Geskiedenis Podcasts

17 Junie 1944

17 Junie 1944

17 Junie 1944

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Wesfront

Amerikaanse troepe breek uit na die Cotentin -skiereiland

Oorlog op see

Duitse duikboot U-423 het met alle hande van die Faeroe-eilande gesink

Mediterreense

Franse troepe land op Elba

Sjina

Chinese troepe trek uit Changsha



Geskiedenis van Ysland vanaf 1944

Na 'n referendum byna eenparig ten gunste, is Ysland op 17 Junie 1944 te Þingvellir tot onafhanklike republiek verklaar. Denemarke het egter die wet wat die voorwaardes van sy persoonlike unie met Ysland uiteengesit het, tot 1950 nie herroep nie. Sedertdien kon Ysland baie van sy kulturele erfenis van Deense instellings heropneem. Visserye en kragproduksie het ekonomiese groei in Ysland beleef in die na-oorlogse era, en selfs tot in die 21ste eeu. In 2008 het 'n ernstige ekonomiese insinking egter gelei tot besparingsmaatreëls wat 'n sukses was.

Þingvellir, waar Ysland op 17 Junie 1944 tot onafhanklike republiek verklaar is, is 'n ryk historiese plek en 'n gewilde toeristebestemming. Foto: Colourbox.


17 Junie 1944

Ysland verklaar onafhanklikheid van Denemarke en word 'n republiek.

Ysland tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het by Denemarke aangesluit om neutraliteit te bevestig. Na die Duitse besetting van Denemarke op 9 April 1940 verklaar die Yslandse parlement dat die Yslandse regering die gesag van die Deense koning moet aanvaar en beheer moet neem oor buitelandse aangeleenthede en ander aangeleenthede wat voorheen deur Denemarke namens IJsland hanteer is. Beide lande is volwaardige lede van die Raad van die Baltiese See -state, die Nordiese Raad, die NAVO en die Raad van Europa. Daar woon ongeveer 18 000 Yslanders in Denemarke en 2900 Denen in Ysland.

Die verhouding tussen Ysland en Denemarke bly na die onafhanklikheid van Ysland en ná jare onafhanklik, en vir baie jare word Deens as tweede taal in Ysland onderrig, en word dit steeds vanaf die sewende graad as derde taal onderrig.

'N Maand later het die Britse weermag Ysland beset en die Yslandse neutraliteit geskend. In 1941 het die Verenigde State die verantwoordelikheid vir die besetting oorgeneem met die eerste voorlopige mariene brigade wat in die land geland het. Geallieerde besetting van Ysland het gedurende die oorlog geduur.

Op 31 Desember 1943 verval die Wet van Unie -ooreenkoms na 25 jaar. Vanaf 20 Mei 1944 het Yslanders in 'n volksraad van vier dae gestem of hulle die unie met Denemarke moet beëindig en 'n republiek wil stig. Die stemme was 97% ten gunste van die beëindiging van die vakbond en 95% ten gunste van die nuwe republikeinse grondwet. Ysland het op 17 Junie 1944 formeel 'n onafhanklike republiek geword, met Sveinn Björnsson as die eerste president.


17 Junie 1944 - Geskiedenis

Oorspronklike lugdatum — 27 Februarie 1974. Die ontwikkeling en uitvoering van Operation Overlord gevolg deur die geallieerde uitbreek en gevegte by Bocage en Falaise. Ondervraers sluit in Lord Mountbatten van Birma, Kay Summersby, James Martin Stagg en generaal -majoor J. Lawton Collins.

Dokumentêre beskrywing

THE WORLD AT WAR (1973)

The World at War is 'n 26-episode televisiedokumentêre reeks oor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die gebeure wat gelei het tot en onmiddellik daarna. Dit is vervaardig deur Jeremy Isaacs, vertel deur Laurence Olivier en die partituur daarvan is saamgestel deur Carl Davis. 'N Boek, The World at War, is deur Mark Arnold-Forster geskryf om dit te vergesel.

Die reeks is in 1969 deur Thames Television in opdrag geneem. Dit was diepte van sy navorsing, dit het vier jaar geneem om dit te vervaardig teen 'n prys van £ 900 000 (2006 ekwivalent: £ 10,9 miljoen [1]). Destyds was dit 'n rekord vir 'n Britse televisiereeks. Dit is die eerste keer in 1973 op ITV vertoon.

Die reeks het onderhoude gevoer met vooraanstaande lede van die Allied- en Axis -veldtogte, waaronder ooggetuieverslae van burgerlikes, mans, beamptes en politici, waaronder Albert Speer, Karl Dönitz, Walter Warlimont, Jimmy Stewart, Bill Mauldin, Curtis LeMay, Lord Mountbatten van Birma, Alger Hiss, Toshikazu Kase, Mitsuo Fuchida, Minoru Genda, JB Priestley, Brian Horrocks, John J. McCloy, Lawrence Durrell, Arthur Harris, Charles Sweeney, Paul Tibbets, Anthony Eden, Traudl Junge en historikus Stephen Ambrose.

In die program The Making of "The World at War", wat in die DVD -stel ingesluit is, verduidelik Jeremy Issacs dat onderhoude met oorlewende hulpverleners en assistente voorkeur geniet, eerder as erkende figure. Die moeilikste persoon om op te spoor en te oorreed om ondervra te word, was adjudant van Heinrich Himmler, Karl Wolff. Tydens die onderhoud erken hy dat hy getuie was van 'n grootskaalse teregstelling in die teenwoordigheid van Himmler.

Dit word dikwels beskou as die definitiewe televisiegeskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sommige beskou dit as die beste voorbeeld van die dokumentêre vorm. Dit bevat ook skaars kleurfilms van sommige van die oorlog se gebeure.

In 'n lys van die 100 grootste Britse televisieprogramme wat deur die British Film Institute in 2000 opgestel is, waarvoor professionele persone in die bedryf gestem het, was The World at War op die 19de plek.

