Geskiedenis Podcasts

1 Januarie 1965 - Nader publiseer onveilig teen enige snelheid - geskiedenis

1 Januarie 1965 - Nader publiseer onveilig teen enige snelheid - geskiedenis

1 Januarie 1965- Nader publiseer onveilig teen enige spoed

Ralph Nader het Unsafe at Any Speed ​​gepubliseer- 'n verslag wat baie krities was oor die veiligheid van motors. Die publikasie van Unsafe at Any Speed ​​het 'n veldtog begin om die veiligheid van Amerikaanse motors te verbeter. Dit het ook Nader se loopbaan as 'n advokaat vir verbruikers bekendgestel.


Die evolusie van die Amerikaanse motorveiligheidsregulasie

Soveel as wat ons aan Amerika as die middelpunt van die motorheelal sou dink, was daar teen 1769 in Frankryk goed geëksperimenteer met selfaangedrewe voertuie (die eerste selfaangedrewe, stoom-aangedrewe padvoertuig wat vir die Franse leër gebou is), in Skotland in 1832 (elektriese wa) en waarskynlik die eerste ware motor wat deur 'n binnebrandenjin aangedryf word: die Duitse ingenieur Karl Benz se gepatenteerde 'motorwagen' teen 1885.

Die 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia bevat 'n enorme verbrandingsmotor wat deur uitvinder George Brayton gebou is. "Brayton's Ready Motor" het George B. Selden, 'n huiwerige patentadvokaat en sakeman van Rochester, New York, geïnspireer om 'n kleiner, ligter weergawe te bou waarvoor hy in Mei 1879 'n patent ingedien het. Selden word erken dat hy die eerste gepatenteer het. binnebrandenjin gekombineer met 'n wa.

Kort daarna het die nuutste motorbedryf, onder leiding van Henry Ford van Detroit, sy pogings begin en 'n Amerikaanse liefdesverhouding met motors is gebore.

Meer motors = meer wette

· 1901. Connecticut stel die eerste landswye verkeerswette in wat motorsnelhede beperk

· 1910. New York stel die land se eerste wette in wat bestuurders straf vir die bestuur van 'n voertuig onder die invloed van alkohol

· 1930. Die drie-kleur verkeerslig word in die VSA bekendgestel

Edward J. Claghorn van New York het in 1885 die eerste patent vir 'n veiligheidsgordel verleen, maar sy uitvinding was 'n unieke toepassingsontwerp vir skilders of brandweermanne - mense wat beveilig moet word terwyl hulle omhoog en omlaag geheg en aan 'n vaste voorwerp vasgemaak word .

Eers in die vroeë vyftigerjare het die neuroloog dr. C. Hunter Shelden begin ondersoek instel na die verband tussen veiligheidsgordels en die toenemende aantal kopbeserings wat deur noodkamers kom. Sy ondersoek het die primitiewe gordelontwerpe by hierdie beserings en sterftes betrek. Hy het sy bevindings in 1955 gepubliseer Tydskrif van die American Medical Association (JAMA) in 'n artikel waarin hy nie net intrekbare veiligheidsgordels aanbeveel nie, maar ook ingeboude stuurwiele, versterkte dakke, rolstange, deurslotte en passiewe beperkings soos lugsakke.

Motorvervaardigers Nash en Ford het veiligheidsgordels as opsies aangebied, maar sodra die Saab GT 750 in 1958 op die motorskou in New York bekendgestel is met veiligheidsgordels as standaardtoerusting, het die praktyk alledaags geword.

In groot mate te danke aan die werk van dr. Shelden, het die kongres in 1959 wetgewing aanvaar wat vereis dat alle motors aan sekere veiligheidstandaarde voldoen.

Na 'n motorongeluk wat vinnige optrede genoodsaak het om sy jong dogter in bedwang te hou, is die nywerheidsingenieur John W. Hetrick geïnspireer om 'n opblaas 'kussingsstel' te ontwerp wat op die passasier se dash gebied gemonteer moet word en ontwerp is om te ontplooi by die skielike stop of slag van die voertuig. Hy het sy uitvinding - die lugsak - in 1953 gepatenteer.

Veiligheid vereis omvattende toesig

Die toenemende verkeersvolume, verhoogde snelhede en 'n gebrek aan toesig deur die regering oor motorvervaardiging het bygedra tot 'n kommerwekkende toename in motorongelukke en sterftes op die snelweë van ons land. In 1965 het die jong prokureur en verbruikersadvokaat, Ralph Nader, 'Unsafe at Any Speed' gepubliseer, 'n skerp aanklag van die Amerikaanse motorbedryf en sy onveilige produkte. Padongelukke het 50 000 lewens geëis in 1965 en in Junie 1966 het die Amerikaanse senaat die National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act saam met die wetgewing goedgekeur, en die Senaat het ongeveer $ 465 miljoen oor drie jaar bewillig vir staats- en stadsverkeersveiligheidsprogramme om bestuurderopleiding in te sluit en lisensiëring, motorinspeksies, snelwegontwerpe en verkeerswetstoepassing - wat beide president Lyndon B. Johnson die volgende September onderteken het.

Ook in 1966 het die Kongres die Amerikaanse departement van vervoer geskep met die doel om '' 'n vinnige, veilige, doeltreffende, toeganklike en maklike vervoerstelsel te verseker wat voldoen aan ons belangrike nasionale belange en die lewensgehalte van die Amerikaanse bevolking te verbeter ... '

Oortreding van die National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act het 'n agentskap gestig onder die uitvoerende tak van die Amerikaanse regering wat veiligheidstandaarde sou stel vir alle nuwe motorvoertuie vanaf die 1968 -modeljaar. Daardie agentskap? Die National Highway Traffic Safety Administration www.nhtsa.gov van die Departement van Vervoer (DOT).

Veiligheid eerste

NHTSA het die uitdaging om bestuurders en passasiers veilig te hou op die Amerikaanse paaie - om beserings, sterftes en ekonomiese verliese as gevolg van motorongelukke te verminder.

NHTSA het dekades lank toesig gehou oor die integrasie van lewensreddende tegnologieë soos veiligheidsgordels, kinderveiligheidstoele en lugsakke in die regulering en produksie van nuwe voertuie. NHTSA word dikwels verwar met en oorskadu deur sy meer flambojante neef, die NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board), anders as NHTSA, maar die NTSB is los van die DOT en ondersoek voorvalle van vliegtuie, spoorweë, mariene, pypleiding en gevaarlike materiaal (HAZMAT). Die resultate van hierdie ondersoeke lei dikwels nuwe veiligheidsaanbevelings na onder meer NHTSA.

Soos genoem, het die eerste federale veiligheidsstandaarde vir motors in werking getree op 1 Januarie 1968. Die nuwe standaarde help om bestuurders te beskerm teen 'n onredelike risiko van ongelukke of beserings as gevolg van die ontwerp, konstruksie of prestasie van motorvoertuie. Dit word bereik deur veiligheidstandaarde vir voertuie en toerusting op te stel en toe te pas. NHTSA ondersoek ook veiligheidsgebreke in motorvoertuie, stel en handhaaf brandstofverbruikstandaarde, bevorder die gebruik van veiligheidsgordels, kinderveiligheidstoele en lugsakke, ondersoek afstandsmeterbedrog, stel en handhaaf diefstalbestrywings vir voertuie en verskaf verbruikersinligting oor motorveiligheidsonderwerpe .

NHTSA -mylpale

In 1977 het NHTSA die Star of Life -simbool geskep om ambulanse, mediese noodtoestelle, pleisters of klere wat deur noodverskaffers gedra word, te identifiseer.

