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Artikels van die Konfederasie

Artikels van die Konfederasie

Die Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was die eerste geskrewe grondwet van die Verenigde State. Geskryf in 1777 en wat voortspruit uit die dringendheid van die oorlog, is die vordering daarvan vertraag deur die vrees vir sentrale gesag en uitgebreide grondeise deur state. Dit is eers op 1 Maart 1781 bekragtig. Ingevolge hierdie artikels het die state soewerein en onafhanklik gebly, terwyl die kongres die laaste uitweg was in die appèl van geskille. Dit is opmerklik dat die Statuut van die Konfederasie die nuwe nasie 'die Verenigde State van Amerika' genoem het. Die kongres het die gesag gekry om verdrae en alliansies te sluit, gewapende magte in stand te hou en geld te munt. Die sentrale regering het egter nie die vermoë gehad om belasting te hef en handel te reguleer nie, kwessies wat tot die konstitusionele konvensie in 1787 gelei het vir die daarstelling van nuwe federale wette ingevolge die Amerikaanse grondwet.

Vanaf die begin van die Amerikaanse rewolusie het die kongres die behoefte gevoel aan 'n sterker unie en 'n regering wat sterk genoeg was om Groot -Brittanje te verslaan. Gedurende die beginjare van die oorlog het hierdie begeerte 'n oortuiging geword dat die nuwe nasie 'n grondwetlike orde moet hê wat pas by sy republikeinse karakter. 'N Vrees vir sentrale gesag het die skepping van so 'n regering belemmer, en die politieke teorie wat algemeen gedeel is, was van mening dat 'n republiek nie voldoende 'n groot land soos die Verenigde State kon dien nie. Die wetgewers van 'n groot republiek sou nie in kontak kon bly met die mense wat hulle verteenwoordig nie, en die republiek sou onvermydelik in 'n tirannie ontaard. Vir baie Amerikaners was hulle vakbond bloot 'n bond van gekonfedereerde state, en hul kongres was 'n diplomatieke vergadering wat dertien onafhanklike polities verteenwoordig. Die dryfveer vir 'n effektiewe sentrale regering was die dringendheid van die oorlog, die behoefte aan buitelandse erkenning en hulp en die groei van nasionale gevoel.

Wie het die Konfederasie -artikels geskryf?

Altesaam is ses konsepte van die artikels voorberei voordat die kongres in 1777 op 'n finale weergawe besluit het. Benjamin Franklin het die eerste geskryf en dit in Julie 1775 aan die kongres voorgehou. Dit is nooit formeel oorweeg nie. Later in die jaar het Silas Deane, 'n afgevaardigde van Connecticut, een van sy eie aangebied, wat later nog gevolg is deur 'n konsep van die afvaardiging van Connecticut, waarskynlik 'n hersiening van Deane's.

Nie een van hierdie konsepte het beduidend bygedra tot die vierde weergawe wat deur John Dickinson van Pennsylvania geskryf is nie, die teks wat na baie hersiening die basis gelê het vir die artikels wat deur die kongres goedgekeur is. Dickinson het sy konsep in Junie 1776 voorberei; dit is hersien deur 'n kongreskomitee en is einde Julie en Augustus bespreek. Die resultaat, die derde weergawe van die oorspronklike van Dickinson, is gedruk sodat die kongres dit verder kon oorweeg. In November 1777 is die finale artikels, wat baie verander is deur hierdie lang beraadslagingsproses, goedgekeur om aan die state voorgelê te word.

Bekragtiging

Teen 1779 het al die state die Konfederasie behalwe Maryland goedgekeur, maar die vooruitsigte vir aanvaarding lyk maar somber omdat aansprake op westerse lande deur ander state Maryland onbuigsaam teëgestaan ​​het. Virginia, die Carolinas, Georgia, Connecticut en Massachusetts beweer volgens hul handves dat hulle tot by die "Suidsee" of die Mississippirivier sou strek. Die handveste van Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware en Rhode Island het hierdie state beperk tot 'n paar honderd kilometer van die Atlantiese Oseaan. Landspekulante in Maryland en hierdie ander "grondlose state" het daarop aangedring dat die Weste aan die Verenigde State behoort, en hulle het die kongres aangespoor om hul aansprake op westerse lande te eerbiedig. Maryland ondersteun ook die eise, omdat die nabygeleë Virginia duidelik sy buurman sou oorheers as sy eise aanvaar word. Uiteindelik het Thomas Jefferson sy staat oorreed om sy aansprake aan die Weste te lewer, mits die eise van die spekulante verwerp word en die Weste in nuwe state verdeel word, wat op grond van gelykheid met die oue tot die Unie toegelaat sou word. Virginia se optrede het Maryland oorreed om die artikels te bekragtig, wat op 1 Maart 1781 in werking getree het.

Swakpunte van die Statute

Die swakheid van die Statute van die Konfederasie was dat die Kongres nie sterk genoeg was om wette af te dwing of belasting te verhoog nie, wat dit vir die nuwe nasie moeilik maak om hul skuld uit die Revolusionêre Oorlog terug te betaal. Daar was geen uitvoerende gesag en geen regbank nie, twee van die drie takke van die regering wat ons vandag het om as 'n stelsel van kontrole en saldo op te tree. Daarbenewens was daar verskeie kwessies tussen state wat nie met bekragtiging besleg is nie: 'n Meningsverskil oor die aanstelling van belasting voorspel die verdeeldheid oor slawerny in die konstitusionele konvensie. Die ontwerp van Dickinson vereis dat die state geld aan die kongres moet voorsien in verhouding tot die aantal swart en wit inwoners, behalwe dat Indiërs nie belasting betaal nie. Met 'n groot aantal slawe het die suidelike state hierdie vereiste gekant en aangevoer dat belasting gebaseer moet wees op die aantal blanke inwoners. Dit het nie verbygegaan nie, maar uiteindelik het die Suidlanders hul gang gekry toe die kongres besluit het dat elke staat se bydrae moet berus op die waarde van sy grond en verbeterings. In die middel van die oorlog het die kongres min tyd en minder begeerte gehad om op te tree oor sake soos slawehandel en voortvlugtende slawe, wat albei baie aandag geniet in die Grondwetlike Konvensie.

Artikel III beskryf die konfederasie as '' 'n vaste vriendskapsbond '' van state 'vir hul gemeenskaplike verdediging, die veiligheid van hul vryhede en hul wedersydse en algemene welsyn'. Hierdie liga sou 'n eensaalkongres hê as die sentrale regeringsinstelling; soos in die verlede het elke staat een stem gehad, en afgevaardigdes is deur staatswetgewers verkies. Ingevolge die artikels het elke staat sy 'soewereiniteit, vryheid en onafhanklikheid' behou. Die ou swakheid van die Eerste en Tweede Kontinentale Kongresse het gebly: die nuwe Kongres kon nie belasting hef nie en kon ook nie handel reguleer nie. Die inkomste kom uit die state, wat elkeen bydra volgens die waarde van grond in privaat besit binne sy grense.

