Geskiedenis Podcasts

Piramidale marae op een van die Stille Oseaan -eilande

Piramidale marae op een van die Stille Oseaan -eilande

Ongeveer 10 jaar gelede het ek inligting op die internet gesien dat 'n ou piramiedagtige struktuur (marae) op een van die Stille Oseaan-eilande bestaan, maar aan die einde van die 19de eeu gesloop is. Daar was selfs 'n foto van hierdie piramide. Ongelukkig kan ek hierdie inligting nie meer vind nie. Weet iemand, op watter eiland hierdie piramide was, en waar ek iets daaroor kan lees? Dankie.


Society Islands

Die Society Islands (Frans: Îles de la Société, amptelik Archipel de la Société Tahities: Tōtaiete mā) is 'n argipel in die Suidelike Stille Oseaan. Polities maak hulle deel uit van Frans -Polinesië, 'n oorsese land van die Franse Republiek. Geografies vorm hulle deel van Polinesië.

Die argipel word vermoedelik deur kaptein James Cook benoem tydens sy eerste reis in 1769, vermoedelik ter ere van die Royal Society, die borg van die eerste Britse wetenskaplike opname van die eilande, maar Cook skryf in sy joernaal dat hy die eilande bel Samelewing "terwyl hulle aangrensend aan mekaar lê." [2]


Geskiedenis van Voyaging

Die oorsprong van vaart in ons oseaan dateer uit die begin van kennis. Geskiedenis en drome versmelt die mites van 'n verre maritieme kultuur. As mense van die Suid -Stille Oseaan is ons fisiese geografie meer as 99% oseaan! Ons belangrikste is om hierdie oseane te reis en te beskerm, soos ons al duisende jare gedoen het. Ons geskiedenis en filosofie vang die gees van ons voorouers vas waarmee ons ons toekoms kan bepaal.

Die Cook Islands Voyaging Society Inc (die Genootskap) is 'n organisasie sonder winsbejag wat in 1992 gestig is na die 6de Pacific Arts Festival op Rarotonga, Cookeilande. Die Genootskap is in September 1993 geregistreer ingevolge die Wet op Ingelyfde Verenigings 1908 en die geregistreerde kantoor is h/v Die Sekretaris, Ministerie van Kulturele Ontwikkeling. Die Genootskap het 'n grondwet en die Uitvoerende Komitee word tydens die Algemene Jaarvergadering verkies. Elf lede bestaan ​​uit die Dagbestuur en vergaderings vind maandeliks plaas.

Die genootskap is aktief betrokke by die bewusmaking van Polinesiese reis. Sir Thomas Davis, was die hoof van die Cook Islands Voyaging Society en 'n katalisator in die herlewing van die Cook Islands -reis. In 1994 lei hy die bou en ontwerp van 'n replika van 72 'van 'n Polynesiese kano met 'n dubbele romp' Te Au o Tonga '. Te Au o Tonga was die leier van baie suksesvolle veldtogte en het deelgeneem aan 'n gesamentlike reis met ander Polinesiese kano's na Hawaii en was die eerste vaartuig wat die visie van die Genootskap uitgevoer het. Haar reis het ingesluit:

  • Te Au O Tonga het haar eerste terugreis in 1995 na Raiatea, Tahiti, Nuku Hiva, Hawaii, Molokai en Oahu gemaak
  • In Augustus 1995 vaar Te Au O Tonga as deel van die protesvloot na Moruroa
  • In 1996, die reis van 'Te Au O Tonga' na die VII Pacific Arts Festival in Samoa en daarna na Tonga en Nieu -Seeland en terugreis na Cookeilande
  • Reis na die 2000 Millennium -vieringe in Gisborne, Nieu -Seeland in 1999
  • Na die VIII Pacific Arts Festival in Nieu -Caledonië in 2000
  • Reis in 2002 na Tahiti, Huahine, Raiatea, Tahaa, Borabora, Mitiaro en keer terug
  • 2002, 'n kort reis na Aitutaki vir 'Te Au O Tonga' om deel te neem aan die film "The Legend of Johnny Lingo"
  • Te Au Tonga is nou in Aituaki gevestig

Te Au o Tonga het die bou van nuwe vakas en nuwe reise geïnspireer. Die Okeanos -stigting vaar op Te Au O Tonga en vra die mense van die Cook -eilande of hulle op grond van haar ontwerp sewe seereise vaka (Vaka Moana) kan herhaal. Okeanos het Salthouse Boatbuilders opdrag gegee om sewe vaka in Auckland te bou met die hulp van tradisionele kundiges in Cookeilande. In 2010 het die bouers die bou van die Vaka Moana (boot van die see) voltooi. Die Cook -eilande was 'n integrale deel van die konstruksie, seilontwerp en seetoets van die nuwe Vaka Moana. Die eerste vaka wat gebou is, was Marumaru Atua.

Vanaf 2010-2012 het die historiese reis vir al sewe vaka 'Te Mana O Te Moana' (The Spirit of the Ocean) begin. Die reis was die begin om weer kontak te maak met die tradisies, met die Stille Oseaan -gemeenskappe en met die see en om die boodskap van oseaanbeskerming te versprei. Die vloot van sewe vaka seil van Aotearoa na Hawai'i, daarna na die Weskus van die Verenigde State, San Diego, Cocos -eilande, Galapagos, Tahiti, Cookeilande, Samoa, Fidji en Vanuatu en voltooi hul reis in Julie 2012 by die Festival of Pacific Arts in die Salomonseilande.

[ Kontrakondertekening van Marumaru Atua met die president van Cook Island Voyaging Society, Ian Karika

Sedert haar terugkeer in November 2012, het Okeanos Marumaru Atua aan die mense van die Cook -eilande geskenk onder die toesig van die Cook Islands Voyaging Society deur die Okeanos Foundation. Sedertdien het sy die volgende reise onderneem:

  • 2013 Rarotonga na Suwarrow, die onbewoonde eiland en voëlreservaat, om 'n groep omgewingsbewustes te versamel, waaronder die president van die Cook Island Voyaging Society, Ian Karika, wat op die eiland was om 'n program vir die uitroei van rotte uit te voer.
  • September 2014 MUA Voyage to IUCN World Parks Congress 12th-19th November, Rarotonga, Samoa, Fiji, Vanuatu, Gold Coast, Sydney, Auckland
  • Feb 2015 Auckland-Waitangi-Auckland 75ste bestaansjaarvieringe
  • Mei 2015 Auckland-Rarotonga Te Manava Festival 50th Anniversary
  • Mei 2015 Rarotonga-Aitutaki-Atiu-Mauke-Mitiaro-Rarotonga Te Manava-fees Pa Enua.
  • Mei 2015-September 2016 seil weekliks rondom Rarotonga

Marumaru Atua word erken as 'n nasionale skat van Cook Island
en word op 'n nasionale $ 5 -munt herdenk

Ons deel steeds die reiservaring met besoekers en studente wat mense op weeklikse seile uithaal en hulle opvoed oor tradisionele Polinesiese seereise. Sedert 2017 lê Marumaru Atua op droogdok vir groot herstelwerk na 'n brand. Ons doel is om haar terug te keer na die oseaan, voort te gaan met reiservarings vir Cook -eilandbewoners en besoekers, en om 'n formidabele stem vir ons oseane te word. Ons gaan voort om ons wêreldwye vennootskappe te versterk en deel die erfenis van Polinesiese seereise.


Tweede Wereldoorlog

Met die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in die Stille Oseaan, het die Japannese vroeg in 1942 die protektoraat begin beset, maar hul opmars verder suidwaarts is gestop deur Amerikaanse magte, wat op 7 Augustus binnegeval het. die ergste in die Stille Oseaan was die lang Slag van Guadalcanal een van die belangrikste konflikte van die Stille Oseaanoorlog. Gedurende die veldtog is die Amerikaanse magte en hul bondgenote sterk ondersteun deur die eilandbewoners. Na die oorlog, vanweë die nabyheid van 'n vliegveld en die beskikbaarheid van plat grond en die militêre geboue, het Honiara op Guadalcanal die nuwe hoofstad geword, wat Tulagi vervang het.