DIE WORRELD IN OORLOG
Episodes

Episode 1: 'n Nuwe Duitsland: 1933-1939
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash31 Oktober 1973. Die opkoms van die Nazi's in Duitsland en Duitse territoriale winste voor die uitbreek van die oorlog. Ondervraers sluit in Werner Pusch en Christabel Bielenberg.
Episode 2: Verre oorlog: September 1939-Mei 1940
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash7 November 1973. Die Duitse en Sowjet -invalle van Pole, die Winteroorlog, die sink van die Graf Spee en Brittanje se apatie tydens die "valse oorlog" tot die nederlaag van Brittanje in sy eerste militêre betrokkenheid by Duitse landmagte in Noorweë, wat gelei het tot die opkoms van Winston Churchill. Ondervraers sluit in Lord Boothby, Lord Butler, admiraal Charles Woodhouse, sir Martin Lindsay en sir John "Jock" Colville.
Aflevering 3: France Falls: Mei-Junie 1940
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash14 November 1973. Frankryk in fermentasie, die Maginot Line, Blitzkrieg -oorlogvoering en die Nazi -inval in Frankryk en die Lae Lande. Ondervraers sluit in generaal Hasso von Manteuffel en generaal André Beaufre.
Aflevering 4: Alleen: Mei 1940-Mei 1941
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash21 November 1973. Die Slag van Brittanje, terugtogte in Griekeland, Kreta en Tobruck, en lewe in Brittanje tussen die ontruiming in Duinkerken en Operasie Barbarossa. Ondervraers sluit in Anthony Eden, J.B. Priestley, sir Max Aitken, luitenant -generaal Adolf Galland en sir John "Jock" Colville.
Aflevering 5: Barbarossa: Junie-Desember 1941
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash28 November 1973 . Nadat Duitsland suidoos -Europa oorheers het deur geweld of intrige, begin Duitsland met die massiewe inval in die Sowjetunie. Ondanks 'n reeks blitsoorwinnings, stop die inval uiteindelik na 'n mislukte aanval op Moskou in die harde winter van Rusland. Ondervraers sluit in generaal Walter Warlimont, Albert Speer, Paul Schmidt en W. Averell Harriman.
Afdeling 6: Banzai! Japan: 1931-1942
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash5 Desember 1973. Die opkoms van die Japanse Ryk, die Sino-Japannese oorlog, Pearl Harbor en die vroeë Japannese suksesse, en die val van Malaya en van Singapoer.
Aflevering 7: On Our Way: U.S.A. - 1939-1942
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash12 Desember 1973. Verset deur verskeie faksies teen die toetrede tot die Verenigde State van Amerika, aanvalle op U-boot op Atlantiese konvooie en Amerika se gegradueerde reaksies, die mobilisering van Amerika na Pearl Harbor, die val van die Filippyne, die Doolittle Raid, Midway en Guadalcanal. Ondervraers sluit in John Kenneth Galbraith, John J. McCloy, Paul Samuelson, Isamu Noguchi, Richard Tregaskis en Vannevar Bush.
Aflevering 8: The Desert: North Africa - 1940-1943
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash19 Desember 1973. Die woestynoorlog, begin met die onsuksesvolle inval van Italië in Egipte en die opeenvolgende aanvalle en teenaanvalle tussen Duitsland en die Gemenebest-magte, en die uiteindelike nederlaag van die Afrika Korps by El Alamein. Ondervraers sluit in generaal Richard O'Connor, generaal -majoor Francis de Guingand en Lawrence Durrell.
Aflevering 9: Stalingrad: Junie 1942-Februarie 1943
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash2 Januarie 1974. Die Duitse situasie in die middel-oorlog in Suid-Rusland wat gelei het tot die Slag van Stalingrad en ndash en sy uiteindelike Duitse katastrofe.
Aflevering 10: Wolf Pack: U-Boats in the Atlantic-1939-1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash9 Januarie 1974. Die duikbootoorlog wat hoofsaaklik op die Noord -Atlantiese Oseaan fokus. Volg die ontwikkeling van die konvooi -stelsel en die Duitse duikbootstrategie. Ondervraers sluit in groot -admiraal Karl Dönitz en Otto Kretschmer.
Aflevering 11: Red Star: The Soviet Union - 1941-1943
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash16 Januarie 1974. Die opkoms van die Rooi Leër, mobilisering van Sowjet -produksie, die beleg van Leningrad, die Sowjet -partisane en die Slag van Koersk.
Aflevering 12: Wervelwind: bombardering van Duitsland - September 1939 - April 1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash23 Januarie 1974. Die ontwikkeling van Britse en Amerikaanse strategiese bombardemente in sukses en terugslag. Ondervraers sluit in maarskalk sir Arthur Harris, Albert Speer, James Stewart, William Reid, generaal Curtis LeMay, Werner Schröer, luitenant -generaal Adolf Galland en generaal Ira C. Eaker.
Aflevering 13: Tough Old Gut: Italië - November 1942 -Junie 1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash30 Januarie 1974. Fokus op die moeilike Italiaanse veldtog wat begin met Operation Torch in Noord -Afrika, die inval in Sicilië Salerno, Anzio, Cassino en die verowering van Rome. Ondervraers sluit in generaal Mark Wayne Clark, veldmaarskalk Lord Harding, Bill Mauldin en Wynford Vaughan Thomas.
Aflevering 14: Dis 'n heerlike dag môre: Birma - 1942-1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash6 Februarie 1974. Die oerwoudoorlog in Birma en Indië - wat dit "in skaal ontbreek het, bestaan ​​uit wreedheid". Ondervraers sluit in Mike Calvert, Sir John Smyth en Vera Lynn (die titel van die episode is die naam van een van haar liedjies) en Lord Mountbatten van Birma.
Aflevering 15: Home Fires: Brittanje - 1940-1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash13 Februarie 1974. Lewe en politiek in Brittanje vanaf die na-Slag van Brittanje tot die eerste V-1 aanvalle. Ondervraers sluit in Lord Butler, Lord Shinwell, Lord Chandos, Tom Driberg, Michael Foot, Cecil Harmsworth King en J.B. Priestley.
Aflevering 16: Inside the Reich: Germany - 1940-1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash20 Februarie 1974. Die Duitse samelewing en hoe dit verander namate sy lot in die oorlog omgekeer word. Sensuur en gewilde vermaak, die transformasie van die Duitse nywerheid, die werwing van vroulike en buitelandse arbeid, geallieerde bombardemente, Duitse meningsverskil - insluitend die plot van 20 Julie en die mobilisering van die Volkssturm teen die einde van die oorlog. Ondervraers sluit in Albert Speer, Otto John, Traudl Junge, Richard Schulze-Kossens en Otto Ernst Remer (Engelse vertaling deur Lawrence Olivier).
Afdeling 17: Oggend: Junie-Augustus 1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash27 Februarie 1974. Die ontwikkeling en uitvoering van Operation Overlord gevolg deur die geallieerde uitbreek en gevegte by Bocage en Falaise. Ondervraers sluit in Lord Mountbatten van Birma, Kay Summersby, James Martin Stagg en generaal -majoor J. Lawton Collins.
Aflevering 18: Beroep: Holland - 1940-1944
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash13 Maart 1974. Fokus op die lewe in Nederland onder Duitse besetting, toe burgers besluit het om te weerstaan, saam te werk of hul kop onder die kop te hou. Ondervraers sluit in Louis de Jong (wat ook as adviseur vir hierdie episode gedien het) en prins Bernhard van Nederland.
Episode 19: Pincers: Augustus 1944-Maart 1945
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash20 Maart 1974. Die geallieerde uitbreek in Frankryk en die terugslag by Arnhem, die Opstand van Warskou, die Slag van die Bulge en die kruising van die Ryn. Ondervraers sluit in luitenant -generaal Brian Horrocks, Wynford Vaughan Thomas, generaal Hasso von Manteuffel, generaal -majoor Francis de Guingand, W. Averell Harriman en generaal -majoor J. Lawton Collins.
Episode 20: Volksmoord: 1941-1945
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash27 Maart 1974. Begin met die stigting van die S.S. en volg die ontwikkeling van die Duitse rasseteorie. Dit eindig met die implementering van die finale oplossing.
Aflevering 21: Nemesis: Duitsland - Februarie -Mei 1945
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash3 April 1974. Die laaste inval in Duitsland deur beide die Westerse en Oosterse bondgenote, die ontknoping by Dresden en die gebeure in die Führerbunker. Ondervraers sluit in Albert Speer, Traudl Junge en Heinz Linge.
Aflevering 22: Japan: 1941-1945
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash10 April 1974. Japan se samelewing en kultuur tydens oorlogstyd, en hoe die lewe verander word namate die land geleidelik bewus word van toenemend katastrofiese terugslae, waaronder die Doolittle -aanval, nederlaag in Midway, die dood van Isoroku Yamamoto, die Slag van Saipan en die meedoënlose bomaanvalle op Japannese stede.
Afdeling 23: Stille Oseaan: Februarie 1942-Julie 1945
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash17 April 1974. Die opeenvolgende en steeds bloediger landgevegte op klein eilande in die uitgestrekte Stille Oseaan, gemik op die Japanse hartland. Na die bombardement op Darwin word die te uitgebreide Japannese geleidelik teruggedraai na Kokoda, Tarawa, Peleilu, die Filippyne, Iwo Jima en uiteindelik Okinawa.
Aflevering 24: Die bom: Februarie-September 1945
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash24 April 1974. Die ontwikkeling van die atoombom, die opkoms van president Harry Truman, opkomende kloof in die Geallieerdes met Joseph Stalin, en die atoombomaanvalle op Hiroshima en Nagasaki, wat uiteindelik tot die oorgawe van Japan lei. Ondervraers sluit in Toshikazu Kase, Yoshio Kodama, Marquis Koichi Kido, generaal -majoor Charles Sweeney, brigadier -generaal Paul Tibbets, Alger Hiss, W. Averell Harriman, Lord Avon, McGeorge Bundy, John J. McCloy, generaal Curtis LeMay en Hisatsune Sakomizu. Na die gebeure vanaf die dood van die Amerikaanse president Roosevelt tot die val van die twee bomme op Hiroshima en Nagasaki wat Japan se oorgawe tot gevolg gehad het.
Episode 25: Rekening: 1945. en daarna
Oorspronklike Air Date & mdash1 Mei 1974. Die situasie in die naoorlogse Europa, insluitend die geallieerde besetting van Duitsland, demobilisasie, die Nurenburg-verhore en die ontstaan ​​van die Koue Oorlog. Die episode word afgesluit met opsommings oor die uiteindelike koste en gevolge van die oorlog. Ondervraers sluit in Charles Bohlen, Stephen Ambrose, Lord Avon, Lord Mountbatten van Birma en Noble Frankland.
Aflevering 26: Onthou
Original Air Date & mdash8 Mei 1974. Hoe die oorlog - goeie sowel as slegte ervarings - deur sy getuies beleef en onthou is.

