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Sterrekundige Galileo sterf in Italië

Sterrekundige Galileo sterf in Italië

Die Italiaanse sterrekundige Galileo Galilei sterf in Italië op 77 -jarige ouderdom. Gebore op 15 Februarie 1564 word na Galileo verwys as die "vader van die moderne sterrekunde", die "vader van die moderne fisika" en die "vader van die wetenskap" as gevolg van sy revolusionêre ontdekkings . Die eerste persoon wat 'n teleskoop gebruik het om die lug te sien, het Galileo die mane van Jupiter, die ringe van Saturnus, sonvlekke en die sonrotasie ontdek.

Nadat Galileo sy bevestiging gepubliseer het dat die aarde om die son wentel, ten gunste van die Copernican -stelsel, word hy deur die Inquisition - die regsliggaam van die Katolieke kerk - aangekla van dwaalleer (idees wat in stryd is met die onderrig van die kerk). Hy is in 1633 skuldig bevind en tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf gevonnis, maar weens sy ouderdom en swak gesondheid is hy toegelaat om sy vonnis uit te dien onder huisarres.

LEES MEER: 8 dinge wat u nie van Galileo mag weet nie


Sterrekundige Galileo sterf in Italië - GESKIEDENIS

Die bydraes van Galileo Galilei tot die gebied van fisika, sterrekunde, wiskunde en wetenskappe was uiters belangrik en het die verloop van die menslike geskiedenis vir ewig verander. Sommige van sy ontdekkings en idees het gehelp om hom een ​​van die mees erkende denkers van alle tye te maak.

Galileo se vroeë jare

Galileo is in Pisa, Italië, gebore as die seun van 'n musikant. Sy pa het sy seun help leer om musiekinstrumente te speel, en dit lyk asof die jong Galileo in sy pa se professionele voetspore sou volg. Alhoewel dit nie die geval was nie, het hy nogal 'n groot deel van sy pa se anti-outoritêre sjarme ingebring. Die idee dat hy altyd die gesag moet bevraagteken, sal uiteindelik daartoe lei dat Galileo groot persoonlike wetenskaplike ontdekkings maak teen baie persoonlike koste.

Die vroegste ontdekkings van Galileo

Galileo het ernstig daaroor gedink om priester te word, maar sy pa het hom aangemoedig om 'n mediese skool aan die Universiteit van Pisa by te woon. In 1581 het Galileo opgemerk dat 'n kandelaar wat slingerend swaai, die hoeveelheid tyd tussen 'n hartklop naboots. Dit het Galileo baie geïntrigeer en hom gelei om meer te leer oor fisika en wiskunde. Alhoewel hy dit destyds nie geweet het nie, het Galileo die gebruik van die slinger ontdek om tyd te vertel.

Galileo het uiteindelik die pad van wetenskaplike gewaag. Ironies genoeg, hoewel baie van sy grootste prestasies die mensdom gehelp het, was hy meestal gemotiveer deur geld in sy loopbaan.

Word 'n wetenskaplike en onderwyser

In die laat 1500's het Galileo hom voltyds in sy nuwe loopbaan as wetenskaplike gedompel. Een van sy groot uitvindings was die termoskoop, 'n toestel wat die termostaat voorafgegaan het. Hy sou ook voortgaan om die hidrostatiese balans te skep. By die publikasie van 'n boek oor sy nuwe uitvinding, het hy die oog van die akademiese gemeenskap getrek. Dit het daartoe gelei dat hy as instrukteur werk by die Accademia delle Arti del Disegno gekry het.

In 1589 word hy 'n onderwyser in wiskunde. Die ironie hier is dat hy wiskundige loopbane vermy het weens kommer oor lae salarisse. Nou het hy 'n bestaan ​​gemaak om die onderwerp te leer. Galileo sou 'n nuwe pos by die Universiteit van Padua aanvaar en vir meer as twee dekades as leraar in meetkunde en sterrekunde dien.

Teorie van getye en ander innovasies

Galileo Galilei was skaars iemand wat op sy louere gesit het terwyl hy altyd besig was om die wetenskappe te vorder. Sy suksesse was die duidelikste in sy ontwikkeling van die Theory of Tides. In die teorie onthul Galileo sy oortuiging dat die aarde se as in verhouding tot die gravitasie van die maan aansienlik bygedra het tot die beweging van die getye.

Galileo sou ook sy vermoë toon om konvensionele wetenskaplike wysheid in sy werk te weerstaan, Die Assayer, 'n gepubliseerde verhandeling wat gevestigde teorieë oor komete aangeval het. Niks sou egter so aardskuddend wees soos die komende Galileo -aangeleentheid nie.

Waarnemingssterrekunde was 'n ander gebied waar hy uitgeblink het. Dit was Galileo wat baie wonderlike ontdekkings in die sterre gemaak het danksy sy konstante gebruik en persoonlike verbeterings op die teleskoop.

Die Galileo -saak

Die Galileo -aangeleentheid handel oor die idee van heliosentrisme, of die idee dat die aarde om die son draai. Dit word deur die kerk as 'n kettery beskou omdat die Skrif duidelik opgemerk het dat die aarde nie beweeg het nie. Galileo het gesê dat hy in heliosentrisme glo en dat baie mense verkeerd verstaan ​​het hoe dit in die Skrif beskryf word. Hy het nie baie ondersteuners in die kerk gewen met sy oortuigings nie.

Galileo het die onderwerp in sy boek behandel Dialoog oor die twee belangrikste wêreldstelsels. Mettertyd word Galileo van dwaalleer aangekla, hoewel hy nooit die bedoeling gehad het om die kerk te probeer ondermyn nie. Nadat Galileo tereggestaan ​​is vir kettery, was hy verbind tot huisarres en het hy die res van sy lewe onder sulke omstandighede gebly.

Die dood van Galileo

Galileo Galilei het in sy huis gebly en kon besoekers ontvang tot 1642. Op hierdie stadium het hy begin siek word. Hy het koors gekry en het ook te doen met hartverwante probleme. Sy gesondheid het erger geword en hy is dood op 77 -jarige ouderdom. Hy het 'n ongelooflike nalatenskap agtergelaat as een van die suksesvolste en invloedrykste wetenskaplikes van sy era.


Galileo Galilei, Italiaanse sterrekundige

Biografie van Galileo Galilei Italiaanse wetenskaplike en sterrekundige, inisieerders van eksperimentele fisika. Galileo is onuitwisbaar verbind met die verdediging van die beweging van die aarde en die planete om die son.

Familie en studies van Galileo

Galileo Galilei is op 15 Februarie 1564 in Pisa gebore.

Sy pa, Vincenzo Galilei, was 'n Florentyn uit 'n familie wat lank gelede al beroemd was. Galileo was die eersgeborene van sewe broers.

In 1581 betree Galileo die Universiteit van Pisa, waar hy as mediese student ingeskryf het.

