Geskiedenis Podcasts

Die Hollywood -legende Charlie Chaplin is gebore

Die Hollywood -legende Charlie Chaplin is gebore

Op 16 April 1889 word die toekomstige Hollywood -legende Charlie Chaplin gebore as Charles Spencer Chaplin in Londen, Engeland.

Chaplin, een van die finansieel suksesvolste sterre in die vroeë Hollywood, is op die verhoog bekendgestel toe hy vyf was. Die jong seun van die Londense musieksaal entertainers, die jong Chaplin, kyk na 'n vertoning met sy ma in die hoofrol toe haar stem kraak. Hy is vinnig op die verhoog geskommel om die daad te voltooi.

Chaplin se pa is dood toe Chaplin 'n kleuter was, en toe sy ma 'n senuwee-ineenstorting gehad het, het Chaplin en sy ouer halfbroer, Sydney, in Londen rondgedwaal, waar hulle op straat gedans en pennies in 'n hoed versamel het. Uiteindelik het hulle na 'n weeshuis gegaan en by die Eight Lancashire Lads, 'n kinderdansgroep, aangesluit. Toe Chaplin 17 was, ontwikkel hy sy komiese vaardighede met die hulp van Fred Karno se geselskap, waarvoor sy halfbroer reeds 'n gewilde komediant geword het. Binnekort het Chaplin se boulerhoed, uitgedraaide voete, snor en loopriet sy handelsmerk geword. Hy het by die Keystone -onderneming aangesluit en verfilm 'N Lewe maak, waarin hy 'n snor met 'n snor speel wat 'n monokoel gedra het. Dit was nie lank nie, voordat hy ook aan die ander kant van die kamera gewerk het, met die regie van sy 12de film en die regie van sy 13de, Gevang in die reën, op sy eie.

Chaplin verfyn wat binnekort sy nalatenskap sou word, die karakter Charlie the Tramp, en teken in 1915 by die Essanay -onderneming aan vir $ 1,250 per week, plus 'n bonus van $ 10,000 - 'n goeie sprong van die $ 175 wat Keystone hom betaal het. Die volgende jaar teken hy met Mutual vir $ 10,000 per week, plus 'n bonus van $ 150,000 kragtens 'n kontrak wat vereis dat hy jaarliks ​​12 films maak, maar hom volledige kreatiewe beheer oor die foto's verleen. En in 1918 teken hy 'n kontrak met First National vir $ 1 miljoen vir agt films. Chaplin, 'n meesterlike akteur en pantomimis in die stilfilm wat gelag en trane uit sy gehoor kon lok, het die weerstand teen die koms van klank in films vertoon. Inderdaad, in sy eerste film met klank (Stad ligte in 1931), gebruik hy slegs musiek. Sy eerste ware klankfilm was 1940's Die Groot Diktator, waarin hy die fascisme bespot het.

Chaplin het United Artists Corporation in 1919 gestig saam met Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks en direkteur D.W. Griffith. Chaplin is nog twee keer getroud, beide kere met tienermeisies. Sy vierde vrou, Oona O'Neill, wat 18 was toe sy met die 54-jarige akteur trou, was die dogter van die dramaturg Eugene O'Neill. Hoewel hy 42 jaar in die Verenigde State gewoon het, het Chaplin nooit 'n Amerikaanse burger geword nie. Chaplin, 'n vokale pasifis, word beskuldig van kommunistiese bande, wat hy ontken het. Tog het immigrasiebeamptes in 1952 verhinder dat Chaplin en sy vrou na 'n buitelandse toer weer na die Verenigde State kon gaan. Die egpaar het 20 jaar lank nie na die Verenigde State teruggekeer nie; in plaas daarvan vestig hulle hulle in Switserland met hul agt kinders. Chaplin keer in 1972 terug na Amerika om 'n spesiale Oscar te ontvang vir "die onberekenbare uitwerking wat hy gehad het op die maak van rolprente die kuns vir en van hierdie eeu." Hy is tot ridder sir Charles Spencer Chaplin in 1975. Hy sterf twee jaar later.


Dit is die oudste Hollywood -sterre wat vandag nog bestaan

Noudat ons in die 2020's is, is dit 'n hartseer feit dat baie van die sterre uit die Goue Eeu van Hollywood nie meer by ons is nie. As ons op 'n Sondagmiddag gaan sit om 'n klassieke bioskoop te geniet, neem ons aan dat die meeste akteurs wat ons kyk, reeds by die groot wrap party in die lug is, maar dit is nie altyd die geval nie. Terwyl die geskiedenis van Hollywood besaai is met tragiese verhale van akteurs wat ons te vroeg verlaat het, is daar 'n steeds krimpende groep veterane wat nog geleef het toe die "talkies" nog 'n nuwe ding in teaters was. Sommige van hierdie sterre geniet rustig hul aftrede ná 'n besige lewe in Tinseltown, hoewel 'n verbasend groot aantal van hulle vandag nog aktief in die bedryf is.

Van voormalige skermsirenes wat tot in die negentigerjare nog steeds glansryk lyk, tot die akteur met die loopbaan van honderd jaar, ons het 'n oorsig saamgestel van die oudste lewende Hollywood -sterre.


Hollywood Geskiedenis

As u in ons gemaklike stalletjies van verslete leer sit, ons 100 jaar oue klassieke spyskaart deurlees of na die mahonie-kroeg gaan sit, geniet u nie net lekker kos en goeie geselskap nie. U maak deel uit van die geskiedenis van Hollywood.

Dit is 'n geskiedenis wat soos 'n Hollywood -draaiboek lees. Daar is transaksies gemaak met die ou betaaltelefoon - die eerste betaaltelefoon wat in Hollywood geïnstalleer is. Skrifte is bespreek oor 'n beroemde Musso se martini. Kontrakte is gesluit oor uitstekende maaltye van gebraaide eend en skaaptjops. Sterre is gebore.

Van die begin af was Musso's 'n gunsteling onder Hollywood se A-lys. Charlie Chaplin was 'n vroeë gereeld. Chaplin - volgens die legende - dat hy gereeld saam met Mary Pickford, Rudolph Valentino en Douglas Fairbanks gaan eet, sou Douglas uitdaag vir 'n perdewedren in Hollywood Boulevard, en die wenner moes die blad by Musso's haal. Charlie sou wen en bly wees oor 'n bord geroosterde lamniere, sy gunsteling Musso -maaltyd.

In die 20's en 30's was dit nie ongewoon om te sien hoe Greta Garbo en Gary Cooper saam ontbyt eet nie - natuurlik flanelkoeke en vars koffie. Of om saam met Dashielle Hammett of Lauren Bacall aan Humphrey Bogart te gaan drink in die kroeg.

In die 50's kon Hollywood -legendes soos Marilyn Monroe (met Joe DiMaggio), Elizabeth Taylor en Steve McQueen in die beroemde Back Room van Musso gevind word. Jimmy Stewart, Rita Hayworth, Groucho Marx en John Barrymore het ook 'n hoofrol by Musso's gespeel.

Vandag bly Musso's 'n gesofistikeerde kuierplek in Hollywood. Maar moenie verwag dat u vir handtekeninge gaan staan ​​nie. Die eienaars en beskermhere van Musso's behandel hulle steeds op dieselfde manier as die vroeë eienaar John Mosso - met respek en diskresie.


