra: 'Waarom bring ons hierdie hartseer herinneringe aan die verlede na vore? Waarom ons ontstel met hierdie dooie en uitgestorwe wreedhede? ” Ag, my vriende, dit is nie dooie dinge nie. Onthou dat: "Die kwaad wat mense doen, leef agterna". Die euwel van growwe en monsteragtige gruwels, die kwaad van groot organiese instellings, ontstaan ​​lank na die vertrek van die instellings self. (p.161).

For Crummell, the Black woman of the South "is one of the queens of womanhood. If there is any other woman on this earth who in native aboriginal qualities is her superior, I know not where she is to be found … the Negro woman is unsurpassed by any other woman on this earth…. The testimony to this effect is almost universal—our enemies themselves being witnesses'' (Crummell, 1883, p. 167). As seen in the following excerpt, Crummell felt compelled to defend the Black woman:

But for the mothers, sisters, and daughters of my race I have a right to speak. And when I think of their sad condition down South think, too, that since the day of emancipation hardly anyone has lifted up a voice in their behalf, I felt it a duty and a privilege to set forth their praises and to extol their excellencies. …But I must remember that I am to speak not only of the neglects of the black woman, but also of her needs. And the consideration of her needs suggests the remedy which should be used for uplifting of this woman from a state of brutality and degradation….But a true civilization can only then be attained when the life of woman is reached, her whole being permeated by noble ideas, her fine taste enriched by culture, her tendencies to the beautiful gratified and developed, her singular and delicate nature lifted up to its full capacity and then, when all these qualities are fully matured, cultivated and sanctified, all their sacred influences shall circle around then thousand firesides, and the cabins of the humblest freedmen shall become.

Crummell on Africa

Alexander Crummel believed that Africa was the motherland of the Black race, in an abject state and in dire need of help. In a letter titled “ Free colored men in America to Africa" 17 he wrote:

I remark that the abject state of Africa is a most real and touching appeal to any heart for sympathy and aid… Africa lies low and is wretched. She is the maimed and crippled arm of humanity. Her great powers are wasted. Dislocation and anguish have reached every joint. Her condition in every point calls for succor -moral, social, domestic, political, commercial, and intellectual (Crummell, 1862,, p.219).

Africa, for Crummell needed the aid of Blacks in America because Africa “needs skill, enterprise, energy, worldly talent, to raise her and these applied here to her needs and circumstances, will prove the hand maid of religion, and will serve the great purposes of civilization and enlightenment through all her borders” (Crummell, 1862, p. 221).

Crummelll clearly believed that Africa could only be helped by Blacks beyond her shores, whose ancestors were forced to leave the continent. Africa for her regeneration needed her “civilized emigrants”. In his speech “The progress and prospects of the Republic of Liberia 18 ” delivered to the American Colonization Society of New York in 1861, he stated:

. training, habits, customs, education, and political experience, [of Blacks in the United States] have made us—it is not, it is true, a dignified mode of expression, but I have used it in private, and may be pardoned its use here—they have made us “Black Yankees” and I feel assured that in Liberia, we shall find a more congenial field, better appliances, a government more suitable to our antecedents, better fitted to a youthful nation and an aspiring emigrant population to achieve that which seems to me the master aim of all our colonization to Africa, and the noblest duty of the Republic of Liberia—I mean the evangelization and enlightenment of heathen Africa!

This imperialistic view, woven in evangelization and enlightenment erased Africans, projected Africans as inferiors, and aligned with European colonizers’ mindset, with the difference that Crummell this time was calling for Black Americans' colonization of Africa. Therefore, it is not surprising that Crummell’s perception of Africa was met with criticism from other scholars (Appiah, 1990 West, 2004). Furthermore, Black Americans who believed their duty was to the United States, their home, and nation did oppose Crummell’s Africa colonization project. Yet, there is no doubt that Alexander Crummell's contributions to Black liberation in America was immense. Crummell laid the ground for civil rights thinkers and activists centuries after his death on September 10, 1898. The American Negro Academy he founded, which disappeared in 1920 with the rise of the Harlem Renaissance, inspired and mentored famous Black intellectual such as W.E. B. Dubois.