Pisa is 'n stad in die Italiaanse streek Toskane, bekend vir sy ikoniese skewe toring. Krediet: web “lacamaradelarte.com”

Vier jaar later het hy die universiteit verlaat sonder om 'n graad te behaal. Omdat hy egter sy belangstelling in sy loopbaan as dokter verloor het, afgesien van sy universiteitstudie, het hy in wiskunde begin.

Die professionele lewe van Galileo Galilei

Galileo is een van die inisieerders van eksperimentele fisika. Sy naam word egter onuitwisbaar verbind met die verdediging van die beweging van die aarde en die planete om die son.

Tussen Desember 1609 en Januarie 1610, met behulp van die teleskoop wat hy self gebou het, het Galileo die eerste waarnemings van die maan gemaak, wat die bestaan ​​op ons satelliet van berge en kraters bewys wat 'n ooreenkoms met die aarde toon.

Die maan en sy kraters. Krediet: web “astronomiaparatodos.com”

Ook met sy teleskoop, rondom 1610, kon Galileo die fases van Venus waarneem.

Hierdie feite het geosentriese kosmologie radikaal ongeldig gemaak en die geldigheid van die teorie van Copernicus bevestig.

Fases van Venus. Krediet: web “cerebrodigital.org”

Galileo ontdek vier mane wat om Jupiter wentel. Hy het hulle van 1 tot 4 genommer en hulle gebel “Mediese planete” ter ere van die groothertog Cosimo II de Medici.

Hierdie bevinding vernietig beslis die teorie dat die aarde die middelpunt was van al die bewegings wat in die lug plaasgevind het.

Jupiter en 'n paar van sy mane. Krediet: Wikipedia

Hierdie belangrike ontdekkings was die uiteindelike dryfveer om die kosmologiese teorieë van Ptolemeus en Aristoteles omver te werp.

Galileo was gretig om dit bekend te maak en het inderhaas 'n kort teks opgestel wat in Maart 1610 gepubliseer is en wat hom spoedig in Europa beroemd gemaak het: die 'Boodskapper van die sterre”, Wat opgedra is deur Cosimo II de Medici.

Triomf van Galileo in Florence

Hiermee verseker Galileo sy aanstelling as wiskundige en filosoof van die Toskaanse hof en die moontlikheid om na Florence terug te keer.

Die pos het 'n ereprofessoraat by Pisa ingesluit, sonder onderrigverpligtinge.

Florence, hoofstad van die Toskane -streek in Italië. Krediet: web “sobreitalia.com”

In 1611 het Christof Scheiner ('n Duitse Jesuïet) die sonvlekke waargeneem en 'n boek gepubliseer (onder 'n skuilnaam) waarin hy bevestig dat die sonvlekke 'n ekstrasolêre verskynsel is (sterre naby die son wat tussen dit en die aarde staan).

In 1613, in die boek “Geskiedenis en demonstrasie van die sonmasjinerie“, Galileo wat voorheen hierdie plekke waargeneem het en tydens 'n reis wat hy na Rome gemaak het, het dit aan die kerklike owerhede gewys.

Hy het by die interpretasie van Scheiner gekom en gesê dat die kolle van die son afkomstig is en nie 'n eksterne verskynsel nie.

Die teks het 'n kontroversie veroorsaak wat jare lank geduur het en die Jesuïet een van die felste vyande van Galileo gemaak het.

Galileo se probleme met kerklike owerhede

In 1618 was Galileo betrokke by 'n nuwe twis met 'n ander Jesuïet, Horacio Grassi, oor die aard van komete.

As gevolg hiervan het Galileo 'n teks geskryf, ryk aan refleksies oor die aard van die wetenskap en die wetenskaplike metode.

Die werk is opgedra aan die nuwe pous Urban VIII, en waarin Galileo dit bevestig het “die boek van die natuur is in wiskundige taal geskryf.”

Kardinaal Roberto Belarmino (Jesuïet), verklaar dat daar geen afdoende wetenskaplike bewyse is ten gunste van die beweging van die aarde nie, wat in stryd is met Bybelse leerstellings.

Gevolglik het die Heilige Kantoor op 23 Februarie 1616 die Copernican -stelsel as vals veroordeel en teen die Heilige Skrif gekant.

Galileo is vermaan en het die streng bevel gekry om nie die teorieë van Copernicus in die openbaar te onderrig nie.

Galileo het vir 'n paar jaar in Florence skuil en hom toegewy aan die maak van tafels van die bewegings van die satelliete van Jupiter, om 'n nuwe metode vir die berekening van lengtegrade op die oop see te vestig.

Hy het tevergeefs probeer om hierdie metode aan die Spaanse en Nederlandse regerings te verkoop.

Die nuwe situasie het Galileo aangemoedig om die groot uiteensetting van die Copernikaanse kosmologie te skryf wat hy reeds in 1610 aangekondig het.

Daarin is die Aristoteliese standpunte gekonfronteer met die van die nuwe sterrekunde, in die vorm van dialoog.

Proses en oortuiging van die Inkwisisie

Die Heilige Kantoor het nie geskroom om 'n proses te begin nie, ondanks die feit dat Galileo 'n imprimatur gekry het om die boek te publiseer.

Die proses begin op 12 April 1633 en eindig met 'n lewenslange vonnis, ondanks die weiering van Galileo om homself en sy formele terugtrekking te verdedig.

Die straf is versag deur hom in sy villa in Arcetri, naby Florence en die klooster waar sy geliefde dogter, Virginia, in 1616 binnegekom het, te bedien.

Galileo se huis in Arcetri. Krediet: wikipedia

Met sy uittrede, waar artritis en blindheid tot morele nood bygedra het, het Galileo daarin geslaag om die laaste en belangrikste van sy werke te voltooi: die “Discourses en wiskundige demonstrasies rondom twee nuwe wetenskappe ”, gepubliseer in 1638 in Leiden.

Daarin het Galileo die fisiese en wiskundige grondslag gelê vir 'n ontleding van beweging, wat haar in staat gestel het om die wette van vallende liggame in 'n vakuum te demonstreer en 'n volledige teorie oor projektielvuur te ontwikkel.

Die werk was bestem om die hoeksteen te word van die meganika -wetenskap wat deur die wetenskaplikes van die volgende generasie gebou is, met Newton aan die stuur.

Laaste jare en dood van Galileo

In die laaste jare van sy lewe is Galileo gemagtig om hom naby die see in sy huis in San Giorgio te vestig.

Daar bly hy omring deur sy dissipels (Viviani, Torricelli, Peri) en werk aan sterrekunde en fisika.

Galileo Galilei is op 8 Januarie 1642 oorlede en is begrawe in die Santa Cruz -kerk in Florence.

Dit is nog steeds vreemd dat 300 jaar later, op 8 Januarie 1942, nog 'n reus van wetenskap in Oxford gebore is, die beroemde Stephen Hawking.