1. Mary Pickford (1892-1979)

Alhoewel hierdie ware pionier van 'n Hollywood -aktrise die eretitel "America's Sweetheart" ontvang het, skryf Mary Pickford baie van haar waardes en karakterinspirasie toe aan haar Ierse wortels. Gedurende haar loopbaan sou sy verhale en herinneringe aan haar moeder se armoede-opvoeding in Kerry, Ierland, herinner om herinneringe aan haar rolle op te bou, wat tipies dié was van jong, eerlike, geldlose Ierse immigrante of Ierse Amerikaners (titels sluit in "The Foundling" (1915), "Little Annie Rooney" (1925) en "Amarilly of Clothes-line Alley" (1918)).

Met 'n slinkse, selfversekerde vroulike teenwoordigheid gemeng met 'n onskuldige 'meisie-langs-deur'-kwaliteit, het Pickford haar weg deur die manlik gedomineerde Hollywood-industrie geneem en op 27-jarige ouderdom die hoogs betaalde vrou ter wêreld geword-voordat vroue selfs toegelaat is om te stem.

Dit is bekend dat haar subtiliteite in lyftaal en gesiggebare Charlie Chaplin, met wie sy 'n noue verhouding gehad het, beïnvloed het, aangesien hulle albei in die tyd van die stille film vereer is.

In 'n 1965 -onderhoud vir Amerikaanse televisie het Pickford opgemerk dat sy en ander Ierse akteurs uit die vroeë Hollywood -era bymekaar bly en 'n sterk band behou. Soms word die vrou meisie met krulle om haar kenmerkende rooi hare kragtig genoem, maar sy word bewonder vir haar skoonheid, maar belangriker nog vir haar oorspronklikheid, passie en intelligensie om haar eie Hollywood te maak.

2. Chauncey Olcott (1858-1932)

Alhoewel hy oorspronklik uit New York was, het die kanselier Olcott, meer informeel bekend as Chauncey, 'n suksesvolle en gevierde loopbaan gemaak, geïnspireer deur sy Ierse afkoms.

Olcott debuteer in 1880 as 'n balladesanger in sangerprogramme, en vind roem op Broadway, nadat hy die rol van die bekroonde aktrise Lillian Russell se hoofrol gespeel het in "Pepita or, The Girl with the Glass Eyes" (1886). Alhoewel Russell erken word dat hy Olcott se loopbaan begin het, vind hy 'n sterker passie in romantiese musiekblyspele.

Hy was veral opvallend in "A Romance of Athlone" (1899) en "The Isle O'Dreams" (1912), waarvoor hy die nommers "My Wild Irish Rose" en "When Irish Eyes are Smiling" geskryf en gekomponeer het. .

Sy ongelukkige dood in 1932 het postume erkennings veroorsaak: Warner Bros. het 'n film getiteld "My Wild Irish Rose (1947)" oor sy lewe vrygestel (met Dennis Morgan in die hoofrol), en Olcott is later in 1970 in die Songwriters Hall of Fame opgeneem.

Met 'n kragtige, maar soet, delikate stem, sing en dans hy sy pad na sterre met sy Ierse wortels as brandstof, en bly sy eerbied na sy dood behou.

3. Charlie Chaplin (1889-1997)

Om eerlik te wees, die filmikoon en meester van die stille film Charlie Chaplin is nie van Ierse afkoms nie. Interessant genoeg begin hy egter in 1959 sy gesin jaarliks ​​met vakansie na die dorpie Waterville in County Kerry, Ierland, en word vinnig hul mees geliefde besoeker.

Die Engelse akteur/figuur is miskien die bekendste vir sy skermpersoonlikheid "The Tramp" in al sy glansryke glans.

Tussen die regie, toneelspel, skryf, vervaardiging, redigering en komposisie van die beroemde werke wat nie met Ierland verband hou nie, kon Chaplin altyd elke jaar tyd kry om die pragtige Waterville te besoek. Sy vierde vrou, Oona O'Neill, dogter van die Pulitzer-bekroonde Ierse Amerikaanse dramaturg Eugene O'Neill, is van noue Ierse afkoms, hoewel Chaplin moontlik nie Iers is nie, maar sy kinders met Oona het wortels in die Emerald Isle.

Deur sy verbintenis om daar te vakansie hou, het inwoners van Waterville 'n bronsbeeld van Chaplin opgerig, met 'n gedenkplaat wat hom bedank vir sy rituele besoeke. Dit lui in Iers en in Engels: "Vir die man wat die flieks in miljoene se harte laat praat [,] het Charlie baie jare in ons midde deurgebring as 'n nederige gas en vriend vir baie." In die standbeeld dra hy 'n komiese pak met 'n swak knoop en staan ​​met 'n eienaardige hand op sy heup en 'n tipiese ekspressiewe glimlag.

4. Helen Kane (1904-1966)

Helen Kane, ons geliefde oorspronklike "Boop Boop a Doop Girl", waarskynlik die inspirasie vir die ikoniese tekenprent Betty Boop, kom ook uit 'n Ierse huis. Kane se ma, 'n Ierse immigrant, het haar dogter gehelp om minderjarig te word deur onwillig haar eerste kostuum vir die rol van die koningin in 'n skoolproduksie aan te skaf - 'n rok van drie dollar was met moeite styf.

Maar miskien kan ons hierdie rok en toneelstuk bedank as die rede waarom Kane verlief geraak het op teater - sy het vinnig 'n voorsprong gemaak vir vaudeville en kickdancing, en het haar in die films en films soos "Stars of the Future ”(1922-24) met haar jong babataalstem as haar handelsmerk.

Sy het baie naam gemaak in musiek - van al haar klankbane, solo -uitvoerings en liedjies met haar trio "The Three X Sisters", en Kane word veral erken vir haar snit "I Wanna be Loved By You", wat later uitgevoer is deur Marilyn Monroe in "Some Like it Hot."

Met haar handelsmerk-dooie oë en skerp lippe, word Kane 'n geselsende, singende, fladderende, toneelspelende, dansende, babasprekende buitengewone met liefdevolle genade en glans. Wie sou kon raai dat Betty Boop se inspirasie uit 'n Ierse huishouding gekom het?

5. Sara Allgood (1879-1950)

Sara Allgood, ook bekend as Sally Allgood, gebore in die hart van Dublin, het begin optree in die beroemde Abbey Theatre in Dublin. Allgood het 'n warm, vertroostende en miskien matrone voorkoms gehad as gevolg van hierdie kenmerke; in films word sy gereeld geteken as Ierse moeders, eienaars, skinderpraatjies in die omgewing en dies meer.

Sy word die beste onthou vir haar rol in die rolprent "How Green Was My Valley" as mev Morgan, die moeder van 'n gesin van Walliese mynwerkers, waarvoor sy 'n Oscar -benoeming ontvang het.

Allgood hou 'n wonderlike filmografie onder haar riem en speel in ongeveer vyftig opvallende films, waaronder "Cheaper by the Dozen" (1950), "Jane Eyre" (1943), "Dr. Jekyll en Mr. Hyde ”(1941),“ My Wild Irish Rose ”(1947) oor Chauncey Olcott.

Sy het ook in 'n hele paar vroeë Hitchcock -films gespeel, soos "Sabotage" (1936), "Blackmail" (1929) en "Juno and the Paycock" (1930), waarin haar suster, die aktrise Maire O'Neill, gespeel het as wel.

Sy was sterk betrokke by die opening van die Irish National Theatre Society, en was 'n goeie vriend van die baie bekroonde Ierse digter William Butler Yeats. Yeats se muse, die Ierse revolusionêr en feminis Maud Gonne, was 'n baie invloedryke onderwyser vir Allgood en haar suster Maire.