Maar die Kongres sou aansienlike magte uitoefen: dit het jurisdiksie oor buitelandse betrekkinge met die gesag om verdragte en alliansies te sluit; dit kan oorlog en vrede bewerkstellig, 'n weermag en vloot in stand hou, geld munt, 'n posdiens vestig en Indiese sake bestuur; dit kan admiraliteitshowe instel en sal dien as die laaste uitweg in die appèl van geskille tussen die state. Besluite oor sekere gespesifiseerde aangeleenthede - oorlog maak, verdrag aangaan, muntstukke reguleer, byvoorbeeld - vereis toestemming van nege state in die kongres, en alle ander vereis 'n meerderheid.

Alhoewel die state soewerein en onafhanklik gebly het, moes geen staat beperkings oplê op die handel of die beweging van burgers van 'n ander staat wat op sigself opgelê is nie. Die artikels het ook vereis dat elke staat 'volle geloof en eer' tot die regterlike verrigtinge van die ander uitreik. En die vrye inwoners van elke staat sou die 'voorregte en immuniteite van vryburgers' van die ander geniet. Beweging oor staatsgrense moes nie beperk word nie.

Om die artikels te wysig, moet die wetgewers van al dertien state saamstem. Hierdie bepaling, soos baie in die artikels, het aangedui dat kragtige provinsiale lojaliteit en vermoede van sentrale gesag voortduur. In die 1780's-die sogenaamde kritieke tydperk-het staatsoptrede die politiek en die ekonomiese lewe kragtig beïnvloed. Vir die grootste deel het sake gedy en die ekonomie het gegroei. Uitbreiding na die Weste het voortgegaan en die bevolking het toegeneem. Nasionale probleme het egter voortgeduur, aangesien Amerikaanse handelaars die Britse Wes -Indiese Eilande belet en die Britse weermag poste beklee het in die Ou Noordwes, wat onder die Verdrag van Parys die Amerikaanse gebied genoem is. Hierdie omstandighede het daartoe bygedra dat die grondwetlike hersiening noodsaaklik is. Tog het die nasionale gevoel stadig gegroei in die 1780's, hoewel groot pogings om die artikels te wysig ten einde die Kongres die bevoegdheid om belasting te gee, in 1781 en 1786 misluk het. Die jaar na die mislukking van 1786 het die Grondwetlike Konvensie in Philadelphia vergader en die geskiedenis van die regering ingevolge die Konfederasie.

Die Artikels van Konfederasie Teks

Aanhef:

Aan almal aan wie hierdie geskenke sal kom, groet ons, die ondergetekende afgevaardigdes van die state wat op ons name aangebring is.

Terwyl die afgevaardigdes van die Verenigde State van Amerika op die kongres vergader het, het dit op die vyftiende dag van November in die jaar van ons Here duisend sewe honderd sewe en sewentig, en in die tweede jaar van die onafhanklikheid van Amerika, ingestem tot sekere artikels van die Konfederasie en ewige Unie tussen die state New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode Island en Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina en Georgia, in die volgende woorde, nl. :

Artikels van die Konfederasie en die ewige Unie tussen die state New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhode Island en Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina en Georgia.

Dertien artikels:

Artikel I.

Die styl van hierdie konfederasie is "Die Verenigde State van Amerika."

Artikel II.

Elke staat behou sy soewereiniteit, vryheid en onafhanklikheid, en elke mag, jurisdiksie en reg, wat nie deur hierdie konfederasie uitdruklik aan die Verenigde State gedelegeer is nie, word in die kongres vergader.

Artikel III.

Die genoemde state sluit hiermee afsonderlik 'n vaste vriendskapsbond met mekaar, vir hul gemeenskaplike verdediging, die veiligheid van hul vryhede en hul wedersydse en algemene welsyn, en bind hulself om mekaar by te staan, teen alle geweld wat aangebied word, of aanvalle op hulle, of enige van hulle, as gevolg van godsdiens, soewereiniteit, handel of enige ander voorwendsel.

Artikel IV.

Hoe beter dit is om wedersydse vriendskap en omgang tussen die mense van die verskillende state in hierdie unie te beveilig en voort te sit, die vrye inwoners van elk van hierdie state, armes, rondlopers en vlugtelinge uit die gereg, is geregtig op alle voorregte en immuniteite van vrye burgers in die verskillende state; en die mense van elke staat sal vrye toegang tot en terugkeer van en na enige ander staat hê, en sal daarin alle voorregte van handel en handel geniet, onderhewig aan dieselfde pligte en beperkings as die inwoners daarvan, op voorwaarde dat hierdie beperking nie so ver as om te verhoed dat die verwydering van eiendom wat in 'n staat ingevoer is, na 'n ander staat, waarvan die eienaar 'n inwoner is, verwyder word nie; met dien verstande dat geen oplegging, pligte of beperkings deur enige staat, op die eiendom van die Verenigde State of op een van hulle gelê word nie. As 'n persoon wat in 'n staat skuldig is aan of aangekla word van verraad, misdryf of ander groot wangedrag, van die geregtigheid af wegvlug en in enige van die Verenigde State gevind word, moet hy, op versoek van die goewerneur of uitvoerende gesag, die staat waaruit hy gevlug het, afgelewer en verwyder word aan die staat wat sy oortreding het. Die rekords, handelinge en geregtelike verrigtinge van die howe en landdroste van elke ander staat sal in elk van hierdie state volle geloof en krediet verleen word.

Artikel V.

Vir die geriefliker bestuur van die algemene belange van die Verenigde State, word afgevaardigdes jaarliks ​​aangewys op die wyse waarop die wetgewer van elke staat opdrag gee om op die eerste Maandag in November, in elke jaar, met 'n bevoegdheid voorbehou aan elke staat, om sy afgevaardigdes, of een van hulle, te eniger tyd in die jaar te herhaal en om ander in hul plek te stuur, vir die res van die jaar.

Geen staat mag in die kongres deur minder as twee of meer as sewe lede verteenwoordig word nie; en niemand mag meer as drie jaar in 'n termyn van ses jaar 'n afgevaardigde wees nie; en niemand mag, as 'n afgevaardigde, 'n amp beklee onder die Verenigde State waarvoor hy of 'n ander vir sy voordeel salaris, gelde of vergoeding van enige aard ontvang nie.

Elke staat hou sy eie afgevaardigdes in 'n vergadering van die state, en terwyl hulle optree as lede van die komitee van die state. By die vasstelling van vrae in die Verenigde State in die kongres, het elke staat een stem.

Vryheid van spraak en debat in die kongres mag nie in 'n hof of plek buite die kongres aangekla of bevraagteken word nie, en die lede van die kongres sal in hul persone beskerm word teen arrestasies en gevangenisse, tydens hul heen en weer reis, en bywoning van die kongres, behalwe vir verraad, misdryf of vredesbreuk.

Artikel VI.

Geen staat mag, sonder die toestemming van die verenigde state in die kongres wat vergader is, 'n ambassade stuur na, of 'n ambassade ontvang van, of 'n konferensieooreenkoms, alliansie of verdrag aangaan met 'n koningprins of staat nie; en niemand wat 'n amp van wins of vertroue onder die Verenigde State beklee nie, of enige van hulle, sal geen geskenk, vergoeding, amp of titel van enige aard aanvaar nie, ongeag van enige koning, prins of vreemde staat; die verenigde state op die kongres wat vergader is, of een van hulle, sal ook geen adellike titel verleen nie.