Produk Beskrywing , van Amazon.com
Hierdie kenmerkende onvergelykbare herinnering aan die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bevat seldsame onderhoude met ongelooflike argiefmateriaal van veterane en oorlewendes en verkoelende vertelling deur sir Laurence Olivier. Studio: A & e Home Video -vrystellingsdatum: 24/08/2004 Tydsduur: 1199 minute

Sir Jeremy Isaacs verdien die talle toekennings vir dokumentêre films wat hy verdien het: die Desmond Davis -toekenning van die Royal Television Society, l'Ordre National du Mérit, 'n Emmy en 'n ridderskap van koningin Elizabeth II. Sy epiese The World at War bly onoortreflik as die definitiewe visuele geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was op duisende maniere anders as ander oorloë, een daarvan was die ongeëwenaarde omvang van visuele dokumente wat die as en bondgenote van al hul aktiwiteite bewaar het. As gevolg hiervan word hierdie oorlog net so goed verstaan ​​deur geskrewe geskiedenis as deur sy kragtige beelde. Die Nazi's was veral deeglik om selfs die afskuwelikste van die gruweldade wat hulle begaan het, te dokumenteer-in 'n verrassende hoeveelheid kleurmateriaal. The World at War was een van die eerste televisiedokumentêre wat hierdie hulpbronne so volledig benut het, en het kykers 'n ongelooflike visuele gids gegee vir die grootste gebeurtenis in die 20ste eeu. Dit is niks om te sê van die uitstekende, verstaanbare vertelling nie. Enkele hoogtepunte:

* 'N Nuwe Duitsland 1933-39: vroeë Duitse en Nazi-dokumentasie van Hitler se bewind aan bewind deur die dreigende aanval op Pole
* Stormwind: die vroeë Britse verliese in die blits in die lug oor Brittanje en in Noord -Afrika
* Stalingrad: die keerpunt van die oorlog en Duitsland se eerste nederlaag
* Inside the Reich-Duitsland 1940-44: een van die mees fassinerende dokumentêre films wat bestaan ​​in Nazi-Duitsland, van Lebensborn tot die Hitler-jeug
* Oggend: voor Saving Private Ryan, een van die enigste onromantiese uitsigte oor die inval in Normandië
* Volksmoord: hierdie film is een van die bekendste inleidings tot die Holocaust
* Japan 1941-45: hoewel The World at War beslis meer op die Europese teater gefokus is, is dit 'n belangrike blik op die oorlog in Japan en die uitbreiding daarvan-die vroeë 20ste-eeuse geskiedenis wat tot die rol van Japan in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gelei het, is oppervlakkig
* Die bom: nog 'n wyd vertoonde dokumentêr van die Manhattan -projek, die Enola Gay, Hiroshima en Nagasaki

The World at War sal die definitiewe visuele geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bly, soortgelyk aan Gibbon se verval en val van die Romeinse Ryk. Geen ernstige historikus mag The World at War in 'n versameling ontbreek nie, en geen student mag die skool verlaat sonder dat hy ten minste 'n paar van die belangrikste episodes daarvan gesien het nie. Selde is film so noodsaaklik. --Erik J. Macki

Bron: Amazon.com / Essential Video, redaksionele resensies

RESENSIE , van Amazon.com

440 van 446 mense vind die volgende resensie nuttig:
5.0 uit 5 sterre Sonder twyfel. die beste. 10 Januarie 2002
Deur Charles W. Adams (Adel, Iowa, VSA)

As ons aanneem dat 'n filmmaker nie vir ewig kan voortgaan nie, laat ons sê dat ons 'n geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in honderd of meer ure se videoband gemaak het, het Jeremy Isaacs 'n meesterlike taak verrig om die essensie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vas te lê, insluitend die oorsake daarvan en die koue Oorlog wat uit die gevolgtrekking gekom het.

Let daarop dat "The World At War" tussen 1971 en 1974 vervaardig is, wat beteken dat die onderhoude met veterane en ander oorlogsoorlewendes naby dertig jaar na die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verfilm is.

Ek het baie van hierdie reekse gekyk toe dit in die sewentigerjare die eerste keer op televisie uitgesaai is, en ek het die afgelope 25+ jaar herhalings van programme gesien. Ek het gedink dat ek elke episode twee of drie keer gesien het, maar nadat ek die volledige DVD-versameling voltooi het, is ek redelik seker dat ek sommige programme heeltemal gemis het en net stukkies van ander gesien het.

Wat 'n geweldige produksie. Pragtig weergegee op DVD, met uitstekende kleur en uitstekende grafika (kaarte).

Ek het veral die openingsgeskenk "The Making of." Met die vervaardiger Jeremy Isaacs waardeer, asook die kort inleiding van Isaacs tot elk van die 26 programme. Ek wens net dat hy soortgelyke inleidings vir die aanvullende materiaal op skyfies 4 en 5 voorberei het, maar jy kan nie alles hê nie.

"The World At War" is honderd keer beter as die tipiese tarief wat op A&E, The History Channel en selfs PBS gevind word. Dit wil nie sê dat daar vandag nie kwaliteitproduksies gemaak word nie, maar die produksie van Jeremy Isaacs is eenvoudig beter as die meeste van die gereelde dokumentêre programme op kabel- en televisie -uitsendings.

Spesiale melding moet gemaak word van die musiek deur Carl Davis en die skrywers, wat te veel is om op te noem. Almal wat vertroud is met hierdie reeks ken die bydrae van sir Laurence Olivier, beslis die beste dokumentêre vertelling wat ek nog ooit gehoor het.

As Amerikaner waardeer ek veral die Britse perspektief, wat 'n ander blik bied op die asem, omvang en afgryse van die oorlog. Die reeks stel die huidige War on Terrorism werklik in perspektief.

Die aanvullende materiaal begin met 'n uitgebreide onderhoud/kommentaar deur Traudl Junge, wat as Hitler se sekretaris gedien het. Sy is 'n fassinerende persoon wat rustig en bedagsaam praat oor haar voormalige werkgewer, veral die gebeure wat gelei het tot sy selfmoord.

Daar is 'n ewe interessante onderhoud met die historikus Stephen Ambrose, wat in die vroeë sewentigerjare verfilm is. Terwyl hy 25+ jaar jonger lyk, klink Ambrose byna dieselfde as wat hy vandag doen tydens sy talle C-Span en PBS optredes.

Die mees fassinerende van die agt uur aanvullende materiaal is die programme wat handel oor die dood van Adolf Hitler en die uitgebreide tweeledige ondersoek van die finale oplossing.


Operasie Overlord, Junie 1944

Een van my grootouers was in die landings, en selfs om te dink wat hy gedurende daardie tyd moes deurgemaak het, is oorweldigend.