In 1978 het NHTSA begin om voertuie te toets en te beoordeel vir beskerming teen voorste botsing deur gebruik te maak van data van botstoets -dummies.

In 1984 het die staat New York die eerste Amerikaanse wet aanvaar wat die gebruik van veiligheidsgordels in passasiersmotors vereis.

In 1984 stel die kongres ook die Wet op Handhawing van diefstal van motorvoertuie in om die voorkoms van diefstalle van motors te verminder en die opsporing en herstel van gesteelde voertuie en hul onderdele te vergemaklik.

Een van die mees onvergeetlike en gewilde staatsdiensadvertensies in die geskiedenis was NHTSA se bekendstelling in 1985 van Vince en Larry, die ikoniese Crash Test Dummies, met die onvergeetlike veldtog: "You Could Learn a Lot From a Dummy", wat ontwerp is om die gebruik van veiligheidsgordels te bevorder .

Gewapen met veiligheidsinligting oor voor-, sy- en omvalstoetse wat in die sewentigerjare begin, het NHTSA in 1993 sy 5-ster-program bekendgestel om verbruikers te help om ingeligte veiligheidskeuses te maak by die aankoop van motorvoertuie: een ster is die laagste veiligheidsgradering-vyf, die hoogste.

In 1998 het al 50 state en die District of Columbia die wette vir nulverdraagsaamheid aanvaar vir bestuurders onder 21 jaar wat 'n motor bestuur met 'n bloedalkoholkonsentrasie (BAC) van 0,02 gram per deciliter of meer.

John Hetrick se uitvinding van die lugsak uit 1953 het die Intermodal Surface Efficiency Act van 1991 geïnspireer wat uiteindelik op 1 September 1998–45 jaar in werking getree het nadat dit aan al die groot motorvervaardigers van die tyd bekend gestel is. Die wet vereis dat alle motors en ligte vragmotors wat in die VSA verkoop word, lugsakke aan weerskante van die voorste sitplek het.

Navorsers skat dat lugsakke die risiko om te sterf in 'n kop-aan-kop-botsing met 30%verminder, en hulle is dit eens dat die sakke sedert die laat 1980's meer as 10 000 lewens gered het. Vandag is dit standaardtoerusting in byna 100 miljoen motors en vragmotors.

In 2003 het NHTSA se "Click It or Ticket" -veldtog nasionaal geword en bly dit vandag 'n tema. Hierdie program vir die handhawing van veiligheidsgordels gaan voort om die gebruik van veiligheidsgordels in al 50 state te verhoog.

Die daaropvolgende programme en wetgewing van NHTSA het probeer om tred te hou met tegnologiese vooruitgang wat veiligheid verhoog en belemmer. Verbeterings aan die 5-ster-program om aanlyn soektogte na herroeping en bygewerkte veiligheidsdata in te sluit, bied geleentheid vir meer ingeligte verbruikers. Kommunikasievooruitgang, soos slimfone, GPS, satellietradio en filmstreame aan boord, loop die lyn tussen veiligheid en afleiding.

Uitdagings vir NHTSA

Terwyl NHTSA die goeie stryd om vervoerveiligheid te bestuur beveg, dui studies daarop dat die VSA weens verskeie faktore agter bly in ander lande in bestuurdersveiligheid.

David Millward van Die Telegraaf Bruce Hamilton, navorsingsbestuurder van die American Automobile Association Foundation for Transport Safety, sê: "Wat veiligheidskultuur betref, bly ons agter Europa." Hy wil hê dat die gebruik van 'n selfoon of sms'e aan die stuur net so sosiaal onaanvaarbaar word as dronkbestuur, wat daarop dui dat dit 'n politieke wil sal skep om die wet te verander. Hamilton noem ook die land se padinfrastruktuur self "Baie van ons snelweë is in die veertiger- en vyftigerjare gebou toe daar baie minder verkeer was, wat baie stadiger as vandag beweeg het."

Spoed en alkohol bly die grootste moordenaars op Amerikaanse paaie. Russ Rader van die Insurance Institute for Highway Safety glo dat die afwesigheid van spoedkameras langs paaie in landelike of yl bevolkte gebiede tot buitengewoon hoë sterftesyfers bydra. Rader sê: "Ons was baie meer slap in die handhawing van perke as in ander geïndustrialiseerde lande. Ons sien ook snelhede wat styg tot 'n vlak wat ons nog nooit gesien het nie, met een tolpad in Texas wat 'n limiet van 85 km / h stel! "

En met verwysing na die mees uitdagende hekkie van NHTSA tot nog toe, stel Kara Macek, direkteur van kommunikasie by die Governors Highway Safety Association, voor dat Amerikaanse motorvoertuigveiligheid in stryd is met individuele regte. 'Ek dink Amerikaners is geneig om 'n burgerlike vryheidsbeskouing van dinge te hê,' het sy gesê. 'Daar is state waar daar sterk gevoelens is teen die wette oor die veiligheidsgordel en motorhelm. Daar is 'n hele kwessie van wat as die oppasstaat beskou word. "

New Hampshire, die staat "Live Free or Die", het geen wetlike vereiste om veiligheidsgordels te gebruik nie, en 16 ander state stel slegs klein boetes op en dan slegs as die bestuurder gestop word vir 'n ander oortreding. Ten spyte van meer as 3 000 mense wat gesterf het as gevolg van 'afleidings' -ongelukke, het slegs 12 state die gebruik van 'n mobiele toestel aan die stuur verbied, terwyl sewe state steeds sms'e aan die stuur toelaat.

Die kultuur waarin individuele regte die openbare veiligheid oortref, kan NHTSA se grootste uitdaging tot nog toe bewys. Bly ingeskakel.


Amerikaanse geskiedenis en Amerikaanse geskiedenis: vroeg in 1966

-Die gebruik van bewussynsveranderende middels, veral dagga en LSD, het nasionale aandag gekry. In Mei was LSD die voorwerp van die senaatverhore en 'n federale verbod. In September het dr. Timothy Leary, 'n vroeë LSD -navorser en later 'n proseliseerder van die gebruik daarvan, die League for Spiritual Discovery gestig en sonder sukses probeer om LSD en dagga as godsdienstige sakramente te wettig. Alhoewel daar nie akkurate ramings oor die gebruik van LSD bestaan ​​nie, stel die federale owerhede teen 1970 meer as 8 miljoen gebruikers op dagga.

-In 1966 sterf 'n rekord van 52 500 Amerikaners en 9 miljoen beseer in verkeersongelukke. Ralph Nader, 'n jong prokureur wat Unsafe at Any Speed ​​laat in 1965 gepubliseer het, was 'n leier in die stryd om nuwe veiligheidsvoorskrifte. General Motors het ondersoekers aangestel wat meer as 50 van Nader se vriende en bure ondervra het oor sy persoonlike lewe in 'n poging om hom in diskrediet te bring, maar dit het GM net in die verleentheid gebring tydens die verhore van die senaat.

10 Januarie Die wetgewer in Georgië het geweier om Julian Bond, 25-jarige swart pasifis en lid van die SNCC, te sit omdat hy die Amerikaanse Viëtnam-beleid gekant het en simpatie betoon het met konsepweerstanders. Hy is herkies en op 5 Desember het die Hooggeregshof eenparig beslis dat hy moet sit, aangesien sy politieke siening sy grondwetlike reg is.

13 Januarie President Johnson het dr. Robert Weaver aangewys as die eerste swart kabinetslid in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis. Weaver, 'n Harvard -gegradueerde en sedert 1961 hoof van die Agentskap vir Behuising en Huisfinansiering, word sekretaris van die nuwe Departement van Behuising en Stedelike Ontwikkeling (HUD) toe dit op 17 Januarie deur die Senaat bevestig is.

