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Barnum, Phineas Taylor - Geskiedenis

Barnum, Phineas Taylor - Geskiedenis

Showman
(1810-1891)

Barnum, gebore op 5 Julie 1810, in Bethel, Connecticut, het die laerskool bygewoon en daarna redakteur geword van 'n antikleriese koerant, The Herald of Freedom. Hy verhuis egter in 1834 na New York, en daar besluit om beloonend te wees, het hy in 1842 'n museum in New York geopen met uitstallings van natuurgeskiedenis en "nuuskierighede", freaks, musiek en drama. 'N Uitstekende aantrekkingskrag by die museum was' Uitgang ', wat baie besoekers byeenkom om net buite te kom.

Barnum het in 1844 deur Europa getoer, met 'n dwerg wat as "generaal Tom Thumb" aangedui is, en in 1850 het hy 'n lang konserttoer in die Verenigde State vir die sangeres Jenny Lind bevorder. Beide ondernemings was finansieel suksesvol.

Gedurende 'n tydperk van uittrede uit die skoubedryf, dien hy in die Connecticut-wetgewer (1867-1869) en word hy in 1875 burgemeester van Bridgeport. In 1871 kondig Barnum die opening van die "Greatest Show onEarth" aan, wat die land suksesvol getoer het. Na baie sukses oor 'n tydperk van tien jaar het kompetisie hom egter gedwing om kragte saam met James A. Bailey (1881) te kombineer om die Great Barnum en Bailey Circus te vorm. Twee, drie of selfs vier aktiwiteite is aangebied. En in 1882 word Jumbo, 'n reusagtige olifant, die ster van die nuwe sirkus.

Barnum het universele erkenning gekry as 'n man met 'n genie vir spoggerigheid. Hy is op 7 April 1891 in Philadelphia oorlede.


Ongeveer P.T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum - dit is P.T., vir u en my - was die merkwaardigste entrepreneur en entertainer in die 19de eeuse Amerika. Hy is 'n ikoon van Amerikaanse vindingrykheid en ons beskermheilige van bevordering, sy verhaal is 'n fassinerende verkenning van die sosiale, kommersiële, politieke en industriële geskiedenis van die 19de eeu, en sy verhaal begin lank voordat sy beroemde sirkus in 1872 geskep is.

Hy was 'n entrepreneur, museum -eienaar, sakeleier, politikus, stedelike ontwikkelaar, gemeenskapsweldoener, filantroop, temperamenteleier, emansipasie, dosent en skrywer. Barnum was toegewyd aan die intellektuele en kulturele ontwikkeling van die samelewing en was 'n stem vir die strewe na vryheid en keuse.


Die geskiedenis van Barnum is 'n rustige ontwikkeling van meer as 'n eeu, hoewel dit nie 'n gebrek aan 'n sterk gemeenskapsgevoel was nie. Soos die joernalis en historikus Robert Autobee opgemerk het, het Barnum se stryd in die skadu van die dikwels verskillende prioriteite van Denver en die ooreenstemmende gemeenskapsgevoel wat veroorsaak word deur die stad se verwaarlosing van ouer woonbuurte, die identiteit van die buurt gevorm. Alhoewel die stad Denver 'n onderskeid tref tussen Barnum, begrens deur Sixth Avenue (noord), Federal Boulevard (oos), Alameda (suid) en Perrystraat (wes), en die aangrensende en parallelle Barnum West wat strek tot by Sheridan Boulevard, Dit is bekend dat inwoners van die ander Westside-woonbuurte in Denver Barnum se slegte reputasie vir hulself toeken en dat hulle hulself as inwoners identifiseer. Of so sê sommige inwoners van Barnum trots. Barnum het, net soos Curtis Park, Park Hill of Montclair, begin as 'n negentiende-eeuse voorstad in Denver. Maar, in teenstelling met die woonbuurte, het Barnum ontwikkel as 'n toevlugsoord vir werkersgesinne. Alhoewel Barnum nooit welvarend was nie, was hy welvarender as in baie ander woonbuurte in Westside Denver, 'n tuiste vir gesinne met beskeie middele, met 'n gevoel van trots en identiteit wat voortduur, selfs al het sy gesigte gedurende die twintigste eeu verander.


Barnum, Phineas Taylor - Geskiedenis

Plakkaat van Die grootste nommer van Barnum en Bailey op aarde. Juffrou Rose Meers, die grootste lewende dame ruiter - Library of Congress, Afdrukke en foto's

P. T. (Phineas Taylor) Barnum van Bridgeport, Connecticut, was een van die grootste vermaaklikheidsondernemers in die geskiedenis. Sy reisvertonings, museums en wêreldbekende sirkus het hom gehelp om 'n fortuin van 'n miljoen dollar op te bou op die manier om persoonlike vriende te word met ikoniese figure soos Abraham Lincoln, koningin Victoria van Engeland en Mark Twain. Sy vindingryke bemarkingsveldtogte versterk sy status as die vader van moderne reklame en spoggerigheid.

Barnum werk in 'n tyd waarin blou wette in die Verenigde State sosiaal aanvaarbare vorme van vermaak beperk het, en vermaak en verwondering aan die massas. Hy het besienswaardighede van regoor die wêreld gesoek om die nuuskierigheid en begeerte van die publiek vir die opwindende en opwindende uit te buit. Geskiedskrywer Irving Wallace het opgemerk dat Barnum as vertoonman "New York, en dan Amerika, en uiteindelik die wêreld, die gawe van genot gegee het".

Die vroeë lewe van 'n praktiese grapjas

P. T. Barnum is op 5 Julie 1810 gebore in Bethel, Connecticut, 'n klein dorpie ongeveer vier kilometer suidoos van Danbury. Sy pa, Philo Barnum, was 'n boer, kleermaker, tavernehouer en kruidenier, wat 10 kinders by twee vroue gehad het. Phineas was Philo se sesde kind en die eerste deur sy tweede vrou, Irene. Gedurende die kinderjare van Phineas was Bethel 'n vesting van konserwatiewe waardes wat oorheers word deur die gemeente. Om die swoeg en roetine van die alledaagse lewe te bekamp, ​​het mans soos Phineas se oupa aan moederskant (ook Phineas genoem) tot een van die min sosiaal toelaatbare vorme van vermaak gebruik gemaak, die praktiese grap.

Barnum onthou dat sy oupa “verder sou gaan, langer sou wag, harder sou werk en dieper sou dink om 'n praktiese grap uit te voer as vir enigiets anders onder die hemel”, soos biograaf AH Saxon opgemerk het. Dit was sy oupa se luidrugtige persoonlikheid en liefde vir onskadelike en amusante misleiding wat Phineas gebruik het tydens sy meteoriese opkoms in die vermaaklikheidsbedryf.

Die "Prins van Humbugs"

Advertensie van Druidish Band Company, 1849 van een van Barnum se vroeë musiekoptrede en#8211 Connecticut Historical Society

Phineas word beskryf as 'n sterk student wat uitblink in wiskunde en fisiese arbeid verag het. Hy het vir sy pa op hul plaas gewerk en later in 'n familiewinkel. Na sy pa se dood in 1825, het Barnum die gesinsbates gelikwideer en by 'n algemene winkel in Grassy Plains net buite Bethel gaan werk, waar hy Charity Hallet, sy vrou van die volgende 44 jaar, ontmoet en trou.

Sy loopbaan as die selfverklaarde 'Prince of Humbugs' is op 25-jarige ouderdom van stapel gestuur toe 'n klant met die naam Coley Bartram die kruidenierswinkel binnegekom het, waar Barnum saam met John Moody begin het. Bartram het geweet Phineas het 'n swakheid vir spekulatiewe beleggings, en hy wou 'n 'nuuskierigheid' verkoop. Joice Heth, 'n Afro -Amerikaanse vrou wat na bewering 161 jaar oud was en 'n voormalige verpleegster van die stigterpa George Washington, het menigte nuuskierige kykers gelok wat bereid was om te betaal vir die kans om haar te hoor praat en selfs te sing. Barnum het die geleentheid aangegryp om haar optredes te bemark.