Taputapuatea Marae en die oorsprong van die Polinesiese Driehoek

Dit blyk dat Taputapuatea was waar navigateurs en matrose van verskillende eilande hul kennis sou deel en idees kon ruil oor bootbou. As gevolg hiervan het hierdie heilige landskap ook 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die migrasies wat die Stille Oseaan -eilande bevolk het.

'N Tiki van Taputapuatea marae (CC BY 2.0)

Frans -Polinesië word beskou as die middelpunt van die Polinesiese driehoek wat strek van Hawaii, tot Nieu -Seeland en tot by Paaseiland. Toe die mense van die huidige Society Islands in die Middeleeue na die suidelike en oostelike Stille Oseaan reis, neem hulle 'n klip uit die Taputapuatea marae op hul reis. Toe hulle hulle in hul nuwe huise vestig, lê hulle die klip in hul nuwe merries.


Inhoud

Die eilande lê ongeveer 840 kilometer (520 myl) oos van Christchurch, Nieu -Seeland. Die naaste vastelandpunt van Nieu -Seeland aan die Chatham -eilande, Cape Turnagain op die Noord -eiland, is 650 kilometer (400 myl) ver. Die twee grootste eilande, Chatham -eiland en Pitt -eiland, vorm die grootste deel van die totale oppervlakte van 966 vierkante kilometer, met 'n dosyn verspreide eilandjies wat die res uitmaak.

Die eilande lê aan die Chatham Rise, 'n groot, relatief vlak onderwater (nie meer as 1 000 meter of 3,281 voet diep op enige punt) van die kontinent Zealandia wat oos strek vanaf die suideiland. Die Chatham -eilande, wat eers binne die afgelope vier miljoen jaar ontstaan ​​het, is die enigste deel van die Chatham -opkoms wat bo seespieël vertoon. [4]

Die eilande is heuwelagtig, met kusgebiede, insluitend kranse, duine, strande en strandmere. Pitt is meer ruig as Chatham, sy hoogste punt (299 meter of 981 voet) is op 'n plato naby die mees suidelike punt van die hoofeiland, 1,5 kilometer suid van die Te Rangatapu -meer. [5] Die plato is besaai met talle mere en strandmere, wat hoofsaaklik vloei vanaf die tweede hoogste punt op die eiland, Maungatere Hill, op 294 meter. [6] Opvallend is die groot Te Whanga -strandmeer, en Huro en Rangitahi. Chatham het 'n aantal strome, waaronder Te Awainanga en Tuku.

Chatham en Pitt is die enigste bewoonde eilande, die oorblywende kleiner eilande funksioneer as bewaringsreservate met beperkte of verbode toegang. Die lewensbestaan ​​van die inwoners is afhanklik van landbou - die eilande voer kouewaterkrewe uit - en toenemend van toerisme.

Die name van die belangrikste eilande in volgorde van besetting is:

Engelse naam Moriori naam Maori -naam Opmerkings
Chatham -eiland Rekohu Wharekauri
Pitt -eiland Rangiaotea Rangiauria
Suidoos -eiland Hokorereoro Rangatira
Die Fort Mangere Mangere Die Māori -naam het die Engelse naam vir hierdie eiland verdring.
Klein Mangere Onbekend Tapuenuku
Ster sleutels Motuhope Motuhope
Die Susters Rangitatahi Rangitatahi ongeveer 16 kilometer noord van Cape Pattison, 'n landtong in die noordwestelike deel van Chatham -eiland
Vier en veertig Motchuhar Motuhara die oostelikste punt van Nieu -Seeland, ongeveer 50 kilometer van die eiland Chatham.

Geologie Redigeer

Die Chatham -eilande - die enigste deel van die Chatham -styging bo seespieël - vorm deel van die nou grotendeels ondergedompelde kontinent van Zealandia. Hierdie ligging plaas die Chatham-eilande ver van die Australiese-Pasifiese plaatgrens wat die geologie van die vasteland van Nieu-Seeland oorheers. Die stratigrafie van die eilande bestaan ​​uit 'n mesosoïkum -kelderkelder, tipies bedek met sedimentêre gesteentes. [7] Beide hierdie rye word binnegedring deur 'n reeks basaltuitbarstings. Vulkaniese aktiwiteit het verskeie kere sedert die Kryt plaasgevind, [8], maar tans is daar geen aktiewe vulkanisme naby enige deel van die Chatham -opkoms nie.

Klimaatsverandering

Die Chatham -eilande het 'n oseaanklimaat (Koppen: Cfb) [9] wat gekenmerk word deur 'n smal temperatuurbereik en relatief gereelde reënval. Hul afgesonderde posisie ver van enige groot landmassa lewer die rekord hoë temperatuur vir die hoof nedersetting (Waitangi) net 23,8 ° C (74,8 ° F). [10] Die klimaat is koel, nat en winderig, met gemiddelde hoë temperature tussen 15 en 20 ° C (59 en 68 ° F) in die somer, en tussen 5 en 10 ° C (41 en 50 ° F) in Julie (in winter van die Suidelike Halfrond). Sneeu val uiters selde; die val wat in Julie 2015 naby seevlak aangeteken is, was die eerste keer dat dit dekades lank geneem is. [11]

Klimaatdata vir die Chatham -eilande (1981–2010)
Maand Jan Feb Mrt Apr Mei Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Des Jaar
Gemiddelde hoë ° C (° F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.2
(64.8)
17.1
(62.8)
14.9
(58.8)
13.0
(55.4)
11.3
(52.3)
10.5
(50.9)
11.0
(51.8)
11.9
(53.4)
13.1
(55.6)
14.4
(57.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.1
(57.4)
Daaglikse gemiddelde ° C (° F) 14.9
(58.8)
15.2
(59.4)
14.3
(57.7)
12.4
(54.3)
10.6
(51.1)
9.1
(48.4)
8.2
(46.8)
8.6
(47.5)
9.4
(48.9)
10.6
(51.1)
11.7
(53.1)
13.5
(56.3)
11.5
(52.7)
Gemiddelde lae ° C (° F) 11.9
(53.4)
12.3
(54.1)
11.5
(52.7)
9.9
(49.8)
8.1
(46.6)
6.8
(44.2)
5.9
(42.6)
6.2
(43.2)
6.9
(44.4)
8.0
(46.4)
9.1
(48.4)
10.7
(51.3)
9.0
(48.2)
Gemiddelde reënval mm (duim) 54.9
(2.16)
63.9
(2.52)
84.7
(3.33)
75.7
(2.98)
87.9
(3.46)
107.8
(4.24)
84.7
(3.33)
84.4
(3.32)
71.1
(2.80)
63.4
(2.50)
66.7
(2.63)
66.3
(2.61)
911.3
(35.88)
Gemiddelde reëndae (≥ 1,0 mm) 7.9 7.7 11.3 11.1 14.4 16.0 14.8 14.5 11.9 11.2 9.8 9.4 140.1
Gemiddelde relatiewe humiditeit (%) 82.2 83.5 83.2 83.4 85.7 85.8 86.9 85.8 83.4 84.0 82.5 82.7 84.1
Gemiddelde maandelikse sonskynure 191.3 145.5 124.2 106.3 81.2 61.8 74.4 101.0 109.1 129.7 148.9 164.0 1,437.3
Bron: NIWA Science -klimaatdata [12]

Die tydsone van die Chatham -eilande Wysig

Die internasionale datumlyn lê oos van die Chathams, al lê die eilande oos van 180 ° lengte. Die Chathams neem hul eie tyd in ag, 45 minute voor die tyd van Nieu-Seeland, insluitend gedurende die somertyd, is die standaard tydsone van Chatham kenmerkend as een van baie min wat van 'n ander as 'n hele uur of 'n halfuur van ander verskil. uur. (New Zealand Time oriënteer hom tot 180 ° lengtegraad.) [13]

Die natuurlike plantegroei van die eilande was 'n mengsel van bos, heide en moeras, maar vandag is die grootste deel van die land varing of bedek met weiding, alhoewel daar dele van digte bos en gebiede van turfmoerasse en ander habitatte is. Interessant is die akkerbome, met takke wat byna horisontaal in die wind van die wind sleep. [14] Die varings in die woudonderhoud sluit in Blechnum verkleur.

