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8 Legendariese tweegevegte

8 Legendariese tweegevegte

1. Alexander Hamilton en Aaron Burr (1804)

Op 11 Julie 1804 het jare van toenemende persoonlike en politieke spanning uitgeloop op die bekendste tweestryd in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis: die opstand tussen Alexander Hamilton, 'n vooraanstaande federalis en voormalige sekretaris van die tesourie, en Aaron Burr, wat toe as vise -president gedien het onder Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton het 'n afsku gekry van Burr, wat hy as 'n opportunis beskou het, en het hom fel beywer tydens sy mislukte 1804 -poging om goewerneur van New York te word. Burr besluit om sy reputasie te herstel deur Hamilton uit te daag tot 'n 'ereprobleem', soos tweestryde destyds bekend was.

Die vyande het mekaar ontmoet op die tweestrydsterrein naby Weehawken, New Jersey - dieselfde plek waar Hamilton se seun gesterf het in die verdediging van sy vader se eer in November 1801. (Die verlies het Hamilton geïnspireer om tweestryd aan die kaak te stel en sy stem te verleen aan die groeiende beweging teen die praktyk.) Volgens sommige berigte het Hamilton nooit beplan om na Burr te mik nie, maar in die hoop om 'n simboliese skoot in die lug te skiet en die saak vreedsaam op te los. Wat sy voornemens ook al was, Hamilton het sy teenstander gemis, maar is onmiddellik in die maag geskiet; hy is die volgende middag oorlede. Min ereaangeleenthede het destyds eintlik tot sterftes gelei, en die nasie was woedend oor die moord op 'n man wat net so hoog soos Alexander Hamilton was. Die openbare mening was teen Burr, wat van moord aangekla is en later gearresteer is weens verraad in 'n onverwante voorval. Omdat hy vrygespreek is op tegniese vlak, vlug hy na Europa voordat hy terugkeer na die privaat lewe in New York.

2. Lady Almeria Braddock en mev Elphinstone (1792)

'N Sekere mevrou Elphinstone het nie meer as 'n koppie tee verwag nie, toe sy 'n sosiale oproep maak na die huis van Lady Almeria Braddock in Londen in 1792. Maar die besoek het na 'n besonders ongelyke gebied gegaan toe die gasvrou, blykbaar woedend deur 'n toevallige opmerking, mevrou Elphinstone oor haar ouderdom gemaak, haar gas uitgedaag tot 'n tweestryd in Hyde Park. Volgens berigte het mev Elphinstone eers haar pistool afgevuur en Lady Braddock se hoed op die grond geslaan. Die vroue neem toe swaarde op, en Lady Braddock het wraak geneem deur haar teenstander in die arm te beseer. Die "Petticoat Duel", soos dit bekend geword het, het sonder verdere voorval geëindig toe mev Elphinstone ingestem het om 'n brief van verskoning te skryf.

3. Miyamoto Musashi en Sasaki Kojiro (1612)

Aangezien Miyamoto Musashi en Sasaki Kojiro, wat beskou word as die vooraanstaande Japannese swaardvegters van hul tyd, het hulle mekaar ontmoet op die afgeleë oewers van Ganryū -eiland om hul verskille eens en vir altyd op te los. Volgens die legende het Musashi 'n paar uur laat opgedaag om sy teenstander uit te haal, met 'n reuse houtswaard wat hy uit die roeispaan van 'n boot gemaak het. Kojiro val die taai samoerai aan met sy kenmerkende "sluk -sny" -beweging, maar voordat sy mes laat sak word, het Musashi hom 'n dodelike slag toegedien. Vervolg deur woedende Kojiro -ondersteuners wat sy vertraagde aankoms as onregverdig beskou het, spring Musashi terug in sy boot en roei na veiligheid. Later in die lewe sou Musashi 'n bekroonde skilder word.

4. Édouard Manet en Edmond Duranty (1870)

In Februarie 1870 vlieg die Franse skilder Édouard Manet in woede nadat hy 'n enkele passievolle sin gelees het oor twee van sy werke geskryf deur sy jarelange vriend, die kritikus Edmond Duranty. Die kunstenaar storm in Parys se Café Guerbois, storm Duranty in die gesig en daag hom uit tot 'n swaard -tweegeveg. Volgens polisieverslae het die mans mekaar op 23 Februarie in die woud van Saint-Germain gekonfronteer, met die beroemde skrywer Émile Zola wat Manet as "tweede" bygewoon het. Die swaard van die teëstanders het na bewering slegs een keer geslaan, maar met so 'n krag dat albei lemme vasgeklem het. Toe Duranty 'n geringe wond opgedoen het, verklaar Manet dat sy eer voldoende verdedig is, en kort voor lank het die twee Parysenaars hul verhouding opgelos en was hulle weer besig om maaltye by die Guerbois te eet.

5. Alexander Pushkin en Georges d'Anthès (1837)

Miskien meer as die man met die pistool, was dit jaloers dat die groot Russiese digter Alexander Pushkin op die hoogtepunt van sy loopbaan geval het. In die 1830's het George d'Anthès Poesjkin se pragtige vrou, Natalya, aggressief agternagesit in Sint Petersburg en mondelinge dreigemente van die beroemde - en berugte stoutmoedige - skrywer ingehaal. Op 10 Januarie 1837 trou die Fransman met Natalya se suster Ekaterina, miskien om gerugte van 'n verhouding uit die weg te ruim en Poesjkin se toorn te versag. Nietemin, op 27 Januarie ontmoet die nuut geslaan swaers in 'n tweestryd. D'Anthès het ontsnap met 'n gaping op sy arm, maar Pushkin het 'n koeël na die maag geneem en is twee dae later dood.

6. Isabella de Carazzi en Diambra de Pettinella (1552)

Fabio de Zeresola was moontlik die mees gesogte bachelor in Napels van die 16de eeu. In 'n tyd toe baie tweestryde tussen mans om 'n betwiste dame se guns geveg is, het twee jong vroue - Isabella de Carazzi en Diambra de Pettinella - om Zeresola se geneentheid in 'n openbare swaardgeveg meegeding. Alhoewel die uitslag onbekend is, het die opspraakwekkende gebeurtenis nog dekades lank die tonge laat skarrel. In 1636 verewig die Spaanse kunstenaar Jose de Riberta die verhaal in sy beroemde skildery "Duelo de Mujeres" ("Duel of Women").

7. Ben Jonson en Gabriel Spenser (1598)

Ben Jonson, 'n tydgenoot van William Shakespeare, het 'n moeilike opvoeding oorkom om 'n bekwame dramaturg, digter en akteur te word. Hy het ook 'n slegte seuntjie-reputasie gekweek deur sy genadelose uitbuiting as soldaat, sy harddrinkende leefstyl en sy opruiende geskrifte. Op 22 September 1598 vermoor hy die akteur Gabriel Spenser in 'n tweestryd wat moontlik ontstaan ​​het nadat die twee mans gestry het oor watter teatergroep Elizabethan England se beste was. Jonson is veroordeel om op te hang vir die moord en gebruik 'n wettige leemte wat bekend staan ​​as die 'voordeel van geestelikes', en lees 'n Bybelvers om die doodstraf vry te spring; sy eiendom is uiteindelik gekonfiskeer en sy duim is gebrandmerk. Jonson se trefferspel "Every Man in His Humor" is dieselfde jaar vervaardig, terwyl Shakespeare self 'n rol gespeel het.

8. Andrew Jackson en Charles Dickinson (1806)

Meer as twee dekades voordat hy die sewende president van die Verenigde State geword het, het Andrew Jackson te staan ​​gekom teen Charles Dickinson, 'n advokaat wat in Logan, Kentucky, as een van die beste skote in die omgewing beskou word. Die trotse en onbestendige Jackson, 'n voormalige senator en verteenwoordiger van Tennessee, het die tweestryd gevra nadat Dickinson sy vrou Rachel as 'n bigamis beskryf het, met verwysing na 'n regsfout in haar egskeiding in 1791 van haar eerste man. Op 30 Mei 1806 ontmoet die twee mans met pistole in die hand en staan ​​24 voet uitmekaar in ooreenstemming met tweegeveg. Na die sein het Dickinson eers gevuur, Jackson se borsbeen bewei en 'n paar van sy ribbes gebreek. Jackson, 'n voormalige militêre leier in Tennessee, het sy standpunt gehandhaaf en teruggeskiet en sy opponent noodlottig gewond. Dit was een van verskeie tweegevegte waaraan Jackson gedurende sy leeftyd deelgeneem het, waarvan die meerderheid na bewering ter verdediging van Rachel se eer was.


10 interessante gevalle van enkelgeveg

Die antieke praktyk van enkelgeveg is so oud soos die oorlog self. Dit word gedefinieer as 'n tweestryd tussen twee enkele krygers, wat gewoonlik plaasvind in die konteks van 'n geveg tussen twee leërs. Hierdie tweestryde het soms gedien as 'n manier om groot lewensverlies te voorkom, met die oorwinning van die wenner en die span. Enkele gevegte kan egter ook plaasvind te midde van die geveg tussen twee ooreenstemmende krygers. Hierdie gevegte was byna altyd tot die dood toe.