19 April. Bill Russell word aangewys as afrigter van die Boston Celtics en word die eerste swart afrigter van 'n groot pro -span. Hy het die Celtics in 1967 na 'n NBA -kampioenskap gelei.

Mag die opposisie van die kongres teen die Viëtnam -oorlog toeneem namate senator Fulbright beskuldig het dat die VSA 'swig voor die arrogansie van mag'. President Johnson se eerste reaksie is gedemp, 'nie arrogansie nie, maar pyn', maar na nog 'n golf van protesoptogte noem hy oorlogskritici 'Nervous Nellies' en voeg by: 'As Amerika se toewyding in Vietnam onteer word, word dit in 40 ander alliansies wat ons aangegaan het, onteer gemaak. " Intussen het die titulêre Republikeinse leier, Goldwater, Fulbright gevra om te bedank as voorsitter van die komitee vir buitelandse betrekkinge omdat hy 'hulp en troos aan die vyand' verleen het.

16 Mei Stokely Carmichael is verkies tot voorsitter van die SNCC, en begin 'n verskuiwing van burgerregte na 'Black Power' in die swart beweging. Die idee was dat swartes swartes in hul eie politieke groepe sou organiseer-"om negers te vra om in die Demokratiese party te kom, is soos om Jode te vra om by die Nazi-party aan te sluit" (Carmichael)-en dat blankes blankes teen rassisme moet organiseer as hulle wou. In Julie het CORE ook "Black Power" en "selfverdediging" onderskryf, maar die NAACP en die SCLC (Martin Luther King se groep) het "Black Power" as 'n separatistiese beweging verwerp.


Hoe sal die geskiedenis die wetgewers oor wapensregte onthou?

NABY

Tussen 3 000 en 4 000 mense het die sneeu en koue trotseer om deel te neem aan die & quotMarch for our Lives, & 'n protesoptog vir wapenwetgewing, in Des Moines.

Koop foto

'N Groep vroue, vriende en bure van die Scottish Rite Park -aftree -gemeenskap in Des Moines, marsjeer in solidariteit met die hoërskoolleerlinge van Parkland, Florida. Hulle maak protestekens teen wapens in skole. (Foto: Kyle Munson/The Register) Koop foto

In 1965, nadat hy ondersoek ingestel het na duisende sterftes in motorongelukke, het prokureur Ralph Nader 'Unsafe At Any Speed' gepubliseer, waarin motorvervaardigers blootgestel is omdat hulle wins voor verbruikersveiligheid plaas. General Motors se reaksie was om private speurders aan te stel om die reputasie van Nader te diskrediteer.

"Onveilig teen enige spoed" het die kongres aangespoor om die nasionale wet op verkeer en motorvoertuie in te stel. Ons het nog motors. Hulle is eenvoudig veiliger as wat hulle vroeër was en ons hou vervaardigers nou verantwoordelik vir die veiligheid.

Stel jou voor dat Nader, nadat hy die ernstige nalatigheid van die motorbedryf erken het, daarop gemik het om die motorvervaardigers se regte om onveilige motors te vervaardig, in plaas daarvan om die kampioen te word vir moderne voertuigveiligheid waarvoor hy vandag bekend is.

Dit is presies wat die Iowa -wetgewers Jake Chapman, Skyler Wheeler en Matt Windschitl probeer met hul wapenrekeninge. In die lig van die nasionale krisis, werk die mense wat hierdie wetsontwerpe ondersteun, nie om Iowans te beskerm nie. Hulle beskerm hul persoonlike passies en sakebelange. Windschitl is 'n opgeleide wapensmid en sy familielede is geweerhandelaars.

Ek het grootgeword in Tipton, Ia. Vir my 11de verjaardag het ek 'n 20-meter-enkelmaatjie gekry. Al my familielede is om gewere opgehef. Die gewere waarmee ons grootgeword het, is bedoel om wild te jag. Nie mense nie.

Ons is nou in dieselfde stadium met vuurwapens as met onveilige voertuie-dit veroorsaak 'n onmiskenbare, groot bedreiging vir die openbare veiligheid. Elf skoolskietvoorvalle in die eerste 23 dae van 2018. Sewe massa -skietvoorvalle die week van die skietery in Vegas, wat die 1,526ste massaskietery in 1,735 dae in Amerika was. Ons gemiddeld nege massa -skietery elke 10 dae. Ondanks die feit dat dit die rykste land ter wêreld is, is ons geweergeweldsyfer vergelykbaar met die armste, mees korrupte, gewelddadige lande op aarde - 27 keer hoër as lande met soortgelyke sosio -ekonomie soos Denemarke, Kanada en Noorweë.

Na 'n massaskietery 22 jaar gelede, het Australië snelwapens verbied, die aankoop en vernietiging van die 600 000 in omloop deur slegs die mediese belasting van 1,5 tot 1,7% vir slegs een jaar te verhoog. Daar was sedertdien nog nie 'n massaskietery in Australië nie.

Die data is duidelik en onbetwisbaar. Enige verantwoordelike openbare amptenaar soek oplossings deur middel van regulering en beperking, nie die beskerming van die status quo nie. Nie vir die uitbreiding van geweerregte nie.

Ons tweede wysiging is geskep tydens die onstabiele kinderskoene van ons land toe die gewone jagter en staatsmilisie die mees gesofistikeerde wapen van die tyd gedeel het: die muskiet. Diegene wat steeds glo dat hulle beskerming nodig het teen 'n tiranniese regering, moet steun vir regte op drones van militêre graad, nie vir die reg op 'n AR-15 nie.

Die burgers van Iowa het beskerming nodig nie teen 'n onderdrukkende regering nie, maar teen vuurwapens. Wetgewers in Iowa wat die uitbreiding van geweerregte ondersteun, is die GM van vandag se nasionale krisis, nie diegene wat deur toekomstige geslagte aangekondig sal word as helde wat 'n pionier in 'n veiliger wêreld vir ons kinders was nie.

Brian Vogel is 'n alumni van die Drake -universiteit en werk as stelversierder in film en televisie in Hollywood voordat hy in 2011 na Iowa City terugkeer.


Veldtog GM

General Motors -advertensie prys die pogings om lugbesoedeling te beheer, 18 April 1970

Die motorbedryfskritikus Ralph Nader

praat by U-M Teach-in, 1970.

Op 30 November 1965 publiseer advokaat Ralph Nader Onveilig teen enige spoed: Die ontwerpte gevare van die Amerikaanse motor, 'n boek waarin hy die motorbedryf gekritiseer het omdat hy onveilige voertuie vervaardig het wat die publiek in gevaar stel en die land se lug besoedel het. Die boek het in die lente van 1966 'n topverkoper geword, en in September onderteken president Lyndon B. Johnson die National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act. Openbare kommer het nuwe veiligheidsstandaarde in die wet ingedruk, maar motorvervaardigers het steeds geen mandaat gehad om te belê in verbeterings wat hul voertuie se omgewingsimpak sou verminder nie.

