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Watter godsdiens was die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens?

Watter godsdiens was die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens?

Watter godsdiens was die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens? Was dit Judaïsme of 'n godsdiens wat uit die praktyk verdwyn het?


Judaïsme is baie oud, maar dit was oorspronklik nie monoteïsties nie (sien onder).

'N Vroeër voorbeeld van monoteïstiese of monoteïsties-aanbiddelike aanbidding het plaasgevind in die vorm van Atenisme, die aanbidding van die vergoddelikte sonskyf Aten in antieke Egipte. Die Farao Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten), wat in 1353/1351-1336/1334 v.C. regeer het, het dit as 'n waarskynlik monoteïstiese staatsgodsdiens vir Egipte bevorder.

O enigste god, soos wie daar geen ander is nie! U het die wêreld geskep volgens u begeerte, terwyl u alleen was: Alle mense, beeste en wilde diere (...) Die heer van almal, wat hulle vermoeid was, die heer van elke land, wat vir hulle opstaan,

- Groot lofsang vir die Aten

Aanbidding van Aten is voor Akhenaten, maar onder sy bewind het Atenisme verander van 'n meer tradisionele henoteïsme tot iets wat as monoteïsme erken kan word. Hy verhef eers Aten in die opperste god, en het later Aten verklaar die enigste god. Dit het gelyk asof hy ook die aanbidding van ander gode en afgode verbied het. Kort na die dood van Akhenaten is die vorige kultus van Ra egter herstel en het die ateneïsme tot 'n einde gekom.

Atenisme onder Akhenaten word gewoonlik genoem as die eerste ware monoteïsme, maar dit is moontlik geïnspireer deur vroeëre Egiptiese gedagtes. Die Here Carnarvon (1866-1923) het geskryf:

Sommige het beweer dat Amenhetep IV die eerste monoteïs in Egipte was, maar die aanvaarding van hierdie stelling hang af van watter betekenis die woord monoteïsme gee, dit wil sê die leerstelling dat daar slegs een god is. Die gedeeltes uit die Moral Papyri hierbo aangehaal toon dat die Egiptiese priesters en geleerde mans was monoteïsties, al verkondig hulle nie die eenheid van die god na wie hulle verwys nie.

- Herbert, George Edwarde Stanhope Molyneux en graaf van Carnarvon. "Amenisme, Atenisme en die Egiptiese monoteïsme."

In elk geval, die opkoms en ondergang van Atenisme is 'n paar honderd jaar lank voor die opkoms van Judaïsme as 'n monoteïstiese godsdiens.


Ek het nie gedink dit is omstrede nie; gegewe @TylerDurden se reaksie, blykbaar vergis ek my, so hier is 'n verdere uitwerking:

Die Joodse geloof het eers ten tye van die Babiloniese ballingskap hom ten volle tot monoteïsme verbind. Voor dit was die Joodse volk grotendeels henoteïsties, indien nie politeïsties nie. Dit is glad nie 'n nuwe konsep nie.

'N Ondersoek na die ontwikkeling van Judaïsme van politeïsme, henoteïsme en monoteïsme tot die universaliteit van God is in orde. (...) Die Jode van [die Eerste Tempel] was henoteïste; hulle het hul God aanbid, die God van die land wat teen hulle vyande geveg het en die oppergesag van ander gode was. Af en toe aanbid hulle gode van verskillende lande.

(… )

Die rampe wat die Judeërs getref het tydens die verbranding van die Eerste Tempel en in hulle ballingskap na die oewers van die riviere Tigris en Eufraat, het 'n tugtigende uitwerking op hulle gehad, en dit kan een van die oorsake wees wat 'n omwenteling in hul verhouding tot hul God veroorsaak het. Voor die ballingskap het die Jode hul God beskou as die God van die land en beter as ander gode, maar hulle het ook ander gode aanbid.

(… )

Met die terugkeer van die Jode van Babilonië na Judea, eers onder leiding van Serubbabel en Josua en later onder Esra en Nehemia, het henoteïsme verdwyn en het monoteïsme sy plek ingeneem.

- Zeitlin, Solomon. "Judaïsme as 'n godsdiens: 'n historiese studie. XI. Godsdiens en nasionaliteit (vervolg)." Die Jewish Quarterly Review (1944): 179-225.

Dat die oorgang na monoteïsme plaasgevind het omtrent dieselfde tyd toe die Jode na Babilon gedeporteer is, is 'n algemene siening.

Terwyl sommige geleerdes steeds by die Bybelse verhaal bly, waarin die voorvaders van Israel 'n suiwer monoteïsme aan die begin van die geskiedenis van die nasie bekendgestel het, is die huidige neiging deesdae om 'n lang ontwikkeling in die godsdiens van Israel te veronderstel van 'n oorspronklik politeïstiese of henoteïstiese tot 'n monoteïstiese stelsel teen die tyd van die Babiloniese ballingskap.

(… )

Alhoewel die Shema in die oorspronklike konteks van die 7de eeu vC moontlik beteken het dat die Jode onder al die gode slegs JHWH (henoteïsme) moes aanbid, het die Judaïsme die Shema verstaan ​​as sy sentrale geloofsverklaring in een ondeelbare god (monoteïsme).

- Ehrlich, Carl S. Judaïsme. Die Rosen Publishing Group, 2010.

Selfs diegene wat nie saamstem nie, erken dat dit die konsensus is.

Die meeste geleerdes wie se werk op die Israelitiese godsdiens fokus, erken dat die Hebreeuse Bybel 'n aantal verwysings bevat wat die bestaan ​​van ander gode aanvaar en selfs bevestig. As 'n uitvloeisel van hierdie waarneming beweer geleerdes ook gereeld dat geen eksplisiete ontkenning van die bestaan ​​van ander gode plaasvind in die tyd van Deutero-Jesaja en daarna in 'n vermeende veldtog deur ywerige skrifgeleerdes om sulke verwysings uit die heilige teks te verwyder nie. Selfs die Shema en die eerste gebod laat die ander gode nie aan fantasie toe nie, aangesien die eis gestel word dat geen ander gode aanbid moet word nie. Die gegewens lig ons blykbaar in dat die Israelitiese godsdiens ontwikkel het van politeïsme tot henoteïstiese monolatrie tot monoteïsme.

- Heiser, Michael. "Monoteïsme, politeïsme, monolatrie of henoteïsme? Op pad na 'n beoordeling van goddelike pluraliteit in die Hebreeuse Bybel." Fakulteitspublikasies en aanbiedings (2008): 277.

Uiteraard kan u dit alles regkry deur Judaïsme eers te definieer as die Jode die bestaan ​​van enige ander god finaal verwerp het. Alhoewel dit eintlik meer 'n kwessie van semantiek sou wees. Soos gestry word oor 'enkelheerser kultusse' vs 'relegies (sic)'.


In 'n aanhangsel by sy boek "When Our World Became Christian", bestudeer Paul Veyne in watter mate die konsep van monoteïsme op Judaïsme van toepassing is. Sy belangrikste punt is dat die konsep van monoteïsme ("daar is net een God") van monolatrisme ("julle sal maar één God aanbid") onderskei kan word slegs as die idee van "'n nie-bestaande god" gekonseptualiseer kan word. Daardie idee verskyn op 'n tyd; voor die uitvinding het mense nie aan gode gedink in terme van waar/vals nie, maar eerder in terme van joune/ander, of sterker/swakker. Paul Veyne verwys na die relevante Skriftekste waarin die oorgang van monolatrisme na monoteïsme gesien kan word.