Die redes vir die deelname aan hierdie gevaarlike tweegevegte is uiteenlopend. Sommige wou krag of glorie wen, terwyl ander die lewens van hul medesoldate wou spaar. Sommige het eenvoudig uit nood geveg. Hier kyk ons ​​na sommige van hierdie dramatiese tweestryde.


1. Krampus

'N Krampus -figuur in Heimstetten, Duitsland. FooTToo/iStock via Getty Images

As 'n hulpmiddel om goeie gedrag by kinders aan te moedig, dien Kersvader as die wortel, en Krampus is die stok. Krampus is die bose demoon teen-Kersvader, of miskien sy bose tweeling. Krampus kan soos 'n duiwel of 'n wilde alpiene dier lyk, afhangende van die streek en watter materiaal beskikbaar is om 'n Krampus -kostuum te maak. Krampus -nag word gevier op 5 Desember, die vooraand van Sint Nikolaasdag in Oostenryk en ander dele van Europa. Openbare vieringe daardie aand het baie Krampusse in die strate geloop en op soek na mense om te verslaan. In onlangse jare het die tradisie verder as Europa versprei, en baie stede in Amerika het nou hul eie Krampus -nagte.


Die legendariese kleinblok Chevy V-8: 'n terugblik op die hoogtepunte daarvan

Dit is nie onredelik om te sê dat die klein blok V-8 van Chevrolet die voorkoms van die motorgeskiedenis verander het nie. Dit was innoverend en tegnologies gevorderd toe dit in 1955 debuteer, en het 'n groot invloed op die toekomstige V-8-enjinontwerpe, beide binne General Motors en onder die kompetisie. Liefhebbers het dit omhels en 'n hele na -mark vir optrede het daar rondom ontstaan. Deur die jare is variasies van die klein-blok V-8 gebruik in renmotors, veldwaens, bote en selfs pasgemaakte motorfietse. Dit kan ook gevind word onder die enjinkap van alles, van klassieke Ford -warmstange tot radikale Jeep -omskakelings.

"Die klein blok Chevy is ongetwyfeld die dominante huishoudelike enjin, wat betref die groot getalle en ook wat die lang lewe betref," sê Jeff Smith, senior tegniese redakteur van Car Craft Magazine. Hy noem die uitruilbaarheid van die enjin as een van die grootste redes vir sy gewildheid. "Dit is moontlik om 'n stel koppe van 'n Vortec -vragmotor van 1990 op die oorspronklike '55 265 'om te ruil. Ek twyfel of daar ooit 'n enjin (miskien die VW) gebou is wat jy onder 45 jaar se onderdele van enjins kan ruil.'

"Die na-mark is dol oor enjins soos die SBC omdat hulle geweet het dat die ontwerp 'n lang lewensduur van 'n dekade of langer sou hê as hulle belê in 'n ordentlike ontwerp, soos 'n goeie vloeiende silinderkop of 'n goed ontwerpte prestasie-nokas.

Bill Tichenor, bemarkingsdirekteur vir Holley Performance Products, weerspieël Smith se gevoelens. "Dit is nie onredelik om te sê dat Holley meer spoedonderdele vir kleinblok Chevys verkoop het as alle ander enjins saam nie. Daar is wonderlike enjins van Ford, Chrysler en ander, maar die verspreiding van kerns en die bekostigbaarheid om krag te maak met 'n klein motor. blok Chevy het dit boontoe gebring. Hulle was beslis ook die motor wat u verkies vir straatkrag, Chevy -spiermotors en -vragmotors, sirkelbane en baie sleepwaens. "

Interessant genoeg was die klein blok Chevy nie die eerste V-8 in die handelsmerk se geskiedenis nie. Vanaf 1917-19 was ongeveer 3000 motors toegerus met die onbekende Chevy Series D V-8. Die 288 kubieke duim (4,7 liter) V-8 het 'n kompressieverhouding van 4,75: 1 en lewer 55 perdekrag by 2700 rpm. Die reeks D was die eerste oorhoofse klep V-8 en het 'n blootgestelde klepstelsel, vernikkelde klepdeksels en 'n watergekoelde inlaatspruitstuk van aluminium.

Drie-en-'n-half dekades na die aanvanklike poging, is die klein blok Chevy gebore. Die 265 kubieke duim (4,3 liter) "Turbo-Fire" -motor, wat ontwikkel is as 'n plaasvervanger vir Chevrolet se "stoofbout" -silinder-enjin, kom in 1955 as 'n opsie vir die Bel Air en Corvette aan. Die kompakte, liggewig ontwerp het 'n boorafstand van 4,4 duim en 'n dun muurgietwerk om gewig te verminder. 'N Interne oliesisteem en die moontlikheid om dit ver te boor en te beroer, ver bo die fabriekslimiet van 400 kubieke duim (Gen I-enjins), het tot sy sukses op lang termyn bygedra.

Ons het die volgende lys saamgestel van 10 van die indrukwekkendste Chevy V-8's met 'n klein blok in die geskiedenis van die handelsmerk. Geniet die V-8 kragreis.

265 Turbo-Fire V-8

Die 265 het op die toneel aangekom met 'n gat van 3,75 duim en 'n slag van 3,00 duim (95,2-76,2 mm). Dit het 162 perdekrag en 257 lb-voet in basiese vorm gemaak met 'n twee-vat vergasser. 'N Opsionele Power Pack het 'n vier-vat-vergasser (en ander modifikasies) bygevoeg met 'n krag van tot 180 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van selfs 260 lb-ft. Toe die 265 by die Corvette aangebring is, het hy 195 perdekrag deur 'n dubbele uitlaatstelsel gemaak. Later die jaar het Chevrolet 'n Super Power Pack -opsie by die Bel Air gevoeg, wat dit na Corvette -kragvlakke geneem het.

In 1956 was die 265 in die Corvette beskikbaar in drie kragtiger geure: 210 perdekrag met 'n enkele vier-vat vergasser, 225 perdekrag met "dubbele quads" en 240 perdekrag met die dubbele vier-vat vergassers en 'n hoë-hef nokas . Die kompakte grootte is moontlik gemaak deur bykomstighede te konsolideer. Volgens GM het dit 'n eenmalige inlaatspruitstuk gebruik wat die wateruitlaat, uitlaathitteverhogers, verdelermontage, olievuller en valdeksel in een gietstuk gekombineer het.

283 Turbo-Fire V-8

Die kleinblok Chevy is geseën met meer verplasing in sy derde jaar (die 162 perdekrag 265 was steeds die basismotor). 'N Groter gat van 3,875 duim het die "Mighty Mouse" tot 286 kubieke duim (4,6 liter) te staan ​​gebring. Vroeë 283's het 265 blokgieters gebruik, maar dun silinderwande het tot oorverhitting bygedra. Die probleem is vroeg opgelos en daaropvolgende 283 enjinblokke is spesifiek gegiet om die probleem te voorkom.

Die 283, genaamd Super Turbo-Fire, het 'n keuse van 'n vergassing of meganiese brandstofinspuiting. Dit het 185 perdekrag met 'n 8.5: 1-kompressieverhouding en 'n tweevat-vergasser 220 perdekrag met 9.5: 1-kompressie en 'n vier-vat-vergasser en 245 of 270 perdekrag as dit toegerus is met dubbele vier-vat-vergassers en die hoër kompressieverhouding.

Modelle toegerus met die Rochester Ram-Jet-brandstofinspuitingstelsel het 250 perdekrag gelewer. Die kragtigste enjin van die lot was die 283-pk Super Ram-Jet met brandstofinspuiting met sy kompressieverhouding van 10,5: 1, wat hom help om die gesogte perdekragstatus per kubieke duim te behaal. In Motoriese neiging destyds getoets, het 'n 1957 Corvette met die Super Ram-Jet 'n topsnelheid van 132 mph bereik op die General Motors Proving Grounds buite Milford, Michigan.

327

Teen 1962 het 'n 170-pk-weergawe van die 283 Chevy se basis V-8 geword, maar opsionele kleinblok-V-8's het 'n volle boring van 4,00 duim en 'n langer slag van 3,25 duim gekry vir 'n totale verplasing van 327 kubieke duim. Die opsionele 327 was beskikbaar met 250, 300 of 340 perdekrag, afhangende van die vier-vat vergasser en kompressieverhouding. Die Corvette was nog steeds beskikbaar met meganiese brandstofinspuiting, wat 360 perdekrag uitgepomp het met 'n kompressieverhouding van 11,25: 1.