1 The Temne people are found in West Africa, specifically in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and The Gambia.

2 The circumstances of his emancipation are not clear, but it is said that he simply refused to serve his New York owners any longer after reaching adulthood.

3 In The Colonial church chronicle and missionary journal (1847-1862). London F. and J. Rivington. As for the name “Crummell” the authors of this journal explained that it was a transformation of Kerumah, probably in the Temne language.

4. The African Free School was founded in 1787 by the New-York Manumission Society whose members composed the first Board of Trustees of the school. These members included: Melancton Smith, James Cogswell, Thomas Burling, John Lawrence, John Bleecker, Lawrence Embree, Willet Seaman, Jacob Seaman, Nathaniel Lawrence, White Matlock, Matthew Clarkson, and John Murray, Jun. In Andrews, C. C. (1830). The history of the New-York African free-schools, from their establishment in 1787, to the present, Manuscript Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

5. Reverend Peter Williams, Jr. (1780-1840), was an abolitionist, the son of the founder in 1796 of what would become the AME Zion Church in New York City. The young Williams helped establish in 1819 the first Black Episcopalian church in New York, St. Philips African Episcopal Church of which he was the pastor. Recollections of seventy years collection, Manuscript Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

6 Brief speech denouncing the African Civilization Project. The speaker believed this was similar to the American Colonization Society project and just one more way of making money using African American labor.

7 Booker, C. B. (2000). “I will wear no chain”: A social history of African American males. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

8 John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) served as a congressman, senator, secretary of war, secretary of state, and vice president of the United States. He also served in both the House and Senate representing South Carolina. Calhoun is known for his defense of the institution of slavery, and advocated states’ rights as a means of preserving slavery in the South. John C. Calhoun papers 1818-1844, 1887, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Stephen A. Schwarzman Building, New York Public Library.

9 Henry Highland Garnet, friend of Crummell and Sidney. He attended the African Free School in New York City and Canaan New Hampshire. He graduated from Oneida Institute in 1840. He settled in Troy where he taught the colored district school. Licensed to preach in 1842, he became the first pastor of the Liberty Street Presbyterian Church, a Black congregation in Troy. Writers' Program, New York City: Negroes of New York collection 1936-1941, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

10 Thomas S. Sidney, escaped the Noyes Academy outrage along with his friends and classmates Crummell and Garnet. He enrolled at Oneida Institute. Upon graduation, he served as a ward commander and as corresponding secretary of the newly formed Association for the Political Improvement of People of Color in New York City. He also taught at the New York Select Academy, and held classes in the basement of Broadway Tabernacle. He died in 1841, at 23 years old. Sernett, M. C. (2004). Abolition's axe: Beriah Green, Oneida Institute, and the Black freedom struggle. Syracuse University Press. Jean Blackwell Hutson Research and Reference Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

11 Presbyterian minister, abolitionist, president of the Philadelphia convention of December 4, 1833, during which the American Anti-Slavery Society was formed. The American Anti-Slavery Society (1838). The constitution of the American antislavery society: with the Declaration of the National anti-slavery convention at Philadelphia, December, 1833, and the Address to the public, issued by the executive committee of the Society, in September, 1835. Manuscripts & Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

12 Refers to the holy orders of bishop, priest, and deacon in the Episcopalian Church. This represents a hierarchical order, meaning that to be a candidate for priesthood, one should first be ordained as a deacon before ordination as a priest. Armentrout, D. S.& Slocum, R. B. (2000). An Episcopal dictionary of the Church: A user friendly reference for Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing.

13 Reverend A. H. Vinton was a zealous leader of the Episcopalian Church, committed to evangelization and learning. He was the president of the first Church Congress in 1874.