Die eilande huisves 'n ryk biodiversiteit, waaronder ongeveer vyftig endemiese plante wat aangepas is vir die koue en die wind, soos die Chatham-eilande, vergeet-my-nie (Myosotidium hortensia), [15] Chatham-eilande saaddistel (Embergeria grandifolia), rautini (Brachyglottis huntii), Chatham -eilande (Astelia chathamica), sagte spiesgras (Aciphylla dieffenbachii), en Chatham Island akeake of Chatham Island boom madeliefie (Olearia traversiorum).

Die eilande is 'n broeiplek vir groot troppe seevoëls en huisves 'n aantal endemiese voëls, waarvan sommige seevoëls is en ander wat op die eilande woon. Die bekendste spesie is die magenta -petrel (IUCN -klassifikasie CR]) en die swart robin (IUCN -klassifikasie EN), wat albei gevaarlik naby aan uitsterwing gekom het voordat die aandag van bewaringspogings gevestig is. Ander endemiese spesies is die Chatham -oestervangers, die Chatham -gerigoon, die Chatham -duif, die Forbes -parkiet, die Chatham -sluipskutter en die kappie. Die endemiese Chatham shag [16] (IUCN klassifikasie CR), Pitt shag [17] (IUCN klassifikasie EN) en die Chatham albatross [18] (IUCN klassifikasie VU) loop die gevaar om gevang te word deur 'n verskeidenheid visgereedskap, insluitend vislyne , trawels, kieue en potte. [19]

Vir rekeninge en aantekeninge oor seevoëlspesies wat tussen 1960 en 1993 in die Chathams gesien is. [20]

'N Aantal spesies het sedert menslike vestiging uitgesterf, waaronder die Chatham -raaf, die Chatham -varingvoël en die drie endemiese spesies vluglose spore, die Chatham -spoor, Dieffenbach -spoor en Hawkins se spoor.

Daar word ook 'n aantal mariene soogdiere in die waters van die Chathams aangetref, waaronder Nieu -Seelandse leeus, luiperdseëls en suidelike olifantseëls. Baie walvisspesies word aangetrokke tot die ryk voedselbronne van die Chatham Rise. [21]

'N Groot deel van die natuurlike bos van hierdie eilande is vir boerdery skoongemaak, maar Mangere- en Rangatira -eilande word nou as natuurreservate bewaar om 'n paar van hierdie unieke flora en fauna te bewaar. 'N Ander bedreiging vir die natuurlewe kom van ingevoerde spesies wat prooi op die inheemse voëls en reptiele, terwyl vee op Mangere en Rangatira verwyder is en inheemse wild herstel.

Die meeste mere is deur landbou-afloop geraak, maar die kwaliteit van die water het verbeter en die riviergehalte word in die algemeen as 'A' geklassifiseer. [22]

Moriori Edit

Die eerste menslike inwoners van die Chathams was Polinesiese stamme wat die eilande ongeveer 1500 nC gevestig het, [23] en in hul afsondering die Moriori geword het. Die voormalige oortuiging wat in die 1800's ontstaan ​​het, was dat die oorspronklike Moriori direk vanaf die meer noordelike Polinesiese eilande migreer, net soos met die vestiging van Nieu -Seeland deur die voorouers van die Maori. Taalkundige navorsing dui egter aan dat die voorouer Moriori Māori -swerwers uit Nieu -Seeland was. [24] [25] [26] [27] Howe (2003) verklaar:

Geleerdheid oor die afgelope 40 jaar het die model radikaal hersien deur die model wat Smith 'n eeu vroeër aangebied het: die Moriori as 'n pre-Polinesiese volk het gegaan (die term Moriori is nou 'n tegniese term wat verwys na die voorvader Māori wat die Chatham-eilande gevestig het). ' [28]

Die plante wat deur die Māori-aankomelinge verbou is, was nie geskik vir die kouer Chathams nie, sodat die Moriori as jagter-versamelaars en vissers geleef het. Terwyl hul nuwe omgewing hulle ontneem het van die hulpbronne waarmee hulle seevaartuie vir lang reise kon bou, het die Moriori die sogenaamde waka kōrari, 'n half-onderdompelde vaartuig, gemaak van vlas en bekleed met lugblaas van kelp. Hierdie vaartuig is gebruik om na die buitenste eilande te reis met 'voëlkyk' -missies. [27] Die Moriori-samelewing was 'n vreedsame samelewing en bloedvergieting is deur generaals oorlogvoering deur die hoof Nunuku-whenua verbied. Argumente is opgelos deur konsensus of deur tweegevegte eerder as oorlogvoering, maar met die eerste teken van bloedvergieting was die geveg verby. Daar word beraam dat die bevolking ongeveer 2 000 voor Europese kontak was. [29]

Europese aankoms Redigeer

Die naam "Chatham -eilande" kom van die skip HMS Chatham [30] van die Vancouver -ekspedisie, wie se kaptein William R. Broughton op 29 November 1791 geland het, besit geneem het vir Groot -Brittanje en die eilande vernoem na die Eerste Heer van die Admiraliteit, John Pitt, 2de Graaf van Chatham. Die manne van Broughton het 'n Moriori -inwoner van Kaingaroa, met die naam Torotoro (of Tamakororo), doodgeskiet. Chatham -eilande dateer op 29 November hul herdenking en neem dit op die naaste Maandag tot 30 November waar. [31]

Seëlaars en walvisjagters het gou in die omliggende oseaan begin jag met die eilande as basis. Na raming sterf 10 tot 20 persent van die inheemse Moriori spoedig aan siektes wat deur buitelanders veroorsaak is. Die seël- en walvisbedryf het omstreeks 1861 hul bedrywighede gestaak, terwyl visvang 'n belangrike ekonomiese aktiwiteit was. [31]

Māori -nedersetting Redigeer

Op 19 November en 5 Desember 1835 het ongeveer 900 Ngāti Mutunga en Ngāti Tama voorheen in Te Whanganui-A-Tara (Wellington) en onder leiding van die hoof Matioro op die brig aangekom Here Rodney. Die eerste stuurman van die skip is 'ontvoer en met die dood bedreig' tensy die kaptein die Maori -setlaars aan boord geneem het. Die groep, wat mans, vroue en kinders ingesluit het, het 78 ton aartappel, 20 varke en sewe groot kano's saamgebring waka. [32]

Die inkomende Māori is deur die plaaslike Moriori ontvang en aanvanklik versorg. Binnekort het Ngāti Mutunga en Ngāti Tama begin takahi, of deur die land loop, om aanspraak daarop te maak. Toe dit duidelik word dat die besoekers van plan was om te bly, het die Moriori teruggetrek na hul marae by te Awapatiki. Daar, nadat u 'n hui (oorlegpleging) om te bespreek wat om te doen met die Maori-setlaars, het die Moriori besluit om by hul beleid van nie-aggressie te bly.