Volgens Raymund Fitzsimons in sy boek het Barnum Joice Heth as 'die grootste nuuskierigheid ter wêreld' nooit bedreig as 'n risiko vir understatement nie. Barnum in Londen. Hy het die gebied in New York oorstroom met plakkate en advertensies. Toe die belangstelling in Heth in New York begin afneem, het Barnum haar deur New England geneem en probeer om verkope te verhoog deur te beweer dat Heth die opbrengs van die toer gebruik om haar agterkleinkinders uit slawerny te koop. Toe die belangstelling in Heth 'n tweede keer begin verdwyn, het Barnum 'n anonieme brief aan die Boston -pers gestuur waarin hy beweer dat Heth, 'n klein bejaarde vrou, glad nie 'n persoon was nie, maar 'n outomaat - 'n woord dan vir 'n meganiese figuur - gemaak van walvisbeen, vere en rubber. Barnum het later beweer dat die publiek se behoefte aan vermaak sy hoaxes regverdig. Alhoewel daar geen rekord is dat Barnum ooit gesê het: "Daar word elke minuut 'n suigeling gebore nie", het biograaf Wallace geskryf dat die showman het gedoen sê "die Amerikaanse bevolking het daarvan gehou om gebuig te word." As 'humbugging' en oordrywing sy gehoor behaag, het Barnum geen kwaad daarin gevind nie. Sedert Barnum se tyd het humbugs wat betrokke was by die maak van 'n openbare skouspel van individue op grond van hul ras of fisiese kenmerke, 'n aantal wetenskaplikes wel deeglik ondersoek.

Museum sy “Ladder ” na Fortune

Mnr & mev Tom Thumb, Commodore Nutt, Minnie Watson en P.T. Barnum – Connecticut Historical Society

In 1841 verneem Barnum dat Scudder's American Museum, 'n versameling van $ 50,000 se "relikwieë en seldsame nuuskierighede" in New York op laer Broadway te koop was. Sy aankoop en groot heropening van die aantrekkingskrag as 'Barnum's American Museum' was wat hy 'die leer' noem, waardeur hy tot sy fortuin styg.

Barnum was meedoënloos, sowel as die opsporing van vreemdhede en die bevordering van sy museum. Hy het kragtige spreiligte en reuse -baniere bo -op sy gebou gesit. Hy adverteer gratis konserte op die dak en verskaf dan die slegste musikante wat hy kon vind in die hoop om die skare van die geraas en die relatiewe vrede van die museum te verdryf. As hulle binnekant was, is die beskermelinge bederf met 'n skouspel van 'reuse', inheemse Amerikaners, hondeuitstallings, 'n werkende replika van die Niagara -waterval, en selfs die beroemde Feejee -meermin (later onthul dat dit 'n aap -bolyf en 'n visstert is wat noukeurig saamgevoeg is). In die drie jaar voor Barnum se aankoop, het Scudder's American Museum $ 34,000 verdien. In die eerste drie jaar van sy operasie onder Barnum het die nuut hernoemde museum meer as $ 100,000 verdien.

In 1842, tydens 'n tussenstop in Bridgeport, Connecticut, het die skouman Charles Stratton ontdek, 'n seuntjie wat Barnum se roem tot internasionale vlakke sou verhef. Stratton was ten tyde van hul ontmoeting vier jaar oud, was slegs 25 sentimeter lank en weeg 15 pond. Barnum speel in op die fassinasie van Amerika met eksotiese Europese aantreklikhede, en bemark Stratton as "generaal Tom Thumb, 'n dwerg van elf jaar oud, wat pas uit Engeland aangekom het." Barnum en Stratton het huise in Amerika volgepak en 'n Europese toer onderneem waar hulle koningin Victoria van Engeland, koning Louis-Philippe van Frankryk en ander monarge ontmoet het.

'N Plakkaatreklame uit 1897 Die grootste nommer van Barnum en Bailey op aarde – Library of Congress, Afdelings vir afdrukke en foto's

Aftrede en 'n rampspoedige boek

Na die bestuur van 'n toer van 150 konserte vir "Swedish Nightingale", Jenny Lind-'n toer wat hom in die vroeë 1850's na nuwe hoogtepunte gebring het-vestig Barnum hom in die eerste van verskeie ongemaklike aftrede. Hy het tyd saam met sy vrou en drie dogters deurgebring in sy huis in Bridgeport, wat hy 'Iranistan' genoem het. Daar, in sy uitgebreide herehuis in Moorse styl, skryf hy 'n omstrede outobiografie wat die mate waarin hy die gehoor bedrieg het, uiteensit terwyl hy sy fortuin versamel het. Die terugslag van die vrylating daarvan in 1855 was ernstig, en lesers voel verraai en bedrieg deur Barnum se bedrieglike praktyke. Die New York Times het Barnum daarvan beskuldig dat hy sukses behaal het deur "die sistematiese, verstandige en volhardende plan om geld onder valse voorwendsels van die publiek in die algemeen te bekom", soos aangehaal in die vooruitgawe van 'n 2000 -uitgawe van Barnum se outobiografie. Barnum het jare lank herskryf en probeer om die skade deur die onthullings van sy boek te beheer.

'N Loopbaan in die politiek

Na 'n reeks swak finansiële besluite, insluitend 'n belegging in die bankrot Jerome Clock Company van New Haven, was Barnum stukkend en gedwing om terug te gaan op die pad. In 1858 het hy 'n reeks lesings in Londen gehou, ironies genoeg, "The Art of Money-Getting, or Success in Life", wat baie gewild was. Sy lesings en toewyding aan sy museum in New York het gehelp om sy gewildheid te laat herleef, wat Barnum uiteindelik aangemoedig het om 'n openbare amp te wees.

'Dit het altyd vir my gelyk', het Barnum een ​​keer geskryf (en word aangehaal in die biografie van Wallace), 'dat 'n man wat' nie in politiek belangstel nie 'ongeskik is om in 'n land te woon waar die regering in die hande van mense rus. Met hierdie filosofie ter harte, wen Barnum die verkiesing tot die Connecticut -wetgewer uit die stad Fairfield in 1865. Hy veg vir die burgerskap van swart mans en vroue soos voorgestel in die veertiende wysiging en werk daaraan om die mag van die New York en New Haven te beperk. Spoorweg lobby. Barnum se suksesse het hom 'n jaar later herkies. Sy mees bevredigende politieke werk het gekom tydens 'n tydperk van 'n jaar as burgemeester van Bridgeport in 1875. Terwyl hy in die amp was, kruis hy om die tariewe te verlaag, watervoorrade te verbeter en die stad se huise vir prostitusie te sluit.

Die jare wat sy politieke loopbaan ingesluit het, het ook 'n tweede mislukte poging tot uittrede ingesluit, die dood van sy vrou Charity, 'n huwelik met Nancy Fish 'n jaar later en die bekendstelling van wat sy bekendste vermaaklikheidsonderneming, die sirkus, geword het.

Barnum en Bailey Circus

In April 1874 het P. T. Barnum se Great Roman Hippodrome op 'n hele plein in New York tussen vierde en Madison -laan oopgemaak. Barnum het oor die hele wêreld gereis om diere en besienswaardighede vir die nuwe Hippodrome te koop. Ondanks die vertroue dat hy die 'Greatest Show on Earth' besit, beskou Barnum 'n mededingende sirkus, bekend as International Allied Shows, as 'n bedreiging vir sy sukses. Hy het samesmeltingsonderhandelinge met James A. Bailey van Allied aangegaan en die grondslag gelê vir wat uiteindelik die Barnum & amp Bailey Circus geword het.

