Geskiedenis Podcasts

Elisabeth Scholl

Elisabeth Scholl

Elisabeth Scholl, die dogter van Robert Scholl en Magdalena Scholl, is gebore in Forchtenberg in 1920. Elisabeth was baie na aan haar susters en broers, Inge (geb. 1917) Hans (geb. 1918), Sophie (geb. 1921), Werner (geb. 1922) en Thilde (geb. 1925). "Die Scholl-kinders is selde in die strate sien tuimel en daar is nooit gehoor dat hulle onbehoorlike liedjies in die openbaar sing nie. As 'n hegte geslag met 'n sterk gevoel vir mekaar, het hulle gewoonlik genoeg geselskap verskaf om 'n teenwoordigheid van buitestaanders onnodig te maak." (1)

Haar pa is verkies tot burgemeester van Forchtenberg. In die volgende paar jaar het hy daarin geslaag om die spoorlyn na die stad te laat uitbrei. Hy het ook 'n gemeenskapsportsentrum in Forchtenberg laat bou, maar hy word beskou as te progressief vir sommige en in 1930 is hy uit sy amp gestem. (2)

Die gesin verhuis in 1932 na Ulm. "Robert Scholl het in verskeie klein dorpies in Swabia gewoon, 'n gebied in die suidweste van Duitsland, bekend om sy landelike sjarme, spaarsamige mense en gees van onafhanklikheid, voordat hy hom in Ulm gevestig het, waar hy sy huis geopen het. sy eie kantoor as belasting- en sakekonsultant. Hy was 'n groot, taamlik swaar man met sterk menings en 'n onwilligheid om, indien nie 'n onvermoë, die opinies vir homself te hou nie. " (3)

Elisabeth, soos haar susters, Inge School en Sophie Scholl, het in 1933 by die German League of Girls (BDM) aangesluit, terwyl haar broers, Hans Scholl en Werner Scholl, by die Hitler -jeug aangesluit het. Hulle pa het Adolf Hitler afgekeur. "My pa het 'n pasifistiese oortuiging gehad, en hy het dit verdedig. Dit het beslis 'n rol gespeel in ons opvoeding. Maar ons was almal opgewonde in die Hitler -jeug in Ulm, soms selfs met die Nazi -leierskap." (4)

Die historikus, Richard F. Hanser, het daarop gewys: "Die Scholl -kinders, almal vyf - Inge, Hans, Elisabeth, Sophie en Werner - het geen regeringspropaganda nodig gehad om hulle aan te spoor om hul land lief te hê nie. Soos die meeste kinders oral, hulle was patrioties van instink, en die land wat hulle liefgehad het, was hul onmiddellike omgewing. " (5)

Robert Scholl beweer dat Hitler se poging om werkloosheid deur militêre uitgawes te verminder, tot oorlog sou lei: "Het u gedink hoe hy dit gaan regkry? Hy brei die wapenbedryf uit en bou kaserne. Weet u waar dit alles gaan eindig. " (6) Elisabeth het later daarop gewys waarom hulle hul pa se advies verwerp het: "Ons het dit net van die hand gewys: hy is te oud vir hierdie dinge, hy verstaan ​​nie. My pa het 'n pasifistiese oortuiging gehad en hy het dit voorgehou. Maar ons was almal opgewonde die Hitler -jeug in Ulm, soms selfs met die Nazi -leierskap. " (7)

Hans Scholl was die eerste wat die ideologie van die Nazi -party bevraagteken het. Hans het gekies om die vlagdraer te wees toe sy eenheid die Neurenberg -byeenkoms in 1936 bygewoon het. Sy suster, Inge Scholl, onthou later: "Sy vreugde was groot. Maar toe hy terugkeer, kon ons ons oë nie glo nie. Hy lyk moeg en toon tekens van 'n groot teleurstelling. Ons het geen verduideliking van hom verwag nie, maar geleidelik het ons agtergekom dat die beeld en model van die Hitler -jeug wat daar op hom beïndruk was, totaal anders was as sy eie ideaal ... Hans het 'n merkwaardige verandering ondergaan ... Dit het niks te doen gehad met die besware van Vader nie; hy kon sy ore daarvoor sluit. Dit was iets anders. Die leiers het vir hom gesê dat sy liedjies nie toegelaat is nie ... Waarom moet hy verbied word om hierdie liedjies te sing wat so vol skoonheid was? Net omdat dit deur ander rasse geskep is? " (8)