Die klein blok van 327 kubieke duim bereik sy piekvermoë in 1965: 365 perdekrag met 'n vier-vat Holley-vergasser of 375 (1,15 pk/cu-in) met die Rochester Ram-Jet-brandstofinspuitingstelsel. Teen die middel van 1965 speel die 327 die tweede viool na die 396-kubieke duim-blok wat in die Corvette debuteer. Dit was die basismotor met 'n keuse van 300 of 350 perdekrag. Dit het 'n stap verder gegaan van die basis 283's (en later 307's) in passasiersmotors en die basismotor in die Corvette totdat die 350 (die eerste keer gesien in die 1967 Camaro) in 1969 in Amerika se sportmotor ingebring is.

Die Camaro was Chevy se reaksie op die Ford Mustang. Benewens die verdediging van GM se intreevlak-handelsmerk, het die Camaro twee landmerke vir klein verplasing bekendgestel. Eerstens was die enjin van 302 kubieke duim wat ontwerp is vir SCCA Trans Am-kompetisie. Die 302 is geskep deur die gietstuk van die 327-motorblok (4,00-duim-boring) te kombineer met die krukas van die 283 (3,00-duimslag). Hierdie enjin is vir mededinging gebou en bevat baie renmotorset, insluitend 'n kompressieverhouding van 11: 1 met vier bout-hoofdeksels, 'n soliede hefas-as en soliede klepstoters hoë inlaatspruitstuk, bedek met 'n 800 CFM Holley-vier-vat-vergasser oliepomp met hoë kapasiteit en verwarde oliepan. Dit het uitgeasem deur 'n dubbele uitlaatstelsel van 2,25 duim. Die enjin is afgewerk met 'n verchroomde lugreiniger, tuimeldeksels, vulbuis en dop.

Camaro-eienaars wat gekies het vir die Z/28-pakket, is beloon met 'n 302 pompe van 290 pk by 5 800 rpm en 290 lb-ft wringkrag by 4200 rpm. Baie meen die perdekrag was konserwatief. Z/28 -eienaars het 'n boks met buisvormige koppe in die kattebak gevind. Met die koppe geïnstalleer, het 'n behoorlike hoofstraal van die vergasser en die ontstekingstydperk dit ongeveer 376 perdekrag opgelewer. Wedrenmotors met dubbele vierkante het tot 465 perdekrag gelewer. Tydens sy produksieperiode van drie jaar het meer as 19 000 Camaro -kopers gekies vir die Z/28, en met goeie rede.

Die Camaro uit 1967 het ook die eerste Chevy V-8 met 'n klein blok van 350 kubieke duim ter wêreld gebring. Hierdie enjin sou uiteindelik in byna elke denkbare vlak in passasiersmotors en vragmotors gebruik word. Soos die 302, was dit gebaseer op die 327-blok, maar die 350 het 'n splinternuwe krukas met 'n slag van 3,48 duim. Die eerste weergawe, genaamd die L-48, lewer 295 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 380 pond. Die 350 het in 1968 in die Nova beskikbaar geword en in sy derde jaar was dit opsioneel oor die Chevrolet -passasiersmotorlyn. Dit vervang die 327 as die basismotor in die Corvette in 1969. Krag het tydens die 1970's se brandstofkrisis gewissel, en baie weergawes van die 350 het na vore gekom. Op sy laagste punt was die 350 op 'n skare van 145 perdekrag (netto).

Maar dit het nie lank geduur voordat die klein blok Chevy sy reputasie as 'n kragbron herwin het nie. Die L-48 en ZQ3 het albei die 300 perdekrag bereik. Twee ander weergawes het die getalle oortref: die 350 perdekrag (netto) L-46, opsioneel in die Corvette van 1969, en die LT-1 in 1970. Die LT-1 was gereed om te veg met soliede lifters, 11: 1-kompressie, hoë- po-nokas en 'n 780 CFM Holley-vier-vat-vergasser wat brandstof en lug deur 'n aluminium-inlaatspruitstuk gestuur het. Uitlaatgasse het die verbrandingskamer verlaat deur ramhorn-spruitstukke en hoëvloei-uitlaatgasse. In 1970 het die LT-1 370 perdekrag (bruto) opgedraai en was dit beskikbaar in die Corvette ZR-1 en Camaro Z28. Net twee jaar later het die kragvlak tot 255 perdekrag (netto) gedaal.

Dit het byna 15 jaar geneem voordat die Chevy 350 'n inspuiting van krag gekry het. Die L98 het die stadige proses begin. GM het die L98 350 geseën met 'n splinternuwe ingestelde brandstofinspuitingstelsel vir ewig deur Chevy-aanhangers bekend as die TPI en erken deur sy olifantbeenlopers. Alhoewel dit slegs op 230 perdekrag was, was dit 'n stap hoër as die 205 perdekrag L83 van die vorige jaar. Teen 1991 bereik die krag 245 perdekrag in die Camaro en Pontiac Firebird en 250 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 345 lb in die Corvette.

Die grootste weergawe van die Generation I-blok was die 400 (6,6 liter). Dit was die enigste enjin wat beskikbaar was met die boor van 4,125 duim en die krukas van 3,75 duim. Dit debuteer in 1970 en word vir 10 jaar vervaardig. Dit bevat Siamesed -silinders vir groter sterkte, met die groot boring en 'n groter staafjoernaal van 2,65 duim. Vroeë modelle het 265 perdekrag met 'n tweevat-vergasser gelewer. 'N Vier-vat vergasser-opsie het in 1974 beskikbaar geword. In sy donkerste uur het dit slegs 145 perdekrag gelewer. Ongeag die perdekrag, was die 400 'n wringkragmonster. Die enjin was tot die einde van die 1976-modeljaar beskikbaar in volgrootte A-bakkies en middelgrootte B-bak Chevy-passasiersmotors. Dit het nog 'n paar jaar in volgrootte bakkies gesorg.

Dit het nie lank geduur voordat hot rodders die 400 se krukas van 3,75 duim in 'n 350-enjinblok geplaas het nie, wat die 383-stroker geskep het. Waterbaadjies tussen alle silinders in die 350 -motorblok weerstaan ​​oorverhitting, anders as die 400 -blok, wat nie die koelvoordeel gehad het nie. Alhoewel die 383 nooit as 'n fabrieksopsie aangebied is nie, het GM se gewildheid daartoe gelei dat 'n 383 kratmotor in sy prestasiekatalogus aangebied word.

Die Corvette was nog altyd 'n toetsbed vir die nuutste tegnologie van Chevrolet-en die 1992-model met die Generation II LT-blok was nie anders nie. Alhoewel baie dele uitruilbaar was tussen Gen I- en Gen II -enjins, het die LT 'n nuwe blok- en kopontwerp gebruik met 'n "omgekeerde vloei" verkoelingstelsel wat eers koelmiddel deur die silinderkoppe gestuur het voordat dit deur die motorblok geloop het. Die koppe en die verbrandingskamer het deurgaans koeler gebly, wat groter kompressie en meer vonkvooruitgang moontlik maak vir groter krag. Die waterpomp, inlaatspruitstuk en demper/katrolstelsel was almal uniek aan die klein blok II.

GM het egter die enjinhouers en die boutpatroon van die klok behoorlik dieselfde gehou, sodat warm rodders die nuwe enjin in 'n ouer onderstel kon oorplaas.

Die Corvette van 1992 het 300 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 330 lb-ft gelewer. Die vierde-generasie F-Body-tweeling (Chevrolet Camaro en Pontiac Firebird) het die LT1 gekry vir hul herontwerp in 1993 en het 'n gewig van 275 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 325 lb. Die enjin was ook beskikbaar in die volledige B- en D-bakkie-GM-voertuie. Die onvergeetlikste is die 1994-1996 Chevrolet Impala SS met 260 perdekrag en 330 lb-ft wringkrag. Alle enjinblokke was van yster, maar Corvettes en F-bakkarre het aluminiumkoppe. Volvoertuie het ysterkoppe gehad. Vir 1996 word Corvettes toegerus met sesgang-handratkas (insluitend alle Grand Sports) aangedryf deur 'n beperkte lopie (6359 eenhede) LT4-enjin van 330 pk met 'n wringkrag van 340 lb-ft. In 1997 was die Chevrolet Camaro SLP/LT4 SS en Pontiac Firebird SLP/LT4 Firehawk saam met die LT4 beskikbaar. Slegs 135 F-bakkies is met die LT4 gebou.

Die LT1 het in die eerste twee jaar 'n brandstofbestuurstelsel vir spoeddigtheid gebruik met brandstofinspuiting. In 1994 het dit 'n massa -lugvloeisensor en 'n opeenvolgende poortinspuiting ontvang. Die enjinbeheermodule (ECM) is ook vervang met 'n kragtiger beheermodule (PCM). Die Corvette van 1994 het die nuwe OBD II -stelsel vir toetsing ontvang voordat die vereistes van die regering in 1996 begin het.