6. Helen Hayes (1900-1993)

Helen Hayes, een van slegs twaalf mense wat 'n EGOT gewen het (Emmy, Grammy, Oscar en Tony), het Ierse Katolieke grootouers gehad wat tydens die Groot Hongersnood uit Ierland geëmigreer het.

Nadat sy die Oscar vir beste aktrise in "The Sin of Madelon Claudet" (1931) gewen het, het sy bekendheid verwerf met films soos die verwerking van Hemingway "A Farewell to Arms" (1932), "What Every Woman Knows" (1934) , "The White Sister" (1933) oorkant Clark Gable, en nog vele meer.

Hayes se hart was egter sterker in Broadway en verkies die verhoog bo die groot skerm. Lucille Ball het een keer vir haar 'n aanhangerbrief geskryf, en met wedersydse bewondering het Hayes voorgestel dat hulle eendag saamwerk, wat hulle in 1971 gedoen het. Hayes verskyn in 'n episode van 'Here Lucy' met die titel 'Lucy and the Little Old Woman' as 'n behoeftige Ierse vrou op soek na werk.

Hayes was trots op haar Ierse wortels, sy was 'n groot Ierse danser, en in 'n tydskrifonderhoud het sy na haarself 'n klein Ierse biddy speels na haarself verwys.

As 'n wyd bewonderde, bekroonde aktrise en 'n bekende filantroop, is Hayes ongelukkig op Saint Patrick's Day van 1993 oorlede.

7. Maureen O'Sullivan (1911-1988)

U herken haar miskien as die nuuskierige Amerikaanse Jane van Tarzan, maar Maureen O'Sullivan is so Iers soos dit kan word. O'Sullivan, gebore in Boyle, County Roscommon, Ierland, het as meisie 'n kloosterskool in Dublin bygewoon.

O'Sullivan, die ma van die aktrise Mia Farrow, het sukses behaal in die film "A Connecticut Yankee" uit 1931, en nadat sy twaalf jaar lank opgetree het, het sy 'n pouse geneem om sewe kinders groot te maak, maar het in 1948 haar sjarmante glimlag weer na die wêreld geblaas film "The Big Clock", wat deur haar destydse man John Farrow geregisseer is.

Alhoewel O'Sullivan vroeg in Hollywood begin het en vir ewig die titel van klassieke aktrise en skoonheid sal behou, het sy die hele tagtigerjare sterk in Hollywood voortgegaan, in herkenbare films soos "Peggy Sue Got Married" saam met Nicolas Cage en in Woody Allen se bekroonde film "Hannah and her Sisters", wat albei in 1986 vrygestel is.

8. Geraldine Fitzgerald (1913-2005)

'N Ander bekoorlike en talentvolle Ierse Hollywood -sterretjie is Geraldine Fitzgerald, gebore in Greystones, County Wicklow, Ierland. Voordat sy haar ware talent vir toneelspel ontdek, studeer sy skilderkuns aan die Dublin School of Art.

Sy het in talle films gespeel, maar haar opvallendste prestasies was 'n Oscar-benoeming vir beste aktrise in haar rol as Isabella Linton in "Wuthering Heights" (1939) en haar hoofrol in die Amerikaanse lokettreffer "Dark Victory" ( 1939).

Sedert "Dark Victory" het sy 'n aansienlike naam in Amerikaanse rolprente en televisie gemaak, en het sy in 1986 deelgeneem aan die "Poltergeist" -reeks en 'n paar komedies soos "Arthur" (1981). Sy maak ook 'n debuut op een van Amerika se gunsteling sitcoms, The Golden Girls.

Die Ierse aktrise was sterk op Broadway, en sy het ook 'n Tony-toekenning ontvang vir haar regie van 'n toneelstuk "Mass Appeal" oor 'n Rooms-Katolieke pastoor en 'n jong diaken.

9. Rex Ingram (1892-1950)

Rex Ingram, gebore in Dublin in 1882, het een van die talentvolste en mees bekroonde regisseurs in die geskiedenis van Hollywood geword en die titel "The Silent Master" gekry vir sy vermoë om talle groot treffers in die stilfilm-era te skep.

Alhoewel baie regisseurs in die stilfilms, soos Hitchcock, aan die praat was, het Ingram getrou gebly aan sy passie en uiteindelik verdwyn tot stille duisternis-maar vir 'n oomblik het hy opgehou om die direkteure van vandag te beïnvloed.

Hy word deur feitlik elke persoon in die Hollywood -regisseur Erich von Stroheim gerespekteer wat na hom verwys het as die grootste regisseur ter wêreld. Sy treffer "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" uit 1921 het Martin Scorsese baie geïnspireer, wat die film herhaaldelik vir homself teruggespeel het toe hy sy eie film "Hugo" (2011), 'n huldeblyk aan die stil film, herbedink het.

Ingram was ook 'n bekende akteur in meer as twintig films soos "Love in Morocco" (1933) waarin hy die indrukwekkende André Duval gespeel het, of die kortfilm "Camille" (1926) waarin hy die Ierse politieke leier Charles Stewart Parnell gespeel het.

10. James Cagney (1899-1986)

Nog 'n baie bekende ster van Ierse afkoms is James Cagney, akteur en danser.

Alhoewel hy inderdaad 'n baie indrukwekkende danser was, kom die grootste deel van sy roem uit sy films, waarin hy dikwels as die aggressiewe of gewelddadige 'harde man' beskou word, wat altyd 'n bietjie meer veelsydig was as wat die oog gesien het. .

Sommige van hierdie rolle was in films soos "Taxi!" of kultus-gangster-film "Public Enemy" of "Angels with Dirty Faces" saam met ander Iers-Amerikaanse akteur Pat O'Brien. Cagney en O'Brien speel saam in die film "The Irish in Us" in 1935 as die broers O'Hara in New York.

Cagney was 'n seker Hollywood -legende en speel in 'n ongelooflike hoeveelheid suksesvolle films, waarvan baie aan Warner Bros behoort het. In 1974 ontvang Cagney die American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award, en word gerespekteer en onthou vir sy welsprekendheid, sy kenmerkende stem en sy vermoë om skerp lyne of dooie komedie in ernstige films af te trek.

11. Pat O'Brien (1899-1983)

Ons laaste ou Hollywood -akteur van Ierse afkoms het sy Ierse wortels hard en trots met elke been in sy liggaam ten toon gestel. Pat O'Brien word gereeld deur die pers na verwys as "Hollywood's Irishman in Residence", aangesien die meeste van sy rolle dié van Ierse of Iers-Amerikaanse mans was.

Hy het die Ierse kenteken met eer in Hollywood gedra en word dikwels verbind met die voormelde akteur James Cagney, aangesien dit 'n dinamiese duo was ("Angels with Dirty Faces" (1938), "The Irish in Us" (1935), en nog vele meer ). Hy was die bekendste in die 1930's en 40's vir sy rolle as figuurkoppe soos militêre leiers, polisiemanne en priesters, wat aandag en respek in en buite karakter vereis. Al vier die grootouers van O'Brien kom uit County Cork, Ierland. O'Brien, Cagney en ander Iers-Amerikaanse akteurs soos Frank McHugh en Spencer Tracy het gereeld ontmoet en gesels en hulself 'die Boys Club' genoem-maar die Hollywood-rubriekskrywer Sidney Skolsky het grappenderwys daarna verwys as 'die Iere' Mafia. ”


Onthou Charlie Chaplin: beste aanhalings deur die komiese legende

Charlie Chaplin, 'n Engelse akteur, is die komiese genie wêreldwyd bekend as die beste stille filmkunstenaar. Chaplin, gebore op 16 April 1889, het sy hele lewe aan films gewy en mense laat lag. Hy word beskou as een van die belangrikste figure in die filmgeskiedenis.