Die Babiloniese ballingskap was blykbaar 'n keerpunt omdat dit die Hebreeuse intellektuele elites blootgestel het aan konsepte wat in meer Oosterse gebiede ontwikkel is, veral die Zoroastrianisme. Alhoewel die Zoroastrianisme eers later die status van "staatsgodsdiens" in Persië verkry het, was die basiese konsepte ouer (die presiese datum word sterk betwis, maar die huidige konsensus dui op "'n tyd in die 2de millenium vC"). Die idees het begin deurdring na die naburige Babilonië toe die Hebreeus daar was. Onder hierdie konsepte was die idee dat daar 'n Opperste Godheid (Ahura Mazda) was, en dat ander 'gode' werklik ondergeskiktes was, selfs gevolmagtigdes; elke gebed wat aan enige god gestuur is, is uiteindelik onder die aandag van Ahura Mazda gebring. In daardie opsig het die ander gode in die Zoroastrianisme op daardie tydstip reeds begin beskou as protogele en demone, gerespekteer en/of gevrees, maar nie 'gode' in dieselfde sin van Ahura Mazda nie.

Toe die Hebreeus uit Babilon terugkom, het monoteïsme in hulle gedagtes uitgekristalliseer: hulle het nou besef dat 'n god vals kan wees, nie bestaan ​​nie. Dit kontrasteer met wat filosowe in die 5de eeu vC Griekeland gedink het: vir hulle was die 'godheid' basies die Kosmos, die orde. Konseptuele gode was baie, bv. Eros (vir liefde) of Chronos (vir tyd). Hulle het geen idee gehad dat 'n konsep nie bestaan ​​nie: as u daaroor kan nadink, bestaan ​​dit en is dit deel van die Kosmos, sodat u dit kan aanbid.

Aangesien monoteïsme 'n geleidelike vernuwing was, is daar 'tussenstate' en kan 'n mens nie presies die presiese jaar waarin dit gebeur het, bepaal nie. Die term henoteïsme is geskep om hierdie tussengangers te beskryf. In die geval van Europa en die Midde-Ooste blyk dit dat ware monoteïsme met Judaïsme in die 6de of 5de eeu vC ontstaan ​​het, hoewel sommige definisies van monoteïsme vroeër Zoroastrianisme of Atenisme kan insluit (soos beskryf deur @Semaphore). (Daar kan egter gesê word dat toe Akhenaten daartoe bygedra het wat eintlik monolatrie was, hy meer bekommerd was oor die alledaagse krag van die Amun -priesterskap as oor die beweerde valsheid van die ander gode.)


Zoroastrianisme

Alhoewel ons Judaïsme gewoonlik as die eerste monoteïstiese geloof erken, kan die titel eintlik na Zoroastrianisme gaan. Zoroastrianisme is gestig rondom die 6de eeu vC. In 'n neutedop het dit die vorige Persiese panteon laat vaar en dit vereenvoudig

"twee kragte Spenta Mainyu (progressiewe mentaliteit) en Angra Mainyu (vernietigende mentaliteit) onder die een God, Ahura Mazda (Illuminating Wisdom)"

Alhoewel Judaïsme ouer is as die 6de eeu vC, was Judaïsme eers 'n streng monoteïstiese geloof totdat die Israeliete uit die ballingskap van Babilon, wat gebeur het rondom die 6de eeu, uit Persië teruggekeer het.

Zoroastrianisme het 'n paar eeue lank as die staatsgodsdiens van Persië voortbestaan ​​totdat Alexander die Grote kom, waarna dit geleidelik afgeneem het. Die meeste van die oorblywende Zoroastriërs het hulle by die aankoms tot Islam bekeer (waarskynlik vereenvoudig deur die monoteïstiese ooreenkomste), hoewel daar nog steeds 'n lewendige gemeenskap Zoroastriërs is, baie in Iran (150'000 - 2 miljoen, afhangende van wie u vra).


Akenaten

In Egipte het Farao Amenhotep IV 'n nuwe monoteïstiese godsdiens begin en homself herdoop tot Akenaten en verhuis na 'n nuwe hoofstad Armana, sonder die normale godsdiens. Dit sou ongeveer 1350 vC tot 1320 vC wees.

Toe hy sterf, versoen sy seun Tutankhamun met die ou regime, en die stad is verlate. Hierdie dwaalleer en die noodsaaklikheid om die bestaan ​​daarvan uit te wis, is een van die redes waarom King Tut se graf ongeskonde gelaat is sodat dit in die 1920's gevind kon word.

Ek weet dat Sigmund Freud 'n boek "Moses en monoteïsme" geskryf het wat die ontwikkeling van Judaïsme aan Akenaten wou koppel, maar die meeste is blykbaar nie oortuig nie.


'N Jammer vraag. Atenisme was 'n sekte wat van die tradisionele politeïstiese Egiptenare afgewyk het, maar nie regtig ingehaal het na die dood van Amenhotep nie. Een, soos hierbo genoem, kan 'n saak maak dat sy kort voorkoms die eerste aangetekende monoteïstiese geloofstelsel is. Dit word ook dikwels oor die hoof gesien dat die Judaïsme, soos dit gedurende die eerste tempelperiode beoefen is, henoteïsties was, dws die erkenning van die bestaan ​​van ander gode terwyl hulle YHWH of El aanbid as die primêre streeks- of etniese godheid. Judaïsme het verander en na die Mesopotamiese diaspora meer monoteïsties geword as gevolg van die invloed van die Zoroastrianisme onder die Perse.


Laat ek insette lewer oor Hindoeïsme, wat beskou word as 'n belangrike politeïstiese godsdiens en een van die oudstes in die geskiedenis.

Hindoeïsme het eintlik 'n ander naam, 'Sanathana Dharma', wat as die kultuur van Indië beskou word. Alhoewel Hindoeïsme nou beskou word as 'n godsdiens met die hele essensie van hierdie kultuur.

Daar is meer as 33 miljoen gode van Hindoeïsme. Waarom Hindoes soveel gode en godinne aanbid, is vir die meeste mense 'n raaisel. Wat is die rol van Hindoeïsme in 'n monoteïstiese godsdiensvraag hier? Dit speel 'n belangrike rol, want die uiteindelike boodskap van Hindoeïsme lei tot die konsep van enkele God of alle gode is dieselfde. Selfs al is daar soveel gode soos Trinity Shiva, Vishnu en Brahma, sê die kern van die Hindoeïsme dat al hierdie gode dieselfde is. Krishna, Rama, Durga, Ganesha, ens., En die getal is baie meer in die lys van gode. Maar kyk wat sê die Vedas,

Die belangrikste tekste in Hindoeïsme, 4 veda's mahavakyas (uiteindelike boodskappe), is die volgende

1.Rig Veda - prajñānam Parabrahma - Wysheid/bewussyn is die parabrahma (hoogste waarheid, nie te verwar met 'Brahma' in Drie -eenheid)

2.Atharva Veda - ayam ātmā brahma- Ek is hierdie Self is parabrahma

3.Sama Veda - tat tvam asi- Jy is dit (parabrahma)

4.Yajur Veda - aham brahmāsmi- Ek is dit (parabrahma)

Al hierdie skeppers in die wêreld word beskou as die deel van een uiteindelike waarheid wat as 'n 'monoteïstiese GOD' genoem kan word. Volgens Hindoeïsme is al hierdie 33 miljoen gode dieselfde. Die meeste van hierdie gode is die inkarnasies. Net soos Krishna en Rama is die inkarnasie van Lord Vishnu. Almal kan enige van hierdie gode aanbid en tot die uiteindelike waarheid kom.

Sien 'n verwante vraag in Hindoeïsme.SE hier.

Hindoes het ook geen streng beperkings op die kerk of ander tempels soos in die Christendom of Islam nie. Die rede hiervoor is dat Hindoes glo dat alle gode (ook in ander godsdienste) deel is van die uiteindelike waarheid of God. Is dit nie die monoteïsme nie? Hindoes wat die boodskap van hul kultuur ken, weet dat alles een is.

Hindoeïsme is een van die oudste godsdienste, dus as die kern van die boodskap van die hindoeïsme in ag geneem word, kan dit as die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens beskou word. Dit is te oud as Judaïsme, zourastrisme of enige ander godsdienste wat in ander antwoorde genoem word.