Die nuwe enjin was nie sonder foute nie. Vroeë modelle is geteister deur 'n klein ontwerpfout in die Opti-Spark-verspreider. Vakuumopeninge is by die verspreider gevoeg om die vog wat die vonkvermoë beïnvloed, te verwyder. Ongelukkig het die waterpompe water en koelmiddel in die vents gelek, wat die verspreider verwoes. Hoewel dit nie so gewild is as die oorspronklike kleinblok Chevy - of die latere LS -enjinfamilie nie - spreek die LT1/LT4 nog steeds by baie entoesiaste aan.

"Miskien was die enigste hik in die SBC-afstamming die LT1/LT4-variasie met sy omgekeerde afkoeling en Opti-Spark-ontstekingsveranderlikes wat die enjin minder gewild gemaak het. Tog het dit steeds belangstelling ondanks sy baie kort afstamming," sê Smith.

LS1/LS6

GM se Generation III-enjin het die eerste keer in 1997 in die splinternuwe C5 Corvette verskyn. Die enjins uit die LS-reeks het min gemeen met die eerste twee generasies van die kleinblok Chevy, maar het steeds 'n boorafstand van 4,4 duim gebruik. Die meeste vragmotorweergawes van die Gen III-enjinfamilie het 'n ysterblok en aluminiumkoppe gehad, maar die prestasiemotors het aluminiumblokke met sesbout-hoofdeksels.

In die Corvette het die LS1 345 perdekrag en wringkrag van 350 lb-voet gelewer. Dit het 'n jaar later in die F-body-tweeling aangekom, met 305 perdekrag in Z28 en Formula-afwerking en 325 perdekrag met die SS- en Trans Am-ram-lugpakkette.

Gen III-enjins het ontsteking van 'n spoel-naby-prop in die plek van 'n verspreider bekendgestel en die koppe is herontwerp vir verhoogde lugvloei en krag. Die LS1 het 'n kleiner boring en langer slag as die Gen I en Gen II 350/5.7-liter V-8's. Die nuwe enjin het 'n boor van 3,89 duim (99,0 mm) en 'n slag van 3,62 duim (92 mm) vir 'n totale verplasing as dit 5,7 liter was.

In 2001 is die Corvette Z06 bekendgestel met 'n 5,7 liter-motor met 'n hoër prestasie, die LS6 genoem. Die krag is tot 385 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 385 lb-ft gestamp. Die volgende jaar kry hy nog 'n sterkte van 405 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van selfs 400 pond. Die LS6 is in die Corvette Z06 gebruik totdat die C5 in 2005 deur die C6 vervang is. Cadillac het die LS6 in die eerste generasie CTS V van 2004-2005 gebruik.

Die LS6 was gebaseer op die LS1-enjin, maar het 'n sterker blok, 'n herontwerpte inlaatspruitstuk en 'n groter MAF-sensor vir beter asemhaling, 'n 'groter' nokas en 'n hoër drukverhouding en 'n hersiene olie-stelsel vir spoorgebruik.

Die Chevy V-8 van die Generation IV-blok het in 2005 die strate bereik en is gebaseer op die Generation III, maar is herontwerp om die verplasing op aanvraag en veranderlike kleptydtegnologieë te benut. Die LS7 is die grootste in die fabriek geïnstalleerde kleinblok Chevy V-8 ooit, wat 427,8 kubieke duim of net meer as 7,0 liter verplaas het. Dit het dieselfde boring as die enjin van die 400 kubieke duim van 104,8 mm, maar in teenstelling met die 400, het die LS7 'n volle krukas van 4,00 duim (102 mm) gekry. Die kleinblokmonster van 7,0 liter het 'n rooi lyn van 7100 omw / min en het 'n verstommende 505 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 470 lb-ft-die meeste netto perdekrag van enige kleinblok in die geskiedenis van GM.

Die LS7 is steeds gebaseer op die oorspronklike boorafstand van 4,4 duim, en gebruik ingedrukte silindervoering en gesmede staaldraaddoppe, gesmede titanium verbindingsstawe en hipereutektiese suiers vir sterkte. Inlaatkleppe is titaan en uitlaatkleppe is natrium gevul. Die handgeboude LS7 word in die General Motors Performance Build Center in Wixom, Michigan, bymekaargemaak en beskik oor 'n droë-olie-oliesisteem om hoë laterale g's te hanteer wat ondervind is tydens baandae en entoesiastiese ry. In Noord-Amerika is die enjin in die fabriek toegerus in 2006 om Corvette Z06 of as 'n krat-enjin aan te bied.

LS9/LSA

'N Ernstige hoogtepunt in die kleinblok-V-8 se geskiedenis sou die Generation IV LS9-enjin moes wees: 'n enjin van 6,2 liter (376 kubieke duim) met 'n Eaton-vierlapper Roots tipe 2300 TVS-aanjaer. Die LS7 is beskou as die basismotor, maar die kleiner boor en dikker silinderwande van die LS3 -enjin was nodig vir duursaamheid onder hupstoot. Die boor is 103 mm en die slagafstand is 92 mm. Die drywing is 638 perdekrag by 6500 rpm en wringkrag van 604 lb by 3800 rpm-die kragtigste fabrieks geïnstalleerde kleinblok Chevy ooit. Geen verrassing dat die enjin in die mees ekstreme sportmotor ooit van GM verskyn het nie: die 2009 C6 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1. Tydens ons toetsing het die ZR1 in 3,3 sekondes van 0 tot 60 km / h gery en die kwartmyl in 11,2 sekondes op 130,3 km / h afgelê.

Die LSA is 'n ontstelde weergawe van die LS9-enjin en het sy debuut in die 2009 Cadillac CTS V. Hierdie weergawe het nog steeds 'n aansienlike 556 perdekrag en 'n wringkrag van 551 lb-ft. Dit is tot op daardie stadium die mees kragtige enjin wat ooit in 'n Cadillac aangebied is, en was beskikbaar in al drie die CTS -bakstyle: die sensuele coupe, sedate sedan, wa. Hierdie enjin kan die wa van byna 4353 pond in 4,1 sekondes tot 60 mph stoot en in 12,5 sekondes deur die kwartmyl op 114,8 mph.

Gen V LT5

Die C7 Corvette het uitgegaan met 'n groot knal: die ZR1, aangedryf deur die 6,2 liter LT5. Dit is 'n dierlike ding, met 755 perdekragte, met vergunning van 'n Eaton -aanjaer. Dit is gebaseer op die eerbiedwaardige LT4-enjin, maar daar is 'n hele aantal nuwe vinniger stukke: 'n gasklephuis van 95 mm, poort- en direkte inspuiting, 'n sterker krukas, 'n nuwe oliesisteem en 'n 52 persent groter aanjaer. Piekverhoging bereik 'n maksimum van 13,96 psi naby maksimum rpm.

Maar anders as die LT4, is daar minder geneigdheid tot hitteverwante kwessies danksy vier nuwe hitte-uitruilers en 41 persent meer koel lugvloei in die algemeen. Al hierdie krag is goed om die ZR1 in 'n 3,2-sekonde 0-60 tyd en 'n 11,2 tweede kwartmyl in ons toetse af te skiet. Wat 'n finale.

Laaste gedagtes

Met byna 25 jaar onder sy waentjie vir vragmotors en passasiersmotors, het die familie uit die LS-reeks wyd beskikbaar en bekostigbaar geword. Die na-mark het dit omhels op dieselfde manier as die oorspronklike kleinblok Chevy V-8.

"Namate die oorspronklike kleinblok-Chevy moeiliker in rommelplase gevind word, sien ons steeds dat die LS-enjin van GM oorneem waar die oorspronklike klein blok opgehou het," het Tichenor gesê. "LS-enjins is geredelik beskikbaar en is selfs makliker om krag mee te maak as die oorspronklike. Hulle is uiters betroubaar en glad en nou maak Holley spoedonderdele vir die LS, net soos ons vir die tradisionele kleinblok Chevy gedoen het. Lyk soos hier gaan weer van voor af! "

Hierdie artikel is oorspronklik in 2011 gepubliseer en is liggies geredigeer en bygewerk vir konteks en duidelikheid.


Manskennis: 'n ere -saak – The Duel

In ons moderne tyd word dit gewoonlik beskou as 'n onvolwasse, lae klas om 'n probleem op te los deur 'n man te vra om na buite te stap.

Maar vir baie eeue word die uitdaging van 'n ander man tot 'n tweestryd nie net as 'n hoogtepunt van eer beskou nie, maar was dit 'n praktyk wat voorbehou was vir die hoër klasse, diegene wat deur die samelewing as ware here beskou word.

'' N Man kan die man skiet wat sy karakter binnedring, net soos hy wat probeer om by sy huis in te breek. ' -Samuel Johnson

Alhoewel tweestryd vir moderne mans barbaars lyk, was dit 'n ritueel wat sinvol was in 'n samelewing waarin die behoud van manlike eer absoluut uiters belangrik was. Die eer van 'n man was die belangrikste aspek van sy identiteit, en die reputasie daarvan moes dus op enige manier onaangeraak bly. Tweegevegte, wat soms deur honderde mense bygewoon is, was 'n manier waarop mans hul moed en manlikheid in die openbaar kon bewys. In so 'n samelewing kon die howe 'n heer geen werklike geregtigheid bied nie, maar die saak moes opgelos word deur bloedvergieting.