Iranistan, woning van mnr Barnum, ca. 1851, Bridgeport – Connecticut Historical Society en Connecticut History Illustrated

“Mnr. Barnum, Amerika ”

In sy latere jare geniet Barnum graag lees en word hy 'n versamelaar van olieverfskilderye, en verloor nooit sy passie vir 'n goeie praktiese grap nie. Dit lyk ook asof hy nooit moeg was vir sy ikoniese status nie, en hy het geglo dat 'n brief hom van Bombay (nou Mumbai), Indië, bereik het, wat eenvoudig aan "Mr. Barnum, Amerika. ”

Barnum sterf in sy slaap op 7 April 1891 by sy huis in Bridgeport - 'n herehuis aan die water met die naam Marina Iranistan is in 1857 deur 'n brand verwoes. Na sy dood onthou Charles Godfrey Leland, 'n voormalige Barnum -werknemer wat in die Wallace -biografie aangehaal word, hom as "baie goedhartig en welwillend en begaafd met 'n gevoel van plesier wat selfs sterker was as sy begeerte om dollars." By die meting van sy professionele loopbaan, word Barnum deur die Times of London as baanbreker in die beroep van "showman op grootse skaal", en Die Washington Post verklaar hom "die bekendste Amerikaner wat ooit geleef het."

Gregg Mangan is 'n skrywer en historikus wat 'n PhD in openbare geskiedenis aan die Arizona State University het.


Vroeë lewe

Barnum is gebore in Bethel, Connecticut, die seun van herbergier, kleermaker en winkelier Philo Barnum (1778–1826) en sy tweede vrou Irene Taylor. Sy oupa aan die moederskant, Phineas Taylor, was 'n Whig, wetgewer, grondeienaar, vrederegter en loteryspeler wat 'n groot invloed op hom gehad het.

Barnum het deur die jare verskeie ondernemings gehad, waaronder 'n algemene winkel, 'n boekveiling, spekulasie oor eiendom en 'n lotterynetwerk in die hele staat. Hy het 'n weeklikse koerant in 1829 begin Die Herald of Freedom in Danbury, Connecticut. Sy hoofartikels teen die ouderlinge van die plaaslike kerke het gelei tot lastergedinge en 'n vervolging wat tot twee maande gevangenisstraf gelei het, maar hy word 'n kampioen van die liberale beweging na sy vrylating. [ aanhaling nodig ] Hy verkoop sy winkel in 1834.

Hy begin sy loopbaan as skouman in 1835 toe hy 25 was met die aankoop en uitstalling van 'n blinde en byna heeltemal verlamde slavin genaamd Joice Heth, wat 'n kennis in Philadelphia as voormalige verpleegster en 161 jaar oud in Basuin uitbasuin. Slawerny was reeds verbied in New York, maar hy het 'n leemte uitgebuit wat hom in staat gestel het om haar vir 'n jaar vir $ 1.000 te huur en $ 500 te leen om die verkoop te voltooi. Heth sterf in Februarie 1836, nie meer as 80 jaar oud nie. Barnum het haar 10 tot 12 uur per dag gewerk en hy het 'n lewende lykskouing van haar lyk aangebied in 'n New York -salon waar toeskouers 50 sent betaal het om die dooie vrou op te sny, terwyl hy onthul het dat sy waarskynlik die helfte van haar vermeende ouderdom was . [8] [9]


Barnum, Phineas Taylor (1810-1891)

Die beroemde sirkusmeester was ook een van die mees toegewyde Universaliste in die negentiende eeu. Barnum is op 5 Julie 1810 in Bethel, Connecticut, gebore in 'n familie van entrepreneurs. Sy pa was 'n kleremaker wat ook 'n taverne, vragdiens en 'n lewendige stal bedryf het. Hy is dood toe 'Taylor' slegs 15 was, wat die gesin insolvent gelaat het, hoewel sy kinderarmoede baie oordrewe was in die outobiografie wat Barnum in 1854-1855 gepubliseer het (Die lewe van P.T. Barnum, deur Homself geskryf). Barnum is vernoem na sy oupa aan moederskant, 'n praktiese grapjas wat die seun ook aan Universalisme voorgestel het. Barnum, wat opgevoed is as 'n kongregasionalis, het ongeveer 1824 'n Universalis geword, toe die naburige Danbury sy eerste gevestigde Universalistiese predikant genoem het. Blykbaar was Barnum op 'n tyd bediende van die samelewing.

Op die ouderdom van 16 verhuis hy na New York en was 'n winkelbediende en aankoopagent. Iets meer as twee jaar later is hy op 8 November 1829 met Charity Hallet getroud. By sy terugkeer na Bethel het hy redaksiebriewe aan die koerant begin skryf oor die skeiding van kerk en staat. Toe hulle nie sy briewe wil publiseer nie, begin Barnum 'n mededingende koerant, Die Herald of Freedom. Die koerant bevat 'n reeks oor die 'Bewyse van universalisme'. Tydens sy redaksie is hy weens laster gedagvaar en bevind dat sy eie getuienis ontoelaatbaar was omdat hy 'n Universalis was en dus nie aan God verantwoording moet doen nie. Hy is skuldig bevind en het twee maande tronkstraf uitgedien.

Hy keer terug na New York en begin sy loopbaan as 'n showman wat saam met jongleurs, minstreels en verskillende menslike 'eienaardighede' toer. Barnum het vry toegegee dat 'n groot deel van sy vertoning gebaseer was op uitgebreide hoaxes wat hy onderskei het van persone wat nie hul eie bedrog wou erken nie (hy het baie tyd en geld bestee aan die nastrewing van valse spiritualiste). Een van die bekende “oddities ” in die Barnum-vertoning was Joice Heth, wat hy verteenwoordig as die 161-jarige Afro-Amerikaanse "mammie" van George Washington. Heth was in werklikheid 'n tagtigjarige slawerny wat Barnum by 'n ander showman gekoop het, wat meer bejaard sou lyk. Hy spog een keer in druk oor hoe hy Heth se swakheid vir whisky ondersoek het om haar tande uit te trek sodat sy ouer lyk. Heth is 'n skouspelagtige voorwerp, selfs by haar dood het Barnum haar in die openbaar laat ontleed in 'n pseudo-wetenskaplike vertoning wat bedoel was om die andersheid van die swart liggaam te dramatiseer. Ander mense wat te sien was, sluit in 'n 'African Giantess', die swart tweeling Millie-Christine, 'wilde manne van Borneo' en 'n 25-duim dwerg wat net soos baie van Barnum se eienaardighede net 'n kind was toe hy in wese by die show was .

Barnum se behandeling van sy menslike 'eienaardighede' is deur die jare heen op verskillende maniere gekenmerk. In die film "The Greatest Showman" van 2017, los gedruk na Barnum se lewe, word hy uitgebeeld as die bemagtiging van die mense wat hy vertoon het deur hulle werk te gee waar hulle andersins nie sou gehad het nie, en deur hulle te beskou as positiewe voorbeelde van menslike diversiteit (sprekend) , daar is geen verwysing na Heth in die film nie). Daarteenoor skryf Harriet Washington in Mediese apartheid: die donker geskiedenis van mediese eksperimente oor swart Amerikaners van koloniale tye tot hede, merk op dat hoewel Barnum se mishandeling van swart kunstenaars 'alledaags' was, maar ook 'immoreel' was, en dat Barnum 'in werklikheid ryk geword het deur sy eie uitbuiting te benut, in teenstelling met die lappies tot rykdom' era se kultuur van rasseonderdanigheid en slawerny vir eie gewin. ”

Barnum se eie outobiografie skets 'n ingewikkelde prentjie, aangesien hy sy vurige voorspraak vir die afskaffing van slawerny beskryf en Afrikane as onderontwikkeld beskryf, wat vereis dat die konteks van die beskaafde weste moet floreer. Hy beweer ook dat baie van sy programme met behulp van rassistiese stereotipes werklike parodieë was van frenoloë en ander wat pseudowetenskap sou gebruik om te argumenteer vir die minderwaardigheid van enige ras.