Dit is eintlik 'n chronologiese band tussen Judaïsme en die godsdiens van Ismail, die oudste seun van Abraham.

Soos ek in 'n vroeëre berig genoem het, het Ismail en sy vader Abraham óf die bou van die Kaäba in Arabië-of spesifiek in die stad Mekka-laat bou. Die Kaaba is gebou as die eerste fisiese struktuur of aanbiddingshuis wat toegewy is aan die eer, aanbidding en gebed van 'n enkele, abstrakte- (hoewel kommunikatiewe) God in die wêreldgeskiedenis 1000 jaar voor die bou van die tempel van Salomo in Jerusalem. Ismail se monoteïsme- (wat byna ononderskeibaar was van sy jonger broer Isaac se monoteïsme), was kortstondig/ kortstondig. Na die dood van Ismail het die oorgrote meerderheid van sy afstammelinge en toekomstige afstammelinge geleidelik van Abrahamitiese monoteïsme weggedryf en verskillende gode aangeneem wat in afgodiese vorm uitgebeeld word. Die een uitsondering was die Hanifs, wat die monoteïstiese nalatenskap en tradisie van Abraham-Ismail standvastig gehandhaaf en behou het tot 2500 jaar, tot Mohammed se tyd.

Dit is egter die Judaïsme wat sy standvastige lojaliteit en toewyding tot die eer, aanbidding en gebed tot 'n enkele, abstrakte (alhoewel kommunikatiewe) God behou het, begin met Abraham en Isak, hoewel dit deur Jacob, Joseph en 'n lang reeks profetiese figure, soos Moses, Aäron, Josua, Elia, Esegiël, Daniël en Isia. Judaïsme is nie noodwendig die oudste of eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens in die wêreldgeskiedenis nie; Alhoewel Judaïsme verreweg die langste en histories opeenvolgende monoteïstiese godsdiens in die wêreldgeskiedenis is, dateer 4000 jaar gelede.


Monoteïsme

Dit hang wel af van die definisie wat vir monoteïsme gebruik word, waaroor daar verwarring blyk te wees. Oorspronklik het monoteïsme geïmpliseer dat daar slegs een God was, en alle godsdienste het na daardie God gesoek (moontlik in hul persepsie van God). In hierdie opsig is Judaïsme nie monoteïsties nie, aangesien dit sê dat daar een God is, maar ander godsdienste soek NIE na God nie, maar aanbid valse gode.

Judaïsme

In die sin van die oortuiging dat daar net een God is, sou Judaïsme en sy voorgangers egter die oudste monoteïstiese godsdiens wees. Die godsdiens beskryf slegs een God, die vermelding van ander gode wat uitsluitlik tot afgode en poëtiese skrif beperk is.

Atenisme

Sommige het probeer om te sê dat Atenisme die oudste godsdiens is, van 1350 vC tot 1320 vC. Die godsdiens het egter ander gode erken, maar sommige het hierdie detail om politieke redes verskoon, terwyl die koning aangespoor is om ander gode toe te laat.

Judaïsme het nooit ander gode erken nie, maar word soms hiervan verskoon omdat die Joodse volk dikwels verskeie godsdienste beoefen het. Daar was ongetwyfeld aanbidders van Aten wat ook in ander gode geglo het, so ek glo dat hierdie punt ontoelaatbaar is.

Dating Judaism en Moses

U kan verskillende datums vir die begin van die godsdiens neem. Judaïsme self is afgeneem uit Juda (יהודה), en die moderne vorm van die godsdiens (wat al die boeke van die Tanakh bevat) sou ongeveer 516 vC begin het.

Die datum waarop Moses die godsdiens formaliseer, word algemeen aangegee as 1250-1200 vC. Die Bybelse verslag dateer dit uit 1450 vC, wat ooreenstem met die bevindinge van verskeie argeoloë. Verskeie teorieë sou hierdie datum tot 1650 vC terugdruk, in die tydperk van die ineenstorting van die Bronstydperk van die Middelryk van Egipte en die afdanking van Kanaän. (Bron: Bewyspatrone: Exodus)

Antieke voorgangers

Ongeag hoe jy met Moses uitgaan, dateer Abraham eeue lank voor die Atenisme. Daar is geen bewyse wat daarop dui dat Abraham geglo het dat daar baie gode is nie, die enigste verslae wat ons van hom het, dui daarop dat hy in een God geglo het. Die geslagsregister van die bybel is 'n goeie voorbeeld hiervan, waar hy en ander 'n afstammeling van die eerste mens, Adam, wat self 'n monoteïs was, beskryf soos beskryf in die godsdiens.

Die feit dat hierdie oortuigings kontemporêr is in die tyd van Abraham, word bevestig deur soortgelyke volksgeskiedenis, legende en godsdiens regoor die wêreld. Baie mense praat van 'n eerste mens, van 'n groot vloed wat die aarde uitgewis het, van agt mense wat op 'n boot oorleef en die wêreld herbevolk het, van Polinesië tot China.

Dit sou Judaïsme en sy voorgangers die mees waarskynlike kandidaat vir die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens maak.


Lank voor Judaïsme is die god Ahura Mazda in Persië aanbid. Hulle het 'n aantal gebooie gehad, wat baie soortgelyk was aan die tien gebooie, dit is baie waarskynlik dat Abraham sy godsdiens op hierdie ouer een gebaseer het of ten minste 'n paar elemente geleen het


Die basiese beginsels van die Zoroastrianisme

Zoroastrianisme is waarskynlik die oudste monoteïstiese godsdiens ter wêreld. Dit fokus op die woorde van die profeet Zarathushtra, wat deur die ou Grieke Zoroaster genoem is, en fokus aanbidding op Ahura Mazda, die Here van Wysheid. Dit gee ook erkenning aan twee mededingende beginsels wat goed en kwaad voorstel: Spenta Mainyu (“Bounbele Spirit”) en Angra Mainyu (“Destructive Spirit”). Mense is intiem betrokke by hierdie stryd, wat chaos en vernietiging deur aktiewe goedheid weerhou.


Was Zoroastrianisme die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens?

Kom ons ondersoek die mite van zoroastrianisme as die eerste monoteïstiese godsdiens:

: 18de eeu
: 10de eeu
: 6de eeu vC (Yup honderd jaar voor Cyrus) (Van Wokrs Of Ammianus Marcellinus 6.32, 4de eeu CE)
: James Darmesteter Sê sy c. 100 vC

Daar is geen bewyse van sy bestaan ​​nie, so die datums onder Iraniste kom uit mitologiese bronne

Behalwe laat ons sien wat Tabari sê: Zaradusht bin Isfiman ('n Arabiese verwerking van “Zarathustra Spitama ”) was 'n inwoner van Palestina en 'n dienskneg van een van die dissipels van die profeet Jeremia. Volgens hierdie verhaal het Zaradusht sy meester bedrieg, wat hom vervloek het, wat hom melaats gemaak het (vgl. Die kneg van Elisa, Gehazi in die Joodse Skrif).

Die afvallige Zaradusht het uiteindelik sy weg na Balkh geneem, waar hy Bishtasb (dws Vishtaspa) bekeer het, wat op sy beurt sy onderdane gedwing het om die godsdiens van die Magiërs aan te neem.