Hoe het hierdie gewelddadige manier om te bewys dat 'n mens se manlikheid ontwikkel het, ontwikkel? Kom ons kyk na die geskiedenis van die ereprobleem en die kode duello wat dit beheer het.

Oorsprong in enkelgeveg

In die antieke tradisie van enkelgeveg sou elke kant hul 'kampioen' as die verteenwoordiger van hul onderskeie leërs uitstuur, en die twee mans sou dood veg. Hierdie wedstryd sou die saak soms besleg, of sou slegs dien as 'n voorspel tot die daaropvolgende stryd, 'n teken na watter kant die gode die voorkeur gegee het. Prominente enkele gevegte het hulself aangeteken in die geskiedenis en legende, soos die stryd tussen David en Goliath in die botsing van Elah en Achilles met beide Ajax en Hector in Homerus Ilias. Namate oorlogvoering ontwikkel het, het enkele gevegte steeds minder algemeen geword, maar die etos van die wedstryd sou inspirasie gee vir die tweestryd van die here.

Tweestryd in Europa

"'N Lafaard, 'n man wat nie in staat is om homself te verdedig of om wraak te neem nie, wil een van die belangrikste dele van die karakter van 'n man hê." Adam Smith, Die Rykdom van Nasies

Tweestryd het in antieke Europa begin as 'verhoor deur 'n geveg', 'n vorm van “regverdigheid ”, waarin twee disputeurs die stryd aangesê het met wie die een verloor het. In die Middeleeue het hierdie wedstryde die regterlike sfeer verlaat en het dit toeskouersport geword met ridderlike ridders wat in toernooie vir spoggeregte en eerbewyse afstap.

Maar tweestryd het regtig hoofstroom geword toe twee monarge op die spel was. Toe die verdrag tussen Frankryk en Spanje in 1526 breek, daag Frances I Charles V uit om 'n tweegeveg. Na baie heen en weer gestry oor die reëlings van die tweestryd, het hul vasbeslotenheid om teen mekaar te gaan, verdwyn. Maar die konings het daarin geslaag om die woede in Europa te verdedig. Dit was veral gewild in Frankryk, 10 000 Fransmanne is vermoedelik dood tydens 'n tydperk van tien jaar onder Henry IV. The king issued an edict against the practice, and asked the nobles to submit their grievances to a tribunal of honor for redress instead. But dueling still continued, with 4,000 nobles losing their lives to the practice during the reign of Louis XIV.

Dueling in America

“Certainly dueling is bad, and has been put down, but not quite so bad as its substitute — revolvers, bowie knives, blackguarding, and street assassinations under the pretext of self-defense.” -Colonel Benton

Dueling came to American shores right along with her first settlers. The first American duel took place in 1621 at Plymouth Rock.

Dueling enjoyed far more importance and prevalence in the South than the North. Antebellum society placed the highest premium on class and honor, and the duel was a way for gentlemen to prove both.

The majority of Southern duels were fought by lawyers and politicians. The law profession was (as it is now) completely saturated, and the competition for positions and cases was acute. In this dog-eat-dog society, jostling for position and maintaining an honorable reputation meant everything. Every perceived slight or insult had to be answered swiftly and strongly to save face and one’s position on the ladder to respect and success.

And while we tend to paint modern politics as uncivil and romanticize the past, politicians of the day slung bullets in addition to mud. Legislators, judges, and governors settled their differences with the duel, and candidates for office debated their issues on the “field of honor.” Political showmanship of the day involved timing a duel for right before an election and splashing the results in the papers.

Dueling and Violence

“The views of the Earl are those of a Christian, but unless some mode is adopted to frown down by society the slanderer, who is worse than a murderer, all attempts to put down dueling will be in vain.” -Andrew Jackson

Despite putting on a courageous front, no gentleman relished having to fight a duel and risk both killing and being killed (well, perhaps with the exception of Andrew “I fought at least 14 duels” Jackson). Thus duels were often not intended to be fights to the death, but to first blood. A duel fought with swords might end after one man simply scratched the arm of the other. In pistol duels, it was often the case that a single volley was fired, and assuming both men had survived unscathed, satisfaction was deemed to be achieved through their mutual willingness to risk death. Men sometimes aimed for their opponent’s leg or even deliberately missed, desiring only to satisfy the demands of honor. Only about 20% of duels ended in a fatality.

Duels founded on greater insults to a man’s honor, however, were often designated to go well beyond first blood. Some were carried out under the understanding that satisfaction was not gained until one man was incapacitated, while the gravest insults required a mortal blow.

To us, duels seem like a pointlessly barbaric way to settle disputes going into a duel the odds were nearly 100% that one man or both would be wounded or killed. And, adding insult to injury, it could very well be the innocent party who was slain.

Even at the time, there were many critics that argued that dueling was unnecessarily violent and contrary to morality, religion, common sense, and indeed, antithetical to the very concept of honor itself. But there were also those who argued that dueling actually prevented violence.

The idea was that single combat warriors averted endless bloody feuds between groups and families ala the Hatfields and McCoys. The duels nipped these potential feuds in the bud as insults were given immediate redress, with satisfaction given to both parties.

The practice was also thought to increase civility throughout society. To avoid being challenged to the duel, gentlemen were careful not to insult or slight others. The courtly, formal manners this time period is famous for-the stately dress, the bowing, toasting, and flowery language-were designed to convey honorable intentions and avoid giving offense. Jealousies and resentments had to be repressed and covered with politeness.

In the 1836 manual, The Art of Duelling, the author summarizes the pro-dueling perspective of the time with comments that seem remarkable to the modern ear:

“The practice is severely censured by all religious and thinking people yet it has very justly been remarked, that ‘the great gentleness and complacency of modern manners, and those respectful attentions of one man to another, that at present render the social discourses of life far more agreeable and decent, than among the most civilized nations of antiquity must be ascribed, in some degree to this absurd custom.’ It is certainly both awful and distressing to see a young person cut off suddenly in a duel, particularly if he be the father of a family but the loss of a few lives is a mere trifle, when compared with the benefits resulting to Society at large.

I should consider it very unwise in the members of government, to adopt any measures that would enforce the prohibition of duelling…the man who falls in a duel, and the individual who is killed by the overturn of a stage-coach, are both unfortunate victims to a practice from which we derive great advantage. It would be absurd to prohibit stage-travelling-because, occasionally, a few lives are lost by an overturn.”

Dueling Necessities

The components of the gentleman’s duel were often quite varied. The challenged party was usually given the choice of weapons, and the possibilities were endless. Duels have been fought with everything from sabers to billiard balls. A duel was once even fought over the skies of Paris, with the participants utilizing blunderbusses in an attempt to rupture each other’s hot air balloons. One succeeded, sending the opposing man and his comrade plummeting to their death, while the winner floated triumphantly away.

Swords were the weapon of choice until the 18 th century, when the transition to pistols made dueling more democratic (fencing took skill-a man might challenge another to a duel, spend a year learning swordsmanship, and then return to fight the duel. But nearly anyone could pull a trigger). As the practice of using guns grew in prominence, arms makers began to create sets of pistols specifically built for dueling. The idea behind this practice was simple. If two men were going to engage in a duel, their “equipment” needed to be as similar as possible so as not to give one man an unfair advantage over the other. Thus, by the latter 18th century, sets of dueling pistols were being produced by fine arms makers throughout Europe. Dueling pistols were often smooth bored pistols, and usually fired quite large rounds. Calibers of .45, .50, or even .65 (caliber = inches of diameter) were in common usage. The pistols were made to exact specifications and were tested to ensure that they were as equal in performance and appearance as possible. A man’s dueling pistols were a prized possession, an heirloom passed down from father to son.

Code Duello: The Dueling Code

“A duel was indeed considered a necessary part of a young man’s education…When men had a glowing ambition to excel in all manner of feats and exercises they naturally conceived that manslaughter, in an honest way (that is, not knowing which would be slaughtered), was the most chivalrous and gentlemanly of all their accomplishments. No young fellow could finish his education till he had exchanged shots with some of his acquaintances. The first two qualifications always asked as to a young man’s respectability and qualifications, particularly when he proposed for a lady wife, were ‘What family is he of? And ‘Did he ever blaze?” -19 th century Irish duelist

Dueling code evolved over the centuries as weapons and notions of honor changed. Proper dueling protocol in the 17th and 18th centuries was recorded in such works as The Dueling Handbook by Joseph Hamilton and The Code of Honor by John Lyde Wilson. While the dueling code varied by time period and country, many aspects of the code were similar.