Ngāti Mutunga en Ngāti Tama het op hul beurt die vergadering as 'n voorloper van oorlogvoering van Moriori gesien en gereageer. Die Maori het meer as 260 Moriori aangeval en in die daaropvolgende aksie doodgemaak. 'N Moriori -oorlewende onthou: "[Die Māori] het ons soos skape begin doodmaak. [Ons] was doodsbang, het na die bos gevlug, ons in gate ondergronds weggesteek en op enige plek om ons vyande te ontvlug. Dit was tevergeefs ontdek en vermoor - mans, vroue en kinders - sonder onderskeid ”. [33] 'n Maori -hoof, Te Rakatau Katihe, het gesê: "Ons het in besit geneem, in ooreenstemming met ons gewoonte, en ons het al die mense gevang. Nie een het ontsnap nie. Sommige het van ons weggehardloop, hierdie het ons doodgemaak en ander het ons ook doodgemaak - maar wat daarvan? Dit was in ooreenstemming met ons gebruik. " [34]

Na die moorde is Moriori verbied om met Moriori te trou, of om kinders met mekaar te hê. Māori het Moriori -slawe aangehou tot 1863, na 'n proklamasie deur die inwonende landdros. [2] Baie Moriori -vroue het kinders gekry deur hul Maori -meesters. 'N Aantal Moriori -vroue trou uiteindelik met óf Maori óf Europese mans. Sommige is van die Chathams weggeneem en het nooit weer teruggekeer nie. Ernst Dieffenbach, wat die Chathams op 'n skip van New Zealand Company in 1840 besoek het, het berig dat die Moriori die virtuele slawe van Maori was en ernstig mishandel is, met die dood 'n seën. Teen die tyd dat die slawe in 1863 vrygelaat is, het slegs 160 oorgebly, amper 10% van die bevolking van 1835. [32]

Vroeg in Mei 1838 (sommige berigte sê 1839, maar dit word weerspreek deur skeepsrekords [35]) het die Franse walvisvaartuig Jean Bart anker van Waitangi af om met die Maori handel te dryf. Die getal aan boord van die Maori het die Franse laat skrik, wat gelei het tot 'n konfrontasie waarin die Franse bemanning vermoor is en die Jean Bart is by Ocean Bay gestrand, om deur Ngāti Mutunga ontplof en verbrand te word. Toe die nuus van die voorval by die Franse vlootkorvette kom Heldin in die Baai van Eilande in September 1838, vaar dit na die Chathams, vergesel van die walvisjagters Adele en Rebecca Sims. Die Franse het op 13 Oktober opgedaag en, nadat hulle onsuksesvol probeer het om 'n paar Ngāti Tama aan boord te lok, het hulle Waitangi gebombardeer. Die volgende oggend het ongeveer honderd gewapende Fransmanne aan wal gegaan en geboue gebrand en vernietig waka, en beslaglegging op varke en aartappels. Die aanvalle het meestal Ngāti Tama geraak, wat hul posisie ten opsigte van Ngāti Mutunga verswak het. [35] [36]

In 1840 besluit Ngāti Mutunga om Ngāti Tama aan te val by hul . Hulle het 'n hoë verhoog langs die sodat hulle op hul voormalige bondgenote kon skiet. Die geveg was nog aan die gang toe die New Zealand Company gestuur het Kuba aangekom as deel van 'n plan om grond vir vestiging te koop. Die Verdrag van Waitangi was op daardie stadium nie van toepassing op die eilande nie. Die maatskappy het 'n wapenstilstand tussen die twee strydende stande beding. In 1841 het die New Zealand Company voorgestel om 'n Duitse kolonie aan die Chathams te vestig. Die voorstel is deur die direkteure bespreek en John Ward het 'n ooreenkoms onderteken met Karl Sieveking van Hamburg op 12 September 1841. Toe die koloniale kantoor egter sê dat die eilande deel sou wees van die kolonie Nieu -Seeland en dat enige Duitsers hulle daar sou vestig Joseph Somes, wat as vreemdelinge behandel is, beweer dat Ward op eie inisiatief opgetree het. Die voorgestelde leier John Beit en die ekspedisie het eerder na Nelson gegaan. [37]

Die onderneming kon toe groot grond by Port Hutt koop (wat die Māori genoem het Whangaroa) en Waitangi van Ngāti Mutunga en ook groot gebiede van Ngāti Tama. Dit het Ngāti Mutunga nie gekeer om wraak te probeer neem vir die dood van een van hul hoofmanne nie. Hulle was tevrede nadat hulle die broer van 'n Ngāti Tama -kaptein vermoor het. Die stamme het ingestem tot 'n ongemaklike vrede wat uiteindelik in 1842 bevestig is. [38]

Matioro en sy mense het aan die einde van 1842 'n brig gehuur en na Auckland Island geseil. Terwyl Matioro besig was om die eiland te ondersoek, het twee van die hoofmanne wat hom vergesel het, besluit dat die eiland te onherbergsaam is vir vestiging, en het vaar voordat hy teruggekeer het, en hom en sy volgelinge gestrand totdat Pākehā -setlaars in 1849 aangekom het. [39]

'N Alleen-manlike groep Duitse Morawiese sendelinge het in 1843 aangekom. [40] Toe 'n groep vroue drie jaar later uitgestuur is om by hulle aan te sluit, het 'n paar huwelike gevolg, 'n paar lede van die huidige bevolking kan hul afkoms terugvoer na die sendinggesinne.

In 1865 is die Maori -leier Te Kooti op die Chatham -eilande verban saam met 'n groot groep Maori -rebelle wat die Hauhau genoem word, volgelinge van Pai Mārire wat sendelinge vermoor het en veral teen die owerheidsvegte aan die ooskus van die Noord -eiland New. Seeland. Die rebelle -gevangenes is een sjieling per dag betaal om op skaapplase te werk wat deur die paar Europese setlaars besit word. Soms het hulle aan pad- en baanverbeterings gewerk. Hulle is aanvanklik bewaak deur 26 wagte, waarvan die helfte Maori was. Hulle het gewoon in waar saam met hul gesinne. Die gevangenes het gehelp om 'n klip te bou wat omring is deur 'n sloot en 'n muur. Later het hulle drie klip gevangenis selle gebou. In 1868 beveel Te Kooti en die ander gevangenes 'n skoener aan en ontsnap terug na die Noord -eiland.

Byna al die Maori's het in die 1860's na Taranaki teruggekeer, sommige na 'n tsunami in 1868. [41]

1880's tot vandag Edit

Die ekonomie van die Chatham -eilande, wat destyds deur die uitvoer van wol gedomineer is, het onder die internasionale depressie van die 1880's gely, maar eers weer opgebou met die bou van visvriesaanlegte in die eilanddorpe Ōwenga en Kaingaroa in 1910. Bou van die eerste kaai by Waitangi het in 1931 begin met voltooiing in 1934. Op 25 November 1940, tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, het 'n Duitse plunderaar die toevoerskip van die Chatham -eilande, die Holmwood, gevang en laat sink, sodat die kaai min gebruik kon vind by skepe. 'N Vliegbootfasiliteit is kort daarna by die Te Whanga Lagoon gebou en 'n vliegbootdiens het tot 1966 voortgesit toe dit vervang is met konvensionele vliegtuie. [42] [43]

Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die eilandekonomie weer swaargekry vanweë sy isolasie en het regeringsubsidies nodig geword. Dit het daartoe gelei dat baie jong Chatham -eilandbewoners na die vasteland vertrek het. Daar was 'n kort kreefboom wat die ekonomie in die laat 1960's en vroeë 1970's help stabiliseer het. Vanaf die vroeë 2000's het beeste 'n belangrike komponent van die plaaslike ekonomie geword. [41]

Moriori -gemeenskap Wysig

Die Moriori -gemeenskap is georganiseer as die Hokotehi Moriori Trust. [44] Die Moriori het erkenning van die Kroon en die Nieu -Seelandse regering ontvang, en sommige van hul eise teen die instellings vir die geslagte van verwaarlosing en onderdrukking is aanvaar en opgetree. Moriori word erken as die oorspronklike mense van Rekohu. Die kroon het ook erken dat die Ngāti Mutunga Māori [45] inheemse status in die Chathams gehad het, met die reg op ongeveer 160 jaar besetting.