Al-Tabari (i.681-683 [44]) herinner aan 'n ander tradisie dat Zaradusht 'n Joodse profeet na Bishtasb/Vishtaspa vergesel het. By hul aankoms vertaal Zaradusht die Hebreeuse leerstellings van die wyse vir die koning en oortuig hom dus om hom te bekeer (Tabari merk ook op dat hulle voorheen Sabis was) na die Magiese godsdiens

Toe Alexander Persie in 330 vC verower het, het die Grieke 'n ouderdom van Alexander ingelei, aangesien die Parsi -preïste nie gelukkig hieroor was nie, het hulle 'n ouderdom van Zoroaster bekendgestel en hulle het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat hy moes geleef het#8220258 jaar voor Alexander. ”

Die taalkundige aspekte van die Avesta toon egter net aan dat dit van ongeveer die elfde eeu v.G.J. kon wees

die datum van 6000 v.G.J. is mitologies.

en die monoteïste soos koning Nabi Dawood (dit wil sê koning David) en koning Nabi Sulayman (dws Solomon) toon aan dat daar voor hierdie tyd 'n monoteïstiese godsdiens was omdat hulle uit die 10de eeu v.G.J.

en dit was ook bekend as Eshlam (d.i. Islam), die bouers van die eerste tempel, bekend as muslimai (dit wil sê Moslems), en dit is gebou in 1000 v.G.J.

Amenhotep (ongeveer 1348/1346 v.G.J.) het Aten tot die hoogste monoteïstiese goddelikheid van Egipte gemaak en die aanbidding van ander gode verbied.

en onlangse navorsing dui daarop dat die Semitiese volke van Mesopotamië 'n monoteïstiese godsdiens gehad het en geleidelik tot politeïsme oorgegaan het

Vyf jaar later sou Langdon in The
Scotsman soos volg:
Die getuienis dui onmiskenbaar op 'n oorspronklike
monoteïsme, die inskripsies en literêre oorblyfsels van
die oudste Semitiese volke dui ook aan. . . monoteïsme,
en die totemistiese oorsprong van Hebreeus en ander
Semitiese godsdienste word nou heeltemal gediskrediteer

Opgrawings by die moderne Tell Asmar, die terrein van 'n
Soemeriese stad wat uit 3000 vC dateer, bevindinge gevind
wat die idees van Langdon heeltemal bevestig het.
Die opgrawingsdirekteur, Henry Frankfort, het dit gegee
amptelike verslag:

Benewens hul meer tasbare resultate, het ons opgrawings ook vasgestel
'n nuwe feit wat die student van Babiloniese godsdienste sal hê
voortaan in ag te neem. Ons het, na die beste van ons
kennis vir die eerste keer, godsdienstige materiaal volledig in sy sosiale
instelling.
Ons beskik oor 'n samehangende massa bewyse wat byna gelyk is
hoeveelheid uit 'n tempel en uit die huise bewoon deur diegene wat
in daardie tempel aanbid. Ons is dus in staat om gevolgtrekkings te maak,
wat die bevindinge wat hulle self bestudeer het nie moontlik sou gemaak het nie.
Ons ontdek byvoorbeeld dat die voorstellings op silinder seëls,
wat gewoonlik met verskillende gode verbind is, kan almal in 'n
konsekwente beeld waarin 'n enkele god in hierdie tempel aanbid het
vorm die sentrale figuur. Dit lyk dus asof dit in hierdie vroeë tydperk was
sy verskillende aspekte is nie as afsonderlike gode beskou nie
Sumero-Accadian pantheon.

Die ontdekkings van Frankfort onthul baie belangrike feite oor hoe a
bygelowige, politeïstiese stelsel ontstaan. Die teorie van die
evolusie van godsdienste beweer dat politeïsme ontstaan ​​het toe mense
begin om bose geeste wat die
natuurkragte. Maar dit was nie so nie. In die
met verloop van tyd het mense anders ontwikkel
begrip van die verskillende eienskappe
van die een God, wat
het uiteindelik tot geloofsversteurings gelei
in een God.

die een wat God verander het in die geloof in verskeie.
Lank voordat Langdon sy vertalings van die
Sumeriese tablette, 'n navorser met die naam Friedrich Delitzsch
soortgelyke ontdekkings gemaak. Hy het gevind dat die talle gode in die
Babiloniese panteon het alles afgewyk van die verskillende eienskappe
van Marduk, soos hulle die een Godheid daardie tyd genoem het. Navorsing het
getoon dat geloof in Marduk die gevolg was van die agteruitgang, verby
tyd, van die geloof in een ware God.
Hierdie een Godheid, Marduk, het baie name gehad. Hy is Ninib genoem,
of “die Possessor of Power, ” Nergal of “Lord of Battle, ” Bel of
“Besitter van Lordship, ” Nebo of “the Lord of the
Profeet, ” Sin of “ Illuminator of the Night, ” Shamash
of “ Heer van alles wat regverdig is, ” en Addu of “God van reën. ”
Met verloop van tyd blyk dit dat die eienskappe van
Marduk raak los van hom en word toegewys aan
verskillende gode. Op dieselfde manier, valse gode soos
die songod en die maangod tot stand gekom het as
die produkte van mense ’ verbeelding. Geloof in
Marduk, saam met die ander name van hierdie vals
godheid, toon aan dat hierdie geloofstelsel werklik ontwikkel het
met verloop van tyd deur verdraaiing van geloof in
die enigste God.
Ons kan ook spore van sulke perversie in sien
antieke Egipte. Navorsers het dit ontdek
die ou Egiptenare was eerstens
monoteïste, maar dat hulle later afgebreek het
hierdie stelsel en draai
dit in Sabeïsme, of sonaanbidding.
M. de Rouge skryf:

Dit is onbetwisbaar waar dat die sublimere gedeeltes van die Egiptiese godsdiens
is nie die relatief laat resultaat van 'n ontwikkelingsproses nie
of uitskakeling van die bruto. Die sublimere gedeeltes is aantoonbaar
antieke en die laaste fase van die Egiptiese godsdiens, waarvan bekend was
die Griekse en Latynse skrywers, heidene of Christene, was verreweg die
grofste en korrupste.
Die antropoloog sir Flinders Petrie sê dat bygelowig,
politeïstiese oortuigings het ontstaan ​​deur die geleidelike verdorwenheid van geloof
in 'n enkele godheid. Daarbenewens sê hy dat hierdie proses van korrupsie

kan gesien word in die huidige samelewing sowel as in die samelewings in die verlede:
Daar is in antieke godsdienste en teologieë baie verskillende klasse van
gode. Sommige rasse, soos die moderne Hindoe, geniet 'n oorvloed van gode en
godlinge wat voortdurend toeneem. Ander. . . moenie probeer aanbid nie
groot gode, maar hanteer 'n menigte animistiese geeste, duiwels. . . .
Was die opvatting van 'n god slegs 'n evolusie uit hierdie geestelike aanbidding?
ons behoort die aanbidding van baie gode voor die aanbidding te vind
van een God. . . Wat ons eintlik vind, is die teendeel hiervan, monoteïsme
is die eerste fase wat in die teologie opgespoor kan word. . . .
Waar ons ook al die politeïsme kan terugvoer na die vroegste stadiums, vind ons
dat dit die gevolg is van kombinasies van monoteïsme. . . .

(Sien: 73. Stephen H. Langdon, Semitiese mitologie, mitologie
van All Races, Vol. V, Argeol. Instit. Amer., 1931, bl. xviii.
74. Stephen H. Langdon, The Scotsman, 18 November
1936.
75. H. Frankfort, Derde voorlopige verslag oor opgrawings
by Tell Asmar (Eshnunna): aangehaal deur P. J. Wiseman in
Nuwe ontdekkings in Babilonië oor Genesis, Londen:
Marshall, Morgan en Scott, 1936, p. 24.
76. P. Le Page Renouf, Lesings oor die oorsprong en
Groei van godsdiens soos geïllustreer deur die godsdiens van
Antieke Egipte, Londen: Williams en Norgate, 1897, p.
90.
77. Sir Flinders Petrie, The Religion of Ancient Egypt,
Londen: konstabel, 1908, pp. 3, 4.)