'N Groep prokureurs, geïnspireer deur die bewering van Nader dat' die wortels van die onveilige voertuigprobleem so vasgemaak is dat die situasie slegs verbeter kan word deur nuwe instrumente vir burgerlike optrede te bewerkstellig ', het 'n projek oor korporatiewe verantwoordelikheid begin om die veldtog te hervorm korporasies soos General Motors. Op 8 Februarie 1970 het Nader die groep se nasionale veldtog aangekondig om General Motors verantwoordelik te maak, of 'Campaign GM', wat vereis dat GM maatreëls neem om die publiek 'n stem te gee in sy korporatiewe beleid. Een van die groep se leiers het Campaign GM se argumente in 'n brief saamgevat:

'Ons is bekommerd oor die magdom maniere waarop General Motors se besluite die lewens van feitlik alle Amerikaners beïnvloed - in gebiede wat wissel van motorveiligheid om rekeninge te herstel, omgewingsbesoedeling, minderheidswerk en gesondheid en veiligheid van werknemers. Te veel van General Motors se vorige korporatiewe besluite is geneem met die oog op hul winsgewendheid op kort termyn, eerder as hul sosiale gevolge. ”

Campaign GM het General Motors 'n lys van nege voorstelle gestuur om hierdie bekommernisse aan te spreek en versoek dat dit op 'n volmagverklaring geplaas word wat aan aandeelhouers gestuur sal word. GM het geweier, maar die federale kommissie vir sekuriteite en ruil het die korporasie beveel om twee in te sluit. Die eerste voorstel sou drie verteenwoordigers van die publiek by die raad van GM voeg, en die tweede sou 'n komitee stig om GM se bydraes te bestudeer oor kwessies van openbare belang, waaronder massavervoer, veiligheid en besoedeling. Met hierdie veranderinge sou GM, die grootste onderneming ter wêreld, meer aanspreeklik teenoor die publiek word.

Michigan Daily, Maart 1970.

Die veldtog het sterkte verkry uit studente-omgewingsgroepe op kollege-kampusse omdat dit aanklank vind by die boodskap teen motor, besoedeling. Hierdie groepe en die leiers van Campaign GM het universiteite, wat gesamentlik een en 'n half miljoen aandele GM -aandele besit het, onder druk geplaas om ten gunste van die voorstelle te stem. Phillip Moore, die uitvoerende sekretaris van Campaign GM, het die Universiteit van Michigan aangespoor om sy steun aan die omgewingsopvoeding met 'n daadwerklike verbintenis op te volg. Lede van ENACT het 'n brief aan president Fleming geskryf waarin die Universiteit aangemoedig word om ten gunste van die voorstelle met sy 28 000 aandele te stem. Die Michigan Daily onderskryf Campaign GM en doen 'n beroep op UM om dieselfde te doen:

'Solank die Universiteit passief instem met die beleid van GM, moet dit deel in die skuldgevoelens wat die gevolge van GM se optrede is.'

Ralph Nader het tydens die Teach-In on the Environment in Maart 1970 gepraat en die geleentheid gebruik om steun vir die veldtog in te samel. Ondanks wydverspreide entoesiasme vir Campaign GM op die kampus, het die UM Raad aan die einde van April besluit om te stem teen Campaign GM se voorstelle om General Motors te hervorm.

Omgewingsaksie nuusbrief

artikel oor Campaign GM se nederlaag.

Die aandeelhouersvergadering van 22 Mei in Detroit het ses uur en sewe-en-twintig minute geduur, die langste in GM se geskiedenis. Tydens die vergadering beantwoord James Roche, voorsitter van GM, vrae voor 'n skare van meer as 3 000 - insluitend die Michigan Daily berig, ''n swembroek-geklee, gasmasker-draende, vlaggolwe vrou wat [Roche se] bedanking vra. Veldtog -GM -kwessies het die vergadering oorheers. Die beweging het wydverspreide aandag getrek, maar onder GM -aandeelhouers was die steun daarvan beperk. As gevolg hiervan was dit nie verbasend dat beide voorstelle van Campaign GM misluk het nie, wat elkeen die stemme van minder as drie persent van die 285 miljoen aandele van GM se aandele verseker het.

Alhoewel die voorstelle nie geslaag het nie, het GM -leiers in veldtog hul beweging as suksesvol beskou. Hulle het 'n nasionale gesprek aangevuur oor korporasies se verantwoordelikheid om in die openbare belang op te tree. Die vergadering self het lede van die publiek in staat gestel om GM te druk om op te tree. Voor die Mei -vergadering het slegs wit mans in die raad van direkteure van GM gedien. Etlike maande na die vergadering het GM 'n Afro -Amerikaanse pastoor en 'n vrou by die raad gevoeg. Die volgende jaar het GM 'n komitee vir openbare beleid gestig om die raad te adviseer oor die maniere waarop sy beleid tot probleme soos lugbesoedeling en veiligheid bygedra het.

Tydens Campaign GM het 'n eksterne groep die motorbedryf probeer verander deur openbare druk te veroorsaak. Ander groepe, soos die United Auto Workers, het dit van binne probeer hervorm.


Ralph Nader Vinnige feite

Groen Party se presidentskandidaat in 1996 en 2000 Onafhanklike kandidaat in 2004 en 2008.

Praat Arabies, Chinees, Portugees, Spaans en Russies.

Seun van Libanese immigrante.

Tydlyn

Vroeë 1960's Regsgeleerdheid in Hartford, Connecticut.

1961-1963 Lesings aan die Hartford Universiteit.

1964 Word aangestel deur die assistent -sekretaris van arbeid, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, as 'n konsultant vir motorveiligheid.

1965 Publiseer “Unsafe at Any Speed, ” 'n aanklag van die motorbedryf in Detroit. Nader beskuldig motorvervaardigers daarvan dat styl in die ontwerp van hul motors styl bo veiligheid stel. Hy fokus spesifiek op die Chevrolet Corvair.

10 Februarie 1966 Getuig voor 'n Senaat -subkomitee oor motorveiligheid.

Maart 1966 – James Roche, president van General Motors, vra voor die senaat om verskoning dat hy private ondersoekers aangestel het om op Nader te spioeneer.

9 September 1966 President Lyndon B. Johnson onderteken die nasionale wet op verkeers- en motorveiligheid.

1967 Lobby -kongres om die Wet op Gesonde Vleis goed te keur, wat die inspeksies van slagplase en vleisverwerkingsaanlegte verhoog.

1967-1968 Lesings aan die Princeton Universiteit.

1969 Help om die Center for Responsive Law op te rig, 'n nie-winsgewende studie van verbruikersaangeleenthede.

1970 Skik 'n teisteringsgeding teen GM vir $ 425,000.

29 Desember 1970 Die kongres stig die Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), waarvoor Nader sterk gepleit het.

1971 Stig Public Citizen Inc., 'n lobby -groep vir verbruikers.

19 Augustus 1996 Word genomineer as die kandidaat van die Groen Party vir president.

November 1996 Ontvang 685 000 stemme (.71%) tydens die presidentsverkiesing.

25 Junie 2000 Word weer genomineer as die Groen Party -kandidaat vir president.

November 2000 Ontvang 2,8 miljoen stemme tydens die presidentsverkiesing van 2000, ongeveer 2,75% van die stemme. Is op die stembrief in 33 state en die District of Columbia as kandidaat vir die Groen Party en word as 'n onafhanklike op die stembriewe van agt state gelys.

Januarie 2001 Stig die League of Fans, 'n sporthervormings- en voorspraakprojek.

22 Februarie 2004 Hy kondig aan dat hy as onafhanklike president verkiesbaar is.

9 Augustus 2004 Twee regsgedinge word namens Demokratiese kiesers in Pennsylvania ingedien, wat Nader se versoekskrifte uitdaag om op Pennsylvania se stembrief te gaan, en beweer dat duisende van die handtekeninge vervals of fiktief is.

13 Oktober 2004 'N Staatshof verwyder Nader uit die presidensiële stembrief van Pennsylvania, met verwysing na duisende bedrieglike handtekeninge.