14 “Sermon XX, The destined superiority of the Negro. A Thanksgiving Discourse, 1877, Isiah 67, 7” Crummell, A. (1882). The Greatness of Christ and Other Sermons. (pp. 344-352). New York: T. Whitaker. Jean Blackwell Hutson Research and Reference Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

15 Founded by the American Missionary Association, Methodist Episcopal Church in the 1860s to increase education opportunities for freed blacks in the South, including men women and children by establishing schools and colleges for southern Blacks.

16 The speech was given in New Jersey. Alexander Crummell papers 1837-1898 Collection, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture

17 Crummell, A. (1862). The future of Africa: being addresses, sermons, etc., etc., delivered in the Republic of Liberia. Alexander Crummell papers 1837-1898 Collection, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

18 Crummell, "The Progress and Prospects of the Republic of Liberia, speech delivered at the Annual Meeting of the New York State Colonization Society, New York, on May 9th, 1861. Alexander Crummell papers 1837-1898 Collection, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

Appiah, A. (1990). Alexander Crummell and the invention of Africa. The Massachusetts Review, 31(3), 385-406.

Brown, C. (1968). Christocentric Liberalism in the Episcopal Church. Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 37(1), 5-38. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/42973199

Crummell, A. (1882). The Greatness of Christ and Other Sermons. New York: T. Whitaker

Crummell, A. (1882). The Greatness of Christ, and Other Sermons. [With an Introduction by Thomas M. Clark, Bishop of Rhode Island, and with a Portrait.]. Thomas Whittaker.

Crummell, A. (1891). Africa and America: Addresses and discourses. New York: Negro Universities Press.


CRUMMELL

Alexander Crummell was born in New York. His father was a freed slave, reputedly an African prince brought from Africa to work for wealthy merchant in the city, and his mother was a free-born woman from Long Island. It is not known where in Africa their families originated. Although Crummell’s father was illiterate, his parents had aspirations for their five children and in the 1820s the young Alexander attended one of the African Free Schools, primary schools set up by New York abolitionists to educate the children of freed slaves. There he was encouraged by an Englishman called Charles Andrews, a stern disciplinarian.

Many #black children left formal education at about 14 to begin work in lowly paid trades, though Crummell’s classmates were a gifted generation: one became a teacher, one a doctor, and several became ministers. Against all the odds, Crummell and two black friends were awarded places at a secondary school in New Hampshire. The local community was outraged the school was attacked, the school house was dragged into a swamp and its three black students were driven out of town.

“Although #slavery had been abolished in the Northern states of the US, prejudice and discrimination had not, and antislavery opinions were often unpopular. Crummell and his friend Henry Highland Garnet had spoken at a public antislavery meeting, and this may have inflamed the tensions in the town. The experience was deeply shocking, but Crummell and his friends persevered, moving on to a more productive experience at a school in New York,” said Meer.

Crummell and his family embraced the Episcopal Church. This was significant because it opened connections with Anglicans in Britain, and particularly because the church had strong roots in 19th-century Cambridge. The Episcopal connection would later smooth Crummell’s own path to Cambridge. If he had been a Methodist or a Presbyterian, like many of his classmates, he would not have been able to take a Cambridge degree. He also had a brilliant intellect and formidable determination. But these qualities alone would not have been enough to propel him to university and provide him with the resources he needed to complete a degree. Crummell would win powerful mentors and sponsors in Britain who arranged preparatory tuition and secured the offer of a place at Queens’ College.

Despite his intelligence, steely determination and connections, Crummell’s path to becoming a minister was far from easy: he was denied admission to the General Theological Seminary in New York and given only unofficial access to classes at Yale Theological Seminar. Eventually he was ordained, and in 1848 came to Britain to raise funds for his New York church. A group of British evangelicals arranged to sponsor him at Cambridge, organising preparatory training and an interview at Queens’ College, where he joined much younger students as a 30-year-old man, with a wife and three children.