Die bevolking van die eilande is ongeveer 600, insluitend lede van albei etniese groepe. In Januarie 2005 vier die Moriori die opening van die nuwe Kopinga Marae (vergaderhuis). [46]

Moderne afstammelinge van die 1835 -Maori -veroweraars het 'n aandeel in die voorvaderlike Maori -visregte geëis. Hierdie eis is toegestaan. Noudat die oorspronklike bevolking, die Moriori, erken is dat hulle voormalige Maori was - oor besware van sommige van die Ngāti Mutunga - het hulle ook deel aan die voorvaderlike Maori -visregte. Beide groepe het visvangkwotas gekry. [47]

Die Chatham- en Pitt -eilande is bewoon en het 'n bevolking van 663 by die 2018 -Nieu -Seelandse sensus, 'n toename van 63 mense (10,5%) sedert die 2013 -sensus en 'n toename van 51 mense (8,3%) sedert die sensus van 2006. Daar was 276 huishoudings. Daar was 354 mans en 312 wyfies, wat 'n geslagsverhouding van 1,13 mans per vrou gee. Van die totale bevolking was 111 mense (16,7%) tot 15 jaar oud, 129 (19,5%) was 15 tot 29, 339 (51,1%) was 30 tot 64 jaar en 84 (12,7%) was 65 of ouer. As gevolg van afronding sal syfers moontlik nie die totaal wees nie.

Etnisiteite was 74,2% Europees/Pākehā, 66,1% Māori, 1,4% in die Stille Oseaan, 0,9% Asiërs en 2,7% ander etnisiteite. Mense identifiseer moontlik met meer as een etnisiteit.

Die persentasie mense wat oorsee gebore is, was 5,9%, vergeleke met 27,1% nasionaal.

Alhoewel sommige mense beswaar het om hul godsdiens te gee, het 48,4% geen godsdiens gehad nie, 33,5% was Christene en 7,7% het ander godsdienste.

Van die minstens 15 jaar oud het 51 (9,2%) mense 'n baccalaureusgraad of hoër, en 147 (26,6%) mense het geen formele kwalifikasies nie. Die mediaan inkomste was $ 36,000. Die werkstatus van die minstens 15 was dat 318 (57,6%) mense voltyds in diens was, 108 (19,6%) deeltyds en 9 (1,6%) werkloos was. [51]

Die stad Waitangi is die belangrikste nedersetting met ongeveer 200 inwoners. Daar is ander dorpe soos Owenga, Te One en Kaingaroa, waar daar twee laerskole is. 'N Derde skool is op Pitt Island. Daar is ook die vissersdorpies Owenga en Port Hutt. [48]

Waitangi -fasiliteite sluit in 'n hospitaal met 'n inwonende dokter, bank, verskeie winkels en ingenieurs- en mariene dienste. Die belangrikste skeepswerf is hier geleë.

Besoekers aan die Chathams arriveer gewoonlik per vliegtuig vanaf Auckland, Christchurch of Wellington (ongeveer 1,5 - 2 uur vanaf Christchurch op 'n Convair 580) na die lughawe Tuuta op die eiland Chatham. Terwyl vrag oor die algemeen per skip aankom (2 dae seiltyd), duur die seereis vir baie passasiers te lank en is dit nie altyd beskikbaar nie. [52] [53]

Daar is geen geskeduleerde openbare vervoer nie, maar verblyfverskaffers kan gewoonlik vervoer reël.

Tasman Empire Airways Ltd (TEAL) het die Chathams aanvanklik per vliegtuig gediens met vlieënde bote. Met die terugtrekking van TEAL het die RNZAF 'n ongereelde diens onderhou met vlieënde bote van Short Sunderland. NZ4111 is beskadig by die opstyg van die Te Whanga -strandmeer op 4 November 1959 en bly as 'n wrak op die eiland. Die laaste vlug deur RNZAF -vlieënde bote was op 22 Maart 1967. [54] Bristol Freighter -vliegtuie bedien jare lank die eilande, 'n stadige en lawaaierige vragvliegtuig wat omskep is om passasiers te vervoer deur 'n verwyderbare passasiersruimte te installeer wat toegerus is met sitplekke en 'n toilet in deel van die vraghouer. Die lugdiens het hoofsaaklik die uitvoer van kreefprodukte van hoë waarde gestuur.

Die graslandingsveld by Hapupu, aan die noordelike punt van die eiland, was 'n beperkende faktor, aangesien min vliegtuie, afgesien van die Bristol Freighter, sowel die reikafstand het om na die eilande te vlieg as die robuustheid om op die grasvliegbaan te land. Alhoewel ander vliegtuie wel af en toe die landingsveld gebruik het, sou hulle dikwels herstelwerk nodig gehad het om skade as gevolg van die rowwe landing op te los. Hapupu is ook die plek van die JM Barker (Hapupu) National Historic Reserve (een van slegs twee in Nieu -Seeland) waar momori rakau (Moriori -houtsnywerk) is.

In 1981, na baie jare se versoeke deur die plaaslike bevolking en die dreigende afsterwe van die verouderde Bristol Freighters, het die bou van 'n verseëlde aanloopbaan by Karewa, Tuuta -lughawe, toegelaat dat meer moderne vliegtuie veilig land. Die Chathams se eie lugdiens, Air Chathams, bedryf nou dienste na Auckland op Donderdae, Wellington op Maandae, Woensdae en Vrydae en Christchurch op Dinsdae. Die rooster wissel seisoenaal, maar oor die algemeen vertrek vliegtuie omstreeks 10.30 uur (Chathams -tyd) uit die Chathams en arriveer hulle teen die middag op die vasteland. Daar tank hulle en laai hulle weer op, en vertrek weer omstreeks 13:00 terug na die Chathams. Air Chathams bedryf twee turboprop Convair 580 -vliegtuie in kombi (vrag en passasiers) konfigurasies en Fairchild Metroliners.

Die skip Rangatira het vanaf Maart 2000 tot Augustus 2015 'n vragdiens vanaf Timaru na die Chatham -eilande gelewer. [55] The MV Suidelike Tiare bied 'n vragdiens tussen Napier, Timaru en die Chathams. [53]

Daar is 'n klein gedeelte teerpad tussen Waitangi en Te One, maar die meeste paaie op die eilande is gruis.

Kiesers Redigeer

Tot in die 1990's was die Chatham -eilande in die Lyttelton -kieserskorps, maar sedertdien vorm hulle deel van die algemene kieserskorps van Rongotai, wat andersins in die suide van Wellington lê. Paul Eagle is die LP vir Rongotai. Die kiesers van Te Tai Tonga Māori (sedert 2011 deur Rino Tirikatene gehou) bevat die Chatham -eilande voordat die setels in 1996 hervorm is, en die argipel was deel van die Wes -Maori.

Plaaslike regering Redigeer

Vir plaaslike regeringsdoeleindes staan ​​die Chatham -eilande en die aangrensende see bekend as die gebied Chatham -eilande en word bestuur deur die Raad van Chatham -eilande, wat ingestel is deur die Wet op die Chatham -eilande 1995 (Statuut nr. 041, begin: 1 November 1995). [1] Die raad is 'n territoriale owerheid wat baie van die funksies, pligte en bevoegdhede van 'n distriksraad en 'n streeksraad het, [1] wat dit in werklikheid 'n eenheidsowerheid met effens minder verantwoordelikhede as ander eenheidsowerhede het. Die Raad bestaan ​​uit 'n burgemeester en agt raadslede, waarvan een ook onderburgemeester is. [56] Sekere streeksraadfunksies word deur die omgewing Canterbury, die streeksraad van Canterbury, bestuur.

Tydens die plaaslike regeringsverkiesings in 2010 het die Chatham -eilande die hoogste stemme in Nieu -Seeland, met 71,3 persent. [57]

Staatsdienste Redigeer

Policing is carried out by a sole-charge constable appointed by the Wellington police district, who has often doubled as an official for many government departments, including court registrar (Department for Courts), customs officer (New Zealand Customs Service) and immigration officer (Department of Labour – New Zealand Immigration Service).

A District Court judge sent from either the North Island or the South Island presides over court sittings, but urgent sittings may take place at the Wellington District Court.