Bydraes tot sterrekunde

In 1609 hoor Galileo van die uitvinding van die teleskoop in Holland. Omdat hy nie die teleskoop gesien het nie, het hy 'n uitstekende weergawe gemaak waarmee hy baie astronomiese ontdekkings gemaak het. Hy kon ontdek dat daar valleie en berge op die maan se oppervlak is. Hy kon sonvlekke opspoor, die planeet Venus en sy fases waarneem, en selfs sien dat Jupiter vier groot mane gehad het. Sy ontdekkings het hom gewild gemaak en hy is later aangestel in die hofwiskundige van Florence.


Vandag in die geskiedenis - die Italiaanse sterrekundige Galileo Galilei is in Pisa gebore

Dit is Saterdag, 15 Februarie, die 46ste dag van 2014. Daar is nog 319 dae oor die jaar.


Vandag is Saterdag 15 Februarie, die 46ste dag van 2014. Daar is nog 319 dae oor die jaar.


Vandag se hoogtepunt in die geskiedenis: Op 15 Februarie 1764 is die plek van die huidige St. Louis gestig deur Pierre Laclede en Auguste Chouteau.


Op hierdie datum: In 1564 is die Italiaanse sterrekundige Galileo Galilei in Pisa gebore.


In 1898 het die Amerikaanse slagskip Maine geheimsinnig in die hawe van Havana opgeblaas en meer as 260 bemanningslede doodgemaak en die Verenigde State nader aan die oorlog met Spanje gebring.


In 1933 het die uitverkore president Franklin D. Roosevelt ontsnap aan 'n sluipmoordpoging in Miami waarin die burgemeester van Chicago, Anton J. Cermak, gewapende man Giuseppe Zangara dodelik gewond is, meer as vier weke later tereggestel is.


In 1944 vernietig geallieerde bomwerpers die klooster bo-op Monte Cassino (MAWN -tay kah-SEE -noh) in Italië.


In 1952 is 'n begrafnis by die Windsor -kasteel gehou vir die Britse koning George VI, wat nege dae tevore gesterf het.


In 1961 is 73 mense, onder wie 'n 18-lid Amerikaanse skaats-span wat op pad was na die Wêreldbyeenkoms in Tsjeggo-Slowakye, dood in die ongeluk van 'n Sabena Airlines Boeing 707 in België.


In 1965 word die nuwe esdoornblaarvlag van Kanada tydens seremonies in Ottawa ontvou.


In 1971 het Brittanje en Ierland hul geldeenhede gedesimaliseer, wat 'n pond gelykstaande aan 100 nuwe pennies maak in plaas van 240 pennies.


In 1982 is 84 mans dood toe 'n groot olieboorinstallasie, die Ocean Ranger, tydens 'n hewige storm aan die kus van Newfoundland gesink het.


In 1989 kondig die Sowjetunie aan dat die laaste van sy troepe Afghanistan verlaat het, na meer as nege jaar van militêre ingryping.


In 1994, net toe sy verhoor sou begin, het drifter Danny Harold Rolling skuld beken op die moorde op vyf universiteitstudente in 1990 in Gainesville, Florida (Rolling is in Oktober 2006 tereggestel).


In 2002 is 'n privaat begrafnis by die Windsor -kasteel gehou vir die Britse prinses Margaret, wat ses dae tevore op 71 -jarige ouderdom oorlede is.


Tien jaar gelede: 'n Paar brande in China het minstens 93 mense doodgemaak. Dale Earnhardt Jr. het die Daytona 500 gewen op dieselfde baan waar sy pa drie jaar tevore vermoor is. Die Weste het die Ooste met 136-132 verslaan in die NBA All-Star-wedstryd. Die aktrise Jan Miner, veral bekend as 'Madge the Manicurist' in Palmolive TV -advertensies, sterf in Bethel, Conn., 86 jaar oud.


Vyf jaar gelede: president Hugo Chavez (OO -goh CHAH -vez) van Venezuela het ’n referendum gewen om termynbeperkings uit die weg te ruim, wat hom die weg gebaan het om weer in 2012 te hardloop. Die Westelike Konferensie het die Ooste met 146-119 in die NBA geklop All-Star spel. Matt Kenseth het die reënverkorte Daytona 500 gewen.


'N Jaar gelede: Met 'n verblindende flits en 'n dreigende skokgolf, vlieg 'n meteoor oor die westelike Siberiese lug van Rusland en ontplof en beseer meer as 1 000 mense terwyl dit deur vensters blaas. President Barack Obama het sy saak in Chicago, die stad wat sy politieke loopbaan begin het, aangespoor en 'n beroep op die regering gedoen om 'n aktiewe, omvangryke rol te speel om te verseker dat elke Amerikaner 'n 'kans' in die middelklas het. In 'n skouspelagtige afname van politieke bekendheid, het die voormalige Amerikaanse rep. Jesse Jackson Jr., D-Ill., En sy vrou, Sandra, ooreengekom om skuld te beken op federale aanklagte wat voortspruit uit wat die aanklaers gesê het 'n plan was om $ 750,000 in veldtogfondse te gebruik vir groot persoonlike uitgawes. (Jackson dien twee jaar tronkstraf uit weens die jong kinders van die egpaar, Jackson se vrou sal 'n jaar lange vonnis uitdien nadat haar man syne voltooi het.)


Vandag se verjaarsdae: die voormalige kongreslid van Illinois, John Anderson, is 92. Die voormalige sekretaris van verdediging en energie, James Schlesinger, is 85. Die aktrise Claire Bloom is 83. Die skrywer Susan Brownmiller is 79. Die skrywer Brian Holland is 73. Rockmusikant Mick Avory (The Kinks) is 70. Jazzmusikant Henry Threadgill is 70. Aktrise-model Marisa Berenson is 67. Aktrise Jane Seymour is 63. Sanger Melissa Manchester is 63. Aktrise Lynn Whitfield is 61. Simpson-skepper Matt Groening (GRIE-ning) is 60. Model Janice Dickinson is 59. Akteur Christopher McDonald is 59. Reggae -sanger Ali Campbell is 55. Akteur Joseph R. Gannascoli is 55. Musikant Mikey Craig (Culture Club) is 54. College en Pro Football Hall of Famer Darrell Green is 54. Countrysanger Michael Reynolds (Pinmonkey) is 50. Akteur Michael Easton is 47. Rockmusikant Stevie Benton (Drowning Pool) is 43. Aktrise Renee O'Connor is 43. Aktrise Sarah Wynter is 41. Olimpiese goue medalje swemmer Amy Van Dyken is 41. Akteur- regisseur Miranda July is 40. Rock singe r Brandon Boyd (Incubus) is 38. Rockmusikant Ronnie Vannucci (The Killers) is 38. Aktrise Ashley Lyn Cafagna is 31. Blues-rock-musikant Gary Clark Jr. is 30. Aktrise Natalie Morales is 29. Aktrise Amber Riley (TV: Glee ) is 28.