Crummell’s time at Cambridge came at a low point in terms of what the university offered its students. Like others, Crummell would have had scant teaching and would have supplemented lectures with private coaching. Students (men only until 1869) were presumed to be Anglicans and were ranked by the strata of society they came from. Noblemen, fellow commoners, pensioners and sizars wore different gowns, paid different fees and had different rights. Crummell was a pensioner – one rank up from the sizars who waited on richer students.

Cambridge was, however, an important centre for the anti-slavery movement. Thomas Clarkson and William Wilberforce both studied at Cambridge – they were influenced among others by the abolitionist Master of Magdalene, Peter Peckard. Their legacy made Cambridge a receptive environment and Crummell held the university in high regard, writing in 1847 that “perhaps no seat of learning in the world… has done more for human liberty and human well-being than this institution”.

Many African-American travellers to Britain at the time commented that there was less overt prejudice in Britain than in the US, and certainly it must have been a relief to get away from the overt segregation of facilities Americans called ‘Jim Crow laws’. But there were also examples of patronising, thoughtless, and even hostile reactions.

Archives of church records and correspondence portray Crummell as a complex, and tricky, character, and his story embodies many contradictions. Despite his passionate championship of black potential, he could see no virtues in traditional African cultures. He made sure that his two daughters received higher education – yet he seems to have treated his first wife with cruel disdain.

“Crummell may have been influenced by the distant and authoritarian teacher and patron figures he encountered as a child, and he was certainly embittered by repeated rejection, as a student, as a priest in training, and later in the posts he applied for. He was touchy with colleagues and dictatorial with his family and congregations. And yet, by the end of his life, the younger writer WEB Du Bois was holding up Crummell as an example of grace and forgiveness,” said Meer.

In Cambridge, Crummell seems to have been a minor celebrity. He met prejudice, but also affection, and deep sympathy when his four-year old son died in an accident. He also remained active outside his studies, working as a curate in Ipswich, and giving antislavery lectures all over the country. On leaving Cambridge he spent nearly 20 years in Liberia as churchman and teacher. He was one of the first professors at Liberia College, which is now the University of Liberia. On a trip back to New York in 1861, Crummell was greeted by the black paper, the Anglo-African, with the headline ‘A Hearty Welcome Home’, and the paper carefully noted that he was ‘BA of Cambridge University, England’. For a black man, and one of humble origins, to have studied at Cambridge was remarkable and sent a signal to others that top institutions like Cambridge were not utterly beyond reach.

Meer said: “Crummell’s significance, politically and historically, lies in his championship of education, his commitment to freedom and his opposition to materialism. His writing on the value of higher education would not look out of place in today’s debates about whether a degree benefits just an individual or a whole society. In today’s environment his views on Christianising Africa would appear Eurocentric and colonialist – yet he made a significant contribution to the development of Liberia, and what he would have called ‘the elevation of his race’.”


Alexander Crummell

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Alexander Crummell, (born 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 10/12, 1898, Point Pleasant?, N.J.), American scholar and Episcopalian minister, founder of the American Negro Academy (1897), the first major learned society for African Americans. As a religious leader and an intellectual, he cultivated scholarship and leadership among young blacks.

Crummell, born to the son of an African prince and a free mother, attended an interracial school at Canaan, N.H., and an institute in Whitesboro, N.Y., which was run by abolitionists and combined manual labour and the classical curriculum. Denied admission to the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal church in 1839 because of his race, Crummell studied theology privately and became an Episcopalian minister in 1844. He journeyed to England about 1848 to raise funds for a church for poor blacks and soon thereafter began a course of study at Queen’s College, Cambridge (A.B., 1853).

Upon graduation, Crummell went to Liberia as a missionary. He spent the next 20 years there as a parish rector, professor of intellectual and moral science at Liberia College, and public figure. He became a citizen of the new republic and a strong proponent of Liberian nationalism. Throughout his life he would continue to urge the Christianization and civilization of Africa by skilled, educated blacks from all over the world.