Geen twee of meer state mag enige verdrag, konfederasie of alliansie tussen hulle aangaan nie, sonder die toestemming van die Verenigde State op die vergaderde kongres, om die doelwitte waarvoor dieselfde aangegaan moet word, presies te spesifiseer en hoe lank dit sal duur.

Geen staat mag opdragte of pligte, wat inmeng met enige bepalings in verdragte, wat deur die Verenigde State op 'n kongres aangegaan is, met enige koning, prins of staat inmeng met die konvensies wat reeds deur die kongres voorgestel is, by die howe van Frankryk en Spanje.

Geen oorlogsvaartuie mag deur 'n staat tydens vrede gehou word nie, behalwe slegs die getal wat nodig is geag deur die Verenigde State van die vergaderde kongres vir die verdediging van die staat of sy handel; Geen enkele mag sal deur enige staat bygehou word nie, ten tyde van vrede, behalwe die getal, net soos in die oordeel van die Verenigde State, op 'n vergaderde kongres, nodig geag word om die forte wat nodig is vir die verdediging van sodanige staat; maar elke staat sal altyd 'n goed gereguleerde en gedissiplineerde milisie onderhou, voldoende bewapend en versorg, en moet in openbare winkels 'n voldoende aantal veldstukke en tente en 'n behoorlike hoeveelheid wapens, ammunisie voorsien en voortdurend gereed hê vir gebruik. en kamp toerusting. Geen staat mag oorlog voer sonder die toestemming van die Verenigde State op die kongres nie, tensy sodanige staat werklik deur vyande binnegeval is of sekere advies ontvang het van 'n resolusie wat deur 'n nasie Indiërs gevorm word om die staat binne te val, en die die gevaar is so dreigend om nie te erken dat daar 'n vertraging is totdat die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader kan word nie; oorlog deur die Verenigde State op kongres vergader, en dan slegs teen die koninkryk of staat en die onderdane daarvan, waarteen oorlog so verklaar is, en ingevolge die regulasies wat deur die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader word, tensy sodanige staat deur seerowers besmet, in welke geval oorlogsvaartuie vir daardie geleentheid toegerus kan word, en bewaar word solank as wat die gevaar voortduur, of totdat die Verenigde State in die kongres vergader, die rwys.

Artikel VII.

Wanneer 'n landmagte deur 'n staat vir die gemeenskaplike verdediging opgewek word, word alle offisiere van of onder die rang van kolonel aangestel deur die wetgewer van elke staat onderskeidelik, deur wie sodanige magte opgewek word, of op 'n manier soos die staat regeer, en alle vakatures word ingevul deur die staat wat die aanstelling eers gemaak het.

Artikel VIII.

Alle aanklagte van oorlog en alle ander uitgawes wat aangegaan word vir die algemene verdediging of algemene welsyn, en toegelaat deur die Verenigde State op 'n kongres wat byeengekom word, word uit 'n gemeenskaplike skatkis, wat deur die verskillende state in in verhouding tot die waarde van alle grond in elke staat, toegestaan ​​of ondervra vir enige persoon, aangesien sodanige grond en die geboue en verbeterings daarop geraam word volgens die manier waarop die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader het, sal dit van tyd tot tyd rig en aanstel.

Die belasting vir die betaling van die verhouding word gehef deur die gesag en leiding van die wetgewers van die verskillende state binne die tyd wat die Verenigde State op die vergaderde kongres ooreengekom het.

Artikel IX.

Die verenigde state op die kongres het die enigste en uitsluitlike reg en mag om vrede en oorlog te bepaal, behalwe in die gevalle genoem in die sesde artikel - om ambassadeurs te stuur en te ontvang - om verdragte en alliansies aan te gaan, mits daar geen verdrag van Daar word handel dryf, waardeur die wetgewende bevoegdheid van die onderskeie state beperk word tot die oplegging van pligte en pligte op buitelanders wat hul eie mense onderworpe is, of om die uitvoer of invoer van enige soort goedere of handelsware te verbied, om dit hoegenaamd te vestig reëls om in alle gevalle te besluit watter vangste op land of water wettig is, en op watter wyse die pryse wat land- of vlootmagte in diens van die Verenigde State neem, verdeel of toegewys word - om briewe van markeer en vergelding te verleen van vrede - aanstelling van howe vir die verhoor van seerowery en misdade wat op die oop see gepleeg is en howe tot stand bring vir die ontvangs en bepaling van vinne bondgenoot appelleer in alle gevalle van gevangenes, op voorwaarde dat geen kongreslid tot regter van enige van die genoemde howe aangestel sal word nie.

Die verenigde state op die kongres is ook die laaste uitweg in appèl in alle geskille en verskille wat nou bestaan, of dat hierna kan ontstaan ​​tussen twee of meer state rakende grens, jurisdiksie of enige ander oorsaak; watter gesag sal altyd uitgeoefen word op die volgende manier. Telkens wanneer die wetgewende of uitvoerende gesag of die wettige agent van 'n staat in 'n kontroversie met 'n ander 'n versoekskrif aan die kongres voorlê waarin die betrokke aangeleentheid uiteengesit word en vir 'n verhoor gebid word, moet dit in opdrag van die kongres aan die wetgewende of uitvoerende gesag van die ander staat in omstredenheid, en 'n dag wat deur hul wettige agente opgedaag is om die partye te verskyn, wat dan opdrag gegee word om met gesamentlike toestemming kommissarisse of regters aan te stel om 'n hof te vorm vir die verhoor en bepaling van die betrokke aangeleentheid: maar as hulle kan nie saamstem nie, sal die kongres drie persone uit elk van die Verenigde State noem, en uit die lys van sodanige persone sal elke party afwisselend een uitskakel, begin die versoekers, totdat die getal tot dertien verminder word; en uit die getal moet nie minder nie as sewe of meer as nege name wat die kongres aanwys, in die teenwoordigheid van die kongres deur die lot uitgetrek word, en die persone wie se name so getrek word, of vyf daarvan, sal kommissarisse of regters om die kontroversie aan te hoor en uiteindelik te bepaal, dus altyd as 'n groot deel van die regters wat die saak aanhoor, saamstem in die beslissing: genoegsame oordeel, of as die teenwoordige weier om te staak, sal die kongres drie persone uit elke staat aanwys, en die sekretaris van die kongres sal staak namens die party afwesig of weier; en die vonnis en vonnis van die hof wat aangestel moet word, op die voorgeskrewe wyse, is finaal en afdoende; en as een van die partye weier om hom aan die gesag van so 'n hof te onderwerp, of om sy eis of saak te verskyn of te verdedig, gaan die hof nietemin voort om vonnis of vonnis uit te spreek, wat op dieselfde manier finaal en beslissend is, vonnis of vonnis en ander verrigtinge wat in beide gevalle na die kongres oorgedra word, en ingedien word onder die kongreshandelinge ter wille van die veiligheid van die betrokke partye: op voorwaarde dat elke kommissaris 'n eed aflê om deur een van die die regters van die hoogste of hoër hof van die staat, waar die saak beproef sal word, "wel en wel om die betrokke saak te hoor en te bepaal, volgens die beste van sy oordeel, sonder guns, liefde of hoop op beloning:" mits ook, dat geen staat van grond ontneem sal word ten bate van die Verenigde State nie.