Operasie Overlord, 1944

Met vergunning van U.S. Coast Guard Collection in die Amerikaanse nasionale argief

Middel Junie 1944, fotograaf onbekend

Onderskrif lui, & quotLandende skepe wat vrag aan wal plaas op Omaha -strand. 'n Panoramiese uitsig op die Omaha-strandkop nadat dit teen middel-Junie 1944 teen laagwater beveilig is. Die LST-262 wat deur die kuswag beman is, is die derde LST wat regs gestrand is, een van die tien kuswagbemande LST's wat deelgeneem het aan die inval in Normandië, Frankryk, in Junie 1944. Onder identifiseerbare skepe is LST-532 (in middel van die aansig) USS LST-262 (3de LST van regs) USS LST-310 (2de LST van regs) USS LST-533 (gedeeltelik sigbaar heel regs) en USS LST-524. Let op sperballonne bo-op en Army & quothalf-track & quot konvooi wat op die strand vorm. Die LST-262 was een van die tien kuswagbemande LST's wat deelgeneem het aan die inval in Normandië, Frankryk.

Ek is 'n bietjie laat met hierdie een. Die byskrif is redelik vanselfsprekend, maar die konteks van die beeld is geneem tydens Operasie Overlord, ook bekend as die Slag van Normandië, waar die geallieerde magte suksesvol deur Duits-besette Wes-Europa ingeval het. Vanaf die 6 Junie - 'D -dag' - het die geallieerde magte binne drie maande meer as drie miljoen troepe ontplooi nadat hulle in Normandië hul vastrapplek gekry het, met hierdie spesifieke skoot wat middel Junie geneem is toe die geallieerde magte Omaha se strand suksesvol geneem het. Operasie Overlord eindig op 30 Augustus 1944 na die geallieerde bevryding van Parys.


17 Junie 2021 is 'n Donderdag. Dit is die 168ste dag van die jaar en in die 24ste week van die jaar (as elke week op 'n Maandag begin), of die 2de kwartaal van die jaar. Daar is 30 dae in hierdie maand. 2021 is nie 'n skrikkeljaar nie, dus is daar 365 dae in hierdie jaar. Die kort vorm vir hierdie datum wat in die Verenigde State gebruik word, is 17/06/2021, en byna oral in die wêreld is dit 17/6/2021.

Hierdie webwerf bied 'n aanlyn -sakrekenaar om u te help om die verskil in die aantal dae tussen twee kalenderdatums te vind. Voer eenvoudig die begin- en einddatum in om die duur van enige gebeurtenis te bereken. U kan ook hierdie instrument gebruik om te bepaal hoeveel dae verloop het sedert u verjaardag, of om die tyd te meet tot u baba se vervaldatum is. Die berekeninge gebruik die Gregoriaanse kalender, wat in 1582 geskep is en later in 1752 deur Brittanje en die oostelike deel van die huidige Verenigde State aanvaar is. Vir die beste resultate, gebruik datums na 1752 of verifieer enige data as u genealogiese navorsing doen. Historiese kalenders het baie variasies, insluitend die antieke Romeinse kalender en die Juliaanse kalender. Skrikkeljare word gebruik om die kalenderjaar by die sterrekundige jaar te pas. As u probeer om die datum wat binne X dae van vandag af voorkom, uit te vind, skakel oor na die Sakrekenaar vir dae van nou af in plaas daarvan.


Annette Gordon-Reed oor die geskiedenis en betekenis van Juneteenth (17 Junie 2021)

Show op Donderdag: Ons kry die nuutste nuus oor die snikhete weer en die potensiaal hierdie naweek vir 'n weerstoornis in die kloof, en die Pulitzer-pryswenner-historikus Annette Gordon-Reed bespreek haar boek On Juneteenth.

Luister

Gebruik hierdie kode om hierdie klankstuk op u webwerf in te sluit:

Donderdag Houston Matters: Eric Berger van Space City Weer updates oor die snikhete weer en die potensiaal hierdie naweek vir 'n weerstoornis in die Golf van Mexiko wat reën hier bring, of meer waarskynlik, oos van hier.

Ook hierdie uur: die historiese historikus Annette Gordon-Reed van die Pulitzerprys, wat in Groot-Houston grootgeword het, bespreek haar boek On Juneteenth. Daarin besin sy oor die geskiedenis en betekenis van die dag en hoe haar eie familie dit gevier het.

MEER: Annette Gordon-Reed sal die gas wees op Vrydag se uitgawe van Town Square met Ernie Manouse om 15:00, en sy sal op Maandag 21 Junie om 19:00 'n lewendige geleentheid saam met Inprint Houston deelneem.

Dan beantwoord Meg Tapp van The Garden Club of Houston u vrae.

En met Vadersdag Sondag praat drie seuns van bekende vaders oor hul vaders.


Hierdie dag in die weergeskiedenis: 17 Junie

Op hierdie datum is ses geskatte F2 of groter tornado's opgespoor oor Faulk, Codington, Brown, Day, Grant en Roberts County in Suid -Dakota sowel as Big Stone in Minnesota. Die eerste tornado het omstreeks 15:30 CST in Faulk County geval. Hierdie geraamde F2 -tornado het alle geboue behalwe die huis op 'n plaas 7 myl noordoos van Faulkton vernietig. Die volgende tornado het om 16:00 CST in Codington County plaasgevind, waar skure vernietig is. Beeste en 'n vragmotor is in Grass Lake, naby Wallace, gegooi. Ongeveer dieselfde tyd, in Brown County, het 'n tornado noordoos van net noordoos van Warner beweeg en die stad Bath oorgesteek. Hierdie storm het twee mense doodgemaak en nog twaalf beseer. 'N Egpaar is dood toe die huis vernietig is. Twintig huise in Bath is beskadig. Die boonste verhaal van 'n baksteenskool is afgebreek. 'N Ander tornado het om 16:45 CST deur Codington County beweeg en drie gedood en vyf en twintig gewond. Hierdie tornado van F4 sterkte het noordoos van twee myl noordoos van Henry beweeg, oor Long Lake gegaan en 2 myl noordwes van Florence geëindig. Die tregter is beskryf as slangagtig oor Long Lake en massief terwyl dit deur vyf plase suidwes van Florence geslinger het. Meer as 100 beeste is doodgemaak en ongeveer 'n dosyn huise is vernietig. In Day County het 'n geskatte F2 noordwaarts beweeg van 4 myl suid van Webster en eindig 2 myl noordoos van Roslyn. Hierdie storm het twee myl oos van Webster verby gegaan waar skure vernietig is en vee op 'n halfdosyn plase doodgemaak is. Om 17:15 CST het 'n monster van 'n storm noordoos van 5 myl suid van Summit beweeg, 3 myl suid van Wilmot verby en ongeveer 3 myl oos van Beardsley, Minnesota. Hierdie massiewe tornado het 'n geskatte breedte van 1500 meter en het 30 myl afgelê. Langs die pad is agt mense dood en nog drie-en-veertig beseer. Plaasverwoesting suidwes en suid van Wilmot was so volledig as wat dit kon wees, aangesien sommige plase na bewering sonder puin op die eiendom gelaat is. Ongeveer 15 plase in Suid-Dakota het F3-F5-skade aangemeld. Vanaf hierdie dag het die Rooi Kruis 13 dood en 560 mense beseer in die staat.

17 Junie 2010:

Hierdie dag sal afgeneem word as die dag met die grootste tornado-totaal van een dag in die geskiedenis van Minnesota. Die 3 EF4 -tornado's in Minnesota was die eerste tornado's EF4 of sterker in hierdie toestand sedert die Granite Falls -tornado op 25 Julie 2000. Hierdie uitbraak het die grootste aantal tornado's op 'n dag in Minnesota opgelewer sedert die Swart Sondag -tornado -uitbraak op 30 April 1967. Dit was die eerste EF4 -tornado in Freeborn County sedert die Swart Sondag -uitbraak in die VSA sedert die & quotSuper Tuesday Outbreak & quot op 5-6 Februarie 2008. Die aantal tornado-sterftes (4) op hierdie dag was die hoogste in Minnesota sedert 5 Julie 1978. Klik HIER vir 'n NWS-opsomming.

U.S.A en Global Events op 17 Junie:

1946: Die derde dodelikste tornado in die Kanadese geskiedenis tref suidwestelike Ontario van Windsor na Tecumseh. 17 mense is dood en honderde beseer. Skade is konserwatief op $ 1,5 miljoen geraam.