2 November 2004 Kry 411,304 stemme (1%) tydens die presidentsverkiesing. Is op die stembrief in 34 state en die District of Columbia.

Januarie 2005 'N Regter beveel Nader en sy hardloopmaat, Peter Camejo, om meer as $ 80 000 regskoste te betaal wat 'n groep aangegaan het wat Nader se versoekskrifte uitgedaag het om op die Pennsylvania -stembrief te gaan.

30 Oktober 2007 Dagvaar die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee, die Kerry-Edwards-veldtog, die PAC America Coming Together en ander in die hooggeregshof in die distrik Columbia, met die bewering dat hulle saamgesweer het om hom uit die stemming te hou en om stemme van die genomineerde weg te neem John Kerry in die presidentsverkiesing in 2004.

27 November 2007 – Nader & DC's hooggeregshofsgeding teen die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee en ander word na die federale distrikshof in die distrik Columbia gebring.

3 Desember 2007 Nader ’s DC federale distrikshofsaak teen die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee en ander word deur regter Jennifer Anderson voor die aanvanklike skeduleringskonferensie van die hand gewys.

30 Januarie 2008 Begin 'n webwerf vir die presidensiële ondersoekende komitee vir die verkiesing in 2008.

24 Februarie 2008 Nader kondig aan dat hy as onafhanklike president verkiesbaar is.

28 Februarie 2008 Nader kies die voormalige president van San Francisco Board of Supervisors Matt Gonzalez as sy hardloopmaat.

Mei 2008 Nader lê 'n administratiewe klag by die Federale Verkiesingskommissie in teen die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee en ander dat hulle saamgesluit het om hom en sy lopende stembus toegang in talle state te weier as kandidate vir president en vise -president tydens die algemene verkiesing in 2004 en#8221 sê is teen die Federale Verkiesingsveldtogwet van 1971.

4 November 2008 Nader verloor in die presidentsverkiesing met min of geen invloed op die kieskaart.

November 2009 Nader lê 'n hooggeregshof in Washington County, Maine, in teen die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee, die Maine Demokratiese Party, die Kerry-Edwards-veldtog en ander wat beweer dat die beskuldigdes onwettige taktiek gebruik het om Nader van die stembrief in Maine en ander state af te hou.

11 Junie 2010 Nader verloor sy klag van Mei 2008 teen die FEC en lê klagtes teen die federale verkiesingskommissie by die DC -federale distrikshof in.

16 November 2010 'N Regter in Maine verwerp 'n regsgeding van November 2009 deur Nader wat die Demokrate daarvan beskuldig dat hulle saamgesweer het om hom uit die stembus te hou tydens die presidensiële wedloop van 2004.

Junie 2011 Herstel die Liga van Aanhangers, sy sporthervormingsprojek, en as deel van 'n 11-delige sportmanifes, belowe hy om 'n antitrustgeding teen die Bowl Championship Series aanhangig te maak.

9 November 2011 Nader verloor sy federale saak teen Junie 2010 teen die FEC en appelleer.

19 April 2012 Die hooggeregshof in Maine vernietig die ontslag van die hooggeregshof in 2009 teen die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee en ander.

20 September 2012 Kevin M. Cuddy, regter van die hooggeregshof in Maine, beslis dat die regsgeding van 2009 teen die Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee en ander teregstaan.

April 2012 Informeel onderskryf die voormalige burgemeester van Salt Lake City, Rocky Anderson, as president tydens 'n perskonferensie.

23 Mei 2013 – Die hooggeregshof in Maine beveel dat die regsgeding van Nader teen die Demokratiese Party van die hand gewys word.

19 Maart 2014-hede – Hy bied die Ralph Nader -radiouur aan op Pacifica Radio Network.

29 April 2014 – Publiseer 'n nuwe boek, “Unstoppable: The Emerging Left-Right Alliance to Demantle the Corporate State. ”

27 September 2015 – Nader open die American Museum of Tort Law in sy tuisstad Winsted, Connecticut.

21 Julie 2016 – Nader word opgeneem in die Automotive Hall of Fame.

30 Junie 2020 – In 'n New York Times -brief aan die redakteur reageer Nader op 'n artikel waarin die Trump -administrasie se reaksie op die koronavirus -uitbraak veroordeel word. Nader doen 'n beroep op president Trump en vise-president Mike Pence om opsy te gaan en professionele spesialiste in openbare gesondheid te laat die federale poging teen die Covid-19-pandemie bestuur. ”


Ralph Nader Vinnige feite

Groen Party se presidentskandidaat in 1996 en 2000 Onafhanklike kandidaat in 2004 en 2008.

Praat Arabies, Chinees, Portugees, Spaans en Russies.

Seun van Libanese immigrante.

Tydlyn

Vroeë 1960's Regsgeleerdheid in Hartford, Connecticut.

1961-1963 Lesings aan die Hartford Universiteit.

1964 Word aangestel deur die assistent -sekretaris van arbeid, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, as 'n konsultant vir motorveiligheid.

1965 Publiseer “Unsafe at Any Speed, ” 'n aanklag van die motorbedryf in Detroit. Nader beskuldig motorvervaardigers daarvan dat styl in die ontwerp van hul motors styl bo veiligheid stel. Hy fokus spesifiek op die Chevrolet Corvair.

10 Februarie 1966 Getuig voor 'n Senaat -subkomitee oor motorveiligheid.

Maart 1966 – James Roche, president van General Motors, vra voor die senaat om verskoning dat hy private ondersoekers aangestel het om op Nader te spioeneer.

9 September 1966 President Lyndon B. Johnson onderteken die nasionale wet op verkeers- en motorveiligheid.

1967 Lobby -kongres om die Wet op Gesonde Vleis goed te keur, wat die inspeksies van slagplase en vleisverwerkingsaanlegte verhoog.

1967-1968 Lesings aan die Princeton Universiteit.

1969 Help om die Center for Responsive Law op te rig, 'n nie-winsgewende studie van verbruikerskwessies.

1970 Skik 'n teisteringsgeding teen GM vir $ 425,000.

29 Desember 1970 Die kongres stig die Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), waarvoor Nader sterk gepleit het.

1971 Stig Public Citizen Inc., 'n lobby -groep vir verbruikers.

19 Augustus 1996 Word genomineer as die kandidaat van die Groen Party vir president.

November 1996 Ontvang 685 000 stemme (.71%) tydens die presidentsverkiesing.

25 Junie 2000 Word weer genomineer as die Groen Party -kandidaat vir president.

November 2000 Ontvang 2,8 miljoen stemme tydens die presidentsverkiesing van 2000, ongeveer 2,75% van die stemme. Is on the ballot in 33 states and the District of Columbia as the Green Party candidate and is listed as an Independent on the ballots of eight states.

January 2001 Establishes the League of Fans, a sports reform and advocacy project.

February 22, 2004 Announces he is running for president as an Independent.

August 9, 2004 Two lawsuits are filed in Pennsylvania on behalf of Democratic voters challenging Nader’s petitions to get on Pennsylvania’s ballot, alleging that thousands of the signatures are forged or fictitious.

October 13, 2004 A state court removes Nader from Pennsylvania’s presidential ballot, citing thousands of fraudulent signatures.

November 2, 2004 Gets 411,304 votes (1%) in the presidential election. Is on the ballot in 34 states and the District of Columbia.

January 2005 A judge orders Nader and his running mate, Peter Camejo, to pay over $80,000 in legal fees incurred by a group who challenged Nader’s petitions to get on the Pennsylvania ballot.