'N Groot keerpunt in sy loopbaan het plaasgevind in 1841 toe die American Museum te koop was, en Barnum dit kon koop. Die museum was 'n gebou van vyf verdiepings wat 'n permanente tuiste gebied het vir die ou vertoning van Barnum, wat ook 'n steeds groter wordende versameling natuurlike wonders en nuuskierighede huisves, waaronder Amerika se eerste openbare akwarium. Barnum gebruik ook die lokaal vir pro-temperance teaterstukke (hy het sy hele lewe persoonlik van alkohol afgehou).

Gedurende hierdie tyd het Barnum 'n aktiewe deelnemer aan die Fourth Universalist Society in New York geword, en veral vriendelik met die minister Edwin H. Chapin. Die twee mans is so saam gesien dat hulle vergelyk is met die beroemde Chinese Siamese tweeling, Chang en Eng, wat deel was van Barnum se uitstallings. Na die dood van Chapin het Barnum begin om die eenheidsdienste by te woon wat deur Robert Collyer gelewer is. Barnum was die meeste toegewyd aan die First Universalist Society in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Na 1848 was hy verreweg die grootste finansiële bydraer tot die kerk, en het hy ook enorme bedrae vir verskillende bouprojekte geskenk. Hy verlaat die kerk 'n bedrag in sy testament wat bekend staan ​​as die Barnum -fonds. Olympia Brown was sy predikant van 1869 tot 1875. Hy het haar werk baie ondersteun, en volgens haar komplimenteer sy dikwels haar prediking, maar haar advokaat vir vroueregte het gelei tot 'n skeuring en haar vroeë ontslag. Gedurende hierdie tyd het hy ontstaan ​​uit 'n pensioen wat veroorsaak is deur brande in die American Museum.

Barnum se nuwe loopbaan was die sirkusonderneming. Met sy geweldige talente vir promosie en publisiteit, het hy die sirkus baie groter gemaak en was hy die eerste om spoorweë te gebruik vir reis- en adviesagente. Hy het twintig jaar lank die “grootste vertoning op aarde” aangebied.

Hy het ook twee termyne in die wetgewer van Connecticut deurgebring, waar hy veral bekend was daarvoor dat hy pleit vir stemreg in Afro -Amerika op grond van die gelykheid van alle onsterflike siele, en ook in 1879 'n wetsontwerp wat die verkoop verbied voorbehoeding.

'N Ander minister wat Barnum se vriend geword het, was Elmer Capen, die derde president van Tufts College. Barnum het daar van 1851-1857 in die kuratorium gedien en het, met die aanmoediging van Capen, die Barnum Museum vir Natuurgeskiedenis, wat in 1884 geopen is, toegerus en gebou. Hy gee gereeld aan die museum gemonteerde velle van gestorwe sirkusdiere, waaronder die olifant Jumbo , wat die Tufts -gelukbringer geword het. Barnum het ook geld gegee aan 'n aantal ander Universalistiese skole en groepe regoor die land. Teen die einde van sy lewe publiseer hy die topverkoper pamflet, Waarom ek 'n Universalis is. Dit het 'n wye leserspubliek, bly jare lank in druk en het George Perin, sendeling in Japan, so betower dat dit die eerste Universalist -traktaat geword het wat in Japannees vertaal is. Daarin het Barnum gepostuleer dat die dood nie 'n einde maak aan karakterontwikkeling nie, maar dat die siel voortgaan om te ontwikkel in die komende wêreld. Teen sy dood was daar 60 000 eksemplare in omloop.

Barnum is op 7 April 1891 oorlede, en die begrafnis is op die 10de deur Collyer en sy universalistiese pastoor uit Bridgeport, Lewis B. Fisher, uitgevoer.

Lees die topverkoper pamflet van Barnum en waarom ek 'n universalis is, deur hier te klik.

Lees die outobiografie van Barnum in die Harvard Square Library Collection deur hier te klik


P. T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum (5 Julie 1810 – 7 April 1891) was 'n Amerikaanse showman, sakeman en entertainer, onthou vir die promosie van gevierde hoaxes en vir die stigting van die sirkus wat die Ringling Bros. en Barnum & Bailey Circus geword het. Sy suksesse het hom moontlik die eerste miljoenêr op die gebied van kwotvertoning gemaak. Alhoewel Barnum ook 'n skrywer, uitgewer, filantroop en soms 'n politikus was, het hy van homself gesê: "Ek is 'n showman van beroep. en al die vergulding sal niks anders van my maak nie, & quot en sy persoonlike doelwitte was & quotto geld in sy eie kas gesit. & quot; Barnum word wyd, maar verkeerdelik toegeskryf aan die uitdrukking van die frase & quot; elke minuut word 'n sucker gebore & quot. (Sien die Cardiff Giant -artikel vir die korrekte toeskrywing aan die man wat dit gesê het in reaksie op Barnum se optrede in die saak).

Barnum, gebore in Bethel, Connecticut, het in die vroeë twintigerjare 'n eienaar van klein ondernemings geword en in 1829 'n weekblad, The Herald of Freedom, gestig. Hy het in 1834 na New York verhuis en 'n vermaaklikheidsloopbaan begin, eers met 'n verskeidenheid groep genaamd "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theatre", en kort daarna deur die aankoop van Scudder's American Museum, wat hy na homself herdoop het. Barnum het die museum gebruik as 'n platform om hoaxes en menslike nuuskierighede te bevorder, soos die '& quotFeejee & quot; meermin' en 'General Tom Thumb'. Teen die einde van 1846 lok Barnum's Museum 400 000 besoekers per jaar. In 1850 het hy die Amerikaanse toer van die sangeres Jenny Lind bevorder en haar 'n ongekende $ 1.000 per nag vir 150 nagte betaal.

Na ekonomiese omkerings as gevolg van slegte beleggings in die 1850's, het Barnum vier jaar van litigasie en openbare vernedering begin. Hy het herstel en 'n lesingsreis begin, meestal as 'n matige spreker, en teen 1860 het hy uit die skuld gekom en 'n herehuis gebou, "Lindcroft." Sy museum het Amerika se eerste akwarium bygevoeg en die wasfiguurafdeling uitgebrei.

Alhoewel hy beweer dat politiek vir my altyd onsmaaklik was, is Barnum in 1865 verkies tot die wetgewer in Connecticut as 'n republikein vir Fairfield en het hy twee termyne gedien. Hy hardloop twee keer sonder sukses vir die Amerikaanse kongres. Met die bekragtiging van die dertiende wysiging van die grondwet van die Verenigde State oor slawerny en stemreg in Afro-Amerika, het Barnum voor die wetgewer gepraat en gesê: 'n Mens se siel is nie te verwaarloos nie. Dit woon moontlik in die liggaam van 'n Chinese, 'n Turk, 'n Arabier of 'n Hotentot - dit is nog steeds 'n onsterflike gees! & Quot In 1875 was Barnum 'n jaar lank burgemeester van Bridgeport, Connecticut en het hy gewerk om die watertoevoer te verbeter, gaslig te bring na strate en handhawing van drank- en prostitusiewette. Barnum was 'n belangrike rol in die begin van die Bridgeport -hospitaal, wat in 1878 gestig is, en was die eerste president daarvan.