Alle twispunte aangaande die privaatreg op grond wat geëis word onder verskillende toelaes van twee of meer state, wie se jurisdiksies hulle lande mag respekteer, en die state wat sodanige toelaes geslaag het, word aangepas, die genoemde toelaes of een van hulle word terselfdertyd geëis as 'n antesedent vir die regspraak geskied, sal op versoek van enige van die partye by die kongres van die Verenigde State uiteindelik, so na as moontlik, op dieselfde manier bepaal word as wat voorgeskryf is vir die beslegting van geskille rakende territoriale jurisdiksie tussen verskillende state .

Die verenigde state op die kongres het ook die enigste en uitsluitlike reg en mag om die legering en waarde van muntstukke wat deur hul eie gesag of die van die onderskeie state getref word, te reguleer - en die standaard van gewigte en maatreëls in die Verenigde State vas te stel - regulering van die handel en die bestuur van alle aangeleenthede met die Indiane, nie lede van enige van die state nie, op voorwaarde dat die wetgewende reg van enige staat binne sy eie grense nie geskend of geskend word nie - vestiging of regulering van poskantore van een staat na 'n ander, dwarsdeur die Verenigde State, en om die posgeld op die papiere te stuur wat dieselfde is as wat nodig is om die uitgawes van die genoemde kantoor te dek - die aanstelling van alle offisiere van die landmagte, in diens van die Verenigde State, behalwe regimentoffisiere - al die offisiere van die vlootmagte, en die opdrag van alle offisiere wat ook al in diens van die Verenigde State is - reëls opstel vir die regering en regulering van die hy het gesê land- en vlootmagte, en die leiding van hul operasies.

Die verenigde state in die kongres het die bevoegdheid om 'n komitee aan te stel, om in die reses van die kongres te sit, as 'n komitee van die state 'te benoem en uit een afgevaardigde uit elke staat te bestaan; en om ander komitees en burgerlike amptenare aan te stel wat nodig mag wees vir die bestuur van die algemene aangeleenthede van die Verenigde State onder hul leiding - om een ​​van hul getalle aan te stel as voorsitter, op voorwaarde dat niemand meer as die president mag dien nie een jaar in enige termyn van drie jaar; om vas te stel wat die nodige bedrae is wat ingesamel moet word vir die diens van die Verenigde State, en om dit toe te pas en toe te pas vir die afbetaling van die openbare uitgawes om geld te leen, of om rekeninge op die krediet van die Verenigde State af te betaal, wat elke halfjaar na die onderskeie state 'n verslag van die bedrae geld wat so geleen of vrygestel is, - om 'n vloot te bou en toe te rus - om ooreen te kom oor die aantal landmagte, en om van elke staat rekwisisies te doen vir sy kwota, in verhouding tot die aantal wit inwoners in so 'n toestand; watter versoek bindend is, en daarna sal die wetgewer van elke staat die regimentoffisiere aanstel, die manne en doek optel, bewapen en toerus op 'n soldaatagtige manier, ten koste van die Verenigde State; en die amptenare en manne wat so geklee, gewapen en geknip is, marsjeer na die aangewese plek en binne die tyd wat die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader het: Maar as die verenigde state in die kongres vergader het, na oorweging van die omstandighede, oordeel dat enige Die staat moet nie mans grootmaak of 'n kleiner getal as die kwota verhoog nie, en dat enige ander staat 'n groter aantal mans moet verhoog as die kwota daarvan, moet die ekstra getal verhoog word, onder leiding, geklee, gewapen en toegerus word in dieselfde op dieselfde manier as die kwota van die staat, tensy die wetgewer van so 'n staat oordeel dat die ekstra nommer nie veilig uit die selfde gespaar kan word nie; hulle oordeel kan veilig ontsien word. En die offisiere en manne wat so geklee, gewapen en toegerus is, gaan na die aangewese plek en binne die tyd wat die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader het.

Die verenigde state op die kongres wat vergader is, sal nooit in 'n oorlog deelneem nie, en ook nie briewe van mark en vergelding toestaan ​​tydens vrede nie, geen verdragte of bondgenootskappe aangaan nie, muntgeld nie, of die waarde daarvan reguleer nie, en ook nie die nodige bedrae en uitgawes vasstel nie vir die verdediging en welsyn van die Verenigde State, of enige van hulle, geen rekeninge uitstuur nie, of geld leen op die krediet van die Verenigde State, of gepaste geld, of ooreenkom oor die aantal oorlogsvate wat gebou of gekoop moet word, of die aantal land- of seemagte wat verhoog moet word, of 'n opperbevelhebber van die weermag of vloot moet aanstel nie, tensy nege state daartoe toestem; en 'n vraag op 'n ander punt behalwe verdaging van dag tot dag word bepaal , tensy deur die stemme van 'n meerderheid van die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader.

Die kongres van die Verenigde State het die bevoegdheid om te enige tyd binne die jaar en na enige plek in die Verenigde State te verdaag, sodat geen uitstelperiode langer is as die tydperk van ses maande nie, en publiseer die tydskrif van hul verrigtinge maandeliks, behalwe die dele daarvan wat verband hou met verdrae, alliansies of militêre operasies, soos in hul uitspraak geheimhouding vereis; en die ja en nee van die afgevaardigdes van elke staat oor enige vraag, sal op die joernaal geplaas word, indien dit deur enige afgevaardigde verlang word; en die afgevaardigdes van 'n staat, of een van hulle, op sy of hul versoek, moet 'n afskrif van die genoemde joernaal voorsien word, behalwe die dele wat hierbo uitgesonder is, voor die wetgewers van die verskillende state.

Artikel X.

Die komitee van die state, of enige nege daarvan, is gemagtig om in die reses van die kongres die magte van die kongres uit te voer soos wat die Verenigde State op die kongres vergader het, met toestemming van nege state, van tyd tot tyd dink dit is raadsaam om hulle mee te vestig; met dien verstande dat geen bevoegdheid aan die genoemde komitee gedelegeer word nie, vir die uitoefening daarvan, volgens die artikels van die konfederasie, die stem van nege state op die kongres van die verenigde state vergader word.

Artikel XI.

Kanada wat tot hierdie konfederasie toetree en by die maatreëls van die Verenigde State aansluit, word toegelaat tot en het geregtig op al die voordele van hierdie unie; state.

Artikel XII.

Alle krediteure wat vrygestel word, geld geleen en skulde aangegaan deur, of onder die gesag van die kongres, voor die vergadering van die Verenigde State, in ooreenstemming met die huidige konfederasie, word geag en beskou as 'n aanklag teen die Verenigde State, vir betaling en tevredenheid waarvan die genoemde Verenigde State, en die openbare geloof hiermee plegtig belowe word.

Artikel XIII.