Because of the isolation and small population, some of the rules governing daily activities undergo a certain relaxation. For example, every transport service operated solely on Great Barrier Island, the Chatham Islands or Stewart Island/Rakiura need not comply with section 70C of the Transport Act 1962 (the requirements for drivers to maintain driving-hours logbooks). Drivers subject to section 70B must nevertheless keep record of their driving hours in some form. [58]

Gesondheid Redigeer

The Canterbury District Health Board is responsible for providing publicly funded health services for the island. Prior to July 2015, this was the responsibility of the Hawke's Bay District Health Board. [59]

Onderwys Redigeer

There are three schools on the Chathams, at Kaingaroa, Te One, and Pitt Island. Pitt Island and Kaingaroa are staffed by sole charge principals, while Te One has three teachers and a principal. The schools cater for children from year 1 to 8. There is no secondary school. The majority of secondary school-aged students leave the island for boarding schools in mainland New Zealand. A small number remain on the island and obtain their secondary education by correspondence.

Most of the Chatham Island economy is based on fishing and crayfishing, with only a fragment of the economic activity in adventure tourism. This economic mix has been stable for the past 50 years, as little infrastructure or population is present to engage in higher levels of industrial or telecommunications activity. [60]

Air Chathams has its head office in Te One. [61]

Electricity generation Edit

Two 225 kW wind turbines and diesel generators provide power on Chatham island, at costs of five to ten times that of electricity on the main islands of New Zealand. [62] During 2014, 65% of the electricity was generated from diesel generators, the balance from wind. [63] For heating, electricity comes second to wood and, in 2013, solar power contributed about a third as much as mains-generated electricity. [64]

A 1.5 kW wireless link [65] opened in 1913, [66] a public radio link to the mainland was built in 1953 and an island phone system in 1965. [67] In 2003 a digital microwave system was installed for 110 phones in Ōwenga. [68]

The islands were linked as part of the Rural Broadband Initiative in 2014, when satellite bandwidth was increased, [69] and broadband is now provided by Wireless Nation, [70] though Farmside provide some coverage. [71] There is no mobile phone coverage. [71]

In the Waitangi area, the existing copper network will be used to deliver broadband in the form of ADSL/VDSL. [72] VDSL services are available through Bigpipe.

As of 2021, broadband access on the Island is delivered over Satellite - Wireless Nation provide a wireless over satellite service starting at $99/month. [73] Other providers deliver standard satellite broadband services. Broadband costs are more than double than the mainland average, coming in at $249/month for uncapped satellite broadband through Wireless Nation [74]

A high-speed broadband rollout is expected for the Chatham Island [75] by 2022 [76] as part of the RBI2 [77] (Rural Broadband Initiative Phase 2) delivering speeds of at least 50Mbps download. [78] To deliver broadband to customers, Wireless technology will be used similar to 4G broadband - there are no plans for an undersea fibre-optic cable. It remains unclear if there will be cellphone coverage enabled on the island.

There is no proposed coverage for Pitt Island - customers in Pitt Island will remain on satellite.


Taputapuatea Marae named a UNESCO World Heritage Site

LOS ANGELES, CA – July 19, 2017 – On Sunday, July 9, UNESCO named the Taputapuatea marae on the island of Raiatea in The Islands of Tahiti as a World Heritage site. This significant designation for the sacred site is of great pride for the Polynesian people and brings an extraordinary opportunity in tourism to expose visitors from all over the world to their history and culture. The Taputapuatea marae is the first cultural site in a French overseas realm recognized by UNESCO.

The Taputapuatea marae is an ancient sacred site estimated to be 1,000-years-old where religious and social ceremonies were performed prior to the arrival of European missionaries. Polynesian ancestors arranged hundreds of stones which they believed to hold Mana, a source of power and spiritual strength in these sacred sites.

This prestigious UNESCO cultural label reinforces Tahiti Tourisme’s campaign “The Islands of Tahiti, Embraced by Mana,” which highlights the wealth of Polynesian culture and the diversity of activities that discerning travelers can discover in 118 islands and atolls. The World Heritage label will encourage visitors to discover the destination’s many aspects through the local people, their way of life, their culture, arts, crafts and through ecotourism.

The classification of the Taputapuatea marae as a UNESCO World Heritage site gives the Polynesian people a new and unifying opportunity to share their traditions and convey their deepest values” says Kristin Carlson Kemper, Managing Director, Tahiti Tourisme U.S.

A 45-minute flight away from Papeete, Raiatea is the second largest economic center in The Islands of Tahiti, possessing various fascinating attributes, both on land and at sea. A narrow channel separates Raiatea from its sister island, Taha’a, where the “Pacific black gold” is grown—a vanilla of such premium quality that it has become a luxury product desired the world over. The island is surrounded by numerous motu (islets) with picturesque beaches and idyllic coral gardens. Scuba diving sites are spread throughout the island, including the Nordby, a shipwreck lying 95 feet under the ocean surface. Raiatea also offers scenic hiking trails through the island’s splendid mountainous interior. The luckiest of travelers may encounter the mysterious Tiare Apetahi, a five-petaled ordorous blossom endemic to Mount Temehani of Raiatea.


Cargo Cults: The John Frum Movement Came First

Despite the prominence of the person upon whom it was focused, the Prince Philip Movement is not the largest or most influential grassroots religious sect in Vanuatu. That distinction belongs to the John Frum Movement , which first introduced the idea of an outside savior or redeemer to the people of Vanuatu in the late 1930s or early 1940s.

The three flags of the John Frum Movement, a cargo cult that dates back to the late 1930s or early 1940s AD. The John Frum cargo cult is seen as the predecessor of the Prince Philip Movement. (Flickr user Charmaine Tham / CC BY 2.0 )

At various times, Frum has been alternatively identified as an American World War II era servicemen (many were stationed in the New Hebrides), an island native named Manehivi who assumed the alias “John Frum,” or a spirit being that manifested during a kava-drinking session. Regardless of his origins, followers of the John Frum Movement believed he would return to the islands at a future date, showing gifts and other blessings on the people who had believed in his message and his goodness.

This movement and the Prince Philip Movement are examples of cargo cults , millenarian belief systems in which adherents perform rituals which they believe will cause a more technologically advanced society to deliver goods to them. These cults were first described in Melanesia in the wake of contact with allied military forces during the Second World War.

While not quite as large as it once was, the John Frum Movement has continued to exert an effect on island affairs, both as a religious group and as a political party, the latter of which has been in existence for more than 60 years.

The Prince Philip Movement can perhaps best be seen as an offshoot or derivative of the John Frum Movement. While Frum himself seems to have been a mythical figure, Prince Philip was obviously very real and could therefore personify the archetype of the redemptive figure that the people of Vanuatu craved.

This desire for a savior or redeemer may have been triggered by the sense of repression people felt while Vanuatu was under European control. But even after the colonial era ended and independence was achieved, these vibrant and inspiring movements obviously continued to bring meaning and purpose to the lives of those who embraced them.


A field guide to the architecture of the South Pacific

The South Pacific has been neglected in discussions and assessments of world architecture – but there is architecture to discover on these islands of palms and cloudless skies. Architectural historian Bill McKay and photographer Jason Mann decided it is time to investigate.

Government building in Apia, Samoa.

The South Pacific is where most people go to lie on beaches and get away from it all. When we see images of the islands, they are generally resorts and palms and cloudless skies picturesque isles, happy untroubled locals. You may see a few buildings – your over-the-water fale accommodation – if you are lucky, and a couple of cute churches you stop your scooter by, perhaps. But there is a lot of architecture in the Pacific and it is time we took a serious look at it.

Here, you will see images from a new project, by architectural photographer Jason Mann and me, to document the architecture of the region. That’s rather ambitious, as the nations are so diverse and the place covers a third of the planet.

Vuna Wharf in Nuku‘alofa, Tonga.

From the Anglo viewpoint, the watery side of the world has been seen as pretty much empty and dotted with little islands that harbour visions of paradise. Reality is different, of course. The Pacific has seen its share of conquest and colonisation over the past few centuries, followed by, as Paul Theroux describes, “the long parade of explorers and travellers and tourists who felt a need to invent the Pacific and to make it a paradise”.

Since then, we have seen coups, civil wars, corruption, bribery, neo-colonialism, fish stock plundering, prisons for boat people, cyclones and tsunamis. Our picture of the Pacific has become one as full of problems as those in our own homelands. And they have cities and urban issues, heritage issues and environmental issues – just like us.