30 Oktober 2007 Sues the Democratic National Committee, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, the PAC America Coming Together and others in District of Columbia Superior Court, alleging that they conspired to keep him off the ballot in several states and from “taking votes away” from nominee John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election.

November 27, 2007 – Nader’s DC Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others is moved to District of Columbia federal district court.

December 3, 2007 Nader’s DC federal district court case against the Democratic National Committee and others is dismissed by Judge Jennifer Anderson before the initial scheduling conference.

January 30, 2008 Launches a presidential exploratory committee website for the 2008 election.

24 Februarie 2008 Nader announces that he is running for president as an independent.

February 28, 2008 Nader chooses former San Francisco Board of Supervisors president Matt Gonzalez as his running mate.

May 2008 Nader files an administrative complaint with the Federal Election Commission against the Democratic National Committee and others that they “conspired to deny him and his running mate ballot access in numerous states as candidates for President and Vice President in the 2004 general election” which they say is against the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.

November 4, 2008 Nader loses in the presidential election with little to no impact on the electoral map.

November 2009 Nader files a Superior Court lawsuit in Washington County, Maine against the Democratic National Committee, the Maine Democratic Party, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, and others alleging the defendants used illegal tactics to attempt to keep Nader off the ballot in Maine and other states.

11 Junie 2010 Nader loses his May 2008 complaint against the FEC and files charges against the Federal Election Commission in DC federal district court.

November 16, 2010 A judge in Maine dismisses a November 2009 lawsuit filed by Nader that accuses Democrats of conspiring to keep him off the ballot in the 2004 presidential race.

June 2011 Relaunches the League of Fans, his sports reform project, and as part of an 11-part sports manifesto, pledges to bring an antitrust suit against the Bowl Championship Series.

November 9, 2011 Nader loses his June 2010 federal case against the FEC and files an appeal.

19 April 2012 Maine Supreme Judicial Court overturns the 2010 dismissal of the 2009 Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others.

20 September 2012 Maine Superior Court Justice Kevin M. Cuddy rules that the 2009 lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others will go to trial.

April 2012 Informally endorses former Salt Lake City Mayor Rocky Anderson for president during a press conference.

May 23, 2013 – The Maine Supreme Court orders that Nader’s lawsuit against the Democratic Party be dismissed.

March 19, 2014-present – Cohosts the Ralph Nader Radio Hour on Pacifica Radio Network.

April 29, 2014 – Publishes a new book, “Unstoppable: The Emerging Left-Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State.”

September 27, 2015 – Nader opens the American Museum of Tort Law in his Winsted, Connecticut, hometown.

July 21, 2016 – Nader is inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame.

June 30, 2020 – In a New York Times letter to the editor, Nader reacts to an article condemning the Trump administration’s response to the Coronavirus outbreak. Nader calls for “President Trump and Vice President Mike Pence to step aside and let professional public health specialists manage the federal effort against the Covid-19 pandemic.”


Ralph Nader Fast Facts

Here's a look at the life of consumer advocate and former candidate for president .

Here's a look at the life of consumer advocate and former candidate for president Ralph Nader.

Personal: Birth date: February 27, 1934

Geboorteplek: Winsted, Connecticut

Birth name: Ralph Nader

Vader: Nathra Nader

Mother: Rose (Bouziane) Nader

Onderwys: Princeton University, A.B., 1955, Harvard Law School, L.L.B., 1958

Military: US Army, 1959

Other Facts: Writer and attorney.

Green Party presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000 Independent candidate in 2004 and 2008.

Speaks Arabic, Chinese, Portuguese, Spanish and Russian.

Son of Lebanese immigrants.

Timeline: Early 1960s - Practices law in Hartford, Connecticut.

1961-1963 - Lectures at Hartford University.

1964 - Is hired by Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan as a consultant on auto safety.

1965 - Publishes "Unsafe at Any Speed," an indictment of the auto industry in Detroit. Nader accuses car makers of putting style ahead of safety in the design of their cars. He focuses specifically on the Chevrolet Corvair.

February 10, 1966 - Testifies before a Senate subcommittee on auto safety.

March 1966 - James Roche, president of General Motors, apologizes in front of the Senate for hiring private investigators to spy on Nader.

September 9, 1966 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act into law.

1967 - Lobbies Congress to pass the Wholesome Meat Act, increasing inspections of slaughterhouses and meat processing plants.

1967-1968 - Lectures at Princeton University.

1969 - Helps establish the Center for Responsive Law, a non-profit studying consumer issues.

1970 - Settles a harassment lawsuit against GM for $425,000.

29 Desember 1970 - Congress establishes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which had been strongly lobbied for by Nader.

1971 - Founds Public Citizen Inc., a consumer lobbying group.

1983 - Founds the US Public Interest Research Group.

August 19, 1996 - Is nominated as the Green Party's candidate for president.

November 1996 - Receives 685,000 votes ( .71%) in the presidential election.

June 25, 2000 - Is again nominated as the Green Party candidate for president.

November 2000 - Receives 2.8 million votes in the 2000 presidential election, approximately 2.75% of the vote. Is on the ballot in 33 states and the District of Columbia as the Green Party candidate and is listed as an Independent on the ballots of eight states.

January 2001 - Establishes the League of Fans, a sports reform and advocacy project.

February 22, 2004 - Announces he is running for president as an Independent.

August 9, 2004 - Two lawsuits are filed in Pennsylvania on behalf of Democratic voters challenging Nader's petitions to get on Pennsylvania's ballot, alleging that thousands of the signatures are forged or fictitious.

October 13, 2004 - A state court removes Nader from Pennsylvania's presidential ballot, citing thousands of fraudulent signatures.

November 2, 2004 - Gets 411,304 votes (1%) in the presidential election. Is on the ballot in 34 states and the District of Columbia.

January 2005 - A judge orders Nader and his running mate, Peter Camejo, to pay over $80,000 in legal fees incurred by a group who challenged Nader's petitions to get on the Pennsylvania ballot.

30 Oktober 2007 - Sues the Democratic National Committee, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, the PAC America Coming Together and others in District of Columbia Superior Court, alleging that they conspired to keep him off the ballot in several states and from "taking votes away" from nominee John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election.

November 27, 2007 - Nader's DC Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others is moved to District of Columbia federal district court.

December 3, 2007 - Nader's DC federal district court case against the Democratic National Committee and others is dismissed by Judge Jennifer Anderson before the initial scheduling conference.

January 30, 2008 - Launches a presidential exploratory committee website for the 2008 election.

24 Februarie 2008 - Nader announces that he is running for president as an independent.

February 28, 2008 - Nader chooses former San Francisco Board of Supervisors president Matt Gonzalez as his running mate.

May 2008 - Nader files an administrative complaint with the Federal Election Commission against the Democratic National Committee and others that they "conspired to deny him and his running mate ballot access in numerous states as candidates for President and Vice President in the 2004 general election" which they say is against the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.

November 4, 2008 - Nader loses in the presidential election with little to no impact on the electoral map.

November 2009 - Nader files a Superior Court lawsuit in Washington County, Maine against the Democratic National Committee, the Maine Democratic Party, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, and others alleging the defendants used illegal tactics to attempt to keep Nader off the ballot in Maine and other states.

11 Junie 2010 - Nader loses his May 2008 complaint against the FEC and files charges against the Federal Election Commission in DC federal district court.

November 16, 2010 - A judge in Maine dismisses a November 2009 lawsuit filed by Nader that accuses Democrats of conspiring to keep him off the ballot in the 2004 presidential race.