Vanaf die ouderdom van 10, het Chaplin tot die einde gewerk en vir ons 'n paar van die beste werke gegee wat ons vandag sien. 'The Great Dictator' word steeds beskou as een van die beste films ooit. City Lights, The Kid, A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush en Moderne tye is slegs 'n paar name uit die lys juwele wat hierdie ster vir ons gelaat het.

'N Akteur, regisseur, draaiboekskrywer, komiese legende, komponis en die beste kunstenaar van alle tye. As ons die joviale Charlie Chaplin op sy verjaardag onthou, kom ons kyk na 'n paar van die beste aanhalings deur die legende.

Charlie Chaplin -aanhalings:

"N dag sonder vreugde is 'n gemorsde dag."

"Niks is permanent in hierdie goddelose wêreld nie - selfs nie ons probleme nie."

"Die hartseerste ding wat ek my kan voorstel, is om gewoond te raak aan luukse."

"Ons dink te veel en voel te min."

"Ek hou altyd daarvan om in die reën te loop, sodat niemand my kan sien huil nie."

"Die lewe is 'n tragedie in 'n close-up, maar 'n komedie in 'n lang afstand."

"Die lewe kan wonderlik wees as jy nie bang is daarvoor nie. Al wat jy nodig het, is moed, verbeelding en 'n bietjie deeg."

"Jy sal nooit 'n reënboog kry as jy afkyk nie."

"Volmaakte liefde is die mooiste frustrasie omdat dit meer is as wat 'n mens kan uitdruk."

"Verbeelding beteken niks sonder om te doen nie."

Waarvoor wil u 'n betekenis hê? Die lewe is 'n begeerte, nie 'n betekenis nie. "

"Lag is die tonikum, die verligting, die ophou van pyn."

"Ek is 'n burger van die wêreld."

'Ek hoop dat ons die oorlog sal afskaf en alle verskille by die konferensietafel sal besleg.'


Chaplin vertolk 'n paar onsimpatieke karakters in sy vroeë films. Maar te lank neem hy die rol aan wat sy loopbaan sou definieer - die van die underdog wat heers in die moeilikheid van die lewe. In latere meesterwerke soos "Modern Times" (1936) het Chaplin film ook gebruik om die samelewing te kritiseer. Hier was hy letterlik die man wat vasgevang was in die wiele van industrialisasie.


Dan: The Janes House

Die Janes House is 'n oorblyfsel uit 1903 van die Victoriaanse huise wat op die Hollywood Boulevard in die 1880's gebou is. Die Jane -susters het in 1911 'n skool in die huis geopen en die kinders van bekendes soos Cecile B. DeMille en Charlie Chaplin geleer. Destyds was The Janes House omring deur lemoenboorde in die noorde en suide. 'Hulle sou die bosse afsny om te bou,' sê Wanamaker.

7 / 47


Charles Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer & quotCharlie & quot; Chaplin, KBE was 'n Engelse komiese akteur en regisseur van die tydfilm -era. Hy het voor die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog een van die bekendste filmsterre ter wêreld geword. Chaplin het mimiek, slapstick en ander visuele komedie -roetines gebruik en het tot in die era van die talkies voortgegaan, hoewel sy films aan die einde van die 1920's in frekwensie afgeneem het. Sy bekendste rol was dié van The Tramp, wat hy die eerste keer in die Keystone -komedie vertolk het Kid Auto Races in Venesië in 1914. Vanaf die April 1914-een-reeler Twintig minute van liefde daarna skryf en regisseer hy die meeste van sy films, teen 1916 vervaardig hy ook en vanaf 1918 die musiek. Saam met Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks en D.W. Griffith was hy medestigter van United Artists in 1919.

Chaplin was een van die kreatiefste en invloedrykste persoonlikhede van die stilfilm-era. Hy is beïnvloed deur sy voorganger, die Franse stilfilmkomediant Max Linder, aan wie hy een van sy films gewy het. Sy werkslewe in vermaaklikheid strek oor 75 jaar, vanaf die Victoriaanse verhoog en die Music Hall in die Verenigde Koninkryk as kinderopvoerder, tot naby sy dood op 88-jarige ouderdom. omstredenheid. Chaplin se identifikasie met die linkses het hom uiteindelik gedwing om in die vroeë 1950's in Europa te hervestig tydens die McCarthy -era.

In 1999 het die American Film Institute Chaplin as die 10de grootste manlike skermlegende van alle tye beskou. In 2008 het Martin Sieff in 'n resensie van die boek geskryf: "quotChaplin was nie net groot nie, hy was reusagtig. In 1915 het hy op 'n oorloggeteisterde wêreld uitgebars, wat dit die gawe van komedie, gelag en verligting gebring het terwyl dit hom deur die Eerste Wêreldoorlog verskeur het.In die volgende 25 jaar, deur die Groot Depressie en die opkoms van Adolf Hitler, het hy op die werk gebly.


Inhoud

Mary Pickford is gebore as Gladys Marie Smith in 1892 (hoewel sy later 1893 of 1894 as haar geboortejaar beweer het) in Universiteitslaan 211, [Toronto], Ontario. [1] Haar pa, John Charles Smith, was die seun van Engelse metodiste -immigrante en het 'n verskeidenheid werk gedoen. Haar ma, Charlotte Hennessey, was van Ierse Katolieke afkoms en het 'n tyd lank as naaldwerkster gewerk. Sy het twee jonger broers en susters, Charlotte, genaamd "Lottie" (gebore 1893), en John Charles, genaamd "Jack" (gebore 1896), wat ook akteurs geword het. Om haar man se familielede te behaag, het Pickford se ma haar kinders gedoop as Metodiste, die godsdiens van hul vader. John Charles Smith was 'n alkoholis, hy het die gesin verlaat en is op 11 Februarie 1898 oorlede aan 'n dodelike bloedklont wat veroorsaak is deur 'n werkongeluk toe hy 'n portefeulje by Niagara Steamship was. [1]

Toe Gladys vier jaar oud was, was haar huishouding onder aansteeklike kwarantyn as 'n maatreël vir openbare gesondheid. Hulle opreg katolieke ouma aan moederskant (Catherine Faeley Hennessey) het 'n besoekende Rooms -Katolieke priester gevra om die kinders te doop. Pickford is in hierdie tyd gedoop as Gladys Marie Smith. [9] [10]

Nadat sy in 1899 weduwee geword het, het Charlotte Smith instapmanne begin inneem, waarvan een 'n meneer Murphy, die toneelhoofbestuurder van Cummings Stock Company was, wat gou voorgestel het dat Gladys, toe sewe jaar oud, en Lottie, toe ses jaar oud, gegee word twee klein teaterrolle - Gladys vertolk 'n meisie en 'n seuntjie, terwyl Lottie 'n stille rol speel in die produksie van die Die silwer koning in die Princess Theatre van Toronto (in 1915 deur 'n brand verwoes, herbou, in 1931 gesloop), terwyl hul ma die orrel bespeel. [11] [1] Pickford het daarna in baie melodramas saam met Toronto se Valentine Stock Company opgetree en uiteindelik die belangrikste kinderrol in sy weergawe van Die silwer koning. Sy het haar kort loopbaan in Toronto afgesluit met die hoofrol van Little Eva in die Valentine -produksie van Oom Tom se kajuit, aangepas uit die roman uit 1852. [1]

Vroeë jare Redigeer

Teen die vroeë 1900's het teater 'n familieonderneming geword. Gladys, haar ma en twee jonger broers en susters het per trein deur die Verenigde State getoer en opgetree in derdeklasmaatskappye en toneelstukke. Na ses verarmde jare het Pickford nog 'n somer toegelaat om 'n leidende rol op Broadway te speel, en beplan om op te hou speel as sy misluk. In 1906 ondersteun Gladys, Lottie en Jack Smith die sanger Chauncey Olcott op Broadway in Edmund Burke. [12] Gladys het uiteindelik 'n ondersteunende rol in 'n 1907 Broadway -toneelstuk gekry, Die Warrens van Virginia. Die stuk is geskryf deur William C. deMille, wie se broer, Cecil, in die rolverdeling verskyn het. David Belasco, die vervaardiger van die toneelstuk, het daarop aangedring dat Gladys Smith die verhoognaam Mary Pickford aanvaar. [13] Nadat hy die Broadway -ren voltooi het en die toneelstuk besoek het, was Pickford egter weer werkloos.