Elke staat sal hom hou by die bepalings van die verenigde state op die vergaderde kongres, oor alle vrae wat deur hierdie konfederasie aan hulle voorgelê word. En die artikels van hierdie konfederasie word deur elke staat onaantasbaar nagekom, en die vakbond is ewigdurend; en geen verandering mag op enige tyd hierna in enige van hulle aangebring word nie; tensy daar op 'n kongres van die Verenigde State ooreengekom word oor sodanige verandering en daarna deur die wetgewers van elke staat bevestig word.

Afsluiting:

En terwyl dit die groot goewerneur van die wêreld behaag het om die harte van die wetgewers wat ons onderskeidelik in die kongres verteenwoordig, te neig, ons goed te keur en ons te magtig om die genoemde artikels van konfederasie en ewige unie te bekragtig. Weet u dat ons, die ondergetekende afgevaardigdes, kragtens die mag en gesag wat ons vir die doel gegee het, deur hierdie geskenke doen, in die naam en namens ons onderskeie kiesers, elkeen volledig en volledig bevestig en bevestig het die artikels van konfederasie en ewige vereniging, en alles en enkelvoud, die sake en dinge daarin bevat: En ons doen verder plegtige omstandighede en betrek die geloof van ons onderskeie kiesers, dat hulle sal hou by die bepalings van die Verenigde State op die vergaderde kongres, op alle vrae wat deur die genoemde konfederasie aan hulle voorgelê word. En dat die artikels daarvan onaantasbaar nagekom word deur die state wat ons onderskeidelik verteenwoordig, en dat die vakbond ewigdurend sal wees.

In getuie waarvan ons ons hande in die kongres gesit het. Gedoen te Philadelphia in die staat Pennsylvania op die negende dag van Julie in die jaar van ons Here een duisend sewe honderd agt en sewentig, en in die derde jaar van die onafhanklikheid van Amerika.

Kry toegang tot honderde ure se historiese video, kommersieel gratis, met HISTORY Vault. Begin vandag met u gratis proeftydperk.


Artikels van die Konfederasie

Richard Henry Lee het in Junie 1776 'n historiese resolusie aan die Tweede Kontinentale Kongres voorgelê, wat die liggaam se onafhanklikheid onderskryf. Terselfdertyd het hy ook voorgestel dat ''n konfederasieplan opgestel word en aan die onderskeie kolonies oorgedra word. . .. ''n Paar dae later het die kongres John Dickinson aangestel as hoof van 'n komitee wat die opstel van so 'n plan het. Die vrugte van die komitee se werk, "The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union", is in Julie aan die Kongres voorgelê en het meer as 'n jaar se lewendige debat gevoer. Die formele onafhanklikheidsverklaring het die state noodsaaklik gemaak om 'n soort sentrale gesag te vorm. Die sentiment vir 'n sterk regering was egter nie groot nie. Die state was toe betrokke by 'n stryd van lewe en dood met 'n uiters kragtige sentrale owerheid, koning George III en sy ministers, en baie Amerikaners was bang dat die een vorm van tirannie deur 'n ander vervang sou word. In die herfsdebatte is twee struikelblokke deur die kongres oorkom:


Konfederasie -artikels, 1777–1781

Die Statute van die Konfederasie het gedien as die geskrewe dokument wat die funksies van die nasionale regering van die Verenigde State bepaal het nadat dit onafhanklikheid van Groot -Brittanje verklaar het. Dit het 'n swak sentrale regering tot stand gebring wat meestal, maar nie heeltemal nie, die individuele state verhinder het om hul eie buitelandse diplomasie te voer.

The Albany Plan an earlier, pre-independence attempt at joining the colonies into a larger union, had failed in part because the individual colonies were concerned about losing power to another central insitution. As the American Revolution gained momentum, however, many political leaders saw the advantages of a centralized government that could coordinate the Revolutionary War. In June of 1775, the New York provincial Congress sent a plan of union to the Continental Congress, which, like the Albany Plan, continued to recognize the authority of the British Crown.

Some Continental Congress delegates had also informally discussed plans for a more permanent union than the Continental Congress, whose status was temporary. Benjamin Franklin had drawn up a plan for “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.” While some delegates, such as Thomas Jefferson, supported Franklin’s proposal, many others were strongly opposed. Franklin introduced his plan before Congress on July 21, but stated that it should be viewed as a draft for when Congress was interested in reaching a more formal proposal. Congress tabled the plan.

Following the Declaration of Independence, the members of the Continental Congress realized it would be necessary to set up a national government. Congress began to discuss the form this government would take on July 22, disagreeing on a number of issues, including whether representation and voting would be proportional or state-by-state. The disagreements delayed final discussions of confederation until October of 1777. By then, the British capture of Philadelphia had made the issue more urgent. Delegates finally formulated the Articles of Confederation, in which they agreed to state-by-state voting and proportional state tax burdens based on land values, though they left the issue of state claims to western lands unresolved. Congress sent the Articles to the states for ratification at the end of November. Most delegates realized that the Articles were a flawed compromise, but believed that it was better than an absence of formal national government.

On December 16, 1777, Virginia was the first state to ratify. Other states ratified during the early months of 1778. When Congress reconvened in June of 1778, the delegates learned that Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey refused to ratify the Articles. The Articles required unanimous approval from the states. These smaller states wanted other states to relinquish their western land claims before they would ratify the Articles. New Jersey and Delaware eventually agreed to the conditions of the Articles, with New Jersey ratifying on Nov 20, 1778, and Delaware on Feb 1, 1779. This left Maryland as the last remaining holdout.

Irked by Maryland’s recalcitrance, several other state governments passed resolutions endorsing the formation of a national government without the state of Maryland, but other politicians such as Congressman Thomas Burke of North Carolina persuaded their governments to refrain from doing so, arguing that without unanimous approval of the new Confederation, the new country would remain weak, divided, and open to future foreign intervention and manipulation.

Meanwhile, in 1780, British forces began to conduct raids on Maryland communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Alarmed, the state government wrote to the French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne asking for French naval assistance. Luzerne wrote back, urging the government of Maryland to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Marylanders were given further incentive to ratify when Virginia agreed to relinquish its western land claims, and so the Maryland legislature ratified the Articles of Confederation on March 1, 1781.

The Continental Congress voted on Jan 10, 1781, to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on Aug 10 of that year, it elected Robert R. Livingston as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The Secretary’s duties involved corresponding with U.S. representatives abroad and with ministers of foreign powers. The Secretary was also charged with transmitting Congress’ instructions to U.S. agents abroad and was authorized to attend sessions of Congress. A further Act of Feb 22, 1782, allowed the Secretary to ask and respond to questions during sessions of the Continental Congress.

The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and, as such, limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy. However, this proved difficult to enforce, as the national government could not prevent the state of Georgia from pursuing its own independent policy regarding Spanish Florida, attempting to occupy disputed territories and threatening war if Spanish officials did not work to curb Indian attacks or refrain from harboring escaped slaves. Nor could the Confederation government prevent the landing of convicts that the British Government continued to export to its former colonies. In addition, the Articles did not allow Congress sufficient authority to enforce provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris that allowed British creditors to sue debtors for pre-Revolutionary debts, an unpopular clause that many state governments chose to ignore. Consequently, British forces continued to occupy forts in the Great Lakes region. These problems, combined with the Confederation government’s ineffectual response to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts, convinced national leaders that a more powerful central government was necessary. This led to the Constitutional Convention that formulated the current Constitution of the United States.


Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation (full text here) established the United States of America as its own separate entity, an alliance of independent states. It was the country’s first constitution, later superseded by “the Constitution,” which we still use today.

The Need for the Articles of Confederation

The growing need for inter-colonial cooperation led to the need for a document outlining the terms under which each colony would operate. Previous efforts to write such a document came and went unsuccessfully, changing each time the needs of a state changed.

The Second Continental Congress began acting as a sort of government for the states, which were all busy writing their own constitutions and providing for their own states’ needs. There was no way for the fledgling country to throw off the authority of Britain without establishing their own central government, which couldn’t be done unless it was unanimous.

Furthermore, international relations and trade relied on the recognition that came with being an independent nation. June of 1776 saw the initial drafting of a declaration of their independence and at the same time, Congress appointed a committee of 13 to prepare a draft of a constitution for the amalgamation of the states.

When the articles were presented to Congress, debate arose regarding the amount of power that should be allotted to each state, how voting procedures should be carried out, and what kind of central government there ought to be.

The Articles of Confederation were approved for ratification November 15, 1777, more than a year after they had begun.

Summary of the Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation broken down can be outlined thusly:

Article 1: establishes the name of the new confederation: “The United States of America.” (See sidefoo.)

Why United States of “America”?

North and South America were named after Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci. “America” is the feminine version of Amerigo or Americus add “gen”, a version of the Greek word for ‘earth’. Technically that breaks down to “Land of Amerigo”.

One of the cartographers (mapmakers) who first used the name on a map in 1507 said, “Since both Asia and Africa [editor note: and Europa] received their names from women, I do not see why anyone should rightly prevent this [new part] from being called Amerigen—the land of Amerigo, as it were—or America, after its discoverer, Americus …”

Sadly, Amerigo died before he ever saw the map, so it’s likely he never knew that two continents bore his name.

  • Article 2: Affirms the authority of each state, except for specified power entrusted to the confederate government.
  • Article 3: Clarifies that rather than being a nation or having its own government, the states had entered into an agreed friendship and loyalty to each other, bound to protect each other.
  • Article 4: Establishes equal treatment of each individual state and allows that free citizens could cross state borders unchecked and have equal rights in every state. Criminals and fugitives, it specifies, will be extradited back to the state in which they committed their crime to be tried in court.
  • Article 5: Allots one vote in congress to each state and allows a delegation of two to seven members, appointed by individual state legislatures, who could not serve more than three out of any six years. This caused some problems later because no matter how large the state population, the vote was equal to any smaller state’s vote. This article also protected Congressmen’s freedom of speech in and out of session and protected them from imprisonment except for in the case of severe felonies.
  • Article 6: Only the central government (Congress) could conduct foreign political or commercial relations or declare war. This article goes into detail regarding foreign titles and restricts states from individually making business deals with other countries. No state is allowed to maintain peacetime standing armies or Navies, but is to keep a compulsory militia, trained, equipped, and disciplined with storerooms of supplies.
  • Article 7: Each state legislature will name colonels and military ranks below that if necessary (in the event that congress declares war).
  • Article 8: Debts and expenses incurred by the United States of America will be paid by the states. Article 8 requires that state legislatures raise the funds necessary, which are portioned based on the property value of each state. This would cause problems later since congress had no way of enforcing this fund-raising and the debt just grew.
  • Article 9: Outlines the rights that would be specifically designated to congress, such as determining whether the country would go to war, determining the worth of money, exchanging ambassadors with other countries, signing treaties, entering alliances, authorizing privateers (legal pirates), and the like. It also states that Congress was the final court for debates between states.
  • Article 10: Nine states will be enough to pass a vote. In essence: if congress is in recess, and nine (of thirteen) states come to an agreement, that will be enough to make a decision. Having all thirteen is not necessary.
  • Article 11: If Canada (The Province of Quebec) chooses to be part of this alliance, we will accept them. Clearly, this did not happen.
  • Article 12: The Confederation government accepts the full debt incurred by Congress before the Articles were written.
  • Article 13: Only Congress can only alter these Articles, and only with the ratification of all the states’ legislatures.

The Articles of Confederation document
Public domain image from Wikimedia Commons

Over time, it became clear that the Articles of Confederation were too weak to carry the nation. There was no president, no executive organizations outside of Congress, no tax base, and no way of enforcing the laws. At best, Congress could request funds from the states to help pay off the massive debt incurred during the war, but the states rarely paid up.

Congress was, in the words of General George Washington, “paralyzed.” Not only were they unable to collect money, they could not enforce attendance of their own members. Many documents, including the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War, sat for far too long waiting for signatures from several states’ representatives who had gone home after the war.

Soldiers had been promised pension of half pay for life, but Congress could not force states to donate to the fund and many soldiers went without pay for a while and several riots ensued.

Many people blamed the weak Articles of the Confederation for the trouble ensuing. There was a general fear that if the country could not get its feet under itself financially, that winning the war would have been for nothing and that it would collapse in on itself.

Two political parties began a debate that essentially boiled down to whether the central government could be trusted with the power that it needed to right the situation, which was spiraling out of control. Since taxation had been a major catalyst in the previous war, there was hesitation in granting Congress taxing power.

However, John Jay, president of the Continental Congress believed that there was no way around taxes. His biographer Walter Stahr writes, “Jay concluded by requesting…that the states and the people provide funds through ‘loans and taxes’ and ‘taxes are…the price of liberty, the peace and the safety of yourselves and posterity.'” John Jay: Founding Father, p. 107

Alexander Hamilton asserted the need for a stronger central government and he received Washington’s approval to convene the Annapolis convention in 1786. There he petitioned Congress to call another convention to re-write the Constitution.


Tydlyn

May 1775: Die Second Continental Congress meets to discuss colonial problems with Great Britain. This Congress would appoint George Washington as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

January 1776: Benjamin Franklin drafts a plan of union that based representation in congress and contribution to the common treasury on the number of males 16 &ndash 60 years of age that was called the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.

June 7, 1776: Richard Henry Lee delivers his famous speech that argues for independence from Great Britain. Lee being a delegate of Virginia swayed the many southern colonies to the cause of independence.

4 Julie 1776: America declared its independence from Great Britain when the Declaration of Independence was released to the public.

November 15, 1777: After much debate the Articles of Confederation were put into place to create a central government. The individual states still retained most power, but with a central government they were able to unify each of the states.

December 16, 1777: Virginia ratified the Articles of Confederation.

February 5, 1778: South Carolina ratified the Articles of Confederation.

6 Februarie 1778: New York ratified the Articles of Confederation.

February 9, 1778: Rhode Island ratified the Articles of Confederation

February 12, 1778: Connecticut ratified the Articles of Confederation

February 26, 1778: Georgia ratified the Articles of Confederation

March 4, 1778: New Hampshire ratified the Articles of Confederation

March 5, 1778: Pennsylvania ratified the Articles of Confederation

March 10, 1778: Massachusetts ratified the Articles of Confederation

April 5, 1778: North Carolina ratified the Articles of Confederation

November 19, 1778: New Jersey ratified the Articles of Confederation

February 1, 1779: Delaware ratified the Articles of Confederation

January 2, 1781: Virginia cedes a portion of its land west of the Appalachian Mountains to Congress.