June 2011 - Relaunches the League of Fans, his sports reform project, and as part of an 11-part sports manifesto, pledges to bring an antitrust suit against the Bowl Championship Series.

November 9, 2011 - Nader loses his June 2010 federal case against the FEC and files an appeal.

19 April 2012 - Maine Supreme Judicial Court overturns the 2010 dismissal of the 2009 Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others.

20 September 2012 - Maine Superior Court Justice Kevin M. Cuddy rules that the 2009 lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others will go to trial.

April 2012 - Informally endorses former Salt Lake City Mayor Rocky Anderson for president during a press conference.

May 23, 2013 - The Maine Supreme Court orders that Nader's lawsuit against the Democratic Party be dismissed.

April 29, 2014 - Releases a new book, "Unstoppable: The Emerging Left-Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State."

September 27, 2015 - Nader opens the American Museum of Tort Law in his Winsted, Connecticut, hometown.

July 21, 2016 - Nader is inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame.


Ralph Nader: Crusader or spoiler?

For more than a quarter-century, Ralph Nader was an advocate for the rights of consumers not to be incinerated in a Chevrolet Corvair or by the meltdown of a nuclear power plant. He was both saint and scold, unleashing his furies upon America’s corporate giants and on lowly hot dogs, which he once described with a straight face during congressional testimony as “missiles of death.” Nader couldn’t help himself. He was under oath.

In the documentary “An Unreasonable Man,” Nader often appears to be a man who can’t help himself, a tilter at windmills whose campaigns have led to safer cars, cleaner drinking water and, to hear his aggrieved critics in the Democratic Party tell it, the election of George W. Bush.

Nader’s run for the presidency in 2000 is described by one of his still-smoldering former allies as “worse than naive, it borders on the wicked.” Even Jimmy Carter is shown taunting his former political ally, suggesting that Nader “go back to examining the rear end of automobiles.”

Ralph (as most people in the film call him) became not merely famous but legendary in 1965, when he published “Unsafe At Any Speed,” his book on the “designed in” flaws of the Corvair, setting off a loony attempt by General Motors to discredit him by investigating his private life. The only thing the investigation revealed was that Nader didn’t have a private life, and the subsequent financial settlement from GM for invading his privacy provided the financial underpinnings for a decade or more of activism by Nader’s Raiders.

The first half of the movie is an absorbing study of this part of Nader’s public life, and then it switches – as he did – to politics, where the results for both him and the picture are less cheerful. His third-party campaigns for the presidency infuriated so many of his old allies from the left that, during a montage of audio clips about the disastrous effects of his political career, we hear someone ask how many deaths in the Iraq war should be blamed on Nader.

Moments later, we are given an estimate of the number of lives saved by the seat belts for which Nader agitated in the 1960s. In the film, this makes the slaughter and salvation he is supposed to have caused play out like a zero sum game.

Nader moved from his position as the government’s unofficial conscience during the Carter administration to a period of eclipse as Ronald Reagan’s banishment of government from the American backside dismantled two decades of Nader’s work. Bill Clinton’s ceaseless conciliations with industry moved the Democratic Party so close to the political center that Nader finally concluded the two-party system itself was broken.

“An Unreasonable Man” arrives just as George Bush’s poll numbers are testing new lows, and on the heels of Al Gore’s sanctification at the Oscars, which limbers up the tongues of Nader’s critics – such as liberal columnist Eric Alterman and Columbia Professor Todd Gitlin – who cast Nader not merely as political spoiler, but as despoiler of American history.

Most of the second half of the film is given over to a now-7-year-old discussion of whether Nader engineered Gore’s defeat, and though this debate has generated enough ozone-depleting gases of its own to render Gore’s Oscar victory carbon-neutral, it is not without its wonkish fascinations. Longtime political analyst and “West Wing” producer Lawrence O’Donnell, for instance, notes that Nader’s candidacy was judged not significant enough during the 2000 race to qualify for the debates, yet Gore’s team (and many Democrats) have flayed Nader ever since as the die meeste significant factor in Gore’s defeat.

Some of this invective would be dismaying if it weren’t so silly. Alterman insists that Nader should have dropped out of the race on the eve of the election, presumably giving the victory to Gore, though there is plenty of evidence to suggest that Nader’s voters would simply have stayed home without him.

It’s hard to say what any of this debate proves. Co-directors Henriette Mantel and Steve Skrovan allow enough of Nader’s critics – including former Nader’s Raiders who turned against him during his presidential bids – to testify against him that they can’t be accused of glossing over his faults. But Mantel worked as an office manager in one of Nader’s law centers in the late 󈨊s, and sometimes the appearance of objectivity in a documentary is just that – more apparent than real.

“An Unreasonable Man” gives the appearance of even-handedness, but its larger concern is burnishing Nader’s legacy by subtly rebutting the conventional wisdom about him with a chorus of critics of his critics.

At the end of the film, Nader wearily says he cares nothing for his own legacy, then immediately ticks off a list of his accomplishments as a consumer advocate. (He also helped promote the film, suggesting he may be up for a little legacy polishing after all.)

If he has political plans for 2008, he doesn’t mention them. At 73, Nader finally appears to be slowing down, but as GM and Al Gore – as unlikely a confederation of victims as ever there was – can attest, he remains unsafe at any speed.

Gegradeer: No MPAA rating, but could be PG-13 for profanity

Cast: Ralph Nader, Joan Claybrook, Eric Alterman, Todd Gitlin, Pat Buchanan


General Motors Fast Facts

Here’s a look at General Motors, one of the Big Three US automakers.

Feite

Major GM automobile brands in the United States are Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and GMC.

Domestic and international subsidiaries at one time included Oldsmobile, Pontiac, Hummer, Saturn and Saab.

GM is one of the largest vehicle manufacturers and marketers in the world, with operations on six continents.

GM is headquartered in Detroit.

Tydlyn

September 16, 1908 – General Motors Company is founded under the leadership of William Durant. The new company brings together several car companies, including Buick. Olds Motor Works (Oldsmobile) is bought by GM later in 1908.

1908 – General Motors acquires the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company, a truck company. It later evolves into GMC.

1909 – GM acquires Cadillac Motor and Oakland Motor Car Company (later renamed Pontiac).

1910 – When the company has financial difficulties, Durant is ousted.

1911 – Durant co-founds Chevrolet Motor Company.

1915 – Durant becomes GM’s largest shareholder.

1916 – Durant returns as president of GM.

1918 – Chevrolet becomes a division of GM.

1918 – GM joins the war effort during World War I, retooling 90% of the GMC truck production line for military use. More than 8,500 trucks are sold to the US Army for use in the war.

1920 – With GM on the verge of bankruptcy, Durant retires as president. He starts another car company, Durant Motors, but loses his fortune in the 1929 stock market crash. Durant lives until 1947, surviving on a pension from GM.

1923-1956 – Alfred P. Sloan Jr. serves as president and later chief executive of GM.

1925 – General Motors expands internationally by purchasing Vauxhall Motors, a British company.

1929 – GM takes a majority stake in German car maker Adam Opel AG. During World War II, the German government nationalizes Opel, but GM regains control after the war ends.

1936-1937 – A drawn-out strike at GM plants leads the company to sign its first agreement with the United Auto Workers labor union.

1942-1945 – GM produces vehicles and weapons for use by the US military during World War II.

1954 – General Motors accounts for 54% of the auto market in the United States, up from 12% in 1921.

1965 – Activist Ralph Nader publishes “Unsafe at Any Speed” with a section critical of the Chevrolet Corvair. GM hires detectives to investigate Nader. Later GM’s president is forced to publicly apologize and pay Nader $425,000 to settle a lawsuit.