Crummell returned to the United States about 1873 and founded and served as pastor of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C. A spokesperson for blacks looking for greater recognition in the church, he led the Conference of Church Workers Among Colored People in 1883. After his 1894 retirement from the ministry, he taught at Howard University (1895–97) and founded the American Negro Academy, which promoted the publication of scholarly work dealing with African American culture and history. Notable members included W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Laurence Dunbar.

In his early years, Crummell was an outspoken advocate for the abolition of slavery and the removal of legal restrictions on black Americans. He fought for the right to vote and recommended the establishment of African American schools. Late in his career, he wrote and lectured widely against the increasingly entrenched racism of post-Reconstruction America, appealing to educated blacks to provide leadership.

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Amy Tikkanen, bestuurder van korreksies.


The Souls of Black Folk Summary and Analysis of "Of Alexander Crummell"

In this chapter, Du Bois chronicles the life of Alexander Crummell. Alexander Crummell is a black man who begins to struggle with life at a very early age. Initially, he faces hate. Then, he is faced with despair, and finally, in his old age, he faces doubt. Du Bois first encounters Crummell at a commencement ceremony at Wilberforce. He was immediately attracted to Crummell because of his finesse, calmness, courtesy, and sweetness. After meeting him, Du Bois follows Crummell throughout his life and provides the reader with a summary of his life.

When he was very young, Crummell had attempted to attend an abolitionist school in New Hampshire. Unfortunately, the hatred of the local white people resulted in it being pushed into a swamp by oxen. It was not until Beriah Green, who had a school in Oneida, NY, and decided that he wanted to educate a black boy, that Crummell's life changed. Crummell ended up attending this white school, and thus ridding himself of the hate he had previously acquired when he lost his ability to attend the abolitionist school.

As he grew, Crummell shadowed a Christian Father. He was not content with the world or the injustices within it, and followed the calling of the priesthood. When he attempted to join the apostolic church of God, he was told that Negros were not accepted there. He blamed the world for this injustice, and decided that he would fight to get in. Unfortunately, he kept being told no and began to question his intentions Crummell did not understand why he was opening himself up to the world when it was so unjust to him. His inability to immediately join a church resulted in severe desperation. Fortunately, he was able to finally become a religious leader, and for a moment, he lost his desperation.

Crummell's congregation flourished when he began to work as a priest. After a while, however, people stopped attending church. Here, despair turned into doubt. He began to doubt the capability of the African-American race and of his own vocation. He started to believe that his congregation did not care, and he personally believed that he hard failed because of his dwindling followers. Crummell then told the local bishop that he sought a larger African-American population, and would need to go to a city like Philadelphia with an abundant African-American population.

Crummell arrived in Philadelphia with a letter from the Bishop, granting him permission to preach there. Upon meeting the Bishop in Philadelphia, however, the Bishop informed Crummell that he could not have a Negro priest in his church convention, nor could the Negro have any representation. After all of the struggles of his life, Crummell had decided that this was one he would not accept. He refused to become part of the Diocese and fled. He first went to New York, where he lived in poverty and was not accepted by priests. He gave up and went to England, and then returned to Africa. Du Bois states that the most important part of this story was that Crummell never gave up on his journey he just kept fighting.

In closing the essay, Du Bois reminds the reader that life is always difficult. However, it is always much more difficult for a black man. A very small number can overcome the struggles that Crummell faced and most give into hate, despair, and doubt. Crummell did not let any of his obstacles stop him he continued to learn, continued to preach, and continued to strive until his death.

Du Bois continues by arguing that even though very few know of the existence of Crummell, that does not mean he was unimportant. Instead, that is a clear indication of the prejudice that exists within American history. We always place weight on white American history, but fail to focus on the successes of the strong black man.

W.E.B. Du Bois uses the story of Alexander Crummell as a parallel to his own story of life. Crummell, an accomplished African-American, had struggled throughout his life, and ultimately died in poverty. While Du Bois also struggled, he reached academic fame during his lifetime. The juxtaposition of these two successful African-Americans serves to describe the intricacies of the plight of the black man.