February 2, 1781: Maryland ratified the Articles of Confederation

1 Maart 1781: The Articles of Confederation officially became the ruling government in the United States, although it had been the de facto government prior to Maryland&rsquos ratification.

March 2, 1781: Samuel Huntington becomes 1st President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

July 10, 1781: Huntington resigns and Thomas McKean finishes the term and becomes 2nd President during the Articles of Confederation.

5 November 1781: John Hanson becomes the 3rd President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

1782: Secretary of Finance, Robert Morris, founds the Bank of North America. This bank helped to stabilize the commerce of the United States.

November 4, 1782: Elias Boudinot becomes the 4th President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation

March, 1783: The army stationed at Newburgh threatened mutiny because they had not received their pay and were only stopped by George Washington&rsquos effective persuasion to remain loyal to the patriotic cause.

June, 1783: A mutinous group of Pennsylvania troops, demanding pay, forced Congress to leave Philadelphia. President of Pennsylvania John Dickinson refused the assistance of the state militia, as he feared they were not reliable. Congress retreated to Princeton.

November 3, 1783: Thomas Mifflin becomes the 5th President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

March 1784: Congress officially acquires the land ceded by Virginia north and west of the Ohio River. It became known as the Northwest Territory.

April 23, 1784: Thomas Jefferson drafts that Land Ordinance that would be accepted by Congress, this ordinance is the first to establish the process to administer newly acquired lands.

November 30, 1784: Richard Henry Lee becomes the 6th President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

March 25, 1785: Representatives of Maryland and Virginia met at George Washington&rsquos plantation in Mount Vernon to resolve conflicts over the navigation of the Potomac and Pocomoke Rivers.

November 23, 1785: John Hancock becomes the 7th President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

June 5, 1786: Hancock resigns and Nathaniel Gorham finishes the term and becomes 8th President during the Articles of Confederation.

September 11, 1786: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia, meet to discuss uniform trade regulations, but agree to appeal to all states to meet again to discuss broader reforms. It would be known as the Annapolis Convention.

January 25, 1787: Daniel Shays and other armed farmers from western Massachusetts are defeated in their attempt to conquer an arsenal of weapons in Springfield, Massachusetts. It became known as the Shay&rsquos Rebellion and prompted many to re-evaluate the Articles of Confederation.

February 2, 1787: Arthur St. Clair becomes 9th President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

May 25, 1787: Delegates from all states except Rhode Island meet in Philadelphia for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. This would be the first meeting of the Constitutional Convention.

July 13, 1787: The Northwest Ordinance is passed and serves as a revision of the earlier ordinance. One of its provisions abolished slavery from the new region.

November 4, 1787: Arthur St. Clair resigns and nobody finishes his term.

September 17, 1787: The Constitutional Convention sends its draft of the U.S. Constitution to the states for ratification.

January 22, 1788: Cyrus Griffin becomes the 10th President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

November 2, 1788: Congress adjourned and Griffin completes term.

December 15, 1788 &ndash January 10, 1789: The first Presidential election under the United States Constitution is held. this ends the government under the Articles of Confederation.

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Articles of Confederation Summary

A summary of the Articles of Confederation, which will not just help you get a better understanding of this agreement, but also help you differentiate its guidelines from those of the Constitution.

A summary of the Articles of Confederation, which will not just help you get a better understanding of this agreement, but also help you differentiate its guidelines from those of the Constitution.

Not many people know this, but the Articles of Confederation was used as the first constitution of the United States of America. It was used as the supreme law for a brief period in the American history between March 1, 1781, and March 4, 1789. Even though it was written by the same people who wrote the Constitution, you can see a great deal of difference between the two.

Summary of the Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation was a five-page written agreement, which laid the guidelines of how the national government of America would function. The preamble of the Articles stated that all the signatories “agree to certain Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union” between the thirteen original states. It had a total of thirteen articles which formed the guidelines for the functioning of then Federal government along with a conclusion and a signatory section for the states to sign. Given below is the summary of these thirteen articles which will put forth brief information on each of them with special emphasis on what they imply.

  • Article I: It gave the new confederacy a name―the ‘United States of America’, which is followed even today.
  • Article II: It gave all the states sovereignty, freedom, and independence, alongside all those powers which were not specifically given to the national government.
  • Article III: It implied that the different states should come together to facilitate common defense, secure each other’s liberties, and work for each other’s welfare.
  • Article IV: It granted the freedom of movement to all the citizens of the nation as a whole which allowed people to move freely between the states and also entitled them to get the rights established by the particular state. It also spoke about the need of respecting each other’s laws and a clause to extradite criminals.
  • Article V: It spoke about the national interests of the United States and asked each state to send delegates to discuss the same in the Congress. It gave each state one vote in Congress and restricted the period for which a person would serve as a delegate. It also gave the members of Congress the power of free speech and ruled out their arrests, unless the crime was something serious, such as treason or felony.
  • Article VI: It put some restrictions on the states and disallowed them from getting into any sort of treaty or alliance with each other or waging a war without the consent of the Congress. It also disallowed the states from keeping a standing army, but did give them permission to maintain the state militia.
  • Article VII: It gave the state legislature the power of appointing all officers ranked colonel and above, whenever the states were to raise an army for the purpose of self defense.
  • Article VIII: It stated that each state was to pay a particular sum of money―in proportion to the total land area of that state―to the national treasury and added that all the national expenses including war costs were to be deducted from this common treasury.
  • Article IX: It highlighted all the powers given to the Congress of the Confederation, including the right to wage wars and make peace, govern army and navy, enter into treaties and alliances, settle dispute between states, regulate the value of coins, etc.
  • Article X: It laid the guidelines for the formation of an executive committee which would work when the Congress was not in session.
  • Article XI: It stated that the approval of nine of the thirteen original states was mandatory to include a new state in the Union.
  • Article XII: It declared that America takes full responsibility for all debts which were incurred before the Articles came into existence.
  • Article XIII: It declared that it would be mandatory for all the states to abide by the decisions made by the Congress of the Confederation. It also declared that the Union would be perpetual. Most important of all, it put forth the stipulation that if any changes were to be made to the Articles of the Confederation it would require the approval of Congress and ratification by the states.

Historians are of the opinion that this document had its own strengths and weaknesses. That it brought the thirteen states, which were pitted against each other, on a common platform was its greatest strength. On the other hand, its weaknesses revolved around the fact that it gave states more power than the national government and reduced the latter to a mere spectator.


Articles of Confederation: History & Significance

It would have been very difficult to run an effective government under the Articles of Confederation. Many of the great minds politically active after the American Revolution realized this thus arrived the birth of one of the greatest political documents of all time: The Constitution. With the implement of the Constitution, the United States government became effective.