The Pacific has been neglected in discussions and assessments of world architecture. Not only has the region experienced enormous social, political, economic and cultural pressures over the past few centuries, but, in addition, it is becoming an epicentre of foreign investment, commercial development, economic exploitation and politically-motivated ‘aid’ packages.

Simon Winchester has identified it as a crucible of the 21st century and his latest book on the geopolitics of the region handily summarises in its title the past and future collisions of cultures the area faces Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World’s Superpowers.

These pressures are affecting the material and built culture of the Pacific and the area will also be one of the first inhabited regions to bear the brunt of climate change events such as sea level rise and, increasingly, energetic and frequent cyclones. Much indigenous and heritage architecture of all periods is at risk.

But, beyond the depressing stuff, there is so much marvellous architecture to see around the Pacific and, with the help of tangata o le moana (people of the Pacific), it’s time for Westerners to properly appreciate it beyond the tourist drive-by.

Queen Salote Memorial Hall in Nuku‘alofa, Tonga.

This year will see the launch of a website devoted to the architecture of the South Pacific. It’s not just for us, though – it’s for the people of the Pacific, those there and throughout the diaspora, the young people of Pacific heritage growing up away from their parents’ homelands in places like Los Angeles, which has supplanted Auckland as the city with the largest concentration of Polynesian people in the world.

The site will include maps and guides to notable architecture in cities and around islands, as well as other resources, such as building reports (when in the public domain) and bibliographies.

And, hopefully, this work can help politicians and authorities to make wise decisions as well. For example, over the past couple of years, the German Courthouse in Apia, Samoa, has been at risk. It’s a colonial period structure, notable for its architecture but for its history, too. It is where New Zealand invaders formally captured Samoa from the Germans in the First World War it’s also where the New Zealand administration killed a dozen protesters of the Mau independence movement in 1929.

Recently, it was proposed to be bowled to make way for a development site for another foreign interest but now seems to have been saved with the assistance of a couple of New Zealand architectural historians, Dr Christoph Schnoor and Adam Wild. Just as in New Zealand, it is important that we document heritage architecture in order to preserve it.

Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua in Nuku‘alofa, Tonga.

Yet how do you determine what’s good architecture, especially when you are an outsider? The images of Samoa you see on these pages are just a tiny selection of those shot by Jason Mann and are generated from surveys produced by architecture students Matilda Phillips (Samoa) and Miriama Arnold (Cook Islands) during a University of Auckland Summer Scholarship programme in early 2016.

Our definition of architecture is broad and ranges from archaeological sites, through to indigenous and vernacular buildings, colonial and modernist buildings and contemporary structures – and, yes, even to resorts. Matilda and Miriama will be joined by Icao Tiseli and Lusi Vete in managing the website with us and have ambitions to increase the scope to enhance networking and conversations between all those interested in the built culture of the Pacific. This will be supported by a new Master’s level course in Pacific architecture at the University of Auckland’s School of Architecture and Planning.

Immaculate Conception of Mary Cathedral in Apia, Samoa.

There is a view that all the islands, the nations, of the Pacific, are fairly similar. That’s wrong, even architecturally. The open-walled fale is common throughout the Pacific but in Samoa, you will notice it alive and well and evolving in dwellings from traditional thatched roofs, through to curved and wrapped corrugated steel roofs, to hipped ‘fale palangi’ roofs.

In Tonga, you won’t see as many fale-style dwellings but you will see the fale scaled up and incorporated as the main form of many significant churches. Churches are everywhere throughout the Pacific but their appearance and construction can be quite specific to locations.

In the Cook Islands, they supplanted malae (marae) at a very early date and these are often made from coral ripped from ancient terraces. And speaking of stone, we think of the original architecture of the Pacific as, like the fale, lightweight, flexible and lashed together, which is true but ancient stone marae and other structures are much more prevalent than you would think. They range from the astonishing stone city of Nan Madol (Pohnpei, Caroline Islands) to the langi, low stone pyramids, of Tonga, to the stone sculptures and malae of the Marquesas.

The Baha’i temple in Samoa.

And in terms of contemporary architecture, when I passed through Tahiti, I was repeatedly assured there was no interesting architecture there, but the Maria No Te Hau church in Pape’ete, with its space-frame roof, must be one of the great buildings of the Pacific. And, as close as Samoa, you will be awed by the several-storeys-high Baha’i temple constructed from in-situ concrete.

Future issues of Architecture New Zealand will feature articles on the architecture of Pacific nations, along with guide maps, starting with Samoa, Tonga and the Cook Islands. For those of us with an avid appetite for good architecture, this will lure us away from the beaches and bars of the resorts.


The ancient origins of the ceremonial Kava drink of the Pacific

The ancient origins of Kava drinking is known to trace back at least 3,000 years and is associated with both social and ceremonial function. It was, and is, highly valued for its medicinal uses as a sedative, muscle relaxant, diuretic, and as a remedy for nervousness and insomnia. But Kava is more than a traditional remedy for a variety of ailments. This botanical marvel has been used in parts of the Pacific at traditional social gatherings, and in cultural & religious ceremonies to achieve a "higher level of consciousness".

Kava, which is sometimes known is awa, is produced from a plant typically found in the western Pacific and is traditionally drunk by many of the island cultures of the Pacific Ocean, including Fiji, Vanuatu, Hawaii, and Polynesia. In Fiji, for instance, the kava drink is considered the national drink, and is widely consumed. Traditionally, kava was prepared by cutting the root into small pieces, being chewed by several people (often children or beautiful young women, because of their perceived reduced bacterial levels!) and spat into a bowl, where it was mixed with coconut milk. It was believed that the chewing procedure blended the root with enzymes in the saliva and promoted the extraction of the active ingredients of the root and generally produced a much tastier brew. The concoction was then strained through coconut fibre, squeezing the pieces of masticated root until all the juices were blended with the water. This was then decanted into another bowl for consumption. Nowadays, the root is ground, pounded or grated rather than chewed and spat out, although among some locals the traditional method is still practiced.

Preparation of the kava drink . Photo source: twenty-somethingtravel.com.

Although the drinking of kava may be quite casual, it also plays a central role in many ceremonies, including marriages, funerals, healing ceremonies, naming ceremonies, and initiation for young girls and boys. It even played a part in the coronation of King Tupou, the Sixth of Tonga, who took position in 2012. In Fiji, the kava has a symbolic function of bringing two groups of people together. When one visits a new village, it is obligatory to bring the kava root as a gift. The community then gathers to prepare the drink, and the communal drinking then begins. After the village chief has his cup of kava, the drink is offered to the rest of the community in a communal bowl. Before receiving the drink, tradition dictates to clap the hands once, then after finishing the drink, one has to clap three more times. Once the ceremonial drinking is complete, everyone gathered would be friends, and the rest of the celebrations can begin.

The kava drink is neither an alcoholic beverage nor a psychedelic drug. Nevertheless, it does have sedative and anaesthetic properties. Whilst the effects of the kava drink may vary from one person to another, they are generally as such, if taken in a small amount: a mild feeling of sleepiness and drowsiness, relaxation of the body and the muscles, feelings of happiness, and numbness of the mouth, tongue and throat. When taken in a larger quantity, the kava drink may cause the loss of muscle control, sleepiness, the reddening of the eyes and the dilation of the pupils, and a general feeling of sickness.

Although the short-term effects of drinking kava may be mild, it has been claimed that its long-term usage can be quite severe and may cause various problems. These range from less severe effects such as the weakening of the muscles to more serious ones such as liver failure. By the end of 2002, at least 68 suspected cases of kava-linked liver toxicity had been reported, including nine cases of liver failure. Six of these cases resulted in liver transplants, while the other three ended in death. As a result, European, Asian, and North American countries banned the sale of all kava products, resulting in the collapse of the kava export industry in major growing areas. The reports of liver damage due to kava consumption have been puzzling, as inhabitants of the Pacific islands have been drinking the kava drink for at least three thousand years without apparent liver damage.