Gedagte vir vandag: 'Ons lewe deur aanmoediging en sterf daarsonder' stadig, hartseer en woedend. 'Celeste Holm, Amerikaanse aktrise (1917-2012).


8 Januarie 1642: Galileo sterf

Op hierdie dag in 1642 sterf een van my helde, Galileo Galilei, in Italië op 77 -jarige ouderdom. Daar word na hom verwys as die vader van die moderne sterrekunde, die vader van die moderne fisika en die vader van die wetenskap. Damn, dit is baie vader. [bo: portret van Galileo Galilei deur Giusto Sustermans]

Standbeeld van Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) buite die Uffizi, Florence

Galileo, was 'n Italiaanse fisikus, wiskundige, sterrekundige en filosoof wat 'n groot rol gespeel het in die wetenskaplike revolusie. As die eerste persoon wat 'n teleskoop gebruik het om die lug te sien, het hy die mane van Jupiter, die ringe van Saturnus, sonvlekke en ja, sonrotasie ontdek, wat hom baie hartseer besorg het.

Hy het Copernicus bevestig dat die aarde om die son wentel. Dit pas nie by die 'magte' nie. Hy is van kettery aangekla deur die Katolieke Kerk en tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf gevonnis. . . ai!

Cristiano Banti ’s 1857 skilder Galileo in die gesig van die Romeinse Inkwisisie

In September 1632 word Galileo beveel om na Rome te kom om verhoor te word. Met die oog op die nogal onwaarskynlike ontkenning van Galileo, het sy laaste ondervraging, in Julie 1633, afgesluit met die bedreiging van marteling as hy nie die waarheid praat nie. Die vonnis van die Inkwisisie is op 22 Junie gelewer. Dit was in drie belangrike dele:

Galileo is gevind en word veral vermoed van dwaalleer, naamlik dat hy die opinies gehad het dat:

  • Die son lê roerloos in die middel van die heelal,
  • dat die aarde nie in sy middelpunt is en beweeg nie,
  • en dat 'n mens 'n mening kan aanvaar en verdedig as waarskynlik nadat dit in stryd met die Heilige Skrif verklaar is.

Hy is ter wille van die Inkwisisie tot formele gevangenisstraf gevonnis. Die volgende dag is dit omgeskakel na huisarres, waarby hy die res van sy lewe gebly het. Sy aanstootlike dialoog is verbied en in 'n aksie wat nie tydens die verhoor aangekondig is nie, is die publikasie van enige van sy werke verbied, insluitend alles wat hy in die toekoms kan skryf.

Volgens die volkslegende het Galileo na bewering die opstandige frase gemompel nadat hy sy teorie dat die aarde om die son beweeg het herroep hetEn tog beweeg dit”!

Galileo -portret deur Leoni

Hy het 'n besondere vermoë om gevestigde owerhede te ignoreer, veral Aristotelianisme. In breër terme was sy werk nog 'n stap in die rigting van die uiteindelike skeiding van die wetenskap van beide filosofie en godsdiens, 'n belangrike ontwikkeling in die menslike denke. Hy was dikwels bereid om sy siening te verander in ooreenstemming met waarneming

Galileo het die basiese beginsel van relatiwiteit voorgehou dat die fisiese wette dieselfde is in enige stelsel wat teen 'n konstante spoed in 'n reguit lyn beweeg, ongeag die spesifieke spoed of rigting. Daar is dus geen absolute beweging of absolute rus nie. Hierdie beginsel bied die basiese raamwerk vir bewegingswette van Newton en is sentraal in Einstein se spesiale relatiwiteitsteorie.

Volgens Stephen Hawking dra Galileo waarskynlik meer verantwoordelikheid vir die geboorte van die moderne wetenskap as enigiemand anders, en Albert Einstein noem hom die vader van die moderne wetenskap.

Galileo wat die doge van Venesië wys hoe om die teleskoop te gebruik (Fresco deur Giuseppe Bertini)

Een van die vroegste oorlewende teleskope wat aan Galileo Galilei toegeskryf word. In 1609 was Galileo, saam met Engelsman Thomas Harriot en andere, een van die eerstes wat 'n brekende teleskoop gebruik het as 'n instrument om sterre, planete of mane te sien.

Die naam “telescope ” is geskep vir 'n Galileo -instrument deur 'n Griekse wiskundige, Giovanni Demisiani, tydens 'n banket wat in 1611 deur prins Federico Cesi gehou is om Galileo lid van sy Accademia dei Lincei te maak. Die naam is afgelei van die Griekse tele = ‘far ’ en skopein = ‘ om te kyk of te sien ’. In 1610 gebruik hy 'n teleskoop van naby om die dele van insekte te vergroot.

Geagte akademielid, Giovanni Faber, het die woord vir die uitvinding van Galileo bedink uit die Griekse woorde μικρόν (mikron) wat beteken “small ”, en σκοπεῖν (skopein) wat beteken “ om na#8221 te kyk. Die woord was bedoel om analoog te wees met “teleskoop ”. Illustrasies van insekte wat gemaak is met behulp van een van die Galileo -mikroskope en wat in 1625 gepubliseer is, was blykbaar die eerste duidelike dokumentasie van die gebruik van 'n saamgestelde mikroskoop.

Dit was op hierdie bladsy dat Galileo die eerste keer 'n waarneming van die mane van Jupiter opgemerk het. Hierdie waarneming het die idee ontstel dat alle hemelliggame om die aarde moet draai. Galileo het in Maart 1610 'n volledige beskrywing in Sidereus Nuncius gepubliseer.
Die onderste gedeelte van hierdie blad toon die gebruik waarmee Galileo hierdie optiese toestel gebruik het: terwyl hy die lug opeenvolgende aande in Januarie 1610 bekyk, merk hy op sy eerste waarnemings van die planeet Jupiter en vier van Jupiter se mane. ”

Opsomming van die belangrikste geskrewe werke van Galileo is as volg:

Die Klein Balans (1586)

Die Sterreboodskapper (1610 in Latyn, Sidereus Nuncius)

Diskoers oor drywende liggame (1612)

Briewe op sonvlekke (1613)

Diskoers oor die getye (1616 in Italiaans, Discorso del flusso e reflusso del mare)

Diskoers oor die komete (1619 in Italiaans, Discorso Delle Comete)

Die Assayer (1623 in Italiaans, Il Saggiatore)

Dialoog oor die twee belangrikste wêreldstelsels (1632 in Italiaans Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)

Diskoerse en wiskundige demonstrasies met betrekking tot twee nuwe wetenskappe (1638 in Italiaans, Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, in die regte tyd vir nuwe wetenskap)


Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei is op 15 Februarie 1564 in Pisa, Italië, gebore. Hy was 'n wiskundige, sterrekundige, fisikus, skrywer en filosoof. Hy het 'n groot bydrae gelewer tot die wetenskaplike revolusie. Sy ouers was 'n beroemde musikant, Vincenzo Galilei, en Giulia Ammannati. Hy het ook 'n goeie luitenant geword, net soos sy pa. In 1583 word hy toegelaat aan die beroemde Universiteit van Pisa. Maar met sy talent het hy gou belanggestel in wiskunde en fisika. Nadat hy die Aristoteliaanse teorie ondersteun het, het hy 'n goeie posisie gekry in die magtigste wetenskaplike gesag wat deur die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk aangedryf is. Maar weens finansiële probleme verlaat hy die universiteit in 1585.