Barnum betree die sirkusbedryf, die bron van 'n groot deel van sy blywende roem, op 61 -jarige ouderdom en stig & quotP. T. Barnum se Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & amp Hippodrome & quot, 'n rondreisende sirkus, menagerie en museum van & quotfreaks & quot; wat teen 1872 homself as "The Greatest Show on Earth" Barnum was die eerste sirkuseienaar wat sy sirkus per trein vervoer het, en die eerste wat sy eie trein gekoop het. Gegewe die gebrek aan geplaveide snelweë in Amerika, was dit 'n skerpsinnige sakebeweging wat Barnum se mark vergroot het.

Barnum sterf in sy slaap op 7 April 1891 in die huis en is begrawe in die Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, Connecticut, 'n begraafplaas wat hy ontwerp het.

Barnum is gebore in Bethel, Connecticut, die seun van herbergier, kleermaker en winkelier Philo Barnum (1778-1826) en die tweede vrou Irene Taylor. Hy was die derde agterkleinseun van Thomas Barnum (1625-1695), die immigrantvoorouer van die Barnum-familie in Noord-Amerika. Sy oupa aan die moederskant, Phineas Taylor, was 'n vark, wetgewer, grondeienaar, vrederegter en lotteryknipper, en hy het 'n groot invloed op sy gunsteling kleinseun gehad. Barnum was vaardig in rekenkunde, maar het fisieke werk gehaat. Barnum het begin as 'n winkelier, en hy het geleer om te onderhandel, 'n winskopie te maak en bedrog te gebruik om 'n verkoop te doen. Hy was betrokke by die lotery manie in die Verenigde State. Hy trou met Charity Hallett toe hy 19 was, en sy sou die volgende 44 jaar sy metgesel wees.

Die jong man het verskeie ondernemings gehad: 'n algemene winkel, 'n boekveiling, spekulasie oor eiendom en 'n staats lotterynetwerk. Hy raak aktief in die plaaslike politiek en pleit teen blou wette wat deur Calviniste uitgevaardig is wat probeer om dobbelary en reis te beperk. Barnum begin in 1829 'n weekblad, The Herald of Freedom, in Danbury, Connecticut. Sy hoofartikels teen kerkouderlinge het gelei tot lastergedinge en 'n vervolging wat tot twee maande gevangenisstraf gelei het, maar hy word 'n kampioen van die liberale beweging na sy vrylating. In 1834, toe loterye in Connecticut verbied is, het sy hoofinkomste afgesny, Barnum sy winkel verkoop en na New York verhuis. In 1835 begin hy as skouman met sy aankoop en uitstalling van 'n blinde en byna heeltemal verlamde slavin, Joice Heth, wat deur Barnum beweer is dat sy die verpleegster van George Washington was en meer as 160 jaar was. Joice Heth is in 1836 oorlede, nee meer as 80.

Na 'n jaar van gemengde sukses met sy eerste groep van groepe genaamd "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theatre", gevolg deur die paniek van 1837 en drie jaar van moeilike omstandighede, koop hy Scudder's American Museum in Broadway en Ann Street, New York City, in 1841 Hernoem na "Barnum's American Museum", met die toevoeging van uitstallings en verbeterings in die gebou, het dit 'n gewilde vertoonplek geword. Barnum het 'n vuurtoring bygevoeg wat die aandag op en af ​​op Broadway getrek het, en vlae langs die rand van die dak wat bedags aandag getrek het. Van tussen die boonste vensters trek reuse skilderye van diere die blik op voetgangers. Die dak is omskep in 'n wandeltuin met 'n uitsig oor die stad, waar lugballonritte daagliks van stapel gestuur word. By die statiese uitstallings van opgestopte diere is 'n veranderende reeks lewendige optredes en 'nuuskierighede' bygevoeg, insluitend albino's, reuse, dwergies, 'jong veters', jongleurs, towenaars en eksotiese vroue, gedetailleerde modelle van stede en beroemde gevegte, en uiteindelik 'n menagerie van diere.

In 1842 stel Barnum sy eerste groot hoax voor, die & quotFeejee & quot; meermin, wat hy verhuur het van mede -eienaar Moses Kimball van Boston, wat sy vriend, vertroueling en medewerker geword het. dit was 'n stert van 'n vis en die kop van 'n aap. Hy regverdig sy hoaxes of & quothumbugs & quot as & quotadvertensies om aandag te trek. na die museum. Ek glo nie daaraan om die publiek te bedrieg nie, maar ek glo daarin om hulle eers aan te trek en dan te behaag. & Quot Later kruis hy teen bedrieërs (sien hieronder). Barnum het dit gevolg met die uitstalling van Charles Stratton, die dwerg "Algemene Tom Thumb" ("die kleinste persoon wat ooit alleen geloop het"), wat toe vier jaar oud was, maar volgens hom 11 jaar oud was. Met swaar afrigting en natuurlike talent is die seun geleer om navolg mense van Hercules tot Napoleon. Teen vyf het hy wyn gedrink en sewe sigare gerook ter wille van die publiek. Hoewel Tom Thumb uitgebuit word, het hy sy werk geniet en het hy 'n goeie verhouding met Barnum gehad, sonder bitterheid.

In 1843 huur Barnum die tradisionele inheemse Amerikaanse danser fu-Hum-Me, die eerste van baie inheemse Amerikaners wat hy aangebied het. Gedurende 1844-1845 het Barnum saam met Tom Thumb in Europa getoer en koningin Victoria ontmoet, wat geamuseerd en bedroef was deur die klein mannetjie, en die geleentheid was 'n publieke staatsgreep. Dit het die deur oopgemaak vir besoeke van koninklikes in Europa, insluitend die tsaar van Rusland, en hy het tientalle aantreklikhede gekry, waaronder outomate en ander meganiese wonderwerke. He tried to buy the birth home of William Shakespeare and almost got away with it. Barnum was having the time of his life, and for all of the three years abroad with Thumb, except for a few months when his serious, nervous, and straitlaced wife joined him, he had piles of spending money, food and drink, and lived a carefree existence. On his return to New York, he went on a spending spree, buying other museums, including Peale's museum in Philadelphia, the nation's first major museum. By late 1846, Barnum's Museum was drawing 400,000 visitors a year.

A much-cited experience of Barnum as a legitimate impresario was his engagement of Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale", to sing in America at $1,000 a night for 150 nights, all expenses paid by the entrepreneur in advance - an unprecedented offer. "Jenny Lind mania" was sweeping Europe and she was a favorite of Queen Victoria. She was unpretentious, shy, and devout, and possessed a crystal-clear soprano voice projected with a wistful quality which audiences found touching. The offer was accepted in part to free her from opera performances which she disliked and to endow a music school for poor children. The risk for Barnum was huge. Besides never having heard her or knowing whether Americans would take to her, he had to assume all the financial risk. He borrowed heavily on his mansion and his museum. With bravado, he drummed up publicity but conceded, "'The public' is a very strange animal, and although a good knowledge of human nature will generally lead a caterer of amusement to hit the people right, they are fickle and ofttimes perverse."

As a result of months of Barnum's preparations, close to 40,000 greeted her at the docks and another 20,000 at her hotel, the press was in attendance, and "Jenny Lind items" were available. The tour began with the concert at Castle Garden on September 11, 1850 and turned out a success, recouping Barnum four times his investment. Washington Irving proclaimed "She is enough to counterbalance, of herself, all the evil that the world is threatened with by the great convention of women. So God save Jenny Lind!"

Using profits from the Lind tour, Barnum's next challenge was to change attitudes about the theater from 'dens of evil' to palaces of edification and delight, respectable middle-class entertainment. He built the largest and most modern theater and named it the "Moral Lecture Room", to avoid seedy connotation and to attract a family crowd and to get the approval of the moral crusaders of New York City. He started the nation's first theater matinພs to encourage families and to lessen the fear of crime. He opened with The Drunkard, a thinly disguised temperance lecture (he had become a teetotaler after returning from Europe with Tom Thumb). He followed that with melodramas, farces, and historical plays, put on by highly regarded actors. He watered down Shakespearean plays and others such as Uncle Tom's Cabin to make them family entertainment.