2009: 'N Tornado wat 'n huis gelyk maak, maak kragpale om en stoot ongeveer 'n dosyn spoorwaens in Aurora, Nebraska, om. Die tornado word as EF2 beskou, met winde tussen 111 en 135 mph. Klik HIER vir meer inligting van die National Weather Service in Hastings, Nebraska.

Klik HIER vir meer hierdie dag in die weergeskiedenis van die Suidoos -streeks -klimaatsentrum.


Operasie Neptunus: Die D-Day Normandy Landings

Agtergrond

Die D-Day-inval in Normandië was genoodsaak deur die oorweldigende oorheersing van Nazi-Duitsland oor die vasteland van Europa. Soos op die onderstaande kaart gesien kan word, is elke land in Europa, afgesien van die Sowjetunie en neutrale state, verbonde aan of deur Hitler beheer.

Die gebied wat Nazi-Duitsland verteenwoordig het, het die geannekseerde Duitssprekende Tsjeggo-Slowaakse state Bohemen en Morawië (Sudetenland), Oostenryk, wat na die Anschluss aan Duitsland geannekseer is, en gebiede van Pole geannekseer. Die streke deur Duitsland of Italië beset ingesluit dié soos Noorweë, Noord -Frankryk en die Lae Lande (België en Nederland). Streke verbonde aan Duitsland of regeer deur Duitse marionetstate, insluitend streke soos Italië, wat verbonde was aan Duitsland, Vichy Frankryk, 'n marionetstaat in die suide van Frankryk, en Roemenië, Bulgarye, ens. Geallieerde lande in Europa het die Verenigde Koninkryk en sy gebiede en die Sowjetunie ingesluit. En die neutrale lande Turkye, Swede, Switserland, Ierland, Spanje en Portugal ingesluit.

Die neutraliteit van Spanje en Portugal het beteken dat Nazi -Duitsland feitlik die hele Atlantiese en Mediterreense kus van Europa beheer het. Deur dit tot sy voordeel te gebruik, het Hitler begin met die bou van 'n gekoppelde vestingketting langs die Atlantiese kus, genaamd die Atlantiese Muur. Dit sou Duitsland beskerm teen vlootaanvalle deur die VSA en die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Intussen het Hitler die vredesakkoord van Duitsland met die Sowjetunie oortree, wat Joseph Stalin daartoe gelei het dat die Geallieerdes 'n tweede, westelike front in Europa geopen het. Alhoewel Winston Churchill die versoek aanvanklik van die hand gewys het weens 'n gebrek aan mannekrag, het die Geallieerdes uiteindelik die behoefte aan 'n amfibiese aanval op Kontinentale Europa gesien.

Waarom Normandië?

Vier terreine, almal in Noord-Frankryk, is as moontlike landingsplekke vir die D-Day-inval beskou. Twee van hulle was egter skiereilande, wat dit baie maklik sou maak vir die Duitsers, wat in die breër deel van die skiereilande was, om die Geallieerde magte te verslaan. 'N Ander opsie was Calais, maar aangesien dit die naaste aan Groot -Brittanje was, was dit wel sterk versterk en bewaak deur die Duitsers as 'n duidelike punt vir die toetrede van soldate uit Brittanje. Dit het Normandië as 'n lewensvatbare opsie gelaat. Dit het afsonderlike landings moontlik gemaak sonder om op die punt van 'n skiereiland gekonsentreer te wees, en die beplande landingsstrande was baie naby die hawens van Cherbourg en Le Havre.

Operasie lyfwag

Een van die belangrikste probleme van die landing was dat, selfs al kon die kusvestings van die Duitsers oorkom word, die gebied verder in die binneland nog wemel van Nazi -bataljons, gepatrolleer deur bekwame generaals soos die veldmaarskalkers Erwin Rommel en Gerd von Rundstedt. Die Geallieerdes moes die Nazi -leër se aandag aftrek sodat Normandië onbeskermd sou lê.

Operasie lyfwag is hiervoor geloods. Hierdie operasie het bestaan ​​uit die aandag van Duitse generaals op ander streke af te lei. Sommige van die metodes wat gebruik word om hierdie doel te bereik het radioverkeer in 'n spesifieke gebied toegeneem, valse valskermsoldate laat val, valse militêre basisse gevestig, ens. Selfs 'n akteur wat baie ooreenstem met generaal Bernard Montgomery is aangestel om die Duitsers te mislei om te glo dat die streke wat hierdie valse Montgomery besoek, streke is wat die moeite werd is om dop te hou. Hier is 'n kaart van die streke wat in Operation Bodyguard gewerk is, die titels dui die name van die operasies vir die spesifieke plek aan.

Britse dubbelagente is wyd gebruik in hierdie operasie. Die rol van een spesifieke dubbelagent, Joan Pujol Garcia, kodenaam ‘Garbo ’ deur die Geallieerdes en ‘Arabel ’ deur die Nazi's, was veral opmerklik.

Garcia het Duitsers betroubare inligting gegee oor die aanval in Normandië, om sy spioenasie geloofwaardiger te maak. Die inligting is egter te laat oorgedra sodat die Duitsers iets daaraan kon doen. 'N Belangriker deel van sy bedrywighede was die oortuiging van die Duitsers dat 'n fiktiewe Amerikaanse weermagafdeling in die suide van Engeland gestasioneer was en die inval in Normandië sou gebruik as 'n afleiding vir 'n algehele aanval op Calais. This information, relayed on June 9 and bolstered by the accuracy of Garcia’s information about the Normandy landings, convinced the Germans to keep extra regiments at Calais even after the D-Day Normandy invasion, which gave the Allied forces in Normandy more time to achieve their objectives. The illusion of the fictitious US Army Division was maintained by fake planes and tanks, including inflatables, and constant but meaningless radio traffic.

Garcia was motivated to work against the Nazis by his disgust of Fascism and Communism. He was so adept at his art that, at one point, he got the Germans to financially support a network of 27 spies. Excluding ‘Arabel’ himself, all the spies were fictitious!

Garcia’s standing in the German camp and the efficacy of his deception was such that ‘Arabel’ received an Iron Cross Second Class for his contribution to German war efforts, an award that required personal authorization from the Fuehrer himself! ‘Garbo’ later received an MBE from King George VI, making Garcia arguably the only person to receive felicitations from both the Allies and the Germans.

The Airborne Divisions Land

Before the landings, the French Resistance was told via coded messages to disrupt German communication and transport services in Normandy, an accomplishment that came in very useful in the latter stages of the landings. Though the heavy radio traffic in the days leading up to the invasion raised alarms in the German intelligence agencies, most defense posts ignored their warning, since countless failed warnings had been given earlier.

The Normandy invasion began with a large-scale bombing of the Normandy beaches where the troops would land. More than 2,200 Allied bombers peppered the beaches after midnight on June 6, 1944, in order to remove defensive structures established on the beach. The bombings were largely successful on all but one beach: Omaha. Overcast conditions at Omaha meant that the bombers couldn’t ascertain their targets visually. Many delayed the attack, and eventually found themselves in the position of not being able to release their warheads without risking damaging their own arriving ships and units. This left the German defenses on Omaha beach virtually untouched, a factor that would turn out to be crucial.

The first airborne operations began at 00.15 am, when American ‘pathfinders’ started to drop behind enemy lines in order to set up drop zones for the arriving forces. Bad weather conditions hampered their operation, and many of the airborne divisions landed scattered and disorganized as a result. As an unintended benefit, the German Army also became fragmented trying to follow all isolated groups of paratroopers.

The first military operation, however, began immediately after the arrival of pathfinders, at 00.16 am. This was a British operation at Sword Beach aimed at capturing and protecting the bridges on the Caen canal and the river Orne. These bridges were the only exit points for the incoming British infantry at Sword Beach, and failure to capture or stop the Germans from blowing them up would result in a massive disaster for the British 3rd Infantry Division. The bridges were captured by the British 6th Airborne Division, who also defended it against German counterattacks until further reinforcements arrived.