Du Bois argues that Crummell faces three temptations throughout his life: hate, despair, and doubt. Every time he is faced with one of these temptations, he ultimately pushes them away and overcomes them. He uses these examples to demonstrate what the rest of African-American society experienced. Many African-Americans were also confronted with the temptations of hate, despair, and doubt. Their lack of faith and education, however, served to further stratify them into their positions.

In this chapter, Du Bois also states that Crummell attempts to attend school in New Hampshire, as he wanted to achieve an adequate education. According to Du Bois, New Hampshire was like the promised land of Canaan. Canaan was a place where everyone wanted to go, but it was ultimately unattainable. While Crummell does reach New Hampshire, he realizes that he cannot attend school there, because of the local racist community. Crummell, however, continues to fight for the right to achieve his education and ultimately succeeds in attaining it, albeit elsewhere.

Through Crummell's schooling and trials, he becomes more acquainted with the African-American community. He learns that African-Americans are stuck in their positions in society because they had served as slaves for so long. The Church, however, could provide the backbone necessary for them to stand up for themselves. The Church, therefore, was also a symbol of resistance to the white modern world.

Crummell, an African-American priest, eventually returns to Africa, and dies alone. Nobody really knows who he is, which upsets Du Bois. Du Bois argues that Crummell's race made it so that his many successes were rated as unnecessary and irrelevant within American society. He realizes that the sentiment towards African-Americans changes over time.


Alexander to Amma

Alexander Crummell (1819-98) was the first black person to receive a degree from the University of Cambridge and he studied at Queens&apos. He was a leading figure in the movement for the rights of black people in the United States, Britain and Africa.

He was born in New York City and educated mostly at institutions run by black clergymen and abolitionists. In 1847 he sailed to England to raise funds to build a church for his congregation in New York. However, his efforts were interrupted by illness, so that friends suggested he retire from over-work and become a student at the University of Cambridge he enrolled at Queens&apos.

He matriculated in 1849 and took his BA in 1853 (the BA course took nearly 4 years at that time).

Very little is known about his Cambridge career, except one anecdote from the very end of his time here. At the degree ceremony in the Senate House, 𠆊 boisterous individual in the gallery called out, “Three groans for the Queens’ n*****” … A pale slim undergraduate … shouted in a voice which re-echoed through the building, “Shame, shame! Three groans for you, Sir!” and immediately afterwards, “Three cheers for Crummell!”. This was taken up in all directions … and the original offender had to stoop down to hide himself from the storm of groans and hisses that broke out all around him’ (Crummell’s champion was E.W. Benson who was to become Archbishop of Canterbury). [The Life of Edward White Benson, by A.C. Benson, 1899, Vol. 1 p. 109]

Crummell is said to have been one of the finest black American writers before the twentieth century. His considerable influence as a writer, teacher of moral ideals, and opponent of racial persecution is well recognised today in the United States. He was a tireless worker for the rights of black people and constantly optimistic.

Amma Kyei-Mensah competing in the Varsity Athletics in 1983.

Amma Kyei-Mensah competing in the Varsity Athletics in 1983.

More than 100 years after Alexander Crummell left Queens&apos, the College experienced another first: the first women undergraduates arrived in 1980, and with them our first black female student, Amma Kyei-Mensah. Amma read Medicine at Queens&apos and was our first woman to be awarded a Blue, for Athletics in 1981. She later captained the University Team and still holds a hurdles record.

She is now a Consultant Obstetrician & Gynaecologist and was made an Honorary Fellow in 2018. This occasion was another first for the College, as Dr Kyei-Mensah was admitted alongside Emily Maitlis (1989), Professor Naomi Segal, Professor Dame Alison Peacock (1994), en Dr Pippa Wells (1983) as the first female Honorary Fellows of the College.

Our female Honorary Fellows shortly after their admission in the Chapel. Left to right, back row: Dr Amma Kyei-Mensah, Dr Pippa Wells, Emily Maitlis front row: Professor Naomi Segal, Professor Dame Alison Peacock. Photo credit: Ian Olsson.