Inhoud

Die woord monoteïsme kom van die Griekse μόνος (monos) [13] wat "enkel" en θεός beteken (theos) [14] wat "god" beteken. [15] Die Engelse term is die eerste keer deur Henry More (1614–1687) gebruik. [16]

Kwasi-monoteïstiese bewerings van die bestaan ​​van 'n universele godheid wat uit die Laat Bronstydperk dateer, met die van Akhenaten Groot lofsang aan die Aten. 'N Moontlike neiging tot monoteïsme het gedurende die Vediese tydperk [17] in die Ystertydperk in Suid-Asië na vore gekom. Die Rigveda toon begrippe van monisme van die Brahman, veral in die relatief laat tiende boek, [18] wat uit die vroeë Ystertydperk gedateer is, bv. in die Nasadiya Sukta.

Sedert die sesde eeu vC het Zoroastriërs geglo in die oppergesag van een God bo alles: Ahura Mazda as die "Maker van alles" [19] en die eerste wese voor alle ander. [20] [21] [22] [23] Nietemin was die Zoroastrianisme nie streng monoteïsties nie [24] omdat dit ander vereer het yazatas saam met Ahura Mazda. Antieke Hindoe -teologie was intussen monisties, maar was nie streng monoteïsties in aanbidding nie, omdat dit steeds die bestaan ​​van baie gode behou het, wat as aspekte van een opperste God, Brahman, beskou is. [25]

Thales (gevolg deur ander Moniste, soos Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Parmenides) het voorgestel dat die natuur verklaar kan word aan die hand van 'n enkele eenheidsbeginsel wat alles deurdring. [26] Talle antieke Griekse filosowe, waaronder Xenophanes van Colophon en Antisthenes, het geglo in 'n soortgelyke politeïstiese monisme wat 'n paar ooreenkomste met monoteïsme gehad het. [25] Die eerste bekende verwysing na 'n eenheidsgod is Plato's Demiurge (goddelike vakman), gevolg deur Aristoteles se onbeweegde beweegaar, wat beide die Joodse en Christelike teologie ingrypend sou beïnvloed. [26] Na-ballingskap [26] Judaïsme was die eerste godsdiens wat die idee van 'n persoonlike monoteïstiese God binne 'n monistiese konteks bedink het. [25] Die konsep van etiese monoteïsme, wat beweer dat moraliteit alleen van God afkomstig is en dat die wette daarvan onveranderlik is, [27] [28] het eers in Judaïsme voorgekom, [29], maar is nou 'n kernbeginsel van die meeste moderne monoteïstiese godsdienste, insluitend Zoroastrianisme, Christendom, Islam, Sikhisme en Bahá'í -geloof. [30]

Volgens die Joodse, Christelike en Islamitiese tradisie was monoteïsme die oorspronklike godsdiens van die mensdom, soms word hierdie oorspronklike godsdiens na verwys as "die Adamiese godsdiens", of, in terme van Andrew Lang, die "Urreligion". Geleerdes van godsdiens het hierdie siening in die 19de eeu grotendeels laat vaar ten gunste van 'n evolusionêre vordering van animisme via politeïsme na monoteïsme, maar teen 1974 was hierdie teorie minder algemeen, en 'n aangepaste siening soortgelyk aan Lang se word meer prominent. [6] [ kwotasie benodig om te verifieer ] Oostenrykse antropoloog Wilhelm Schmidt het 'n Urmonoteïsme, "oorspronklike" of "primitiewe monoteïsme" in die 1910's. [31] Daarteen is beswaar gemaak [ deur wie? ] dat Judaïsme, Christendom en Islam gegroei het in teenstelling met politeïsme, net soos Griekse filosofiese monoteïsme. [6] Meer onlangs het Karen Armstrong [32] en ander skrywers teruggekeer na die idee van 'n evolusionêre vordering wat begin met animisme, wat ontwikkel het tot politeïsme, wat ontwikkel het tot henoteïsme, wat ontwikkel het tot monolatrie, wat ontwikkel het tot ware monoteïsme. [33]

Alhoewel alle aanhangers van die Abrahamitiese godsdienste hulself as monoteïste beskou, beskou sommige in die Judaïsme die Christendom nie as 'n suiwer vorm van monoteïsme nie (as gevolg van die Christelike leer van die Drie -eenheid), en dit klassifiseer as shituf. [34] [35] Islam erken die hedendaagse Christendom ook nie as monoteïsties nie, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die Christelike leer van die Drie-eenheid, wat Islam as omseil en argumenteer dat dit 'n verdorwenheid was van die oortuigings wat Jesus eintlik gehad het. [36] Christene, aan die ander kant, voer aan dat die leer van die Drie -eenheid 'n geldige uitdrukking van monoteïsme is, en noem dat die Drie -eenheid nie uit drie afsonderlike gode bestaan ​​nie, maar eerder uit die drie persone wat konsekwent bestaan ​​(as een stof) binne 'n enkele Godheid. [37] [38] [39]

Judaïsme Redigeer

Judaïsme word tradisioneel beskou as een van die oudste monoteïstiese godsdienste ter wêreld, [40] alhoewel daar geglo word dat die vroegste Israeliete (voor die 7de eeu v.G.J.) politeïsties was, [41] wat ontwikkel het tot henoteïstiese en later monolatristiese, [42] eerder as monoteïsties. God in die Judaïsme van die Tweede Tempel later was die rabbynse Judaïsme streng monoteïsties, [43] 'n absolute, ondeelbare en onvergelykbare wese wat die uiteindelike oorsaak van alle bestaan ​​is. Die Babiloniese Talmoed verwys na ander, "vreemde gode" as nie-bestaande entiteite aan wie mense die werklikheid en mag verkeerdelik toeskryf. [44] Een van die bekendste verklarings van die rabbynse Judaïsme oor monoteïsme is die tweede van Maimonides se 13 geloofsbeginsels:

God, die oorsaak van alles, is een. Dit beteken nie een soos in een van 'n paar nie, nie een soos 'n spesie (wat baie individue omvat), nie een soos in 'n voorwerp wat uit baie elemente bestaan ​​nie, en ook nie as 'n enkele eenvoudige voorwerp wat oneindig deelbaar is nie. God is eerder 'n eenheid anders as enige ander moontlike eenheid. [45]

Sommige in Judaïsme [46] en Islam verwerp die Christelike idee van monoteïsme. Judaïsme gebruik die term shituf om na die aanbidding van God te verwys op 'n manier wat Judaïsme nie suiwer monoteïsties beskou nie (hoewel dit nog steeds toelaatbaar is vir nie-Jode) of politeïsties (wat verbied sou word). [35]

In antieke Israel Edit

Gedurende die 8ste eeu vC was die aanbidding van Yahweh in Israel in stryd met baie ander kultusse, wat deur die Yahwist -faksie gesamentlik as Baäls beskryf is. The oldest books of the Hebrew Bible reflect this competition, as in the books of Hosea and Nahum, whose authors lament the "apostasy" of the people of Israel, threatening them with the wrath of God if they do not give up their polytheistic cults. [47] [48]

Ancient Israelite religion was originally polytheistic [41] the Israelites worshipped many deities, [49] including El, Baal, Asherah, and Astarte. Yahweh was originally the national god of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah. [49] As time progressed, the henotheistic cult of Yahweh grew increasingly militant in its opposition to the worship of other gods. [41] Later, the reforms of King Josiah imposed a form of strict monolatrism. After the fall of Judah and the beginning of the Babylonian captivity, a small circle of priests and scribes gathered around the exiled royal court, where they first developed the concept of Yahweh as the sole God of the world. [25]

The Shema Edit

Shema Yisrael ("Hear, [O] Israel") are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. The first verse encapsulates the monotheistic essence of Judaism: "Hear, O Israel: the L ORD our God, the L ORD is one" (Hebrew: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד ‎), found in Deuteronomy 6 [50] , sometimes alternatively translated as "The L ORD is our God, the L ORD alone". Observant Jews consider the Shema to be the most important part of the prayer service in Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation as a mitzvah (religious commandment). It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night.