Daarna studeer hy wiskunde. En daarna het hy 'n boek met die naam “ The Little Balance ” geskryf wat sy studie van twee dekades oor voorwerpe in beweging beskryf. Vir hierdie boek het hy 'n bietjie beroemd geword en het hy in 1589 'n onderwyspos aan die Universiteit van Pisa gekry. Toe begin Galileo sy studie oor vallende voorwerpe wat verskil van die Aristoteliaanse teorie, skryf. Om hierdie rede verloor hy die pos aan die Universiteit van Pisa in 1952. In 1609 verander hy 'n teleskoop om die lug te sien. Daarna skryf hy 'n boek met die naam “The Starry Messenger ” waarin die ronde vorm van die maan met klein berge beskryf word.

Binnekort begin hy die Copernican -teorie dat die son die middelpunt is en die aarde om die son draai, ondersteun. Dit was heeltemal aanstootlik vir die teorieë van die Aristoteliese en Rooms -Katolieke Kerk. Daarna publiseer hy die “Discourse on Bodies in Water ” waarin hy beskryf hoe die voorwerpe op water dryf, wat ook anders was as die Aristoteliaanse teorie. In 1613 skryf hy 'n brief aan sy student waarin hy die ooreenkoms tussen die Bybel en die Copernikaanse teorie beskryf. Die kerk het die brief gevang en dit openbaar gemaak. Toe kondig die kerk die kopernikaanse teorie as onwettig aan. Galileo is beveel om nie te leer hoe om die Copernican -teorie oor die aarde te publiseer nie. Galileo het 7 jaar lank stilgebly. In 1623 is kardinaal Maffeo Barberini gekies as die pous Urban VIII. Hy was 'n goeie vriend van Galileo. Hy het Galileo aangemoedig om sy studie voort te sit. Maar hy het hom ook aangesê om niks te skryf wat die Copernican -teorie ondersteun nie.

Met sy ondersteuning publiseer Galileo “Dialogue betreffende die twee belangrikste wêreldstelsels ”. Hierdie boek was eintlik 'n bespreking tussen die Kopernikaanse en die Aristoteliese teorie. Alhoewel hy gesê het dat die boek neutraal was, het die voorstander van die Aristoteliese teorie hom teëgestaan. Die kerk het hom gevange geneem en gemartel. Daarna het die kerk hom gestraf omdat hy sy oorblywende jare onder huisarres deurgebring het. Hoewel hy tydens huisarres nie sy werk mag skryf of publiseer nie. Hy slaag daarin om sommige van sy werke soos “Dialogue ” en “Two New Sciences ” te publiseer. Hierdie groot wetenskaplike sterf op 8 Januarie 1642. En in 1992, 350 jaar na sy dood, het die pous Johannes Paulus II uiteindelik sy spyt oor die Galileo -saak uitgespreek.


Galileo Galilei in Padua: "Die beste jare van my lewe

PADOVA - Dit is die stad waar, vir nie minder nie as 18 jaar, een van Italië se briljantste burgers, Galileo Galilei, universiteitstudente wiskunde en meganika geleer het. Padua (hierna Padua) was reeds in Europa bekend vir sy diep kultuur en eerbiedwaardige universiteit, wat Galileo daarheen aangetrek het. Vir hom, "Wiskunde is die alfabet waarin God die heelal geskryf het." Tog was Galileo ongelooflik veelsydig, geïnteresseerd in filosofie sowel as wetenskap en wiskunde. Hy het nie net die Melkweg begin bestudeer nie, maar om sy professorale toelae af te rond, het Galileo in Padova ook 'n verhandeling geskryf oor militêre versterkings en, vir geld, horoskope vir privaat individue.

Padova vier vandag Galileo in 'n verbeeldingryke uitstalling wat pas geopen is in die Palazzo del Monte di Pietà, "Rivoluzione Galileo: L'Arte Incontra la Scienza" (The Galileo Revolution: Art Encounters Science). Galileo, gebore in Pisa in 1564, het daar begin studeer, maar kort daarna na Florence en in 1592 na Padova. Daar word ons vertel dat hy voordeel getrek het uit die klimaat van relatiewe godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid wat die Venesiese Republiek toelaat, waarvan Padova deel was. Dit was, het Galileo later gesê, "die beste jare van my hele lewe." Behalwe dat hy onderrig gegee het, het Galileo privaat lesse gegee aan beroemde inwoners, waaronder twee toekomstige kardinale en ten minste twee prinse.

In die uitstalling is ongeveer 200 stukke, wat die fundamentele oorgang van die tydperk van astrologie tot sterrekunde illustreer - dit wil sê die lug voor en na Galileo se ontdekkings van die maanberge. "Die uitstalling is 'n reis in die kunsgeskiedenis oor Galileo, wetenskaplike en letterkundige, wiskundige en kunstenaar, liefhebber van die sterre en van Ariosto" (Ariosto, die skrywer van die drama in vers "L'Orlando Furioso"), skryf Raffaele De Santis in 'n resensie van die uitstalling.

Daar is 'n 24 voet lange teleskoop wat in die 1660's gemaak is deur die pionieroptikus en sterrekundige Giuseppe Campani, wat naby Spoleto gebore is voordat hy sy baanbrekerslaboratorium in Rome opgerig het. Behalwe waterverf deur Galileo self, is daar poëtiese (indien nie wetenskaplik realistiese) visioene van die lug wat deur Leonardo da Vinci, Durer, Brueghel die Jongere en Rubens geskilder is.

Op 12 April 1633 is Galileo deur die Inkwisisie, die Heilige Kantoor (Santi Uffizi) na Rome ontbied. In 'n artikel vir die tydskrif Church History verlede jaar het prof. Henry Kelly van UCLA geskryf dat Galileo tydens die verhoor gesê het dat hy na 1616 nooit oorweeg het dat heliosentrisme moontlik is nie. 'Galileo het duidelik die waarheid uitgespreek. Deur anders te erken sou die boete wat hy gekry het, toegeneem het, maar nie sy lewe in gevaar gestel het nie, aangesien hy ingestem het om afstand te doen van die dwaalleer. "

Van die ondersoekbeamptes kom geen bedreiging van marteling nie, sê prof. Kelly. Tog het Galileo 'n afkeer gemaak, maar is skuldig bevind aan kettery op 22 Junie 1633. Sedertdien het skrywers vir hom woorde uitgevind, soos hierdie weergawe deur die Italiaanse skrywer Primo Levi (1919 - 1987), die skrywer van "Se questo è un uomo ":" Ek moes buk en sê dat ek nie sien wat ek sien nie. " Galileo is eers in die huis van die aartsbiskop van Siena aangehou en daarna onder huisarres in Arcetri op die Florentynse heuwels, waar hy op 8 Januarie 1642 oorlede is.