The product of some of the greatest minds to ever exist in this world, the Articles did have some positive effects on society. It successfully put an end to the Revolutionary War, it negotiated a favorable end to the war in the Treaty of Paris, and created a model for the admission of new territories courtesy of the Northwest Ordinance. Nonetheless, it was much too weak to give the new nation the necessary foundation on which the growth of society could be started from.

For one thing, any amendment of the Articles required a unanimous vote throughout the colonies. Since this was almost impossible, there always being two sides to everything [a pro and a con], changing the Articles to eliminate the ideas that did not function properly was near impossible. Another factor of the Articles’ ineffectiveness was that Congress was in essence tied in its authority. After the war, the colonists trusted no ultimate authority not even one they designed. It could not regulate commerce, so what resulted was thirteen colonies with different taxations and tariff laws. This only added to the already present feelings of dislike and distrust which had existed between the colonies since they were first established.

After this period of eight years, the “Critical Period”, the light at the end of the tunnel arrived with Thomas Jefferson writing the Constitution. It delegated the power, at the discretion of the people. It was designed to be amended the great minds who designed it realized that they themselves were not infallible, and could make mistakes. The beauty of the Constitution was that it allowed for these mistakes. Instead of the outrageous unanimous vote of states to change it, two-thirds of Congress and then three-fourths of the states must approve. It ensured that no one section of government could grow so powerful to the point that it could be considered a Parliament through the Checks and Balances. It promoted unity in that Congress would now regulate all interstate and foreign commerce this eliminated many disputes since there was a simple majority rule to pass laws. The unification of the colonies was beginning.

Thus, it is observed that the Articles of Confederation were without a doubt weak and ineffective. Nonetheless, they were a necessary step in laying the foundation for the construction of the Constitution. It showed the basic ideas of democracy, and the Constitution was used in the expansion and enforcing of those ideas.


Primary Documents in American History

The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777. However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781. The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments. The need for a stronger Federal government soon became apparent and eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789.

    - The Continental Congress resolved "that a committee be appointed to prepare and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between these colonies." - The committee members were appointed "to prepare and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between these colonies." - The first draft of the Articles of Confederation was presented to the Continental Congress. - The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation. - The Articles of Confederation were submitted to the states with a request for immediate action. - A committee of three was appointed to prepare the form of a ratification of the Articles of Confederation. - The Articles of Confederation were ordered to be engrossed. - The first engrossed copy was found to be incorrect, and a second engrossed copy was ordered. - The second engrossed copy of the Articles of Confederation was signed and ratified by the delegates from eight states: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina. - North Carolina delegates signed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. - Georgia delegates signed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. - New Jersey delegates signed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. - Delaware delegates signed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. - Maryland delegates signed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation. The Articles were finally ratified by all thirteen states. - Congress approved a plan to hold a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.

Provides an overview of the Confederation Government and links to related documents.

On November 15, 1777, the second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.

Members of the Constitutional Convention signed the final draft of the Constitution on September 17, 1787.

Articles of Confederation, Avalon Project at Yale Law School

Articles of Confederation, National Archives and Records Administration

Our Documents, Articles of Confederation, National Archives and Records Administration

Hoffert, Robert W. A Politics of Tensions: The Articles of Confederation and American Political Ideas . Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992. [Catalog Record]

Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution 1774-1781 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970. [Catalog Record]

-----. The New Nation: A History of the United States during the Confederation, 1781-1789. New York: Knopf, 1950. [Catalog Record]

Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787 . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969. [Catalog Record]

Callahan, Kerry P. The Articles of Confederation: A Primary Source Investigation into the Document that Preceded the U.S. Constitution . New York: Rosen Primary Source, 2003. [Catalog Record]

Feinberg, Barbara Silberdick. The Articles of Confederation: The First Constitution of the United States . Brookfield, Conn.: Twenty-First Century Books, 2002. [Catalog Record]

Price Hossell, Karen. The Articles of Confederation . Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2004. [Catalog Record]

Roza, Greg. Evaluating the Articles of Confederation: Determining the Validity of Information and Arguments . New York: Rosen Pub., 2006. [Catalog Record]


After the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the thirteen rebellious colonies met and debated how best to run their wartime government and preserve their independence and sovereignty. The result of a year and a half of debate, the new Continental Congress created the Articles of Confederation on November 15, 1777, and the states ratified the document on March 1, 1781.

The constitution formed a very limited government with marginal powers, to conduct the American Revolutionary War, diplomacy and settle territorial issues. In 1786 a rebellion in Massachusetts over government taxation led to a widespread view that the Articles needed to be replaced and the government reformed. As more states and their representatives met to discuss issues related to governance and interstate commerce, this eventually turned into the Constitutional Convention.

In 1789, eight years after the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution of the United States came into force, replacing government under the Articles with a federal government headed by a President, with a Congress and judicial system also officially formed.


Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation was the earliest form of government of the newly independent British colonies. The United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation.

On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence. The document proclaimed the separation of the American colonies from Great Britain and formally began the American Revolution. The new nation then had to create a new government to replace the monarchy it was trying to overthrow. After much debate, the Americans adopted the Articles of Confederation. This document established a very weak national government that consisted of a one-house legislature known as the Confederation Congress. The Congress had the power to declare war, sign treaties, and settle disputes between the states. It could also borrow or print money and could ask for funds from individual states, which rarely provided the requested money to the federal government. The Americans were so fearful of a strong, centralized government that they refused to give their Congress the power to tax. The Articles of Confederation were first adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 1, 1777, and were given final ratification on March 1, 1781. The Second Continental Congress became the Congress of the Confederation. This government was then in effect from 1781 until 1788.

In 1783, the Americans secured their independence from Great Britain with the Treaty of Paris (1783). They immediately began to build a new nation. Among the Confederation Congress' successes was passage of the Northwest Ordinance, which established the Northwest Territory. Still, the Confederation Congress faced many difficulties, primarily due to the weak nature of the national government. Without having the ability to tax, the federal government could not pay for a military. This was an especially important issue for people living in the Northwest Territory. As thousands of Americans moved into the area, Native Americans struggled to stop them. Unable to pay for an army, the government could not protect its citizens. To solve this and other problems, a Constitutional Convention took place in the summer of 1787. Called together to revise the Articles of Confederation the delegates decided that a new and stronger Constitution was needed. The federal government now had the power to tax, and its provisions were to be the supreme law of the land. Fearing that one person or faction might be able to gain control of the government, the drafters divided the government's powers among three separate branches -- the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Each branch had checks and balances on the powers of the other two. The Constitution created the United States in the form in which it still exists today.


Article summaries [ edit | wysig bron]

Even though the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution were established by many of the same people, the two documents were very different. The original five-paged Articles contained thirteen articles, a conclusion, and a signatory section. The following list contains short summaries of each of the thirteen articles.

Still at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Framers were divided between those seeking a powerful, centralized national government, and those seeking a loosely-structured one. Jealously guarding their new independence, members of the Continental Congress arrived at a compromise solution dividing sovereignty between the states and the federal government, with a unicameral legislature that protected the liberty of the individual states. While calling on Congress to regulate military and monetary affairs, for example, the Articles of Confederation provided no mechanism to force the states to comply with requests for troops or revenue. At times, this left the military in a precarious position, as George Washington wrote in a 1781 letter to the governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.