He organized flower shows, beauty contests, dog shows, poultry contests, but the most popular were the baby contests (fattest baby, handsomest twins, etc.). In 1853, he started a pictorial weekly newspaper Illustrated News and a year later he completed his autobiography, which through many revisions, sold more than one million copies. Mark Twain loved it but the British Examiner thought it "trashy" and "offensive" and "inspired. nothing but sensations of disgust. and sincere pity for the wretched man who compiled it."

In the early 1850s, Barnum began investing in real estate to develop East Bridgeport, Connecticut. He made substantial loans to the Jerome Clock Company, to get it to move to the new industrial area he was underwriting. But by 1856, the company went bankrupt, sucking Barnum's wealth with it. So began four years of court litigation and public humiliation. Ralph Waldo Emerson proclaimed that Barnum's downfall showed "the gods visible again" and other critics celebrated Barnum's moral comeuppance. But his friends pulled hard too, and Tom Thumb, now touring on his own, offered his services again to the showman and they undertook another European tour. Barnum also started a lecture tour, mostly as a temperance speaker. By 1860, he emerged from debt and built a mansion "Lindencroft" (his palace "Iranistan" had burnt down in 1857) and he resumed ownership of his museum.

Despite critics who predicted he could not revive the magic, Barnum went on to greater success. He added America's first aquarium and expanded the wax figure department. His "Seven Grand Salons" demonstrated the Seven Wonders of the World. He created a rogues gallery. The collections expanded to four buildings and he published a "Guide Book to the Museum" which claimed 850,000 'curiosities'.

Late in 1860, the Siamese Twins, Chang and Eng, came out of retirement (they needed more money to send their numerous children to college). The Twins had had a touring career on their own and went to live on a North Carolina plantation with their families and slaves, under the name of "Bunker". They appeared at Barnum's Museum for six weeks. Also in 1860, Barnum introduced the "man-monkey" William Henry Johnson, a microcephalic black dwarf who spoke a mysterious language created by Barnum. In 1862, he discovered the giantess Anna Swan and Commodore Nutt, a new Tom Thumb, who with Barnum visited President Abraham Lincoln at the White House. During the Civil War, Barnum's museum drew large audiences seeking diversion from the conflict. He added pro-Unionist exhibits, lectures, and dramas, and he demonstrated commitment to the cause. For example, in 1864, Barnum hired Pauline Cushman, an actress who had served as a spy for the Union, to lecture about her "thrilling adventures" behind Confederate lines. Barnum's Unionist sympathies incited a Confederate arsonist to start a fire in 1864. On July 13, 1865, Barnum's American Museum burned to the ground from a fire of unknown origin. Barnum re-established the Museum at another location in New York City, but this too was destroyed by fire in March 1868. This time the loss was too great, and Barnum retired from the freak business.

Barnum did not enter the circus business until late in his career (he was 61). In Delavan, Wisconsin in 1871 with William Cameron Coup, he established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome", a traveling circus, menagerie and museum of "freaks", which by 1872 was billing itself as "The Greatest Show on Earth". It went through various names: "P.T. Barnum's Travelling World's Fair, Great Roman Hippodrome and Greatest Show On Earth", and after an 1881 merger with James Bailey and James L. Hutchinson, "P.T. Barnum's Greatest Show On Earth, And The Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows United", soon shortened to "Barnum & London Circus". Despite more fires, train disasters, and other setbacks, Barnum plowed ahead, aided by circus professionals who ran the daily operations. He and Bailey split up again in 1885, but came back together in 1888 with the "Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show On Earth", later "Barnum & Bailey Circus", which toured the world. The show's primary attraction was Jumbo, an African elephant he purchased in 1882 from the London Zoo and who died in a train wreck. Jumbo eventually became the mascot of Tufts University, in honor of a donation from Barnum in 1882.

Barnum was the first circus owner to move his circus by train, and the first to purchase his own train. Given the lack of paved highways in America, this turned out to be a shrewd business move that enlarged Barnum's market. Many circus historians credit Bailey with this innovation. In this new field, Barnum leaned more on the advice of Bailey and other business partners, most of whom were young enough to be his sons.

Barnum built four mansions in Bridgeport, Connecticut: Iranistan, Lindencroft, Waldemere and Marina. Iranistan was the most notable: a fanciful and opulent Moorish Revival splendor designed by Leopold Eidlitz with domes, spires and lacy fretwork, inspired by the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, England. This mansion was built 1848 but burned down in 1857.

Barnum died in his sleep at home on April 7, 1891 and was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, Connecticut, a cemetery he designed. A statue in his honor was placed in 1893 at Seaside Park, by the water in Bridgeport. Barnum had donated the land for this park in 1865. His circus was sold to Ringling Brothers on July 8, 1907 for $400,000 (about $8.5 million in 2008 dollars). At his death, most critics had forgiven him and he was praised for good works. Barnum was hailed as an icon of American spirit and ingenuity, and was perhaps the most famous American in the world. Just before his death, he gave permission to the Evening Sun to print his obituary, so that he might read it. On April 7 he asked about the box office receipts for the day a few hours later, he was dead.

Barnum wrote several books, including Life of P.T. Barnum (1854), The Humbugs of the World (1865), Struggles and Triumphs (1869), and The Art of Money-Getting (1880).

Mass publication of his autobiography was one of Barnum's more successful methods of self-promotion. Some had every edition. Barnum eventually gave up his copyright to allow other printers to sell inexpensive editions. At the end of the 19th century the number of copies printed was second only to the New Testament printed in North America.

Often referred to as the "Prince of Humbugs", Barnum saw nothing wrong in entertainers or vendors using hype (or "humbug", as he termed it) in promotional material, as long as the public was getting value for money. However, he was contemptuous of those who made money through fraudulent deceptions, especially the spiritualist mediums popular in his day, testifying against noted spirit photographer William H. Mumler in his trial for fraud. Prefiguring illusionists Harry Houdini and James Randi, Barnum exposed "the tricks of the trade" used by mediums to cheat the bereaved. In The Humbugs of the World, he offered $500 to any medium who could prove power to communicate with the dead.

Barnum was significantly involved in the politics surrounding race, slavery, and sectionalism in the period leading up to the American Civil War. As mentioned above, he had some of his first success as an impresario through his slave Joice Heth. Around 1850, he was involved in a hoax about a weed that would turn black people white.

Barnum was a producer and promoter in blackface minstrelsy. According to Eric Lott, Barnum's minstrel shows were more double-edged in their humor than most. While still replete with racist stereotypes, Barnum's shows satirized white racial attitudes, as in a stump speech in which a black phrenologist (like all performers, a white man in blackface) made a dialect speech parodying lectures given at the time to "prove" the superiority of the white race: "You see den, dat clebber man and dam rascal means de same in Dutch, when dey boph white but when one white and de udder's black, dat's a grey hoss ob anoder color." (Lott, 1993, 78)

Promotion of minstrel shows led to his sponsorship in 1853 of H.J. Conway's politically watered-down stage version of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin the play, at Barnum's American Museum, gave the story a happy ending, with Tom and other slaves freed. The success led to a play based on Stowe's Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. His opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 led him to leave the Democratic Party to become a member of the new Republican Party. He had evolved from a man of common prejudices in the 1840s to a leader for emancipation by the Civil War.

While he claimed "politics were always distasteful to me," Barnum was elected to the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as Republican representative for Fairfield and served two terms. In the debate over slavery and African-American suffrage with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Barnum spoke before the legislature and said, "A human soul is not to be trifled with. It may inhabit the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab or a Hotentot - it is still an immortal spirit!" He ran for the United States Congress in 1867 and lost. In 1875, Barnum was mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut for a year and worked to improve the water supply, bring gaslighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. Barnum was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, and was its first president.