Our female Honorary Fellows shortly after their admission in the Chapel. Left to right, back row: Dr Amma Kyei-Mensah, Dr Pippa Wells, Emily Maitlis front row: Professor Naomi Segal, Professor Dame Alison Peacock. Photo credit: Ian Olsson.

Into the twenty-first century.

Queens&apos has always endeavoured to build up a diverse community we aim to take the brightest and best students, regardless of background. We have a welcoming BME community at Queens&apos, who are represented in College by the JCR and MCR BME representatives, looking after undergraduate and postgraduate students respectively.

In 2015, we were very proud that a Queens&apos PhD candidate, Njoki Wamai (2012), was co-founder and first President of the Black Cantabs Research Society, which aims to uncover and preserve the legacies of black alumni at Cambridge and to place black students in the University&aposs past, present and future.

Recently, it has been announced that across the University as a whole, a record number of 137 black UK students have been admitted, the highest figure ever for the university and up 46 students on last year, which was also a record year.

Seth Daood is the JCR BME rep. this year. Hy het gesê:

& quotMy role is very variable. It involves making sure all students are represented in committee meetings, but also extends further: I am a point of reference for anyone who is struggling with settling in, or has any questions on adapting to life at Cambridge and Queens&apos due to their background. Currently this involves ensuring that BME freshers have a smooth transition to Cambridge, planning virtual events to build the BME community and creating links with BME officers across Cambridge to share resources, events and advice."

Vivek Badiani, MCR BAME rep., said:

My role as the BAME Representative for the Queens’ MCR is to communicate diversity within our MCR community with featured talks and events and to provide a point of contact for both BAME and non-BAME members who would like to discuss anything at all surrounding diversity and inclusivity, as well as any developments in current affairs.

Furthermore, together with the Fellow Librarian, we will be working to decolonise the Queens’ Library this year to ensure our College does not reinforce outdated modes of thinking related to the issues of race and diversity. My aim is to build an inclusive environment for all BAME members at Queens’ and to ensure that they are supported, involved and engaged in all facets of the wonderful life that our College has to offer.

There are a number of plans to mark Black History Month in College. The Library have put together a display of books about black history and thought across the world, with topics including the civil rights movement, the history of rap music and black feminist thought, from authors such as Paul Gilroy, Reni Eddo-Lodge and Ta-Nehisi Coates.

A number of Queens&apos societies, including the Milner Society (Natural Sciences) and the Feminist Society, are also putting together pamphlets and hosting virtual events to explore black history in their area. The LGBT+ representative for the JCR is also working on an LGBT+ x Black history pamphlet which will be distributed in College in due course.


Sister Sarah's Excellent Adventure

Today in the Episcopal Church, we remember the Rev. Alexander Crummell. Priest, scholar, missionary, abolitionist, and writer, he had the courage and tenacity to pursue his vocation in the Episcopal Church at a time when only white men were welcomed as priests. He finally found a home in the Diocese of Massachusetts and was ordained to the diaconate in 1842 and the priesthood in 1844. He earned a degree in Cambridge (UK) in 1853 while serving as a parish priest there, and continued on to work in Liberia before returning to the US. He is one of the founders of what is now the Union of Black Episcopalians.

The Rev. Alexander Crummell, 1877 - http://www.episcopalarchives.org/Afro-Anglican_history/exhibit/images/leadership/orig/crummell.jpg

http://www.episcopalarchives.org/Afro-Anglican_history/exhibit/leadership/crummell.php

The Union of Black Episcopalians offers a good biographical sketch:

From Dr. Sarah Meer, a lecturer at Cambridge University, one of Alexander Crummell's alma maters:


W.E.B. DuBois himself writes of Crummell. Here is the pertinent chapter, via YouTube audio books:


Kyk die video: The remarkable story of Alexander Crummell (November 2021).