Op 19 April 1909 het die direkteur van Biograph Company, D. W. Griffith, haar in die ateljee van die onderneming in New York getoets vir 'n rol in die nickelodeon-film Pippa slaag. Die rol het na iemand anders gegaan, maar Griffith is onmiddellik saam met Pickford geneem. Sy het vinnig besef dat rolprent eenvoudiger is as die gestileerde toneelstuk van die dag. Die meeste Biograph -akteurs verdien $ 5 per dag, maar ná Pickford se enkele dag in die ateljee het Griffith ingestem om haar $ 10 per dag te betaal teen 'n waarborg van $ 40 per week. [14]

Pickford het, net soos alle ander akteurs by Biograph, beide dele en hoofrolle gespeel, waaronder moeders, ingenieurs, vrouens, spitfires, slawe, inheemse Amerikaners, afgeskeepte vroue en 'n prostituut. Soos Pickford gesê het oor haar sukses by Biograph:

Ek het skropvroue en sekretaresse en vroue van alle nasionaliteite gespeel. Ek het besluit dat as ek soveel foto's as moontlik sou kry, ek bekend sou word, en daar 'n vraag na my werk sou wees.

Sy verskyn in 51 films in 1909 - byna een per week - met haar eerste hoofrol Die vioolmaker van Cremona teenoor toekomstige man Owen Moore. [3] Terwyl sy by Biograph was, stel sy aan Florence La Badie voor om 'foto's te probeer', nooi haar na die ateljee en stel haar later voor aan D. W. Griffith, wat La Badie se loopbaan begin het. [15]

In Januarie 1910 reis Pickford met 'n Biograph -bemanning na Los Angeles. Baie ander filmondernemings het aan die Weskus oorwinter en die swak lig en kort dae wat die skietery in die Ooste belemmer het, vrygespring. Pickford het bygevoeg tot haar biografieë uit 1909 (Soet en twintig, Hulle sou wegkom, en Om haar siel te red, om maar net 'n paar te noem) met films wat in Kalifornië gemaak is.

Akteurs is nie op die krediete in die maatskappy van Griffith genoteer nie. Die gehoor het Pickford gesien en geïdentifiseer binne enkele weke na haar eerste filmverskyning. Uitstallers het op haar beurt hul gewildheid benut deur op toebroodjieborde te adverteer dat 'n film met 'The Girl with the Golden Curls', 'Blondilocks' of 'The Biograph Girl' daarin was. [16]

Pickford verlaat Biograph in Desember 1910. Die jaar daarna speel sy in rolprente by Carl Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures Company (IMP). IMP is in 1912 saam met Majestic opgeneem in Universal Pictures. Ontevrede met hul kreatiewe standaarde, het Pickford in 1912 teruggekeer om saam met Griffith te werk. Van haar beste optredes was in sy films, soos Vriende, Die Mender van Nette, Net soos 'n vrou, en Die wyfie van die spesie. Daardie jaar stel Pickford ook Dorothy en Lillian Gish - met wie sy as nuwe bure uit Ohio [17] bekend was - bekend aan Griffith, [1] en word elkeen groot rolprentsterre, onderskeidelik in komedie en tragedie. Pickford het haar laaste biografie gemaak, Die New York -hoed, laat in 1912.

Sy keer terug na Broadway in die David Belasco -produksie van 'N Goeie Duiwel (1912). Dit was 'n belangrike keerpunt in haar loopbaan. Pickford, wat nog altyd gehoop het om die Broadway -verhoog te verower, het ontdek hoe diep sy rol in die rol speel. In 1913 besluit sy om uitsluitlik in film te werk. Die vorige jaar het Adolph Zukor Famous Players in Famous Plays gevorm. Dit was later bekend as Famous Players-Lasky en daarna Paramount Pictures, een van die eerste Amerikaanse rolprentmaatskappye.

Pickford het die verhoog verlaat om by Zukor se sterreël aan te sluit. Zukor het geglo dat die film se potensiaal daarin lê om teaterspelers op te neem in replika's van hul bekendste verhoogrolle en produksies. Zukor het Pickford die eerste keer verfilm in 'n stille weergawe van 'N Goeie Duiwel. Die film, wat in 1913 vervaardig is, toon die Broadway -akteurs van die toneelstuk wat elke dialoogreël voorgee, wat lei tot 'n stywe film wat Pickford later noem "een van die ergste [funksies] wat ek ooit gemaak het. Dit was dodelik". [1] Zukor het ingestem dat hy die film vir 'n jaar terughou van verspreiding.

Pickford se werk in materiaal wat destyds vir die kamera geskryf is, het 'n sterk aanhang getrek. Komediedramas, soos In die biskopwa (1913), Caprice (1913), en veral Harte dryf (1914), het haar vir filmgangers onweerstaanbaar gemaak. Harte dryf was so gewild dat Pickford die eerste van haar vele gepubliseerde salarisverhogings gevra het op grond van die winste en resensies. [18] Die film was die eerste keer dat Pickford se naam bo die titel op filmtentjies verskyn. [18] Tess of the Storm Country is vyf weke later vrygelaat. Biograaf Kevin Brownlow het opgemerk dat die film "haar loopbaan in 'n wentelbaan gestuur het en haar die gewildste aktrise in Amerika gemaak het, indien nie die wêreld nie". [18]

Haar beroep is twee jaar later saamgevat deur die uitgawe van Februarie 1916 Fotospeel as "ligte teerheid in 'n staalband van geut -woeste". [1] Slegs Charlie Chaplin, wat Pickford se gewildheid in 1916 effens oortref het, [19] het 'n soortgelyke aantrekkingskrag onder kritici en die gehoor gehad. Elkeen geniet 'n roem wat baie hoër is as dié van ander akteurs. Throughout the 1910s and 1920s, Pickford was believed to be the most famous woman in the world, or, as a silent-film journalist described her, "the best known woman who has ever lived, the woman who was known to more people and loved by more people than any other woman that has been in all history". [1]

Stardom Edit

Pickford starred in 52 features throughout her career. On June 24, 1916, Pickford signed a new contract with Zukor that granted her full authority over production of the films in which she starred, [20] and a record-breaking salary of $10,000 a week. [21] In addition, Pickford's compensation was half of a film's profits, with a guarantee of $1,040,000 (US$18,720,000 in 2021), [22] making her the first actress to sign a million dollar contract. [3] She also became vice-president of Pickford Film Corporation. [3]

Occasionally, she played a child, in films such as The Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1917), Daddy-Long-Legs (1919) and Pollyanna (1920). Pickford's fans were devoted to these "little girl" roles, but they were not typical of her career. [1] Due to her lack of a normal childhood, she enjoyed making these pictures. Given how small she was at under five feet, and her naturalistic acting abilities, she was very successful in these roles. Douglas Fairbanks Jr., when he first met her in person as a boy, assumed she was a new playmate for him, and asked her to come and play trains with him, which she obligingly did. [23]

In August 1918, Pickford's contract expired and, when refusing Zukor's terms for a renewal, she was offered $250,000 to leave the motion picture business. She declined, and went to First National Pictures, which agreed to her terms. [24] In 1919, Pickford, along with D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, and Douglas Fairbanks, formed the independent film production company United Artists. Through United Artists, Pickford continued to produce and perform in her own movies she could also distribute them as she chose. In 1920, Pickford's film Pollyanna grossed around $1,100,000. [25] The following year, Pickford's film Little Lord Fauntleroy was also a success, and in 1923, Rosita grossed over $1,000,000 as well. [25] During this period, she also made Little Annie Rooney (1925), another film in which Pickford played a child, Sparrows (1926), which blended the Dickensian with newly minted German expressionist style, and My Best Girl (1927), a romantic comedy featuring her future husband Charles "Buddy" Rogers.