Barnum enjoyed what he publicly dubbed "profitable philanthropy." In Barnum's own words: "I have no desire to be considered much of a philanthropist. if by improving and beautifying our city [Bridgeport, CT], and adding to the pleasure and prosperity of my neighbors, I can do so at a profit, the incentive to 'good works' will be twice as strong as if it were otherwise." In line with this philosophy was Barnum's pursuit of major American museums and spectacles. Less known is Barnum's significant contributions to Tufts University. Barnum was appointed to the Board of Trustees prior to the University's founding and made several significant contributions to the then fledgling institution. The most noteworthy example of this was his gift in 1883 of $50,000 dollars ($1,136,269 2009 U.S. dollars) to the University, and with it was established a museum and hall for the Department of Natural History, which today is home to the department of biology. Because of the relationship between Barnum and Tufts, Jumbo the elephant is the mascot of the Tufts Athletic department, and Tufts students are known as "Jumbos."

Art of Money Getting, or, Golden Rules for Making Money. Originally published 1880. Reprint ed., Bedford, MA: Applewood, 1999. ISBN 1-55709-494-2.

Struggles and Triumphs, or Forty Years' Recollections of P.T. Barnum. Originally published 1869. Reprint ed., Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2003. ISBN 0-7661-5556-0 (Part 1) and ISBN 0-7661-5557-9 (Part 2).

The Colossal P.T. Barnum Reader: Nothing Else Like It in the Universe. Ed. by James W. Cook. Champaign, University of Illinois Press, 2005. ISBN 0-252-07295-2.

The Life of P.T. Barnum: Written By Himself. Originally published 1855. Reprint ed., Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2000. ISBN 0-252-06902-1.

The Wild Beasts, Birds and Reptiles of the World: The Story of their Capture. Pub. 1888, R. S. Peale & Company, Chicago.

The Tufts University Biology Building is named in honor of Barnum.

In 1936, for the centennial of the city of Bridgeport, CT, his portrait was used for the obverse of a commemorative half dollar.


Contents

In 1841, Barnum acquired the building and natural history collection of Scudder's American Museum [2] for less than half of its appraised value with the financial support of Francis Olmsted, by quickly purchasing it the day after the soon to be buyers, the Peale Museum Company, failed to make their payment. [3] He converted the five-story exterior into an advertisement lit with limelight. The museum opened on January 1, 1842. [4] Its attractions made it a combination zoo, museum, lecture hall, wax museum, theater and freak show, in what was, at the same time, a central site in the development of American popular culture. Barnum filled the American Museum with dioramas, panoramas, "cosmoramas", scientific instruments, modern appliances, a flea circus, a loom powered by a dog, the trunk of a tree under which Jesus’ disciples sat, an oyster bar, a rifle range, waxworks, glass blowers, taxidermists, phrenologists, pretty baby contests, Ned the learned seal, the Feejee Mermaid (a mummified monkey's torso with a fish's tail), midgets, Chang and Eng the Siamese twins, a menagerie of exotic animals that included beluga whales in an aquarium, giants, Native Americans who performed traditional songs and dances, Grizzly Adams's trained bears and performances ranging from magicians, ventriloquists and blackface minstrels to adaptations of biblical tales and Oom Tom se kajuit. [3] [5] [6] [7] [8]

At its peak, the museum was open fifteen hours a day and had as many as 15,000 visitors a day. [1] Some 38 million customers paid the 25 cents admission to visit the museum between 1841 and 1865. The total population of the United States in 1860 was under 32 million.

In November 1864, the Confederate Army of Manhattan attempted and failed to burn down the museum, but on July 13, 1865 the American Museum burned to the ground in one of the most spectacular fires New York has ever seen. [9] Animals at the museum were seen jumping from the burning building, only to be shot by police. Many of the animals unable to escape the blaze burned to death in their enclosures, including the two beluga whales who boiled to death in their tanks. It was allegedly during this fire that a fireman by the name of Johnny Denham killed an escaped tiger with his ax before rushing into the burning building and carrying out a 400-pound woman on his shoulders. Barnum's New Museum opened September 6, 1865, at 539-41 Broadway, between Spring and Prince Streets, but that also burned down, on March 3, 1868. [10] It was after this that Barnum moved on to politics and the circus industry. [11] Barnum's American Museum was one of the most popular attractions of its time. [12]

The site at Ann Street was then used for a new building for the New York Herald koerant. [13]

In July 2000, a virtual museum version opened on the Internet, supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. It is hosted by CUNY and was maintained through 2015. [14]

One of the biggest attractions and advantages to the success of the American Museum was Barnum's advertising strategy. Barnum's self-professed goal was "to make the Museum the town wonder and talk of the town. [5] " To do this he was "not above exploiting his patrons' ignorance and credulity from time to time," as seen in some of his most well-known schemes: the Fejee mermaid, the Little Woolly horse, and the 'to the egress' signs. [6] Not only did Barnum capitalize on the draw of some of his most famous attractions, he would often publish articles in newspapers claiming that his exhibits were fake, which in turn caused audiences to return to see them for themselves. [3] He also printed off countless massive colored posters displaying the many exhibits within the museum. These posters often exaggerated the attractions they advertised, but this did not stop visitors from returning after finding out they had been misled. The poster for the Fejee mermaid was so massive, that it covered a majority of the front of the museum. [3]

The museum's collection included items collected throughout the world over a period of 25 years. [15] The museum offered many attractions which grew to great fame. One of the most famous was General Tom Thumb a 25-inch tall dwarf who eventually garnered so much fame and success that Queen Victoria saw his performances twice and Abraham Lincoln personally congratulated Thumb on his wedding. Thumb wasn't the only physical oddity there there was also the Fiji Mermaid and Josephine Boisdechene, who had a large beard, which had grown to the length of two inches when she was only eight years old. As if to supplement Tom Thumb, another famous attraction of the museum was William Henry Johnson (Zip the Pinhead), who was one of Barnum's longest-running attractions. Another one of the famous attractions at the museum were Chang and Eng, Siamese twins who were extremely argumentative, both with each other and Barnum himself.

The museum also boasted an elegant theatre, called the "Lecture Room," and characterized in the popular Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion of 1853, "one of the most elegant and recherche halls of its class to be found anywhere," which would offer "every species of entertainment . 'from grave to gay, from lively to severe,' . [and] judiciously purged of every semblance of immorality." [16] Impressively, these shows "[rivaled] or even [excelled] those of the neighboring theaters." [6] It was possible for these shows to do this because: 1) these performances occurred in a space labeled a lecture hall, helping to distinguish them for those who would never have been near a theatre, and 2) "[Barnum] made the theatre into something it had rarely been before: a place of family entertainment, where men and women, adults and children, could intermingle safe in the knowledge that no indecencies would assault their senses either on stage or off." [3] Additionally, Barnum implemented several morality plays to be shown in his auditorium, many of which taught against the dangers of drinking. Werner points out the accessibility of these performances saying, "many persons who would not be seen in a theatre visited regularly the Museum Lecture Room—Barnum would never consent to calling it a theatre—where the moral dramas of 'Joseph and His Brethren,' 'Moses,' and 'The Drunkard' were performed." [7] These were especially popular with women, as alcoholism was becoming rampant among working-class men. These plays were often seen as the height of family-friendly entertainment, because they taught good lessons that were appropriate for all ages.