Christendom Redigeer

Among early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature of the Godhead, with some denying the incarnation but not the deity of Jesus (Docetism) and others later calling for an Arian conception of God. Despite at least one earlier local synod rejecting the claim of Arius, this Christological issue was to be one of the items addressed at the First Council of Nicaea.

The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical [52] council of bishops of the Roman Empire, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent general ecumenical councils of bishops (synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define a common creed for the Church and address heretical ideas.

One purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to the Father in particular, whether Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father or merely of similar substance. All but two bishops took the first position while Arius' argument failed.

Christian orthodox traditions (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and most Protestants) follow this decision, which was reaffirmed in 381 at the First Council of Constantinople and reached its full development through the work of the Cappadocian Fathers. They consider God to be a triune entity, called the Trinity, comprising three "persons", God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. These three are described as being "of the same substance" ( ὁμοούσιος ).

Christians overwhelmingly assert that monotheism is central to the Christian faith, as the Nicene Creed (and others), which gives the orthodox Christian definition of the Trinity, begins: "I believe in one God". From earlier than the times of the Nicene Creed, 325 CE, various Christian figures advocated [53] the triune mystery-nature of God as a normative profession of faith. According to Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study and practice, the Christian community concluded "that God must exist as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at the end of the 4th century. [54]

Most modern Christians believe the Godhead is triune, meaning that the three persons of the Trinity are in one union in which each person is also wholly God. They also hold to the doctrine of a man-god Christ Jesus as God incarnate. These Christians also do not believe that one of the three divine figures is God alone and the other two are not but that all three are mysteriously God and one. Other Christian religions, including Unitarian Universalism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism and others, do not share those views on the Trinity.

Some Christian faiths, such as Mormonism, argue that the Godhead is in fact three separate individuals which include God the Father, His Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost. [55] Each individual having a distinct purpose in the grand existence of human kind. [56] Furthermore, Mormons believe that before the Council of Nicaea, the predominant belief among many early Christians was that the Godhead was three separate individuals. In support of this view, they cite early Christian examples of belief in subordinationism. [57]

Unitarianism is a theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism. [58]

Islam Redigeer

In Islam, God (Allāh) is all-powerful and all-knowing, the creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of the universe. [59] [60] God in Islam is strictly singular (tawhid) [61] unique (wahid) and inherently One (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent. [62] Allāh exists without place [63] and the Quran states that "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. God is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things" (Quran 6:103) [60] Allāh is the only God and the same God worshiped in Christianity and Judaism. (29:46). [64]

Islam emerged in the 7th century CE in the context of both Christianity and Judaism, with some thematic elements similar to Gnosticism. [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] Islamic belief states that Muhammad did not bring a new religion from God, but rather the same religion as practiced by Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and all the other prophets of God. [73] The assertion of Islam is that the message of God had been corrupted, distorted or lost over time and the Quran was sent to Muhammad in order to correct the lost message of the Tawrat (Torah), Injil (Gospel) and Zabur. [74]

The Quran asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the creation. [75] The Quran rejects binary modes of thinking such as the idea of a duality of God by arguing that both good and evil generate from God's creative act. God is a universal god rather than a local, tribal or parochial one an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil. [76] Ash'ari theology, which dominated Sunni Islam from the tenth to the nineteenth century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that divine unity is not accessible to human reason. Ash'arism teaches that human knowledge regarding it is limited to what has been revealed through the prophets, and on such paradoxes as God's creation of evil, revelation had to accept bila kayfa (without [asking] how). [77]

Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession of faith, "There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God. [78] To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Quran. [76] The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of tawhid. [79]

Medieval Islamic philosopher Al-Ghazali offered a proof of monotheism from omnipotence, asserting there can only be one omnipotent being. For if there were two omnipotent beings, the first would either have power over the second (meaning the second is not omnipotent) or not (meaning the first is not omnipotent) thus implying that there could only be one omnipotent being. [80]

As they traditionally profess a concept of monotheism with a singular entity as God, Judaism [46] and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism. Judaism uses the term Shituf to refer to non-monotheistic ways of worshiping God. Although Muslims venerate Jesus (Isa in Arabic) as a prophet, they do not accept the doctrine that he was a begotten son of God.

Mandaeism Edit

Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (Arabic: مندائية ‎ Mandāʼīyah) is a monotheistic Gnostic religion. [81] : 4 Its adherents, the Mandaeans, revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enos, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptist. The Mandaean God is named as Hayyi Rabbi meaning The Great Life or The Great Living God. The Mandaeans are Semites and speak a dialect of Eastern Aramaic known as Mandaic. The name 'Mandaean' is said to come from the Aramaic manda meaning "knowledge", as does Greek gnosis. [82] [83] Within the Middle East, but outside of their community, the Mandaeans are more commonly known as the Ṣubba (singular: Ṣubbī) or Sabians. Die term Ṣubba is derived from the Aramaic root related to baptism, the neo-Mandaic is Ṣabi. [84] In Islam, the "Sabians" (Arabic: الصابئون ‎ al-Ṣābiʾūn) are described several times in the Quran as People of the Book, alongside Jews and Christians. [85]

Baháʼí Faith Edit

God in the Baháʼí Faith is taught to be the Imperishable, uncreated Being Who is the source of existence, too great for humans to fully comprehend. Human primitive understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his divine intermediary Manifestations. [86] [87] In the Baháʼí faith, such Christian doctrines as the Trinity are seen as compromising the Baháʼí view that God is single and has no equal. [88] And the very existence of the Baháʼí Faith is a challenge to the Islamic doctrine of the finality of Muhammad's revelation. [89]

God in the Baháʼí Faith communicates to humanity through divine intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God. [90] These Manifestations establish religion in the world. [87] It is through these divine intermediaries that humans can approach God, and through them God brings divine revelation and law. [91]

The Oneness of God is one of the core teachings of the Baháʼí Faith. The obligatory prayers in the Baháʼí Faith involve explicit monotheistic testimony. [92] [93] God is the imperishable, uncreated being who is the source of all existence. [94] He is described as "a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty". [95] [96] Although transcendent and inaccessible directly, his image is reflected in his creation. The purpose of creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator. [97] God communicates his will and purpose to humanity through intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God, who are the prophets and messengers that have founded religions from prehistoric times up to the present day. [90]

Rastafari Edit

Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is classified as both a new religious movement and social movement. It developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. It lacks any centralised authority and there is much heterogeneity among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas.

Rastafari refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible, as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who partially resides within each individual. The former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is given central importance. Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah on Earth and as the Second Coming of Christ. Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual.

Amenhotep IV initially introduced Atenism in Year 5 of his reign (1348/1346 BCE) during the 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom. He raised Aten, once a relatively obscure Egyptian solar deity representing the disk of the sun, to the status of Supreme God in the Egyptian pantheon. [98] To emphasise the change, Aten's name was written in the cartouche form normally reserved for Pharaohs, an innovation of Atenism. This religious reformation appears to coincide with the proclamation of a Sed festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to reinforce the Pharaoh's divine powers of kingship. Traditionally held in the thirtieth year of the Pharaoh's reign, this possibly was a festival in honour of Amenhotep III, who some Egyptologists [ who? ] think had a coregency with his son Amenhotep IV of two to twelve years.