Uitstallingsbesoekers kan ook inskakel by die plekke in Padova wat verband hou met Galileo. Na sy aankoms in Padua in 1592 woon Galileo nege jaar lank in die huis van Gianvincenzo Pinelli, goeie vriend van Galileo. Pinelli was 'n humanistiese filosoof. (Humanistiese studies word steeds onderrig, insluitend aan die Universiteit van John Cabot in Rome.)

Van 1601 tot 1610 woon Galileo in 'n huis oorkant 'n skool, die G. Pascoli, in 'n straat wat nou na Galileo vernoem is. Terwyl hy die lug vanuit sy venster en uit die tuin waarneem, ontdek hy die mane van Jupiter. Nog 'n voorgestelde besoek is aan Palazzo del Bo, wat die Universiteit van Padua na 1493 gehuisves het. Die paleis, met nuut gerestoureerde fresco's, huisves nog steeds 'n paar universiteitskantore en die wêreld se oudste anatomiese teater vir mediese studente.

Galileo se twee kinders, Livia en Gianvincenzo, is gedoop in die klein kerkie Santa Caterina aan die Via Cesare Battisti, waarin die doopsertifikaat van een te sien is. Die kerk, wat uit die 14de eeu dateer, is in 1976 ernstig beskadig deur 'n aardbewing en is onlangs herstel. Gedurende die middeleeue is 'n kollege aan die kerk verbonde, en op 25 November is daar jaarliks ​​'n universiteitsoptog gehou om die akademiese jaar in te lei.

'N Vyfde stop op die Galileo -roete by Padua is die Vecchia Canonica, waar die priester Don Paolo Gualdo, rektor van die Padua -katedraal (Duomo), gereeld met Galileo vergader het. En dan is daar die biblioteek van die Padova Seminary, die Biblioteca, in wie se versameling 'n kosbare eerste uitgawe van 'Dialogue on Maximum Systems' van 1632 verskyn, met handgeskrewe aantekeninge deur Galileo in die kantlyn. Besoekers word ook aangemoedig om die Museum of Medicine (MUSME) te besoek, waar gesprekke gevoer word oor die invloed van Galileo op die wetenskap van medisyne wat sy eerste universiteitsjare in die mediese studie was.


Sterrekundige Galileo sterf in Italië - GESKIEDENIS

Galileo is gebore in Pisa, Italië, op 15 Februarie 1564. Het jy geweet dat Galileo in dieselfde jaar as William Shakespeare gebore is? Dit is ook dieselfde jaar waarin Michelangelo gesterf het.

Toe Galileo gebore is, is Italië nie Italië genoem nie. In plaas daarvan bestaan ​​Italië uit onafhanklike stadstate. The city-states were in regions controlled by powerful families. Pisa was located in the Tuscany region and controlled by the Medici family.

Galileo died on January 8 , 1642, in Arcetri, near Florence, Italy. He was 77 years old. He is buried in the Santa Croce cemetery in Florence.

Galileo's observations of the planet Jupiter were very important. To honor his contributions, the four moons of Jupiter which Galileo discovered are called the Galilean Moons. These are Jupiter's largest moons.

There is also a spacecraft named after Galileo. It was launched on October 18, 1989, to orbit Jupiter. It went into orbit around Jupiter in 1995.

Galileo proved the earth revolved around the sun.

He was a great astronomer and scientist. Galileo spent the last years of his life under house arrest on orders of the Inquisition. Today he is considered a pioneer in the science of astronomy.


Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei's parents were Vincenzo Galilei and Guilia Ammannati. Vincenzo, who was born in Florence in 1520 , was a teacher of music and a fine lute player. After studying music in Venice he carried out experiments on strings to support his musical theories. Guilia, who was born in Pescia, married Vincenzo in 1563 and they made their home in the countryside near Pisa. Galileo was their first child and spent his early years with his family in Pisa.

In 1572 , when Galileo was eight years old, his family returned to Florence, his father's home town. However, Galileo remained in Pisa and lived for two years with Muzio Tedaldi who was related to Galileo's mother by marriage. When he reached the age of ten, Galileo left Pisa to join his family in Florence and there he was tutored by Jacopo Borghini. Once he was old enough to be educated in a monastery, his parents sent him to the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa which is situated on a magnificent forested hillside 33 km southeast of Florence. The Camaldolese Order was independent of the Benedictine Order, splitting from it in about 1012 . The Order combined the solitary life of the hermit with the strict life of the monk and soon the young Galileo found this life an attractive one. He became a novice, intending to join the Order, but this did not please his father who had already decided that his eldest son should become a medical doctor.

Vincenzo had Galileo return from Vallombrosa to Florence and give up the idea of joining the Camaldolese order. He did continue his schooling in Florence, however, in a school run by the Camaldolese monks. In 1581 Vincenzo sent Galileo back to Pisa to live again with Muzio Tedaldi and now to enrol for a medical degree at the University of Pisa. Although the idea of a medical career never seems to have appealed to Galileo, his father's wish was a fairly natural one since there had been a distinguished physician in his family in the previous century. Galileo never seems to have taken medical studies seriously, attending courses on his real interests which were in mathematics and natural philosophy. His mathematics teacher at Pisa was Filippo Fantoni, who held the chair of mathematics. Galileo returned to Florence for the summer vacations and there continued to study mathematics.

In the year 1582 - 83 Ostilio Ricci, who was the mathematician of the Tuscan Court and a former pupil of Tartaglia, taught a course on Euclid's Elemente at the University of Pisa which Galileo attended. During the summer of 1583 Galileo was back in Florence with his family and Vincenzo encouraged him to read Galen to further his medical studies. However Galileo, still reluctant to study medicine, invited Ricci ( also in Florence where the Tuscan court spent the summer and autumn ) to his home to meet his father. Ricci tried to persuade Vincenzo to allow his son to study mathematics since this was where his interests lay. Certainly Vincenzo did not like the idea and resisted strongly but eventually he gave way a little and Galileo was able to study the works of Euclid and Archimedes from the Italian translations which Tartaglia had made. Of course he was still officially enrolled as a medical student at Pisa but eventually, by 1585 , he gave up this course and left without completing his degree.

Galileo began teaching mathematics, first privately in Florence and then during 1585 - 86 at Siena where he held a public appointment. During the summer of 1586 he taught at Vallombrosa, and in this year he wrote his first scientific book The little balance [ La Balancitta ] which described Archimedes' method of finding the specific gravities ( that is the relative densities ) of substances using a balance. In the following year he travelled to Rome to visit Clavius who was professor of mathematics at the Jesuit Collegio Romano there. A topic which was very popular with the Jesuit mathematicians at this time was centres of gravity and Galileo brought with him some results which he had discovered on this topic. Despite making a very favourable impression on Clavius, Galileo failed to gain an appointment to teach mathematics at the University of Bologna.