At one point, Barnum noticed that people were lingering too long at his exhibits. He posted signs indicating "This Way to the Egress". Not knowing that "Egress" was another word for "Exit", people followed the signs to what they assumed was a fascinating exhibit — and ended up outside. [17]

The five-story building also served great educational value. Aside from the different attractions, the Museum also promoted educational ends, including natural history in its menageries, aquarium (which featured a large white whale), and taxidermy exhibits history in its paintings, wax figures, and memorabilia and temperance reform and Shakespearean dramas in the above described "Lecture Room" or theater. [9] It was also the first museum to put human oddities on display as an organized freak show. [7] It was the American Museum that began the modern-day trend of exploiting the human body for the sake of mass entertainment. [3]

One of Barnum's most successful attractions was his large selection of living animals, which were a highlight for the visitors who had never seen exotic creatures. Sadly, the animals in Barnum's "happy family" were poorly treated at best and neglected at worst." [3] Their standard of living is exemplified in the beluga whales he kept in a tank in the basement. The whales lived in a small 576 square foot tank, and when they frequently died Barnum "promptly set about procuring additional specimens." [6]


P.T. Barnum Begins Career as Showman

Phineas Taylor (P.T.) Barnum was born on July 5, 1810. Most of us know him because of the circus, but he was actually an incredibly important figure in American history. "The Atlantic" named P.T. Barnum to its list of 100 most influential figures in American history. The list includes George Washington (#2), Ben Franklin (#23) and Sam Walton (#72, creator of Wal-Mart). Barnum comes in at #67. Obviously there was more to the man than a traveling circus.

So what did P. T. Barnum do? One way to find out is to read his autobiography, which is available online for free. It is an astonishing book, and here we learn some of the things that made P.T. Barnum so great. First, he had unbelievable perseverance. He also had a keen understanding of what would excite people's interest. But his greatest talent, perhaps, was his ability to package and promote entertainment.

Barnum's first business opened in May 1828. He ran a small store that initially sold cakes, cookies, raisins and ale. We might think of it as a version of today's convenience store. Later, he added "stuff" that he purchased in New York -- pocket knives, combs, et cetera -- as well as stewed oysters and lottery tickets. Not long afterwards, Barnum met a man named Hack Bailey, who began to frequent the store. Barnum describes him as ". a showman. He imported the first elephant that was ever brought to this country and made a fortune by exhibiting it. He was afterwards extensively engaged in traveling menageries, and subsequently was very successful running opposition steamboats upon the North River." In other words, at age 18, Barnum was exposed to a person who had made a great deal of money doing something that Barnum would eventually turn into a fine art form.

At this point, Barnum had several unsuccessful business ventures. He opened a country store, but it failed. He tried selling books, but much of his stock was stolen. He bought a press and started a weekly newspaper, but was sued for libel several times and spent time in jail. He sold lottery tickets on credit and was unable to collect.

So in 1835, Barnum moved his family to New York City to start over again. As Barnum puts it in his autobiography, "I had learned that I could make money rapidly and in large sums, whenever I set about it with a will." But he arrived in New York essentially penniless. It is from this position that P.T. Barnum began his career as a showman.

Barnum's career started with a woman named Joice Heth, an extremely old African-American woman described as the 161-year-old former slave of George Washington's father. An ad goes on the say:

Of course Joice Heth was not actually 161 years old, but she looked it. She was nearly paralyzed (having only the use of one arm), completely blind and toothless. However she could speak, sing and hold conversations with people, and she knew a great deal about Washington and his family. Since Heth was a slave, Barnum was able to purchase her for $1,000 in borrowed money. The he displayed her in New York City. From this endeavor, Barnum made about $1,500 per week. He was able to do this because of an amazing amount of advertising -- brochures, posters, booklets, newspaper ads, et cetera -- declaring her to be "the nurse of George Washington." As interest waned in New York, Barnum took her on the road to cities like Providence and Boston.

While exhibiting Heth in Albany, Barnum met a plate-spinning acrobat named Signor Antonio, and offered to pay him $20 per week to do shows. Barnum changed his name to the more exotic-sounding "Signor Vivalla," promoted him extensively, and was soon making $50 a night for his performances in theaters.

Barnum learned about the power of advertising and the value of traveling shows from these experiences. For example, in April 1836, while arranging performances for Antonio, Barnum had his first encounter with a traveling circus, complete with tents and animals.

Barnum's next endeavor was a museum in New York. According to Ringling.com:

This museum, renamed Barnum's American Museum, was successful for many years. Barnum added several now-legendary attractions over the next few years, including General Tom Thumb (a little person whose real name was Charles Stratton) and the "Fejee Mermaid" (which was actually the top half of a monkey body sewn to the body of a fish).

In 1850, Barnum brought the celebrated opera singer Jenny Lind, known as the "Swedish Nightingale," to the United States. Although she was popular in Europe, Lind was virtually unknown in the U.S., and Barnum had never actually heard her sing. But he had no doubt that she would be successful, and he was right -- Lind was well-received and performed 95 concerts with Barnum as her manager.

It was not until 1871 that Barnum started his circus, calling it "P.T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan and Circus." In 1872 he gave it the name "The Greatest Show on Earth." In 1881 Barnum hooked up with James Bailey, creating what eventually became "Barnum and Bailey's Greatest Show on Earth."

P.T. Barnum died in 1891, having read his own obituary. Ringling.com tells the story this way:

Several weeks before he died in his sleep, on April 7, 1891, Barnum read his own obituary: The New York Sun newspaper, responding to Barnum's comment that the press says nice things about people after they die, ran his obituary on the front page with the headline, "Great And Only Barnum -- He Wanted To Read His Obituary -- Here It Is."


--> Barnum, P.T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891

Phineas Taylor ("P.T.") Barnum (1810-1891) was a celebrated showman.

From the description of Papers, n.d. 1854-1879. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 191285307

American showman and entrepreneur.

From the description of P. T. Barnum letters, 1854-1888. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63936489

Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891) was an American showman. He originated the traveling circus, and in 1881 with his leading rival, James Bailey, formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus. Barnum also was active in Connecticut politics and served as mayor of Bridgeport from 1867 to 1869.

From the guide to the P.T. Barnum papers, 1843-1890, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Showman and proprietor of the American Museum in New York. Kimball was proprietor of he Boston Museum.

From the description of Letter : New York, to Moses Kimball, Boston, 1849. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 613962417

From the description of P.T. Barnum papers, 1851-1865. (Onbekend). WorldCat record id: 79450143

From the description of Autograph inscription signed, dated : [n.p.], 3 July 1890, 1890 July 3. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270957633

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Bridgeport, to Mr. Greeley, 1868 July 23. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270622090

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [New York], to Harper & Brothers, 1858 Apr. 21. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270623263

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Bridgeport, to the editors of the Tribune, 1875 Mar. 5. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270622095

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to an unidentified correspondent, 1864 Apr. 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270623412

Showman and proprietor of the American Museum in New York. Kimball was proprietor of the Boston Museum.

From the description of Letters : New York, to Moses Kimball, Boston, 1843 Nov. 17-Dec. 18. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 613970796

Showman extraordinaire. B. July 5, 1810 Bethel, Conn. d. Apr. 7, 1891 Bridgeport, Conn. Visited Colorado 1870s and invested in Colorado real estate in Greeley, Denver, and Pueblo areas. Villa Park property became part of the Barnum addition to Denver. Owned Huerfano Cattle Company near Pueblo (Colo.). Daughter Helen married Denver physician William H. Buchtel.

From the description of Papers, 1877-1886 [microform]. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 55984815

From the description of P.T. Barnum (Phineas Taylor) papers, 1877-1981 [manuscript]. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 13175812

In 1881 Barnum and competitor James Anthony Bailey joined forces and formed the Barnum & Bailey Circus.

From the description of Letter : Victoria Hotel, Southport [Eng.?], to Dr. Jones, 1881 June 22. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 173262276

Showman and circus operator.

From the description of Autograph: 1870 Jan. 31. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 26962188

Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891) was an American showman.

He originated the traveling circus, and in 1881 with his leading rival, James Bailey, formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus. Barnum also was active in Connecticut politics and served as mayor of Bridgeport from 1867 to 1869.


Kyk die video: Jenny Lind - Never Enough. The Greatest Showman (November 2021).