US paratroopers from the 101st Airborne started dropping on Utah Beach from 01.30 am. This division had the primary objective of securing the causeways behind Utah Beach and destroy other links to the beach, including road and rail bridges. These landings were highly erratic due to the cloud cover and the confusing terrain, many paratroopers only reached the causeways after the 4th Infantry Division had already captured them after overcoming the defenses at the beach. The German 7th Army received news of the parachute drops at 1.20 am, but von Rundstedt misjudged the scale of the offensive and thought it could easily be suppressed by the defenses at the seaboard.

Die 82nd Airborne Division started arriving at 2.30 am. They had the primary objective of securing the bridges on the river Merderet. This Division secured Sainte-Mère-Église, an important crossroads town in the region, but lost the bridges on the Merderet after having won them first. The bridges weren’t loaded with explosives, unlike the ones on the Caen Canal and the Orne, and crossfire over the bridges continued for several days.

The Naval Landings

The 8th Infantry Regiment of the 4th Infantry Division landed on Utah Beach at 6.30 am. Like most infantry divisions, their landing craft had been blown eastward by the wind, but by good fortune, the eventual point where they landed was more beneficial for their objectives than the one they had planned. Soon joined by reinforcements, including engineers and demolition teams, the 4th Infantry quickly took Utah Beach.

Die 1st Infantry Division and 29th Infantry Division landed on Omaha. This was the most heavily guarded beach, and the battle here claimed the most lives of all five beaches. As mentioned before, bombers hadn’t been able to deploy their loads over Omaha Beach due to cloudy conditions, due to which the defenses were mostly untouched. To compound the American tragedy, many troops had to disembark from their landing craft in deep water since the craft got stuck on sandbanks. This left them completely exposed to the firing from the German lines, while they sought to clamber up the beach. Specially modified amphibious tanks, called DD tanks, also had to be unloaded farther out than optimum, and 27 of 32 tanks sank. Aided by reinforcements, the objectives for Omaha Beach were eventually accomplished three days after D-Day (D+3).

High winds also disrupted the landings at Gold Beach. The primary defensive gun installment had been severely damaged by attacks from British Cruisers at 6.20 am. Only one of four guns was remaining, but its crew held out till the next day before finally surrendering. Another gun was disabled by a tank at 7.30 am. The Le Hamel gun installment was destroyed at 4 pm by a tank from the Armored Vehicles Royal Engineers. The only Victoria Cross awarded in the D-Day operations was awarded in the battle in the towns along Gold Beach, to Company Sergeant Major Stanley Hollis. By the end of the day, the Brits at Gold Beach had established contact with the Canadian army at Juno Beach.

Like at Omaha, bombers had missed many of their targets on Juno Beach, which hampered the progress of the 3de Kanadese afdeling. In addition to the failed bombardment, the DD tanks at Juno Beach had fallen behind the infantry, which left the soldiers completely exposed to defensive fire from the Germans. However, by nightfall Juno Beach was captured, and the beachhead was merged with Gold Beach.

Though the British 6th Airborne Division had already been fighting inland of Sword Beach for a few hours, Infantry divisions only landed at 7.30. The British 3rd Infantry got the most out of the DD tanks, with 21 of 25 tanks landing safely. The beach was taken during the day, but the 3rd Infantry faced a German counterattack from the 21ste Panzer -afdeling. This was the only armored counterattack on D-Day. The thrust of the counterattack was thwarted by the Brit division, but one company reached the beach and set about strengthening the defensive structures there. However, they abandoned the task when they saw the arrival of aerial reinforcements, though the reinforcements were actually intended for the 6th Airborne rather than the 3rd Infantry.

Order of Battle

Among the Infantry Divisions, the division of labor was as follows:

Utah -strand was taken by the American VII Corps, led by Major General J. Lawton Collins, and consisted the following Divisions:

  • 4th Infantry
  • 9th Infantry
  • 79th Infantry
  • 90th Infantry
  • 82nd Airborne
  • 101st Airborne

This army faced the German 709th Infantry Division.

Omaha -strand would be taken by the American V Korps, led by Maj. Gen. Leonard T. Gerow, and consisted the following Divisions:

The V Corps faced the German 352nd Infantry Division.

Utah and Omaha beaches were the mission objectives of the American First Army, under the overall command of General Omar Bradley.

Goudstrand was taken by the British XXX Corps, made up by the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division led by Lieutenant General Gerard Bucknall.

Juno -strand was the objective of the British I Corps, led by Lt. Gen. John Crocker and consisting of the 3rd Canadian Division.

The Allied forces at Juno and Gold Beaches faced a combination of the German 352nd Infantry and 716th Infantry Divisions. The latter was also partially responsible for the German response at Sword Beach.

Swaardstrandwas also an objective of the British I Corps. The 3rd Infantry and 6th Airborne attacked Sword Beach.

The British 3rd Infantry faced the only armored German counterattack in the Normandy landings, from the 21st Panzer Division.

Gold, Juno, and Sword Beaches were assigned to the British Second Army, under the overall command of Lt. Gen. Sir Miles Dempsey. The British 79th Armored Division provided support to all operations in the form of specially customized amphibious tanks called DD tanks. The British Second Army was not exclusively British despite the name, and in addition to the Canadian Division on Juno Beach, several Allied soldiers from various countries―particularly Australia―were included in many British regiments.

The US First Army contained 73,000 men, and the British Second Army contained 83,115. Of the latter, 61,715 were British.

Tydlyn

Here’s a brief timeline noting the important events during and immediately after the Normandy landings.

Specific times given in the timeline refer to June 6, 1944.

1943-early 1944: Operation Bodyguard is carried out
Mid May-early June, 1944: French Resistance sabotages German communication and transport lines around Normandy
June 4, 1944: Original plans for an invasion on June 5 are postponed by a day
00.00 on D-Day: Aerial bombing of landing sites begins
00.15: American ‘pathfinders’ start to drop behind landing beaches
00.16: Paratroopers from the British 6th Airborne Division start to land behind Sword Beach
01.20: Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt receives word of the landings, dismisses them
01.30: Paratroopers from the US 101st Airborne Division start to land /behind Utah Beach
02.30: Paratroopers from the US 82nd Airborne Division start to land behind Utah Beach
06.30: US Infantry divisions start to land on Utah and Omaha Beach
07.30: British and Canadian Infantry divisions start to land on Gold, Juno, and Sword Beach
16.00: 21st Panzer Division makes the only armored counterattack of the invasion
June 7, 1944: British units start to build artificial ‘Mulberry’ harbors
June 9, 1944: Mission objectives for Omaha Beach are achieved, the last of all beaches
June 12, 1944: The five beaches are connected
June 21, 1944: Allies capture Caen
June 26, 1944: Allies capture Cherbourg
1 Augustus 1944: Allies break out of Normandy
August 15, 1944: A naval invasion, Operation Dragoon, is launched in southern France
August 25, 1944: Paris is liberated

Nadraai

The objective of the Allied armies on D-Day was to capture Bayeux, Caen, Carentan, and Saint-Lô, and establish a joined beachhead across all five beaches more than 10 km inland. None of these objectives were met by the first day. In fact, Caen was only captured on July 21. However, the Allies continued to inch on, expanding outwards from the beachheads they had established on D-Day.

More than two million Allied troops were sent into Normandy over the coming weeks. In spite of that, the army only succeeded in breaking out of Normandy in early August. There on, though, they achieved quick progress, liberating Paris on August 25 and liberating Luxembourg and Belgium by the end of September.

Conclusion

Close to 160,000 Allied troops crossed into Normandy on almost 5,000 landing craft and aircraft on D-Day. This makes the Normandy landings the largest naval invasion in human history.

The Allies suffered more than 12,000 casualties on D-Day 4,414 deaths were registered. Close to 2,500 American soldiers died on D-Day, the most of any Allied nation.