The arrival of sound was her undoing. Pickford underestimated the value of adding sound to movies, claiming that "adding sound to movies would be like putting lipstick on the Venus de Milo". [25]

She played a reckless socialite in Coquette (1929), her first talkie, [26] a role for which her famous ringlets were cut into a 1920s' bob. Pickford had already cut her hair in the wake of her mother's death in 1928. Fans were shocked at the transformation. [27] Pickford's hair had become a symbol of female virtue, and when she cut it, the act made front-page news in Die New York Times and other papers. Coquette was a success and won her an Academy Award for Best Actress, [28] although this was highly controversial. [29] The public failed to respond to her in the more sophisticated roles. Like most movie stars of the silent era, Pickford found her career fading as talkies became more popular among audiences. [28]

Her next film, The Taming of The Shrew, made with husband Douglas Fairbanks, was not well received at the box office. [30] Established Hollywood actors were panicked by the impending arrival of the talkies. On March 29, 1928, The Dodge Brothers Hour was broadcast from Pickford's bungalow, featuring Fairbanks, Chaplin, Norma Talmadge, Gloria Swanson, John Barrymore, D. W. Griffith, and Dolores del Río, among others. They spoke on the radio show to prove that they could meet the challenge of talking movies. [31]

A transition in the roles Pickford selected came when she was in her late 30s, no longer able to play the children, teenage spitfires, and feisty young women so adored by her fans, and was not suited for the glamorous and vampish heroines of early sound. In 1933, she underwent a Technicolor screen test for an animated/live action film version of Alice in Wonderland, but Walt Disney discarded the project when Paramount released its own version of the book. Only one Technicolor still of her screen test still exists.

She retired from film acting in 1933 following three costly failures with her last film appearance being Secrets. [3] [32] She appeared on stage in Chicago in 1934 in the play The Church Mouse and went on tour in 1935, starting in Seattle with the stage version of Coquette. [3] She also appeared in a season of radio plays for NBC in 1935 and CBS in 1936. [3] In 1936 she became vice-president of United Artists [32] and continued to produce films for others, including One Rainy Afternoon (1936), The Gay Desperado (1936), Sleep, My Love (1948 with Claudette Colbert) and Love Happy (1949), with the Marx Brothers. [1]

The film industry Edit

Pickford used her stature in the movie industry to promote a variety of causes. Although her image depicted fragility and innocence, she proved to be a strong businesswoman who took control of her career in a cutthroat industry. [33]

During World War I she promoted the sale of Liberty Bonds, making an intensive series of fund-raising speeches, beginning in Washington, D.C., where she sold bonds alongside Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Theda Bara, and Marie Dressler. Five days later she spoke on Wall Street to an estimated 50,000 people. Though Canadian-born, she was a powerful symbol of Americana, kissing the American flag for cameras and auctioning one of her world-famous curls for $15,000. In a single speech in Chicago, she sold an estimated five million dollars' worth of bonds. She was christened the U.S. Navy's official "Little Sister" the Army named two cannons after her and made her an honorary colonel. [1]

In 1916, Pickford and Constance Adams DeMille, wife of director Cecil B. DeMille, helped found the Hollywood Studio Club, a dormitory for young women involved in the motion picture business. [3] At the end of World War I, Pickford conceived of the Motion Picture Relief Fund, an organization to help financially needy actors. Leftover funds from her work selling Liberty Bonds were put toward its creation, and in 1921, the Motion Picture Relief Fund (MPRF) was officially incorporated, with Joseph Schenck voted its first president and Pickford its vice president. In 1932, Pickford spearheaded the "Payroll Pledge Program", a payroll-deduction plan for studio workers who gave one half of one percent of their earnings to the MPRF. As a result, in 1940, the Fund was able to purchase land and build the Motion Picture Country House and Hospital, in Woodland Hills, California. [1]

An astute businesswoman, Pickford became her own producer within three years of her start in features. According to her Foundation, "she oversaw every aspect of the making of her films, from hiring talent and crew to overseeing the script, the shooting, the editing, to the final release and promotion of each project". She demanded (and received) these powers in 1916, when she was under contract to Zukor's Famous Players in Famous Plays (later Paramount). Zukor acquiesced to her refusal to participate in block-booking, the widespread practice of forcing an exhibitor to show a bad film of the studio's choosing to also be able to show a Pickford film. In 1916, Pickford's films were distributed, singly, through a special distribution unit called Artcraft. The Mary Pickford Corporation was briefly Pickford's motion-picture production company. [34]

In 1919, she increased her power by co-founding United Artists (UA) with Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith, and her soon-to-be husband, Douglas Fairbanks. Before UA's creation, Hollywood studios were vertically integrated, not only producing films but forming chains of theaters. Distributors (also part of the studios) arranged for company productions to be shown in the company's movie venues. Filmmakers relied on the studios for bookings in return they put up with what many considered creative interference. [ aanhaling nodig ]

United Artists broke from this tradition. It was solely a distribution company, offering independent film producers access to its own screens as well as the rental of temporarily unbooked cinemas owned by other companies. Pickford and Fairbanks produced and shot their films after 1920 at the jointly owned Pickford-Fairbanks studio on Santa Monica Boulevard. The producers who signed with UA were true independents, producing, creating and controlling their work to an unprecedented degree. As a co-founder, as well as the producer and star of her own films, Pickford became the most powerful woman who has ever worked in Hollywood. By 1930, Pickford's acting career had largely faded. [28] After retiring three years later, however, she continued to produce films for United Artists. She and Chaplin remained partners in the company for decades. Chaplin left the company in 1955, and Pickford followed suit in 1956, selling her remaining shares for $3 million. [34]

She had bought the rights to many of her early silent films with the intention of burning them on her death, but in 1970 she agreed to donate 50 of her Biograph films to the American Film Institute. [26] In 1976, she received an Academy Honorary Award for her contribution to American film. [26]

Pickford was married three times. She married Owen Moore, an Irish-born silent film actor, on January 7, 1911. It is rumored she became pregnant by Moore in the early 1910s and had a miscarriage or an abortion. Some accounts suggest this resulted in her later inability to have children. [1] The couple's marriage was strained by Moore's alcoholism, insecurity about living in the shadow of Pickford's fame, and bouts of domestic violence. [ aanhaling nodig ] The couple lived together on-and-off for several years. [35]

Pickford became secretly involved in a relationship with Douglas Fairbanks. They toured the U.S. together in 1918 to promote Liberty Bond sales for the World War I effort. Around this time, Pickford also suffered from the flu during the 1918 flu pandemic. [36] Pickford divorced Moore on March 2, 1920, after she agreed to his $100,000 demand for a settlement. [37] She married Fairbanks just days later on March 28, 1920 in what was described as the "marriage of the century" and they were referred to as the King and Queen of Hollywood. [3] They went to Europe for their honeymoon fans in London and in Paris caused riots trying to get to the famous couple. The couple's triumphant return to Hollywood was witnessed by vast crowds who turned out to hail them at railway stations across the United States.