After leaving Rome Galileo remained in contact with Clavius by correspondence and Guidobaldo del Monte was also a regular correspondent. Certainly the theorems which Galileo had proved on the centres of gravity of solids, and left in Rome, were discussed in this correspondence. It is also likely that Galileo received lecture notes from courses which had been given at the Collegio Romano, for he made copies of such material which still survive today. The correspondence began around 1588 and continued for many years. Also in 1588 Galileo received a prestigious invitation to lecture on the dimensions and location of hell in Dante's Inferno at the Academy in Florence.

Fantoni left the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa in 1589 and Galileo was appointed to fill the post ( although this was only a nominal position to provide financial support for Galileo ) . Not only did he receive strong recommendations from Clavius, but he also had acquired an excellent reputation through his lectures at the Florence Academy in the previous year. The young mathematician had rapidly acquired the reputation that was necessary to gain such a position, but there were still higher positions at which he might aim. Galileo spent three years holding this post at the university of Pisa and during this time he wrote De Motu a series of essays on the theory of motion which he never published. It is likely that he never published this material because he was less than satisfied with it, and this is fair for despite containing some important steps forward, it also contained some incorrect ideas. Perhaps the most important new ideas which De Motu contains is that one can test theories by conducting experiments. In particular the work contains his important idea that one could test theories about falling bodies using an inclined plane to slow down the rate of descent.

In 1591 Vincenzo Galilei, Galileo's father, died and since Galileo was the eldest son he had to provide financial support for the rest of the family and in particular have the necessary financial means to provide dowries for his two younger sisters. Being professor of mathematics at Pisa was not well paid, so Galileo looked for a more lucrative post. With strong recommendations from Guidobaldo del Monte, Galileo was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Padua ( the university of the Republic of Venice ) in 1592 at a salary of three times what he had received at Pisa. On 7 December 1592 he gave his inaugural lecture and began a period of eighteen years at the university, years which he later described as the happiest of his life. At Padua his duties were mainly to teach Euclid's geometry and standard ( geocentric ) astronomy to medical students, who would need to know some astronomy in order to make use of astrology in their medical practice. However, Galileo argued against Aristotle's view of astronomy and natural philosophy in three public lectures he gave in connection with the appearance of a New Star ( now known as 'Kepler's supernova' ) in 1604 . The belief at this time was that of Aristotle, namely that all changes in the heavens had to occur in the lunar region close to the Earth, the realm of the fixed stars being permanent. Galileo used parallax arguments to prove that the New Star could not be close to the Earth. In a personal letter written to Kepler in 1598 , Galileo had stated that he was a Copernican ( believer in the theories of Copernicus ) . However, no public sign of this belief was to appear until many years later.

At Padua, Galileo began a long term relationship with Maria Gamba, who was from Venice, but they did not marry perhaps because Galileo felt his financial situation was not good enough. In 1600 their first child Virginia was born, followed by a second daughter Livia in the following year. In 1606 their son Vincenzo was born.

We mentioned above an error in Galileo's theory of motion as he set it out in De Motu around 1590 . He was quite mistaken in his belief that the force acting on a body was the relative difference between its specific gravity and that of the substance through which it moved. Galileo wrote to his friend Paolo Sarpi, a fine mathematician who was consultor to the Venetian government, in 1604 and it is clear from his letter that by this time he had realised his mistake. In fact he had returned to work on the theory of motion in 1602 and over the following two years, through his study of inclined planes and the pendulum, he had formulated the correct law of falling bodies and had worked out that a projectile follows a parabolic path. However, these famous results would not be published for another 35 years.

In May 1609 , Galileo received a letter from Paolo Sarpi telling him about a spyglass that a Dutchman had shown in Venice. Galileo wrote in the Starry Messenger ( Sidereus Nuncius ) in April 1610 :-

From these reports, and using his own technical skills as a mathematician and as a craftsman, Galileo began to make a series of telescopes whose optical performance was much better than that of the Dutch instrument. His first telescope was made from available lenses and gave a magnification of about four times. To improve on this Galileo learned how to grind and polish his own lenses and by August 1609 he had an instrument with a magnification of around eight or nine. Galileo immediately saw the commercial and military applications of his telescope ( which he called a perspicillum ) for ships at sea. He kept Sarpi informed of his progress and Sarpi arranged a demonstration for the Venetian Senate. They were very impressed and, in return for a large increase in his salary, Galileo gave the sole rights for the manufacture of telescopes to the Venetian Senate. It seems a particularly good move on his part since he must have known that such rights were meaningless, particularly since he always acknowledged that the telescope was not his invention!

By the end of 1609 Galileo had turned his telescope on the night sky and began to make remarkable discoveries. Swerdlow writes ( see [ 16 ] ) :-

The astronomical discoveries he made with his telescopes were described in a short book called the Starry Messenger published in Venice in May 1610 . This work caused a sensation. Galileo claimed to have seen mountains on the Moon, to have proved the Milky Way was made up of tiny stars, and to have seen four small bodies orbiting Jupiter. These last, with an eye to getting a position in Florence, he quickly named 'the Medicean stars'. He had also sent Cosimo de Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, an excellent telescope for himself.

The Venetian Senate, perhaps realising that the rights to manufacture telescopes that Galileo had given them were worthless, froze his salary. However he had succeeded in impressing Cosimo and, in June 1610 , only a month after his famous little book was published, Galileo resigned his post at Padua and became Chief Mathematician at the University of Pisa ( without any teaching duties ) and 'Mathematician and Philosopher' to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1611 he visited Rome where he was treated as a leading celebrity the Collegio Romano put on a grand dinner with speeches to honour Galileo's remarkable discoveries. He was also made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei ( in fact the sixth member ) and this was an honour which was especially important to Galileo who signed himself 'Galileo Galilei Linceo' from this time on.

While in Rome, and after his return to Florence, Galileo continued to make observations with his telescope. Already in the Starry Messenger he had given rough periods of the four moons of Jupiter, but more precise calculations were certainly not easy since it was difficult to identify from an observation which moon was I, which was II, which III, and which IV. He made a long series of observations and was able to give accurate periods by 1612 . At one stage in the calculations he became very puzzled since the data he had recorded seemed inconsistent, but he had forgotten to take into account the motion of the Earth round the sun.