Normandy Landings In Popular Culture

The Normandy beaches house several museums and memorials dedicated to the bravery of Allied forces during the activities of the D-Day invasion. Among the notable ones are the memorial to the American National guard at Omaha, a museum about the operations on Utah Beach at Sainte-Marie-du-Mont, and the Juno Beach Center at Juno, funded by the Canadian and French governments as well as Canadian veterans.

The Normandy landings are one of the most iconic events during the Second World War, and have been depicted in various books, movies and TV shows. Notable modern depictions include the movie Saving Private Ryan and the TV miniseries Band of Brothers. The former is renowned for its unabashed depiction of the violence and brutality at the landing at Omaha Beach. The latter, which is based on the book of the same name by Stephen E. Ambrose, focuses on the “Easy” Company of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, and depicts several battles in the Normandy invasion from the view of various characters in the E Company.


D-Day, 6 June 1944

Gerald Prenderghast describes the prelude to Operation Overlord, the day that heralded the liberation of Europe from Nazi occupation.

After the German invasion of Russia in June 1941, Stalin began pressing the Western Allies to begin the re-invasion of Europe and thus relieve the tremendous pressure on Soviet forces, then retreating towards Stalingrad. During May 1942, this arrangement was ratified, Roosevelt agreeing that a so-called second front would be created in western Europe during 1942. Churchill foresaw the disastrous possibilities inherent in too premature an attempt at invasion and persuaded the US President to postpone the European operation in favour of more realistic objectives in the Mediterranean. By September 1943, English and American troops were in Italy, the Wehrmacht was being driven west after losing the Battle for Stalingrad and Roosevelt and Churchill felt able to reassure Stalin that Fortress Europe would be invaded sometime in May 1944.

The Allied landings planned for the Normandy coast during the summer of 1944, designated Operation Neptunus but more popularly known as D-Day, constituted the largest seaborne invasion in history, as well as being the prelude to Operation Overlord, the battle for Normandy. Four landing sites were considered for Neptunus: Brittany, the Cotentin Peninsula, Calais and Normandy, although only the Normandy beaches seemed to offer the strategic advantages necessary for success. Calais, being closest to Britain, was the obvious choice and so had been heavily fortified by the Germans, while Brittany and Cotentin were both peninsulas, whose poor access could fatally delay any Allied advance. An advance from Normandy on a broad front would be both difficult to contain and also allow attacks to be made on Cherbourg and the Brittany ports, thus alleviating Allied supply problems. More importantly, such a landing site would allow a swift deployment towards Paris and from there, Germany.

Allied preparation and distraction

Initial preparations for Neptune began in June 1943, when RAF Bomber Command and the US Eighth Air Force began Operation Pointblank, an air offensive designed to destroy German aircraft production, fuel supplies and airfields in order to ensure, amongst other objectives, air superiority over the invasion beaches.

Planning for the landings also began during this period and relied heavily upon experience gained during Operation Jubilee, the disastrous Dieppe raid of August 1942, and the subsequent invasions of North Africa, Sicily and Italy. In particular, Dieppe had shown the necessity for specialised armour to deal with beach defences, which led directly to development of the modified tanks known as Hobart&rsquos Funnies. Named after Major General Sir Percy (Hobo) Hobart, Commander of the 79th Armoured Division which operated most of these vehicles, the Funnies included:

  • The AVRE (Assault or Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers). This vehicle carried demolition equipment and a Petard mortar to destroy roadblocks and bunkers and was crewed by Royal Engineers with a Royal Armoured Corps driver.
  • The Crocodile: A Churchill tank with a flamethrower replacing its hull machine gun.
  • The Crab: An M4 Sherman equipped with a mine flail, consisting of a rotating cylinder fitted with weighted chains, which exploded mines in front of the tank.

In addition to vehicles designed to deal with beach defences, Hobart and his team also developed a reliable amphibious tank based upon the M4 Sherman and designated the DD (Duplex Drive) Tank, because the engine drove both the tracks and a rear-mounted propeller.

Distraction operations

Along with these specialised vehicles and equipment, the Allies also planned a series of operations designed to obscure the real site of the landings. Termed collectively Operation Bodyguard, they had three main objectives:

  1. To make the Normandy landings appear to be a diversion, with Calais the main invasion site.
  2. To mask the actual date and time of D-Day.
  3. To keep reinforcements away from Normandy after the landings.

A number of schemes were devised to meet these requirements, specifically:

Fortitude: Intended to convince the Germans that the landings sites were Norway and Calais. It employed two non-existent armies equipped with inflatable tanks, combined with leaked information referring to fictional operations and deployments. It was divided into Fortitude North, based upon a Fourth Army in Edinburgh intended to attack Norway, and Fortitude South, which threatened Calais with the 1st US Army group led by Lieutenant-General George Patton. Rommel seems to have accepted the story and his respect for Patton led him to fortify the Calais area heavily and largely discount Normandy.

Zeppelin: Similar to Fortitude, but threatening landings in Crete and Romania.

Graffham: An operation supporting Fortitude North but relying on political manipulation, including meetings between Swedish and Allied officials and the purchase of Norwegian securities, intended to show that the Allies were building political ties with Sweden.

Royal Flush: Soortgelyk aan Graffham, but aimed at Spain, Turkey and Sweden.

Ironside: A fake landing, with Bordeaux as the intended invasion site.

Copperhead: An imaginative plan to say the least, based upon the similarity in appearance between Montgomery and the actor, M.E. Clifton-James, who was sent on a tour of Egypt to convince the Germans that the invasion was to be made via Southern France. Testimony taken after the war indicates that the plan did not fool the German General Staff.

Double agents were also used to supply false information to the Wehrmacht and, in addition to these long-term plans, several operations were carried out prior to the landings, including:

Titanic: Begun just after midnight on 6 June, this operation involved the dropping of dummy parachutists and SAS personnel in areas removed from the invasion beaches to convince the Germans to move their forces away from the real landing sites. The operation was largely successful, causing German infantry reserve units to be moved from the vicinity of Omaha, Gold and the drop zones of 101st Airborne.

Glimmer and Taxable: Also begun in the early hours of D-Day, both operations involved the dropping of chaff or foil strips from Lancaster bombers, which were co-ordinated with a group of small harbour craft operating radar reflection balloons and transmitting the pattern of radio traffic expected from a large fleet. Weather conditions proved unfavourable and both operations met with limited success.

Big Drum: Similar to Taxable and Glimmer but without aircraft involvement and even less successful.

German preparations: The Atlantic Wall

In response to his almost morbid fear of invasion, in 1942 Hitler ordered the construction of immense fortifications along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Norway. Originally designed with 15,000 emplacements housing 300,000 troops, shortages of materials and manpower ensured that the line was never finished and in 1944, Erwin Rommel was given the job of organising those existing fortifications to counter the expected invasion. Although convinced that the invasion site would be Calais, he accepted the Normandy coast as another possibility and made arrangements accordingly. Concrete gun emplacements were built at strategic points along the coast and wooden stakes, metal tripods, mines and large anti-tank obstacles were placed on the beaches to delay the approach of landing craft and impede the movement of tanks. Away from the beaches, Rommel ordered the placement of barbed wire, booby-traps and the removal of all ground cover, while he also arranged for poles fitted with explosives to be installed in areas which might serve as landing grounds for gliders.

In addition to these static defences, Rommel requested that all mobile tank reserves be stationed as close to the coast as possible, considering that the best chance of stopping the invasion was on the beaches, before the Allied position could be consolidated. Unfortunately, von Rundstedt, Geyr and the other commanders disagreed, insisting that the Panzers be concentrated in a central position and deployed only when the main Allied beachhead had been identified, despite Rommel&rsquos insistence that without air cover, large-scale movement of tanks would be dangerous and difficult. Hitler finally produced a useless compromise, giving Rommel three tank divisions, leaving three under Geyr and four as a reserve, to be used only with his personal authorisation.