Despite our romanticized notion of duels as being fought only over the most grievous of disputes, duels could often arise from matters most trivial-telling another man he smelled like a goat or spilling ink on a chap’s new vest. But they were not spontaneous affairs in which an insult was given and the parties marched immediately outside to do battle (in fact, striking another gentleman made you a social pariah). A duel had to be conducted calmly and coolly to be dignified, and the preliminaries could take weeks or months a letter requesting an apology would be sent, more letters would be exchanged, and if peaceful resolution could not be reached, plans for the duel would commence.

The first rule of dueling was that a challenge to duel between two gentleman could not generally be refused without the loss of face and honor. If a gentleman invited a man to duel and he refused, he might place a notice in the paper denouncing the man as a poltroon for refusing to give satisfaction in the dispute.

But one could honorably refuse a duel if challenged by a man he did not consider a true gentleman. This rejection was the ultimate insult to the challenger.

The most common characteristic of a duel between gentlemen was the presence of a “second” for both parties. The seconds were gentlemen chosen by the principal participants whose job it was to ensure that the duel was carried out under honorable conditions, on a proper field of honor and with equally deadly weapons. More importantly, it was the seconds (usually good friends of the participating parties) who sought a peaceful resolution to the matter at hand in hopes of preventing bloodshed.

Once the challenge to duel was given, several issues had to be settled before the matter could be resolved. The challenger would first allow his foe the choice of weapons and conditions of the combat, and a time would be set for the event. Seconds were responsible for locating a proper dueling ground, usually a remote area away from witnesses and law enforcement, since dueling remained technically illegal in most states, though rarely prosecuted. Duels were sometimes even fought on sandbars in rivers where the legal jurisdiction of the time was hazy at best.

Honor was not only given for showing up for the duel-proper coolness and courage under fire was also required to uphold one’s reputation. A gentleman was not to show his fear. If he stepped off the mark, his opponent’s second had the right to shoot him on the spot.

The End of the Dueling Age

Many modern men mistakenly believe that dueling was a rare occurrence in history a last resort only appealed to in the case of serious matters or by two overly hot-headed men. In fact, from America to Italy, tens of thousands of duels took place and the practice was quite common among the upper classes.

But dueling’s popularity eventually waned at the end of the 19 th century, lingering longer in Europe than America. Stricter anti-dueling laws were passed, and sometimes even enforced.

The bloodshed of the Civil War on this continent, and the Great War on the other, also dampened enthusiasm for the duel. Despite our modern romanticism for dueling, it was a practice that hewed down young men in the prime of their life. Having lost millions of their promising youth in battle, felling those who remained became distasteful.

Additionally, Southern society was vastly transformed in the aftermath of the Civil War. The aristocracy was shattered busy with Reconstruction and rebuilding, there was less time and inclination to duel. A man’s prestige and position in society became less about his family, reputation, and most of all, honor, than it did about cash. Disputes were taken not to the field of honor but to the courts, with vindication given by “pale dry money instead of wet red blood.”

Sources and Further Reading

Gentlemen’s Blood by Barbara Holland. An absolutely delightful book. Covers a serious topic in a strangely breezy and humorous way that really works and is full of truly interesting stories and insights. (The last quote is from this book)

The Art of Duelling by The Traveller. A readable contemporary manual on the ins and outs of dueling. Reading up the author’s tips and advice for those going into a duel gives an interesting window to the time.

Code Duello: The Rules of Dueling. Take a look at the very specific rules which governed the duel.


Man Knowledge: Dueling Part II – Prominent Duels in American History

The United States currently finds itself in a rancorous political moment, with partisan name-calling on the one hand and much hand-wringing about the classless nature of the debate on the other. Those in the latter camp seem to think that politics has devolved from an unspecified golden age in which politicians sipped tea and talked about their issues with solemn decorum.

In truth, politics has always been a rowdy arena, and if one looks to our founding period for a bastion of politeness, they will not find it there.

Men in public life called each other, not just the traditional ‘liar,’ ‘poltroon,’ ‘coward,’ and ‘puppy,’ but also ‘fornicator,’ ‘madman,’ and ‘bastard’ they accused each other of incest, treason, and consorting with the devil. -Gentlemen’s Blood: A History of Dueling

Political tensions ran especially high in the 19 th century because men found it difficult to separate political disagreement from personal insults:

In our early years a man’s political opinions were inseparable from the self, from personal character and reputation, and as central to his honor as a seventeenth-century Frenchman’s courage was to his. He called his opinions “principles,” and he was willing, almost eager, to die or to kill for them. Joanne B. Freeman, in Affairs of Honor, writes that dueling politcos ‘were men of public duty and private ambition who identified so closely with their public roles that they often could not distinguish between their identity as gentlemen and their status as political leaders. Longtime political opponents almost expected duels, for there was no way that constant opposition to a man’s political career could leave his personal identity unaffected.’ —Gentlemen’s Blood

Refusing a challenge to duel would effectively end a man’s political career. Dueling proved to a man’s constituents that he had the requisite honor, courage, and leadership to represent them in Washington.

And thus you had governors and legislators, Congressman and judges squaring off not through bumper stickers and robo-calls, but on the field of honor. Here are a few of the most famous of these single combats in American history.

3 Famous Duels That Actually Occurred

The Burr-Hamilton Duel

The most famous duel in American history is unquestionably that which occurred between Vice President Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton, who greatly influenced the founding of America’s economy and was possibly on track to become President himself. Burr and Hamilton had long been political enemies by the time they met on the field of honor. Hamilton had been instrumental in preventing Burr from winning the Presidency when Burr tied Thomas Jefferson’s vote count, leading to Burr’s eventual appointment as VP. The two men continued to square off politically until rumors that Hamilton had been saying “despicable” things about Burr led the slandered veep to issue a formal challenge to duel.

The two men met on the field of honor in Weehawken, New Jersey on the morning of July 11, 1804. Interestingly enough, Hamilton’s son had fallen to a mortal blow in a duel at the very same place just two years before. The same guns used in his duel were also used in his father’s.

The accounts of precisely what happened are conflicting, but it is generally thought that Hamilton fired first, aiming high and missing Burr completely. Burr then aimed squarely at Hamilton’s torso and returned fire. Hamilton fell, the bullet lodged in his spine, and he died the following morning.

Whether Hamilton’s miss was intentional or not is debatable. Hamilton had recorded in a letter the previous night that he intended to purposefully miss Burr in an effort to end the confrontation without bloodshed. Still, other believe that Hamilton so detested Burr that he shared this sentiment simply to paint Burr as the villainous shedder of innocent blood, thus forever besmirching his character.

If that truly was his wish, it was certainly granted. Though murder charges were levied against Burr, he was never brought to trial. But the ensuing political fallout undermined Burr’s political clout and brought a swift end to his career.

The Jackson-Dickinson Duel

Prior to his presidential career, Andrew Jackson was known for his inclination to invoke violence in defense of his honor he was the veteran of at least 13 duels. These showdowns left his body so filled with lead that people said he “rattled like a bag of marbles.”

The most famous of Jackson’s affairs of honor was his confrontation with prominent duelist Charles Dickinson. Dickinson, rumored to be the best shot in the country, had insulted the future President by alleging that he cheated in a horse racing bet between Jackson and Dickinson’s father-in-law. Insults were exchanged, culminating with Dickinson insulting Jackson’s wife. Slandering Jackson’s wife was “like sinning against the Holy Ghost: unpardonable.” Biographer James Parton claimed that Jackson “kept pistols in perfect condition for thirty-seven years” to use whenever someone “dared breathe her name except in honor.” Jackson had no choice but to issue a challenge to duel.

Jackson and Dickinson met at Harrison’s Mill on the Red River in Kentucky on May 30, 1806. The men were to stand at eight paces and then turn and fire. Dickinson was a well-known sharpshooter and Jackson felt his only chance to kill him would be to allow himself enough time to take an accurate shot. Thus he calmly allowed Dickinson to fire into his chest. The bullet lodged in his ribs, but Jackson hardly quivered, calmly leveling his pistol at Dickinson. But when the trigger was pulled the hammer of his gun only fell to the half-cocked position and did not fire. According to dueling etiquette, this should have been the end of the duel. Jackson, however, was not finished with Dickinson. Re-cocking his pistol, he aimed and fired, striking Dickinson dead.

It was only then that Jackson took heed of the fact that blood was dripping into his boot. Dickinson’s musket ball was too close to his heart to be removed and forever remained lodged in Jackson’s chest. The wound would lend him a perpetual hacking cough, cause him persistent pain, and compound the many health problems that would beleaguer him throughout life. But Jackson never regretted the decision. “If he had shot me through the brain, sir, I should still have killed him,” he said.

The Clay-Randolph Duel

John Randolph was quite a character. He fought his first duel at 18, seriously wounding a fellow student over his mispronunciation of a word. His volatility continued as a Congressman “he called Daniel Webster “a vile slanderer,” President Adams a “traitor,” and Edward Livingston “the most contemptible and degraded of beings, whom no man ought to touch, unless with a pair of tongs.” When he wasn’t hurling insults at his associates, he was challenging them to duels.