Year 5 is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IV's construction of a new capital, Akhetaten (Horizon of the Aten), at the site known today as Amarna. [99] Evidence of this appears on three of the boundary stelae used to mark the boundaries of this new capital. [ aanhaling nodig ] At this time, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten (Agreeable to Aten) as evidence of his new worship. [ aanhaling nodig ] The date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. [ aanhaling nodig ] In Year 7 of his reign (1346/1344 BCE), the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten (near modern Amarna), though construction of the city seems to have continued for two more years. [ aanhaling nodig ] In shifting his court from the traditional ceremonial centres Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. [ aanhaling nodig ]

The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the influence of the priesthood and from the traditional centres of worship, but his decree had deeper religious significance too—taken in conjunction with his name change, it is possible that the move to Amarna was also meant as a signal of Akhenaten's symbolic death and rebirth. [ aanhaling nodig ] It may also have coincided with the death of his father and the end of the coregency. [ aanhaling nodig ] In addition to constructing a new capital in honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak and one at Thebes, close to the old temple of Amun. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In Year 9 (1344/1342 BCE), Akhenaten declared a more radical version of his new religion, declaring Aten not merely the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon, but the only God of Egypt, with himself as the sole intermediary between the Aten and the Egyptian people. [ aanhaling nodig ] Key features of Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. [ aanhaling nodig ] Akhenaten made it however clear that the image of the Aten only represented the god, but that the god transcended creation and so could not be fully understood or represented. [100] Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God beside whom there is none".

The details of Atenist theology are still unclear. The exclusion of all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition, but scholars [ who? ] see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods he simply refrained from worshiping any but Aten. [ aanhaling nodig ] Akhenaten associated Aten with Ra and put forward the eminence of Aten as the renewal of the kingship of Ra. [101]

Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Aboriginal Australians are typically described as polytheistic in nature. [102] Although some researchers shy from referring to Dreamtime figures as "gods" or "deities", they are broadly described as such for the sake of simplicity. [103]

In Southeastern Australian cultures, the sky father Baiame is perceived as the creator of the universe (though this role is sometimes taken by other gods like Yhi or Bunjil) and at least among the Gamilaraay traditionally revered above other mythical figures. [104] Equation between him and the Christian god is common among both missionaries and modern Christian Aboriginals. [105]

The Yolngu had extensive contact with the Makassans and adopted religious practises inspired by those of Islam. The god Walitha'walitha is based on Allah (specifically, with the wa-Ta'ala suffix), but while this deity had a role in funerary practises it is unclear if it was "Allah-like" in terms of functions. [106]

The religion of the Andamanese peoples has at times been described as "animistic monotheism", believing foremost in a single deity, Paluga, who created the universe. [107] However, Paluga is not worshipped, and anthropomorphic personifications of natural phenomena are also known. [108]


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Key World Religions Today

Today the world’s largest religion is Christendom, to which more than 2 billion people, or about one-third the world’s population, subscribe. Christianity began 2,000 years ago in Palestine under the charismatic influence of Jesus of Nazareth and today is a Western religion, as most Christians live in the Americas and in Europe. Beginning as a cult, Christianity spread through the Mediterranean and later through Europe before becoming the official religion of the Roman Empire. Today, dozens of Christian denominations exist in the United States and other nations. Their views differ in many respects, but generally they all regard Jesus as the son of God, and many believe that salvation awaits them if they follow his example (Young, 2010).

The second largest religion is Islam, which includes about 1.6 billion Muslims, most of them in the Middle East, northern Africa, and parts of Asia. Muhammad founded Islam in the 600s A.D. and is regarded today as a prophet who was a descendant of Abraham. Whereas the sacred book of Christianity and Judaism is the Bible, the sacred book of Islam is the Koran. The Five Pillars of Islam guide Muslim life: (a) the acceptance of Allah as God and Muhammad as his messenger (b) ritual worship, including daily prayers facing Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad (c) observing Ramadan, a month of prayer and fasting (d) giving alms to the poor and (e) making a holy pilgrimage to Mecca at least once before one dies.

These individuals are praying at a mosque, the place of worship for the religion of Islam. Islam is the world’s second largest religion, with an estimated 1.6 billion adherents.

The third largest religion is Hindoeïsme, which includes more than 800 million people, most of whom live in India and Pakistan. Hinduism began about 2000 B.C. and, unlike Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, has no historic linkage to any one person and no real belief in one omnipotent deity. Hindus live instead according to a set of religious precepts called dharma. For these reasons Hinduism is often called an ethical religion. Hindus believe in reincarnation, and their religious belief in general is closely related to India’s caste system (see Chapter 9 “Global Stratification”), as an important aspect of Hindu belief is that one should live according to the rules of one’s caste.

Boeddhisme is another key religion and claims almost 400 million followers, most of whom live in Asia. Buddhism developed out of Hinduism and was founded by Siddhartha Gautama more than 500 years before the birth of Jesus. Siddhartha is said to have given up a comfortable upper-caste Hindu existence for one of wandering and poverty. He eventually achieved enlightenment and acquired the name of Buddha, or “enlightened one.” His teachings are now called the dhamma, and over the centuries they have influenced Buddhists to lead a moral life. Like Hindus, Buddhists generally believe in reincarnation, and they also believe that people experience suffering unless they give up material concerns and follow other Buddhist principles.

Another key religion is Judaïsme, which claims more than 13 million adherents throughout the world, most of them in Israel and the United States. Judaism began about 4,000 years ago when, according to tradition, Abraham was chosen by God to become the progenitor of his “chosen people,” first called Hebrews or Israelites and now called Jews. The Jewish people have been persecuted throughout their history, with anti-Semitism having its ugliest manifestation during the Holocaust of the 1940s, when 6 million Jews died at the hands of the Nazis. One of the first monotheistic religions, Judaism relies heavily on the Torah, which is the first five books of the Bible, and the Talmud en die Mishnah, both collections of religious laws and ancient rabbinical interpretations of these laws. The three main Jewish dominations are the Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform branches, listed in order from the most traditional to the least traditional. Orthodox Jews take the Bible very literally and closely follow the teachings and rules of the Torah, Talmud, and Mishnah, while Reform Jews think the Bible is mainly a historical document and do not follow many traditional Jewish practices. Conservative Jews fall in between these two branches.

A final key religion in the world today is Confucianism, which reigned in China for centuries but was officially abolished in 1949 after the Chinese Revolution ended in Communist control. People who practice Confucianism in China today do so secretly, and its number of adherents is estimated at some 5 or 6 million. Confucianism was founded by K’ung Fu-tzu, from whom it gets its name, about 500 years before the birth of Jesus. His teachings, which were compiled in a book called the Ontleders, were essentially a code of moral conduct involving self-discipline, respect for authority and tradition, and the kind treatment of everyone. Despite the official abolition of Confucianism, its principles continue to be important for Chinese family and cultural life.

As this overview indicates, religion takes many forms in different societies. No matter what shape it takes, however, religion has important consequences. These consequences can be both good and bad for the society and the individuals in it. Sociological perspectives expand on these consequences, and we now turn to them.

Belangrike wegneemetes

  • Although the Catholic Church dominated medieval Europe, Protestantism took hold by the end of the 16th century. According to Max Weber, Protestantism in turn helped lead to the rise of capitalism.
  • The major religions in the world today are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, and Confucianism.

For Your Review

  1. Although church and state were not separate in many of the American colonies, the new nation soon provided for the separation of church and state and the free exercise of religion in the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. Why might the new government have taken this approach?
  2. The second largest world religion today is Islam, which has aroused strong passions in the United States since 9/11. Write a short essay in which you summarize your thoughts about this religion.

Yahweh

The relationship between the Jewish God and man was evolving. Abraham's followers still saw God as mysterious. He would not reveal himself in any concrete way, and the Jewish Bible follows this theme.

The Jewish word for God isYahweh (pronounced Ya-way). So, God is here, but not here, and man may search, but perhaps cannot find Him. Yet, man cannot stop the search. He is compelled to keep looking.

This mystery and irony in our search for God pervades our view of faith today. Yet, it is our nature to try and put a face on God&sbquo to attempt to create icons and images that make God more tangible, and more real.

Yet, God constantly resists, and actually forbids this practice. "I am the Lord thy God. Though shalt not have any other gods before me." "You shall not make for yourself an idol." These admonitions are common to Christian, Islam, and Jewish religions.

This paradox pervades every religion's attempt to know and define God. It may be one reason that Buddhism resists the temptation to acknowledge God, and to give God a name, or give God a description.

This struggle is fundamental to the beliefs systems of all religions, and in many ways define the differences between them.