The Mark of Zorro (1920) and a series of other swashbucklers gave the popular Fairbanks a more romantic, heroic image. Pickford continued to epitomize the virtuous but fiery girl next door. Even at private parties, people instinctively stood up when Pickford entered a room she and her husband were often referred to as "Hollywood royalty". Their international reputations were broad. Foreign heads of state and dignitaries who visited the White House often asked if they could also visit Pickfair, the couple's mansion in Beverly Hills. [13]

Dinners at Pickfair became celebrity events. Charlie Chaplin, Fairbanks' best friend, was often present. Other guests included George Bernard Shaw, Albert Einstein, Elinor Glyn, Helen Keller, H. G. Wells, Lord Mountbatten, Fritz Kreisler, Amelia Earhart, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Noël Coward, Max Reinhardt, Baron Nishi, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, [38] Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Austen Chamberlain, Sir Harry Lauder, and Meher Baba, among others. The public nature of Pickford's second marriage strained it to the breaking point. Both she and Fairbanks had little time off from producing and acting in their films. They were also constantly on display as America's unofficial ambassadors to the world, leading parades, cutting ribbons, and making speeches. When their film careers both began to flounder at the end of the silent era, Fairbanks' restless nature prompted him to overseas travel (something which Pickford did not enjoy). When Fairbanks' romance with Sylvia, Lady Ashley became public in the early 1930s, he and Pickford separated. They divorced January 10, 1936. Fairbanks' son by his first wife, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., claimed his father and Pickford long regretted their inability to reconcile. [1]

On June 24, 1937, Pickford married her third and last husband, actor and band leader Charles "Buddy" Rogers. They adopted two children: Roxanne (born 1944, adopted 1944) and Ronald Charles (born 1937, adopted 1943, a.k.a. Ronnie Pickford Rogers). A PBS American Experience documentary described Pickford's relationship with her children as tense. She criticized their physical imperfections, including Ronnie's small stature and Roxanne's crooked teeth. Both children later said their mother was too self-absorbed to provide real maternal love. In 2003, Ronnie recalled that "Things didn't work out that much, you know. But I'll never forget her. I think that she was a good woman." [39]

Politieke sienings Redigeer

In 1926, while in Italy, she (together with Fairbanks) met fascist dictator Benito Mussolini.

Later jare en dood Redigeer

After retiring from the screen, Pickford became an alcoholic, as her father had been. Her mother Charlotte died of breast cancer in March 1928. Her siblings, Lottie and Jack, both died of alcohol-related causes in 1936 and 1933, respectively. These deaths, her divorce from Fairbanks, and the end of silent films left Pickford deeply depressed. Her relationship with her adopted children, Roxanne and Ronald, was turbulent at best. Pickford withdrew and gradually became a recluse, remaining almost entirely at Pickfair and allowing visits only from Lillian Gish, her stepson Douglas Fairbanks Jr., and few other people.

In 1955, she published her memoirs, Sunshine and Shadows. [26] She had previously published Why Not Try God in 1934, an essay on spirituality and personal growth, My Rendevouz of Life (1935), an essay on death and her belief in an afterlife and also a novel in 1935, The Demi-Widow. [32] [3] She appeared in court in 1959, in a matter pertaining to her co-ownership of North Carolina TV station WSJS-TV. The court date coincided with the date of her 67th birthday under oath, when asked to give her age, Pickford replied: "I'm 21, going on 20." [42]

In the mid-1960s, Pickford often received visitors only by telephone, speaking to them from her bedroom. Charles "Buddy" Rogers often gave guests tours of Pickfair, including views of a genuine western bar Pickford had bought for Douglas Fairbanks, and a portrait of Pickford in the drawing room. A print of this image now hangs in the Library of Congress. [34] When Pickford received an Academy Honorary Award in 1976, the Academy sent a TV crew to her house to record her short statement of thanks – offering the public a very rare glimpse into Pickfair Manor. [43] Charitable events continued to be held at Pickfair, including an annual Christmas party for blind war veterans, mostly from World War I. [3]

Pickford believed that she had ceased to be a British subject when she married an American citizen upon her marriage to Fairbanks in 1920. [44] Thus, she never acquired Canadian citizenship when it was first created in 1947. However, Pickford held and traveled under a British/Canadian passport which she renewed regularly at the British/Canadian consulates in Los Angeles, and she did not take out papers for American citizenship. She also owned a house in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Toward the end of her life, Pickford made arrangements with the Canadian Department of Citizenship to officially acquire Canadian citizenship because she wished to "die as a Canadian". Canadian authorities were not sure that she had ever lost her Canadian citizenship, given her passport status, but her request was approved and she officially became a Canadian citizen. [45] [46]

On May 29, 1979, Pickford died at a Santa Monica, California, hospital of complications from a cerebral hemorrhage she had suffered the week before. [47] She was interred in the Garden of Memory of the Forest Lawn Memorial Park cemetery in Glendale, California.

  • Pickford was awarded a star in the category of motion pictures on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6280 Hollywood Blvd. [48]
  • Her handprints and footprints are displayed at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, California.
  • She is represented in Hergé's Tintin in America. [49]
  • The Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study at 1313 Vine Street in Hollywood, constructed by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, opened in 1948 as a radio and television studio facility.
  • The Mary Pickford Theater at the James Madison Memorial Building of the Library of Congress is named in her honor. [34]
  • The Mary Pickford Auditorium at Claremont McKenna College is named in her honor.
  • In 1948, Mary Pickford built a seven-bedroom, eight-bathroom, 6,050 square foot estate on 2.12 acres at the B Bar H Ranch, California where she lived and then later sold. [50]
  • A first-run movie theatre in Cathedral City, California is called The Mary Pickford Theatre, which was established on May 25, 2001. [51] The theater is a grand one with several screens and is built in the shape of a Spanish Cathedral, complete with bell tower and three-story lobby. The lobby contains a historic display with original artifacts belonging to Pickford and Buddy Rogers, her last husband. Among them are a rare and spectacular beaded gown she wore in the film Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall (1924) designed by Mitchell Leisen, her special Oscar, and a jewelry box. [aanhaling nodig]
  • The 1980 stage musical The Biograph Girl, about the silent film era, features the character of Pickford.
  • In 2007, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences sued the estate of the deceased Buddy Rogers' second wife, Beverly Rogers, in order to stop the public sale of one of Pickford's Oscars. [52]
  • A bust and historical plaque marks her birthplace in Toronto, now the site of the Hospital for Sick Children. [53] The plaque was unveiled by her husband Buddy Rogers in 1973. The bust by artist Eino Gira was added ten years later. [54] Her date of birth is stated on the plaque as April 8, 1893. This can only be assumed to be because her date of birth was never registered throughout her life, beginning as a child, she led many people to believe that she was a year younger than her real age, so that she appeared to be more of an acting prodigy and continued to be cast in younger roles, which were more plentiful in the theatre. [55]
  • The family home had been demolished in 1943, and many of the bricks delivered to Pickford in California. Proceeds from the sale of the property were donated by Pickford to build a bungalow in East York, Ontario, which was then a Toronto suburb. The bungalow was the first prize in a lottery in Toronto to benefit war charities, and Pickford unveiled the home on May 26, 1943. [56]
  • In 1993, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars was dedicated to her. [57]
  • Pickford received a posthumous star on Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto in 1999.
  • Pickford was featured on a Canadian postage stamp in 2006. [58]
  • From January 2011 until July 2011, the Toronto International Film Festival exhibited a collection of Mary Pickford memorabilia in the Canadian Film Gallery of the TIFF Bell LightBox building. [59]
  • In February 2011, the Spadina Museum, dedicated to the 1920s and 1930s era in Toronto, staged performances of Sweetheart: The Mary Pickford Story, a one-woman musical based on the life and career of Pickford. [60]
  • In 2013, a copy of an early Pickford film that was thought to be lost (Their First Misunderstanding) was found by Peter Massie, a carpenter tearing down an abandoned barn in New Hampshire. It was donated to Keene State College and is currently undergoing restoration by the Library of Congress for exhibition. The film is notable as being the first in which Pickford was credited by name. [61][62]
  • On August 29, 2014, while presenting Behind The Scenes (1914) at Cinecon, film historian Jeffrey Vance announced he is working with the Mary Pickford Foundation on what will be her official biography.
  • The Google Doodle of April 8, 2017 commemorated Mary Pickford's 125th birthday. [63]
  • The Girls in the Picture, a 2018 novel by Melanie Benjamin, is a historical fiction about the friendship of Mary Pickford and screenwriter Frances Marion. [64]
  • On August 20, 2019, the Toronto International Film Festival announced Mati Diop as the recipient of the first Mary Pickford Award.