Following a slanderous speech on the Senate floor in which he accused sitting Secretary of State Henry Clay of “crucifying the Constitution and cheating at cards,” Senator John Randolph found himself the recipient of a formal challenge to duel. While comfortable with assailing the man’s character, Randolph, an experienced marksman, had no intention of robbing Clay’s family of their patriarch (and suffering the political fallout of slaying the Secretary of State). Several days before the duel took place, Randolph confided in Senator Thomas Hart Benton that he was unwilling to kill Clay, but did not want to sacrifice his personal honor either, so he would instead purposefully aim high when the time came to fire.

When the day of the duel arrived on April 8, 1826, both men met on the field of honor. As preparations for the start of the duel were still being made, Randolph accidentally fired his gun, which was pointed at the ground. Clay accepted that the misfire was an accident and allowed the duel to proceed. Marching the agreed upon number of steps in opposite directions, both men turned and fired. Randolph, apparently motivated by the humiliation of his misfire (and his missed chance to come off as the magnanimous one), made no effort to aim high, although he still just missed his intended target, the bullet perforating Clay’s coat. Clay also missed, and having gained no satisfaction, demanded another go around. This time Clay missed again, and Randolph followed through on his promise to Benton by firing into the air. Moved by the sentiment, Randolph met Clay at midfield for a handshake to end the duel, noting to his opponent that he owed him a new coat. Clay simply replied “I am glad the debt is no greater.”

A Couple of Close Calls

Not every challenge to duel ended with gunfire. Here are a couple of noteworthy near misses.

The Lincoln-Shields Duel

As an elected official in the Illinois State Legislature, future President Abraham Lincoln was sharply critical of James Shields’ performance as Illinois State Auditor. Lincoln even resorted to adopting various pseudonyms and publishing many satirical letters criticizing Shields (a common tactic at the time). In an unfortunate twist of fate, Lincoln’s future wife Mary Todd and a friend also wrote several letters. But the women got carried away, changing the tone from satirical criticism to insult. Shields, upon discovering that Lincoln was behind the letters in one form or another, issued an immediate challenge. Lincoln, unwilling to accept the public disgrace that came with refusing a duel, and eager to impress his future wife Mary, accepted.

As the challenged party, Lincoln set the parameters for the duel. It was to be fought with large cavalry broadswords in a deep pit divided by a board which no man could step over. In creating such parameters, Lincoln aimed to disarm his opponent using his superior reach advantage and avoid bloodshed on either side. Furthermore, Lincoln hoped that such ridiculous conditions would force Shields’ withdrawal. But initially, they did not.

On September 22, 1842, the two men met on the field of honor. As the seconds desperately tried to sway Shields’ determination, he looked over and saw Lincoln chopping at the branches of a nearby tree that would be far out of his own reach. Realizing that he was outmatched, Shields agreed to attempt to talk it out with Lincoln. Lincoln’s second convinced Shields that Lincoln had not written the letters, and Lincoln offered an apology for the misunderstanding, which Shields fortunately accepted. Shields went on to become a prominent United States Senator, and Abraham Lincoln went on to become, well, Abraham Lincoln.

The Twain-Laird Duel

Finally, we end in a duel that neither came to fruition nor is invested with any great historical significance. But it is quite funny.

While living in Virginia City, Nevada, sharp-witted satirist Mark Twain was up to his usual pot stirring, writing such outrageous editorials for The Territorial Enterprise that locals dubbed him “The Incorrigible.” When Twain wrote a piece erroneously accusing a rival paper, The Virginia City Union, of reneging on a promised pledge to charity, the publisher of the paper, James Laird, made such a stink over the false accusation that Twain challenged him to a duel. Twain’s second, Steve Gillis, took Twain to practice his shooting, only to find that the man’s pen was truly mightier than his pistol Twain couldn’t hit the side of a barn. Filled with fear, Twain collapsed. As Laird and his men were making their way over, Gillis grabbed a bird, shot his head off, and stood admiring the corpse. Laird’s second asked, “Who did that?” and Gillis responded that Twain had shot the bird’s head off from a good distance and was capable of doing it with every shot. Then he gravely intoned, “You don’t want to fight that man. It’s just like suicide. You better settle this thing, now. ” The creative ploy worked, and the men reconciled. Tom Sawyer would have been proud.

If you missed it, read part 1 of this series: An Affair of Honor – The Duel


The literary history of duels, those absurdly formal fights to the death


John Leigh’s book is a scholarly but lively look at an old tradition. (Courtesy of Harvard University/Courtesy of Harvard University)

A duel is inherently stupid, being largely a form of ritualized murder or suicide. Perhaps chance will favor one opponent over another, a foot might slip, a gun misfire. But, in general, the better swordsman or more practiced shot will triumph every time. Honor may be served, but justice only coincidentally, and one man will almost certainly be dead, usually for no good reason at all.

As John Leigh reminds us in “Touché,” this has been one of the arguments against dueling at least since Louis XIV outlawed the practice. And yet the romance of swords at sunset or pistols at dawn remains as powerful as ever. There lingers, even in our mercantile age, an admiration for the aristocratic ethos, the punctilio, of the duel. After all, unlike feuds or plain murder for revenge, a traditional affair of honor always involves social equals — there is no glory in killing a peasant and considerable shame in being killed by one.

As we know from countless historical novels, movies and costume dramas, the steps toward a duel are highly codified, starting with a real or imagined insult to a lady or one’s personal honor. After the insufferable affront comes the challenge, often accompanied by the “soufflet” or slap, the icy presentation of one’s card, and a demand for satisfaction, soon followed by the choice of weapons and the naming of seconds. Come the evening before the actual “rencontre,” at least one of the duelists, either racked with fearful misgivings or maintaining a languid sang-froid, will have settled his affairs so that he can spend what may be his last hours composing a letter to a beloved wife or mistress.

When the two adversaries finally meet on the field of honor, they will be elegantly and spotlessly dressed, their weapons of the highest quality and their comportment toward each other one of restrained and delicate courtesy. A witty sally or quip is never amiss as a demonstration of one’s style and self-command. After the fatal thrust or shot, the “winner” will cast aside his weapon and hurriedly bend to hear the dying man’s final words, sometimes of forgiveness. Duelists, as Leigh observes, “tend to face each other as opponents, not enemies.”

As the subtitle of “Touché” indicates, Leigh’s main interest lies in the presentation of the duel in plays, novels and short stories, beginning with Corneille’s near-tragedy “Le Cid” and ending with “The Radetzky March,” Joseph Roth’s novel about the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In between he discusses such key 18th-century texts as Richardson’s “Clarissa,” Laclos’s “Les Liaisons dangereuses” and Smollett’s “Roderick Random,” as well as such 19th-century works as Pushkin’s narrative poem “Eugene Onegin” and Dumas’s classic swashbuckler “The Three Musketeers.” Leigh also devotes some outstanding pages to Casanova’s account of his duel with a Polish nobleman, to comic duels in Dickens and to two of Maupassant’s short stories, in one of which a man, out of fear of what a future encounter will bring, prefers to commit suicide. There is even a brief consideration of the American cowboy version of the duel, the showdown at high noon on a dusty street.

While Leigh probes and theorizes to a fare-thee-well, he does convey a good deal of pure information. Did you know that “stickler” was another name for the second, whose chief responsibility, after all, was to make sure that all the proprieties were strictly observed? Leigh tells us that Malta, alone among European countries, not only permitted dueling but also specified that a refusal to fight could lead to imprisonment. During the early 19th century, the duel fell out of literary favor because it lacked intensity and spontaneity: Romantic poets and novelists preferred honest, impassioned murder to coolly calculated encounters. Later 19th-century literature, however, reveals an “embourgeoisment” of the duel, as it became a means of gaining social status and cachet. More modern writers have often imbued the face-to-face encounter with a psychological or Freudian twist, viewing it as a combat “with a doppelganger or with oneself.” One part of the self slays another. Leigh — almost parenthetically — then adduces a superb general pronouncement, applicable to all of us: “In choosing our path through life, and in order to become ourselves, we each need to kill off potential versions of ourselves, the persons we might have become.” That’s worth copying into a commonplace book.

Besides fiction and drama, Leigh also analyzes some representations of duels in art, notably Jean-Léon Gérôme’s haunting 1857 painting “The Duel After the Masquerade.” On a snow-covered field, a dying clown — more precisely, an 18th-century Pierrot dressed all in white silk — is being lowered to the ground by his seconds, a sword still clutched in his hand, while his killer is led away toward the misty trees in the background. Here the theatricality, absurdity and brutal reality of the duel all come together in one unforgettable image. Do look it up online.