Inhoud

The school of religious history called the Religionsgeschichtliche Schule, a late 19th-century German school of thought, originated the systematic study of religion as a socio-cultural phenomenon. It depicted religion as evolving with human culture, from primitive polytheism to ethical monotheism.

Die Religionsgeschichtliche Schule emerged at a time when scholarly study of the Bible and of church history flourished in Germany and elsewhere (see higher criticism, also called the historical-critical method). The study of religion is important: religion and similar concepts have often shaped civilizations' law and moral codes, social structure, art and music.

The 19th century saw a dramatic increase in knowledge about a wide variety of cultures and religions, and also the establishment of economic and social histories of progress. The "history of religions" school sought to account for this religious diversity by connecting it with the social and economic situation of a particular group.

Typically, religions were divided into stages of progression from simple to complex societies, especially from polytheistic to monotheistic and from extempore to organized. One can also classify religions as circumcising and non-circumcising, proselytizing (attempting to convert people of other religion) and non-proselytizing. Many religions share common beliefs.

The earliest archeological evidence of religious ideas dates back several hundred thousand years to the Middle and Lower Paleolithic periods. Archaeologists take apparent intentional burials of early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals from as early as 300,000 years ago as evidence of religious ideas. Other evidence of religious ideas includes symbolic artifacts from Middle Stone Age sites in Africa. However, the interpretation of early paleolithic artifacts, with regard to how they relate to religious ideas, remains controversial. Archeological evidence from more recent periods is less controversial. Scientists [ watter? ] generally interpret a number of artifacts [ watter? ] from the Upper Paleolithic (50,000-13,000 BCE) as representing religious ideas. Examples of Upper Paleolithic remains associated with religious beliefs include the lion man, the Venus figurines, cave paintings from Chauvet Cave and the elaborate ritual burial from Sungir.

In the 19th century researchers proposed various theories regarding the origin of religion, challenging earlier claims of a Christianity-like urreligion. Early theorists Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) emphasised the concept of animism, while archaeologist John Lubbock (1834-1913) used the term "fetishism". Meanwhile, religious scholar Max Müller (1823-1900) theorized that religion began in hedonism and folklorist Wilhelm Mannhardt (1831-1880) suggested that religion began in "naturalism" – by which he meant mythological explanation of natural events. [9] [ bladsy benodig ] All of these theories have since been widely criticized there is no broad consensus regarding the origin of religion.

Pre-pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) Göbekli Tepe, the oldest religious site yet discovered anywhere [10] includes circles of erected massive T-shaped stone pillars, the world's oldest known megaliths [11] decorated with abstract, enigmatic pictograms and carved-animal reliefs. The site, near the home place of original wild wheat, was built before the so-called Neolithic Revolution, i.e., the beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry around 9000 BCE. But the construction of Göbekli Tepe implies organization of an advanced order not hitherto associated with Paleolithic, PPNA, or PPNB societies. The site, abandoned around the time the first agricultural societies started, is still being excavated and analyzed, and thus might shed light on the significance it had had for the religions of older, foraging communities, as well as for the general history of religions.

The Pyramid Texts from ancient Egypt, the oldest known religious texts in the world, date to between 2400-2300 BCE. [12] [13]

The earliest records of Indian religion are the Vedas, composed ca. 1500-1200 Hinduism during the Vedic Period.

Surviving early copies of religious texts include:

  • The Upanishads, some of which date to the mid-first millennium BCE.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls, representing fragmentary texts of the Hebrew Tanakh. [14]
  • Complete Hebrew texts, also of the Tanakh, but translated into the Greek language (Septuagint 300-200 BC), were in wide use by the early 1st century CE.
  • The Zoroastrian Avesta, from a Sassanian-era master copy.

Historians have labelled the period from 900 to 200 BCE as the "axial age", a term coined by German-Swiss philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-1969). According to Jaspers, in this era of history "the spiritual foundations of humanity were laid simultaneously and independently. And these are the foundations upon which humanity still subsists today." Intellectual historian Peter Watson has summarized this period as the foundation time of many of humanity's most influential philosophical traditions, including monotheism in Persia and Canaan, Platonism in Greece, Buddhism and Jainism in India, and Confucianism and Taoism in China. These ideas would become institutionalized in time – note for example Ashoka's role in the spread of Buddhism, or the role of platonic philosophy in Christianity at its foundation.

The historical roots of Jainism in India date back to the 9th-century BCE with the rise of Parshvanatha and his non-violent philosophy. [15] [16] [ kwotasie benodig om te verifieer ]

World religions of the present day established themselves throughout Eurasia during the Middle Ages by:

During the Middle Ages, Muslims came into conflict with Zoroastrians during the Islamic conquest of Persia (633-654) Christians fought against Muslims during the Byzantine-Arab Wars (7th to 11th centuries), the Crusades (1095 onward), the Reconquista (718-1492), the Ottoman wars in Europe (13th century onwards) and the Inquisition Shamanism was in conflict with Buddhists, Taoists, Muslims and Christians during the Mongol invasions (1206-1337) and Muslims clashed with Hindus and Sikhs during the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent (8th to 16th centuries).

Many medieval religious movements emphasized mysticism, such as the Cathars and related movements in the West, the Jews in Spain (see Zohar), the Bhakti movement in India and Sufism in Islam. Monotheism reached definite forms in Christian Christology and in Islamic Tawhid. Hindu monotheist notions of Brahman likewise reached their classical form with the teaching of Adi Shankara (788-820).

European colonisation during the 15th to 19th centuries resulted in the spread of Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to the Americas, Australia and the Philippines. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century played a major role in the rapid spread of the Protestant Reformation under leaders such as Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564). Wars of religion broke out, culminating in the Thirty Years War which ravaged central Europe between 1618 and 1648. The 18th century saw the beginning of secularisation in Europe, gaining momentum after the French Revolution of 1789 and following. By the late 20th century religion had declined in most of Europe. [17]

By 2001 people began to use the internet to discover or adhere to their religious beliefs. In January 2000 the website beliefnet was established, and the following year, every month it had over 1.7 million visitors. [18]


Malevolent Beings May Exist Too

Finally, some polytheistic religions include the existence of malevolent beings. An example of this type of polytheism is ditheism or duotheism, which is the belief that two equally powerful gods exist, but they do not complement each other and are often in conflict with one another.

This belief is seen, for instance, in Zoroastrianism, where the benevolent Ahura Mazda is locked in eternal conflict with the malevolent Angra Mainyu. This concept is also seen in Gnosticism, which holds the view that the true God exists beyond this world, while the one worshipped by human beings is in fact an evil imposter.

Ahura Mazda (Alexeiy /Adobe Stock) is locked in eternal conflict with the malevolent Angra Mainyu.

Yet another form of polytheism that falls under this category is misotheism, which means ‘hatred of God / gods.’ This term was first used in the English language by the English essayist Thomas de Quincey in 1846. Nevertheless, this word already appeared as early as the Classical Greek period, when it was used by Aeschylus in one of his tragedies and the concept of hatred towards the gods existed long before the term was coined by de Quincy.

Strictly speaking, misotheism describes an attitude towards the gods, rather than their nature, though it would not be too difficult to imagine that misotheists hate the gods because they believe them to be evil.

Lastly, there is dsytheism, whose adherents believe that the gods exist, but that they are not entirely benevolent, and may even be evil. Deities who exhibit this quality include the trickster god, Loki, from Norse mythology, and Set from the myths of ancient Egypt.

As you can see, while the theory of the evolution of religious thought proposed during the 19th century suggested polytheism was the lowest form of religious belief, it is evident that monotheism has actually been the minority in human religious history. Most famously, the Egyptians, Norse, Aztecs, Greeks, and early Romans all followed some form of polytheism however, this style of religious thought continues to be present today, especially in its more moderate forms.

Top Image: Egyptian gods. Bron: Catmando / Adobe Stock