Operasie Neptunus

Initially, plans for Neptunus gave 1 May 1944 as D-Day and recommended the participation of only three amphibious divisions, with two left in reserve. However, after the appointment of Eisenhower as commander of SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force), with Montgomery in charge of all land forces, the two men demanded an increase to five divisions, with an additional three airborne divisions dropped behind the beaches, in order to allow operations on a wider front and facilitate the capture of Cherbourg. Unfortunately, this meant extra landing craft, which delayed the start, and 5 June 1944 was finally agreed as the invasion date.

The object of the landings was not strategically very complicated. US troops landing at Utah and Omaha beaches were intended to capture Carentan and St Lô, before cutting off the Cotentin Peninsula and capturing Cherbourg, allowing the early use of its port facilities. British and Canadian forces would protect the American left flank, while establishing control in the area around Caen and acting as a pivot for the American pincer movement. Landing before the amphibious operations, airborne troops would secure the Orne river bridges, the bridge at Caen and the causeways behind Utah, allowing the conventional forces to move from their landing sites, in order to establish a defensive line between Avranches and Falaise by the beginning of July, reaching the Seine by early September. To achieve these objectives, the Allies landed approximately 156,000 men in France during the first day, while being opposed by just over 50,000 German troops and 170 coastal guns.

The invasion

Although originally intended for 5 June, weather conditions on that day made the cross-Channel trip impossible for the troop ships and planning constraints meant that if the invasion did not go ahead the following day, the next opportunity was not until 18-20 June and without the benefit of a full moon. After consultation with his meteorological team, Eisenhower launched Neptunus on 6 June 1944.

Attacks by RAF, USAF and Canadian bombers began just after midnight against targets both on the coast and further inland, while at the same time Allied minesweepers cleared passages through the minefields for ships of the naval forces and invasion fleet.

Naval support consisted of two separate groups: The Western Naval Task force of three battleships, eight cruisers, 28 destroyers and a single monitor, commanded by Admiral Alan Kirk USN and supporting forces on Omaha and Utah.

The Eastern Naval Task Force, of two battleships, twelve cruisers, 37 destroyers and a monitor, commanded by Admiral Sir Philip Vian RN, supporting Gold, Juno and Sword.

A general naval bombardment of the areas behind the beaches began at 5.45am, switching to pre-arranged targets as soon as it was light at 5.50am.

Airborne operations

Beginning soon after midnight, airborne operations were intended principally to disrupt the Wehrmacht&rsquos ability to counter-attack by securing and holding key objectives such as bridges and road crossings, whilst also protecting them for use by the landing forces moving off the beaches. Despite considerable dispersion of their forces, British and US paratroopers managed to secure all their D-Day objectives, although several US operations were not concluded until D-Day+3.

The beaches

Sword: This was the most easterly landing site and was the responsibility of the British 3rd Division and an array of divisional troops, including units of the RA (Royal Artillery), RAC (Royal Armoured Corps), RE (Royal Engineers) and 27th Armoured in DD tanks. After aerial and naval bombardments, the landing began at 7.25am, headed by DD tanks of 13th/18th Hussars and AVREs of the RE. Despite strong resistance, the Funnies had cleared seven of the eight beach exits by 9.30 and the inland advance began, although it failed to link up with Canadian forces on Juno as intended because of a counter-attack by 21st Panzer Division. RAF fighters forced the Panzers to withdraw and the British and Canadians linked up on 7 June and began a movement towards Caen. Allied casualties were estimated at 1,000 killed, wounded or missing.

Juno: Landings on Juno were carried out by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade and the British No 48 Royal Marine Commando. Early naval bombardment proved relatively successful and was supported by a variety of landing craft equipped with 4.7 QF and 6-pounder guns. Juno had previously been divided into two sectors, Mike and Nan, and infantry landings began in both sectors between 7.45am and 7.55am. Unfortunately, due to heavy seas, the infantry arrived ahead of their supporting armour and suffered heavy casualties before DD tanks neutralised the gun emplacements in both sectors. With the beach safe, engineers began clearing the beach exits with their AVREs. Even when this was achieved, the intended break-out was impeded, because traffic blocked roads leading away from the beach, although units from Juno had linked up with those from Sword and moved on Caen by 7 June. Allied casualties on Juno were 961 killed, wounded and missing.

Gold beach: Landings on Gold were carried out by the 50th Infantry Division, 8th Armoured and 56th Infantry brigades and No. 47 Commando. Naval bombardment began at 5.30am, followed by the initial landing at 7.25am. High winds made landing difficult and the accompanying DD tanks were released close in-shore or on the beaches, thus ensuring their successful deployment. Perhaps the most significant feature of Gold was the defensive strong-points, which included two massive gun emplacements sited on the beach front, one at Le Hamel, housing a 75mm gun, and the second at Longues-sur-Mer, equipped with four 152mm naval guns. The cruisers Ajax en Argonaut had disabled three of the Longues-sur-Mer guns by 6.20am, although the fourth gun was able to resume firing intermittently in the afternoon until 7pm. Unfortunately, six other emplacements were only slightly damaged, including the Le Hamel site, but these were neutralised by specialised armour later in the day. Passage off the beach was cleared by the Funnies, allowing the infantry to move forward, clearing heavily fortified houses on the foreshore as they went and then moving on targets further inland, capturing Arromanches and making contact with Canadian forces from Juno by the end of the day. Casualties were approximately 1,000 killed, wounded and missing.

Omaha beach: Assaults began here and on Utah at 6.30am, an hour before the British and Canadian landings, and so naval bombardment was less than for the other beaches. Most heavily defended of all the landing sites, Omaha was the responsibility of the US 1st and 29th Infantry divisions. Strong currents made landing difficult and with bombing unsuccessful, many of the beach obstacles were still in place when the troops arrived. Unfortunately, despite the sea conditions, the DD tanks accompanying the forces on Omaha were dropped 5,000m from shore, in contrast to the situation on Gold, and only five tanks of the original 33 reached the beach. Bradley had also declined the offer of other specialised armour and consequently his engineers were fully exposed when they tried to clear the five gulleys constituting the exit from the beach and were subjected to heavy fire from the cliffs above. However, fire from a group of US destroyers and poor ammunition supply to the defenders allowed the Americans to begin moving off Omaha by 12 noon and by nightfall they had established two small isolated positions away from the beach, although events further inland allowed them to expand this front and achieve their original D-Day objectives in the days following the landing. Estimates vary as to US casualties, accepted figures lying somewhere between 2,000-5,000 men killed, wounded and missing.

Utah beach: The landings on Utah were carried out by the US army&rsquos 4th and 90th Infantry divisions and the 4th Cavalry regiment. Elements of the 4th Infantry Division landed first, pushed about 2,000m south of their intended landing point. This proved fortunate since there was only a single strong-point in range and many of the underwater obstacles had been washed away by the strong currents. Brigadier-General Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Commander of the 4th and first senior officer ashore, made an instant decision, &ldquoWe start the war from here,&rdquo and ordered everything to be rerouted to the new landing point. Infantry were followed by 28 DD tanks and the engineer units, who cleared mines and other obstructions before blowing gaps in the sea wall, allowing the troops to leave the beach and begin pushing their German opponents back. Utah proved the least difficult of all the landings, with only 197 men killed, wounded or missing, during an operation which put over 21,000 men ashore.

Although the Allies had managed to land and consolidate their positions by the evening of D-Day, none of their major objectives were achieved, the original plans having called for the capture of Carentan, St Lô, Caen, and Bayeux on the first day, with all the beaches (other than Utah) linked with a front line between six and ten miles inland by nightfall. Disorganisation on the beaches and a failure of some of the initial bombardments contributed to this situation but fortunately, indecisiveness and an overly complicated command structure meant that the Germans were unable to take advantage of the Allied shortcomings. However, much of the Allied scheme worked well, in particular the deception operations, Hobart&rsquos specialised armour and the co-ordinated activities of the French resistance, which isolated the Normandy beaches and ensured that the Germans were incapable of bringing up reinforcements or supplies. It was a successful operation and marked the beginning of the end of Nazi-occupied Europe.

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Kyk die video: Battle of Tilly-sur-Seules: 17 June 1944 (Januarie 2022).