Throughout “Touché,” Leigh shows himself a master of the neatly turned observation. “Charm,” he writes, “is a sort of refined insincerity.” Though dueling might look harebrained and utterly irrational, “gentlemen were not particularly interested in the promptings and pleas of reason. That is an essentially bourgeois scruple, rather like spelling correctly or counting one’s money.” In fact, a duelist “fights not for gain from his adversary but to declare who or what he is.” Leigh can also be witty: “ ‘The Three Musketeers’ is one of those familiar novels that we think we might somehow have read, although without quite remembering when.” He later speaks of D’Artagnan’s successive sword fights with Athos, Porthos and Aramis at, respectively, noon, 1 and 2 p.m. on the same day as “a form of speed dueling.”

Sometimes, though, Leigh’s thickly textured prose can grow almost, but not quite, impenetrable in that casual, inbred way so common to academics. At one point, this Cambridge University professor speaks of duels between foreign nationals as “an informal way of winning back national pride. A nation might be appraised by the way its men conducted their duels. This approach, more common in the later nineteenth century, places duels at the service of an anthropological inquiry, reducing them to an epiphenomenon of wider mentalities.”

Fortunately, such academese is relatively rare, though no one should mistake “Touché” for anything but a scholarly book. It is, though, an excellent one. Still, I was sorry that Leigh left out my favorite duel in modern literature: The encounter between Sherlock Holmes and Professor Moriarty on the paths high above the Reichenbach Falls. You will remember that Dr. Watson discovers a note on a boulder, held down by Holmes’s cigarette case: “My dear Watson, I write these few lines through the courtesy of Mr. Moriarty, who awaits my convenience for the final discussion of those questions which lie between us. . . . ” Here, in the understated, euphemistic language of the duel, the world’s greatest detective and the Napoleon of Crime arrange to meet for the last time.


Generation II

Die second generation Legendary Pokémon ( 伝説 ( でんせつ ) のポケモンの 第 ( だい ) ニ ( に ) 世代 ( せだい ) Densetsu no Pokemon no Dai Ni-sedai) are the second set of Legendary Pokémon introduced in the Pokémon series and originate within the Johto region.

Legendary Beasts

Die Legendary Beasts ( 伝説 ( でんせつ ) の 獣 ( けもの ) Densetsu no Kemono) consist of the Electric -type Raikou (ライコウ Raikou), the Fire -type Entei (エンテイ Entei), and the Water -type Suicune (スイクン Suikun).

The three Legendaries were originally unidentified Pokémon trapped and killed within the Brass Tower when it burned down due to lightning. Ho-Oh revived the trio with each Pokémon acquiring an attribute of the accident: Raikou, an Electric-type, symbolized the lightning that had struck the tower Entei, a Fire-type, was the flames that had engulfed the tower and Suicune, a Water-type, represented the rain that put out the blaze. Those that witnessed the accident and revival of the trio feared their power, causing the beasts to flee. As a result, they are the first roaming Pokémon the player character encounters.

In Pokémon Gold and Silver, the trio will individually wander the Johto region after the player character first encounters them in the Brass Tower. In Pokémon Crystal, the player character is also required to force Team Rocket to vacate the Radio Tower and acquire the Clear Bell to meet Suicune in the Tin Tower. In Pokémon Colosseum the trio was captured by Cipher and transformed into Shadow Pokémon each are owned by different Admins. In Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen, one member may be found roaming Kanto after defeating the Pokémon League if the player character chose Bulbasaur they may find Entei if the starter Pokémon is Charmander, then Suicune is roaming if the player character has Squirtle, then Raikou can be found. The encounters in Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver the circumstances are similar to those in Crystal however, Suicune must be followed throughout the Kanto region until it stops at Route 25, outside Bill's house, where it may be battled. Notably, Eusine chases Suicune throughout the game but is constantly eluded.

All three members of the trio have appeared as a major character of separate movies and in episodes of the anime. An Unown-produced Entei served as an antagonist-turned-protagonist in Spell of the Unown, while a Suicune helped heal a Celebi by purifying a lake's water in Celebi: Voice of the Forest. Shiny versions of each member also appeared in Zoroark: Master of Illusions, where they attempted to defeat a Zoroark.

Not listed here is Raikou's appearance in the Pokémon Chronicles episode Legend of Thunder!, where it was being hunted by members of Team Rocket.

Tower Duo

Die Tower Duo (タワーデュオ Tawā Duo) is the two bird-like Pokémon the Fire / Flying -type Ho-Oh (ホウオウ Houou) and the Psychic / Flying -type Lugia (ルギア Rugia).

Known as the "guardian of the skies" and "guardian of the seas", respectively, Ho-Oh and Lugia formerly resided in Ecruteak City, claiming the Tin Tower and Brass Tower. When lightning struck the Brass Tower and burned the building, Lugia escaped to the Whirlpool Islands. Ho-Oh remained long enough to revive three Pokémon that had been trapped within the tower, creating the Legendary Beasts, but left in search of a pure-hearted Trainer thus, Ho-Oh is considered their trio master.

Both Pokémon appear in the Pokémon Gold and Silver Versions their method of encounter varies between the games. In Gold, the player character may capture Ho-Oh, a Fire/Flying-type, at the Tin Tower once acquiring a Rainbow Wing after Team Rocket leaves the Goldenrod Radio Tower and locate Lugia, a Psychic/Flying-type, at the Whirlpool Islands once given a Silver Wing from a citizen in Pewter City. In Pokémon Silver, this is reversed: the player character is given the Silver Wing once Team Rocket leaves the Radio Tower and the Rainbow Wing in Pewter City. In Pokémon Crystal, the player character must capture Raikou, Entei, and Suicune to gain the Rainbow Wing, and visit the Pewter City resident to gain the Silver Wing. Both Pokémon reappear in FireRed and LeafGreen, as well as Pokémon Emerald, but must be gained through an event they may be found at Naval Rock if the player character has a MysticTicket. Ho-Oh can be caught in Pokémon Colosseum if the player character purifies all Shadow Pokémon in the game, while Lugia can be caught as a Shadow Pokémon in Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness. Contrary to initial belief, this Lugia is capable of being purified. Ho-Oh and Lugia return again in HeartGold and SoulSilver and may be acquired under similar circumstances, though the player character must also have a Clear Bell and Tidal Bell for each Legendary.

Both Pokémon have appeared within the anime, though only Lugia has made an appearance in a film, The Power of One. In the film, Lugia was the only creature capable of quelling the three Legendary Birds, Articuno, Zapdos, and Moltres, making Lugia their trio master. Ho-Oh, however, was the first Legendary Pokémon to appear in the anime, debuting at the end of the first episode of the series. At the time Ho-Oh had not been officially announced nor was it identified in the episode, being endemic to Johto.

The episodes that each Ho-Oh and Lugia have appeared in are listed below.


NASCAR Muscle for the Street: The Legendary Chevy Impala SS and Its 409 V-8

Before American cars had officially "gone muscle" with the Pontiac GTO, the 1961 Chevy Impala Super Sport captured the formula nicely: upgrade a regular passenger car with the biggest engine the company could make producing as much power as it could muster. When you thought that Chevy had done it all, go a step farther and sell race motors to the public.

You could order a 409 in any of Chevy's full-size offerings, but the burly Impala SS again carried the majority of the big-block/four-speed manual transmission sales. The 409 was directed largely to both drag and stock-car racers and by the engine's second production year, 1962, it had drawn serious attention by cleaning up the NHRA's Super Stock class. The top-trim versions of the street-car 409 churned out an astonishing 425 horsepower, while the Bill "Grumpy" Jenkins-tuned NHRA cars could run the quarter mile in under 13 seconds.

Few examples of the 409-powered drag cars are more famous than "Old Reliable," the '62 Chevy that Jenkins tuned and Dave Strickler drove to the NHRA class title that year. That car, along with Hayden Profitt's 409-powered Bel Air, featured some clandestine speed parts, namely "Z-11" option heads, camshaft, and two-piece induction that gave a healthy horsepower dose. A few of the Strickler/Jenkins Old Reliables from various years are still around and they sound fantastic.

NASCAR hall of famer Rex White was at the same time racing his own Chevy Bel Air as a privateer in NASCAR's top Grand National Series. The short-of-stature White had won the Grand National title in 1960 with the Chevy 348, upon which the 409 was based, and he switched to the 409 in '61 along with that season's champion Ned Jarrett. White racked up a pile of race wins for the 409 and was among the first, along with Junior Johnson, to race Chevy's stroked, Smokey Yunick-built "Mystery Motor" 427 thoroughbred—an engine that HOT ROD Magazine dyno-tested in 2015— at the 1963 Daytona 500.

The 409 remained on the Chevy options sheet through 1965, after which it was replaced by the next-generation 396 Big Block. As it stands, you'll regularly still find the early '60s Impala SS with an original 409 in it. Do yourself a favor and check out Car Craft's 409 rebuild story from February 2016 to see the ins and outs of this legendary motor.


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Kyk die video: I got 8 LEGENDARIES and made it to SPACE on Pet Simulator x! (November 2021).