Many believe the ‘kava scare’ was engineered by the pharmaceutical industry because Kava was being widely prescribed in Europe as a safe and effective alternative to synthetic drugs sold by pharmaceutical companies.


Inhoud

Early Polynesia Edit

The island has been inhabited for more than 2000 years. [7] In the ancient past a road was built that encircled the island. There exists on the island today the stone ruins of a “great number of structures, house platforms, marae complexes, and cemeteries. ” [8] According to David Stanley's South Pacific Handbook:

"The Austral islands were one of the great art areas of the Pacific, represented today in many museums. The best-known artifacts are tall sharkskin drums, wooden bowls, fly-whisks, and tapa cloth." [3]

Aankoms van Bounty mutineers Edit

Tubuai was first viewed by Europeans when it was mapped by James Cook in 1777, although his party did not disembark. Cook discovered the island's name, "Toobouai", from the natives who surrounded his ship in their canoes a Tahitian named Omai, who was part of Cook's group, translated. [9]

The next Europeans to arrive were the mutineers of HMS Bounty in 1789. Mutineer Fletcher Christian, in looking for an island on which to permanently hide, had "scoured" William Bligh's maps and nautical charts and decided on Tubuai. [9]

Upon arrival at Tubuai, a conflict arose while the mutineers were still on their ship and several islanders were killed in their canoes. The site of this event in the lagoon on the north side of the island is called Baie Sanglant "Bloody Bay". [4]

Mutineer James Morrison [10] wrote: "The Island is full of Inhabitants for its size and may Contain 3000 souls." [5] After only ten days on the island, the mutineers sailed for Tahiti to get women and livestock in which they were only nominally successful. [9] When they returned to Tubuai, they built a fort on the northeast part of the island at Ta'ahueia, manned with cannon and swivel gun which they named Fort George. The mutineer leader, Fletcher Christian, knew that settling on Tahiti was sure to mean the mutineers' eventual discovery and arrest, so despite being viewed as intruders, Christian was reluctant to view permanent settlement on Tubuai as unfeasible. [6] Christian favoured using diplomacy over time to eventually obtain wives, but many of the other mutineers insisted on raiding parties to take wives by force. [6]

The islanders of Tubuai did not want to allow their women to stay at the mutineer camp or to allow them to become wives. [6] They also were not disposed to trade food. It was not long before armed parties of mutineers started burning houses and desecrating marae during skirmishes to obtain women. More battles ensued and more natives were killed. [11] One mutineer, the heavily tattooed Thomas Burkett (who was later tried and hanged in England] for mutiny), was speared in the side by one of the islanders during one of the skirmishes. [12] [13]

After only two months since their first arrival on Tubuai, the mutineers left for good. [3]

1800s Edit

Increased contact with Europeans also meant more exposure to diseases to which the islanders had no immunity. This proved particularly devastating to the population of Tubuai. At some point during the 30 years from when the mutineers left the island on September 17, 1789, and the early 1820s when accounts by Christian missionaries began to be recorded, the population that was estimated by the mutineer Morrison to be 3000 was now reduced to no more than 300 people. [14] [15] [16] One Protestant minister when visiting a congregation on Tubuai on January 3, 1824, wrote that several islanders were still suffering from a devastating illness. He described the symptoms and noted that several hundred had died within the previous four years. [14]

Tupua'i is located just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. The island is at the centre of the Austral Islands, located 195 km from Ra'ivāvae, 210 km from Rurutu, 700 km from Rapa Iti and 640 km south of Tahiti.

It consists of two former sets of volcanic peaks on Mount Taita'a (422 m (1,385 ft)) which are separated by the collar of Huahine (35 m (115 ft)). Its area is 45 square kilometres (17 square miles), surrounded by a large lagoon, the largest of the Austral Islands.

The coral reef that surrounds it in effect creates a lagoon of 85 square kilometres (33 square miles), an area almost double that of the island. It sometimes reaches 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) wide. Its depth is low, leading to a characteristic colour of turquoise or jade. For a large part, its depth is around 6 metres (20 feet). However, it can reach up to 25 metres (82 feet) in some parts of the south-east. The waters are constantly replenished via a rather strong and fairly constant ocean current, contributing to the preservation of the lagoon habitat and the health of the coral in the reef. The generally cooler waters and until recently very low pollution have also helped sustain this environment.

Many small streams run through the island, though they often empty into swamps rather than the sea. These swamps represent a fairly large portion of the island. Only the river Vaiohuru has any real flow.

Eight offshore motu surround the main island (with an additional 0.4 sq km):

  • Motu One (also known as îlot de sable (Sandly Islet) in the North)
  • Motu Rautaro
  • Motu Toena
  • Motu Roa (also called Motu Tāpapatava'e)
  • Motu Mitihā (originally Motiha'a)
  • Motu 'Ōfa'i (also called îlot caillou (Rock Island))
  • 'Iri'iriroa
  • Îlot plat (Flat Island)

The islets above are listed in clockwise direction from the north of the island. The last two islands are often submerged and hence not visible.

The motu 'Ōfa'i is itself the only island that has not formed through coral because it is composed of basalt, hence its name. It is also the only outcrop of volcanic land other than the main island.

The climate of Tubuai is cooler than Tahiti, with temperatures averaging 20–25 °C (68–77 °F). [17] The climate is rather temperate although it can be quite tropical for a large part of the year. The lowest temperature measured on the island was 9.2 °C (48.6 °F) on 31 August 1951. The highest was 32.7 °C (90.9 °F) on 25 March 1980. [18] The lagoon waters typically reach 26 °C (79 °F) in summer but only drop a few degrees in winter.

The rainfall is about 2000 mm per year with about 1700 mm per year for the years 2006 and 2007. The highest recorded rainfall 2839 mm in 1962 and the lowest was 1186 mm 1952. The record for rainfall in a day is in turn 191 mm on 23 April 1942. [18]

Hours of sunlight is about average for the Australs and is around 1970 hours per year, [19] one of the lowest levels in Polynesia. The humidity is lower in contrast to Tahiti in the order of a few percent, mainly due to its higher latitude and its lower altitude (thus retaining fewer clouds).

The trade winds coming from southeast are the prevailing winds. Those coming from the North or Northwest are synonymous with a change towards more sunny days. [20] The maximum recorded wind speeds, however, never exceeded 45 m/s. [18]

The island has also been the scene of several cyclones, though they are not very frequent and are often weakened before reaching landfall (as with Cyclone Meena in 2004). However, much bigger cyclones occasionally hit the island. As such, on 5 February 2010, Tupua'i found itself in the path of Cyclone Oli with winds averaging 160 km/h (gusting nearly 220 km/h). [21]

Average weather records on Tupua'i: [17]

Maand Jan Feb Mrt Apr Mei Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Des Jaar
Average maximum temperature (°C) 27.8 28.3 28.5 27.5 25.8 24.4 23.7 23.5 23.9 24.5 25.7 26.8 25.87
Average minimum temperature (°C) 22.8 23.3 23.0 22.1 20.4 18.5 18.1 18.0 18.0 18.9 20.3 21.5 20.41
Average temperature (°C) 25.3 25.8 25.75 24.8 23.1 21.45 20.9 20.75 20.95 21.7 23.0 24.05 23.14
Monthly average precipitation (mm) 199.2 175.3 176.3 174.2 137.5 107.8 144.9 148.7 98.7 120.1 121.8 187.7 149.35

Since the 1990s, the island's population has stabilised to approximately 2000 inhabitants.

Evolution of the population of Tupua'i since its discovery: [1] [22] [23]

Communes 1777 (discovery by Europeans) 1820 1895 1977 1983 1988 1996 2007 2012 2017
Tupua'i about 3000 about 300 430 1419 1741 1846 2049 2050 2170 2217
Mata'ura 868 954 1025 970
Ta'ahueia 558 552 572 645
Māhū 420 544 573 602

Tubuai is the administrative capital of the Austral Islands, [24] and the commune consists solely of this one island, including the six or seven motus surrounding it. Tubuai was annexed by France in 1881. The commune itself consists of the following associated communes: [25]