1980 – GM reports a net loss of more than $700 million, its first unprofitable year since 1921.

1980-1990 – GM’s share of the US market falls from 45% to 35%.

1984 – GM purchases Electronic Data Systems Corporation, started by Ross Perot, for $2.5 billion.

1998 – A 54-day strike by the United Auto Workers (UAW) union costs GM approximately $2 billion in profits.

2008 – GM announces that it lost $38.7 billion in 2007, a record loss for the company.

December 2008 – GM receives a bailout of $13.4 billion from the US Treasury, through the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).

March 30, 2009 – CEO Rick Wagoner announces that he is resigning at the request of the Obama administration.

April-May 2009 – General Motors receives another $6 billion in bailouts from TARP.

May 29, 2009 – GM stock closes at less than $1 a share for first time since the Great Depression.

June 1, 2009 – GM files for bankruptcy. It receives another $30 billion in government funding to assist with restructuring. After bankruptcy, the company will be 60.8% owned by the US government, 11.7% by the Canadian government, 17.5% by the UAW union and unsecured bondholders will have a 10% share.

July 10, 2009 – General Motors emerges from bankruptcy after 39 days. It is now known as General Motors Company instead of General Motors Corporation.

December 1, 2009 – CEO Fritz Henderson resigns after less than a year in the position.

January 25, 2010 – Chairman Edward Whitacre Jr. is named CEO of General Motors.

April 7, 2010 – GM announces that the company lost $3.4 billion in the fourth quarter of 2009.

August 12, 2010 – CEO Ed Whitacre announces that he will be stepping down on September 1, 2010.

November 18, 2010 – GM raises $20 billion with its initial public offering at $33 a share.

February 24, 2011 – GM announces that the company made $4.7 billion in 2010, its first profit since 2004.

January 19, 2012 – GM is officially the top automobile manufacturer in the world. Nine million vehicles sold in 2011 helped to make it the largest automaker in China also.

December 9, 2013 – The US Treasury sells its remaining shares of GM stock, closing the book on the 2009 bailout. The United States only recouped about $39 billion of the approximately $50 billion it put into GM.

December 10, 2013 – Mary Barra is named the first female CEO of GM.

February 26, 2014 – GM expands a recall of compact cars to 1.37 million vehicles built between 2003 and 2007, due to possible ignition problems. Thirteen people have died in accidents.

March 28, 2014 – The recall of GM vehicles with ignition issues is expanded to 2.6 million vehicles.

March 31, 2014 – GM recalls 1.3 million vehicles due to a power steering issue.

May 15, 2014 – GM announces it is recalling another 3 million vehicles worldwide, and that it will take a $200 million charge for those repairs. The bulk of the latest recall applies to 2.4 million cars with a wiring problem that’s been tied to at least 13 accidents, two injuries and no deaths.

May 16, 2014 – The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) fines GM $35 million to settle a federal probe into the 10-year delay of its ignition switch recall. This is the maximum fine for a single violation. The money from the fine goes to the US Treasury, not to compensate crash victims. A separate FBI investigation is still underway.

May 20, 2014 – GM recalls another 2.4 million US cars and trucks. Spokesman Alan Adler says that no injuries or deaths are associated the recalls.

May 22, 2014 – CNN reports a total of 29 separate GM recalls since January 2014 covering 13.8 million US cars and trucks, and 15.8 million vehicles worldwide.

June 5, 2014 – GM releases the results of an internal probe relating to delayed recalls and the deaths of at least 13 people. GM Chief Executive Officer Mary Barra announces that 15 employees have been dismissed and five more have been disciplined. Barra also announces GM will create a program to compensate those injured or killed by the defective cars. Compensation expert Kenneth Feinberg will decide how victims will be paid.

June 16, 2014 – GM recalls another 3.36 million vehicles worldwide for a different ignition switch issue linked to eight crashes and six injuries. This brings the total number of cars recalled by GM this year to more than 20 million.

October 20, 2014 – The office of Attorney Ken Feinberg, who is administering the compensation program, announces that a total of 56 claims have been approved by his team, including 29 deaths, four serious injuries and 23 less serious injuries.

December 8, 2014 – Feinberg’s office releases a report on claims relating to GM’s faulty ignition switch recall. Thirty-eight deaths are now attributed to the defect, and are eligible for payment. Also eligible for payment are six cases of severe injury and 45 cases of other injury.

February 2, 2015 – Feinberg’s office releases an updated report, after the program’s January 31, 2015, deadline. More than 4,180 claims have been filed against General Motors, alleging the automaker’s vehicles with faulty ignition switches caused deaths and injuries. So far, 128 claims have been ruled eligible, including 51 deaths.

December 10, 2015 – GM’s faulty ignition switch caused 124 deaths, according to a final report from the attorney administering funds to accident victims.

December 15, 2016 – CEO Mary Barra announces GM will build autonomous Chevrolet Bolt electric cars in the Detroit area starting next year.

March 6, 2017 – Says it’s selling its European business for $2.3 billion to France’s PSA, the maker of Peugeot and Citroen cars, and announces it is laying off 1,100 workers in Michigan. It’s the fourth layoff GM has announced since November.

August 5, 2017 – Recalls about 700,000 Chevy and GMC trucks because of a potential software problem that can cause them to spontaneously lose their electric power steering assistance for about a second.

October 17, 2017 – GM’s self-driving arm, Cruise Automation, says it will begin testing its self-driving Chevy Bolts inside five square miles of Manhattan in early 2018.

January 12, 2018 – Cruise Automation unveils an autonomous vehicle that has no manual controls. Because the car is fully autonomous, the company says a steering wheel, accelerator and brake pedals aren’t needed.

3 April 2018 – GM announces it will no longer report monthly sales, ending a common practice in the auto industry. The company believes that quarterly sales reports are more effective metrics for investors.

June 13, 2018 – GM announces that Dhivya Suryadevara will be its new chief financial officer starting September 1, joining an exclusive club of companies that have both a female CEO and CFO. Mary Barra is the company’s current CEO.

October 3, 2018 – Honda commits to invest $2 billion over 12 years into GM’s autonomous vehicle subsidiary, Cruise.

November 26, 2018 – GM announces that it will shut down production at five facilities in North America and cut its staff, reducing its salaried workforce by 15%. This restructuring means GM will stop making sedans that the public no longer wants, including the Chevrolet Volt, Impala and Cruze and the Buick LaCrosse.

September 15, 2019 – Nearly 50,000 members of the United Auto Workers union go on strike against GM, the first work stoppage in the US auto industry in 12 years. It’s also the largest strike by any union against any business since the last strike at GM in 2007.

October 25, 2019 – The UAW union vote in favor of a four year labor deal, ending a 40 day strike.

February 16, 2020 – GM announces it will retire the Holden brand, which has existed in Australia for more than 160 years, by 2021. GM announces it will also be pulling its sales, design and engineering operations out of Australia and New Zealand.

March 20, 2020 – GM announces it is working with ventilator maker, Ventec Life Systems, to help increase Ventec’s production in response to the coronavirus outbreak.

April 8, 2020 – The US Department of Health and Human Services announce a nearly $500 million contract with GM under the Defense Production Act to produce 30,000 ventilators that will be delivered to the national stockpile to help treat coronavirus patients.

April 14, 2020 – GM announces that 600 ventilators will be shipped by the end of April, with the rest of the government’s 30,000 ventilator order completed by the end of August.

September 3, 2020 – GM and Honda announce an agreement that will entail the companies sharing basic vehicle designs to be sold under their respective brands. The car companies will use the same machinery and physical structures for their various models.


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