Galileo first turned his telescope on Saturn on 25 July 1610 and it appeared as three bodies ( his telescope was not good enough to show the rings but made them appear as lobes on either side of the planet ) . Continued observations were puzzling indeed to Galileo as the bodies on either side of Saturn vanished when the ring system was edge on. Also in 1610 he discovered that, when seen in the telescope, the planet Venus showed phases like those of the Moon, and therefore must orbit the Sun not the Earth. This did not enable one to decide between the Copernican system, in which everything goes round the Sun, and that proposed by Tycho Brahe in which everything but the Earth ( and Moon ) goes round the Sun which in turn goes round the Earth. Most astronomers of the time in fact favoured Brahe's system and indeed distinguishing between the two by experiment was beyond the instruments of the day. However, Galileo knew that all his discoveries were evidence for Copernicanism, although not a proof. In fact it was his theory of falling bodies which was the most significant in this respect, for opponents of a moving Earth argued that if the Earth rotated and a body was dropped from a tower it should fall behind the tower as the Earth rotated while it fell. Since this was not observed in practice this was taken as strong evidence that the Earth was stationary. However Galileo already knew that a body would fall in the observed manner on a rotating Earth.

Other observations made by Galileo included the observation of sunspots. He reported these in Discourse on floating bodies which he published in 1612 and more fully in Letters on the sunspots which appeared in 1613 . In the following year his two daughters entered the Franciscan Convent of St Matthew outside Florence, Virginia taking the name Sister Maria Celeste and Livia the name Sister Arcangela. Since they had been born outside of marriage, Galileo believed that they themselves should never marry. Although Galileo put forward many revolutionary correct theories, he was not correct in all cases. In particular when three comets appeared in 1618 he became involved in a controversy regarding the nature of comets. He argued that they were close to the Earth and caused by optical refraction. A serious consequence of this unfortunate argument was that the Jesuits began to see Galileo as a dangerous opponent.

Despite his private support for Copernicanism, Galileo tried to avoid controversy by not making public statements on the issue. However he was drawn into the controversy through Castelli who had been appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa in 1613 . Castelli had been a student of Galileo's and he was also a supporter of Copernicus. At a meeting in the Medici palace in Florence in December 1613 with the Grand Duke Cosimo II and his mother the Grand Duchess Christina of Lorraine, Castelli was asked to explain the apparent contradictions between the Copernican theory and Holy Scripture. Castelli defended the Copernican position vigorously and wrote to Galileo afterwards telling him how successful he had been in putting the arguments. Galileo, less convinced that Castelli had won the argument, wrote Letter to Castelli to him arguing that the Bible had to be interpreted in the light of what science had shown to be true. Galileo had several opponents in Florence and they made sure that a copy of the Letter to Castelli was sent to the Inquisition in Rome. However, after examining its contents they found little to which they could object.

The Catholic Church's most important figure at this time in dealing with interpretations of the Holy Scripture was Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. He seems at this time to have seen little reason for the Church to be concerned regarding the Copernican theory. The point at issue was whether Copernicus had simply put forward a mathematical theory which enabled the calculation of the positions of the heavenly bodies to be made more simply or whether he was proposing a physical reality. At this time Bellarmine viewed the theory as an elegant mathematical one which did not threaten the established Christian belief regarding the structure of the universe.

In 1616 Galileo wrote the Letter to the Grand Duchess which vigorously attacked the followers of Aristotle. In this work, which he addressed to the Grand Duchess Christina of Lorraine, he argued strongly for a non-literal interpretation of Holy Scripture when the literal interpretation would contradict facts about the physical world proved by mathematical science. In this Galileo stated quite clearly that for him the Copernican theory is not just a mathematical calculating tool, but is a physical reality:-

Pope Urban VIII invited Galileo to papal audiences on six occasions and led Galileo to believe that the Catholic Church would not make an issue of the Copernican theory. Galileo, therefore, decided to publish his views believing that he could do so without serious consequences from the Church. However by this stage in his life Galileo's health was poor with frequent bouts of severe illness and so even though he began to write his famous Dialogue in 1624 it took him six years to complete the work.

Galileo attempted to obtain permission from Rome to publish the Dialogue in 1630 but this did not prove easy. Eventually he received permission from Florence, and not Rome. In February 1632 Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World - Ptolemaic and Copernican. It takes the form of a dialogue between Salviati, who argues for the Copernican system, and Simplicio who is an Aristotelian philosopher. The climax of the book is an argument by Salviati that the Earth moves which was based on Galileo's theory of the tides. Galileo's theory of the tides was entirely false despite being postulated after Kepler had already put forward the correct explanation. It was unfortunate, given the remarkable truths the Dialogue supported, that the argument which Galileo thought to give the strongest proof of Copernicus's theory should be incorrect.

Shortly after publication of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World - Ptolemaic and Copernican the Inquisition banned its sale and ordered Galileo to appear in Rome before them. Illness prevented him from travelling to Rome until 1633 . Galileo's accusation at the trial which followed was that he had breached the conditions laid down by the Inquisition in 1616 . However a different version of this decision was produced at the trial rather than the one Galileo had been given at the time. The truth of the Copernican theory was not an issue therefore it was taken as a fact at the trial that this theory was false. This was logical, of course, since the judgement of 1616 had declared it totally false.

Found guilty, Galileo was condemned to lifelong imprisonment, but the sentence was carried out somewhat sympathetically and it amounted to house arrest rather than a prison sentence. He was able to live first with the Archbishop of Siena, then later to return to his home in Arcetri, near Florence, but had to spend the rest of his life watched over by officers from the Inquisition. In 1634 he suffered a severe blow when his daughter Virginia, Sister Maria Celeste, died. She had been a great support to her father through his illnesses and Galileo was shattered and could not work for many months. When he did manage to restart work, he began to write Discourses and mathematical demonstrations concerning the two new sciences.

After Galileo had completed work on the Discourses it was smuggled out of Italy, and taken to Leyden in Holland where it was published. It was his most rigorous mathematical work which treated problems on impetus, moments, and centres of gravity. Much of this work went back to the unpublished ideas in De Motu from around 1590 and the improvements which he had worked out during 1602 - 1604 . In die Discourses he developed his ideas of the inclined plane writing:-

After giving further results of this type he gives his famous result that the distance that a body moves from rest under uniform acceleration is proportional to the square of the time taken.

One would expect that Galileo's understanding of the pendulum, which he had since he was a young man, would have led him to design a pendulum clock. In fact he only seems to have thought of this possibility near the end of his life and around 1640 he did design the first pendulum clock. Galileo died in early 1642 but the significance of his clock design was certainly realised by his son Vincenzo who tried to make a clock to Galileo's plan, but failed.

It was a sad end for so great a man to die condemned of heresy. His will indicated that he wished to be buried beside his father in the family tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce but his relatives feared, quite rightly, that this would provoke opposition from the Church. His body was concealed and only placed in a fine tomb in the church in 1737 by the civil authorities against the wishes of many in the Church. On 31 October 1992 , 350 years after Galileo's death, Pope John Paul II gave an address on behalf of the Catholic Church in which he admitted that errors had been made by the theological advisors in the case of Galileo. He declared the Galileo case closed, but he did not admit that the Church was wrong to convict Galileo on a charge of heresy because of his belief that the Earth rotates round the sun.


Kyk die video: Galileo Galileis trial -the trailer (Januarie 2022).