Pickford's handprints and footprints at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, California


Vroeë lewe en loopbaan

Chaplin was named after his father, a British music-hall entertainer. He spent his early childhood with his mother, the singer Hannah Hall, after she and his father separated, and he made his own stage debut at age five, filling in for his mother. The mentally unstable Hall was later confined to an asylum. Charlie and his half brother Sydney were sent to a series of bleak workhouses and residential schools.

Using his mother’s show-business contacts, Charlie became a professional entertainer in 1897 when he joined the Eight Lancashire Lads, a clog-dancing act. His subsequent stage credits include a small role in William Gillette’s Sherlock Holmes (1899) and a stint with the vaudeville act Casey’s Court Circus. In 1908 he joined the Fred Karno pantomime troupe, quickly rising to star status as The Drunk in the ensemble sketch A Night in an English Music Hall.

While touring America with the Karno company in 1913, Chaplin was signed to appear in Mack Sennett’s Keystone comedy films. Though his first Keystone one-reeler, Making a Living (1914), was not the failure that historians have claimed, Chaplin’s initial screen character, a mercenary dandy, did not show him to best advantage. Ordered by Sennett to come up with a more-workable screen image, Chaplin improvised an outfit consisting of a too-small coat, too-large pants, floppy shoes, and a battered derby. As a finishing touch, he pasted on a postage-stamp mustache and adopted a cane as an all-purpose prop. It was in his second Keystone film, Kid Auto Races at Venice (1914), that Chaplin’s immortal screen alter ego, “the Little Tramp,” was born.

In truth, Chaplin did not always portray a tramp in many of his films his character was employed as a waiter, store clerk, stagehand, fireman, and the like. His character might be better described as the quintessential misfit—shunned by polite society, unlucky in love, jack-of-all-trades but master of none. He was also a survivor, forever leaving past sorrows behind, jauntily shuffling off to new adventures. The Tramp’s appeal was universal: audiences loved his cheekiness, his deflation of pomposity, his casual savagery, his unexpected gallantry, and his resilience in the face of adversity. Some historians have traced the Tramp’s origins to Chaplin’s Dickensian childhood, while others have suggested that the character had its roots in the motto of Chaplin’s mentor, Fred Karno: “Keep it wistful, gentlemen, keep it wistful.” Whatever the case, within months after his movie debut, Chaplin was the screen’s biggest star.

His 35 Keystone comedies can be regarded as the Tramp’s gestation period, during which a caricature became a character. The films improved steadily once Chaplin became his own director. In 1915 he left Sennett to accept a $1,250-weekly contract at Essanay Studios. It was there that he began to inject elements of pathos into his comedy, notably in such shorts as The Tramp (1915) and Burlesque on Carmen (1915). He moved on to an even more lucrative job ($670,000 per year) at the Mutual Company Film Corporation. There, during an 18-month period, he made the 12 two-reelers that many regard as his finest films, among them such gems as Een A.M. (1916), The Rink (1916), Die Vagabond (1916), and Easy Street (1917). It was then, in 1917, that Chaplin found himself attacked for the first (though hardly the last) time by the press. He was criticized for not enlisting to fight in World War I. To aid the war effort, Chaplin raised funds for the troops via bond drives.

In 1918 Chaplin jumped studios again, accepting a $1 million offer from the First National Film Corporation for eight shorts. That same year he married 16-year-old film extra Mildred Harris—the first in a procession of child brides. For his new studio he made shorts such as Shoulder Arms (1918) and The Pilgrim (1923) and his first starring feature, Die kind (1921), which starred the irresistible Jackie Coogan as the kid befriended and aided by the Little Tramp. Some have suggested that the increased dramatic content of those films is symptomatic of Chaplin’s efforts to justify the praise lavished upon him by the critical intelligentsia. A painstaking perfectionist, he began spending more and more time on the preparation and production of each film. In his personal life too, Chaplin was particular. Having divorced Mildred in 1921, Chaplin married in 1924 16-year-old Lillita MacMurray, who shortly would become known to the world as film star Lita Grey. (They would be noisily divorced in 1927.)


Famous people in profile: Charlie Chaplin

On the 125th anniversary of Charlie Chaplin’s birth, Peter Ackroyd has written a new biography exploring the life of the cinema legend. Here, in an interview with Ekstra geskiedenis, Ackroyd reveals the man behind the moustache, and explains why he continues to fascinate…

Q: What was Chaplin’s early life like?

A: He was born in London, and spent most of his childhood in Kennington. He was consigned to the workhouse, the poor house, and even the orphanage, because his mother – who suffered bouts of madness – could not cope with him.

As he grew older he went around the streets of England, taking up ‘odd jobs’. He had very little education, and effectively because a vagrant.

Q: How did he rise to fame?

A: He was employed by a group of clog dancers, ‘the eight Lancashire lads’. He toured with them at the age of 10, and soon became proficient. That was the beginning of his interest in theatre.

He went on to become a child actor, which proved to be a great chance for him to display his skills as a mimic and an entertainer.

He was then taken on by the Fred Karno travelling company as a juvenile act, and he became their key performer. With Karno he went to America, and while on his second tour was spotted by studio manager Mack Sennett [of the Keystone Film Company].

Chaplin was asked to join Keystone, and from there he went on to invent ‘the Tramp’. It’s not quite clear how he managed to create the costume. Some say he modeled it on the English poor, but others say he copied acts he had seen in music halls in 19th-century London.

It was a character to which he stuck, and which proved to be very popular. But he later decided to become a more ‘serious’ actor, which only made him more popular.

Q: While researching your book, have you discovered anything surprising about Chaplin?

A: He had a very bad temper, and was domineering. He was not a very nice person to be around – he was a moody individual.

Q: What inspired you to write a biography of Chaplin?

A: I was inspired because he is from London, and I have always written about London. I found his story to be in many respects inspiring – his energy, enthusiasm, indomitable will and refusal to give up on anything.


Kyk die video: Чарли Чаплин Золотая (November 2021).