Kort nadat Hans van Neurenberg teruggekeer het, het 'n belangrike BDM -leier uit Stuttgart aangekom om 'n aand van ideologiese opleiding vir die meisies in Ulm te hou. Toe die lede gevra is of hulle voorkeure vir bespreking het, stel Sophie Scholl voor dat hulle gedigte lees van Heinrich Heine, een van haar gunsteling skrywers. Die leier was ontsteld en het daarop gewys dat die linkse, anti-oorlogse, Joodse skrywer sy boeke in 1933 laat verbrand en verbied het deur minister van propaganda, Joseph Goebbels. Sophie het blykbaar geantwoord: 'Wie Heine nie ken nie, weet nie Duitse letterkunde. " (9) Elisabeth het aangevoer dat al die Scholl -kinders geleidelik vyandig teenoor die regering geraak het: "Eerstens het ons gesien dat 'n mens nie meer kon lees wat 'n mens wou nie, of sekere liedjies kon sing. Toe kom die raswetgewing. Joodse klasmaats moes die skool verlaat . " (10)

Hans Scholl en 'n paar van sy vriende besluit om hul eie jeugorganisasie te stig. Inge Scholl onthou later: "Die klub het sy eie indrukwekkendste styl gehad, wat uit die lidmaatskap self gegroei het. Die seuns herken mekaar aan hul kleredrag, hul liedjies, selfs hul manier van praat ... Vir hierdie seuns was die lewe 'n wonderlike, wonderlike avontuur, 'n ekspedisie na 'n onbekende, winkende wêreld.Naweke het hulle gaan stap, en dit was hul pad, selfs in die koue, om in 'n tent te woon ... Om die kampvuur sit hulle hardop voor mekaar of sing, begelei hulself met kitaar, banjo en balalaika. Hulle versamel die volksliedere van alle mense en skryf woorde en musiek vir hul eie rituele gesange en gewilde liedere. " (11)

Op negentienjarige ouderdom moes elke Duitser, man of vrou, ses maande lank aan 'n bouprojek of 'n plaas bestee. Die National Labor Service was 'n poging om die jonges so lank as moontlik onder toesig van regeringsinstansies te hou. Dit het ook duisende van die arbeidsmark verwyder en dus die werkloosheidstatistieke verminder en jongmense uit die straat gehou waar hulle probleme kan veroorsaak. (12) Hans Scholl is aangewys as padbou naby 'n plek met die naam Göppingen. Die projek was deel van die Autobahn -stelsel, die netwerk van paaie oor Duitsland, wat een van Hitler se mees gewaardeerde programme was. (13)

Ses maande van die nasionale arbeidsdiens is gevolg deur diensplig in die Duitse leër. Hans was altyd lief vir perde en hy was vrywillig en is in 1937 vir 'n kavalerie -eenheid aanvaar. 'N Paar maande later is hy deur die Gestapo in sy kaserne gearresteer. Daar is blykbaar berig dat hy in Ulm gewoon het aan aktiwiteite wat nie deel was van die Hitler -jeugprogram nie. Sophie, Inge en Werner Scholl is ook in hegtenis geneem. (14)

Aangesien Sophie net sestien was, is sy vrygelaat en kon sy dieselfde dag huis toe gaan. Een biograaf het daarop gewys: "Sy het te jonk en meisieagtig gelyk om 'n bedreiging vir die staat te wees, maar toe sy haar vrygelaat het, laat die Gestapo 'n moontlike vyand met wie dit later in 'n baie ernstiger situasie sou moes reken. geen manier om die presiese oomblik vas te stel waarop Sophie School besluit het om 'n openlike teenstander van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese staat te word nie, maar haar besluit, toe dit kom, het ongetwyfeld die gevolg van die aanwas van klein en groot oortredings teen haar opvatting van wat reg, moreel was Maar nou het iets beslissends gebeur. Die staat het haar en haar gesin die hande opgelê, en nou was daar geen moontlikheid meer om haar te versoen met 'n stelsel wat haar alreeds begin vervreem het nie. " (15)

Die Gestapo het die Scholl -huis deursoek en beslag gelê op dagboeke, tydskrifte, gedigte, essays, volksliedbundels en ander bewyse dat hulle lid was van 'n onwettige organisasie. Inge en Werner is na 'n week van bevalling vrygelaat. Hans is drie weke langer aangehou terwyl die Gestapo hom probeer oorreed het om skadelike inligting oor sy vriende te gee. Hans is uiteindelik vrygelaat nadat sy bevelvoerder die polisie verseker het dat hy 'n goeie en lojale soldaat is. (16)

Sophie Scholl se arrestasie het 'n groot impak op haar politieke denke gehad. Elisabeth onthou 'n gesprek wat sy in die somer van 1939 met Sophie gehad het: "Met verloop van tyd het Sophie al hoe meer ontnugter geraak met die Nazi's. Op die dag voor Engeland in 1939 oorlog verklaar het, het ek saam met haar 'n wandeling langs die Donau gegaan en ek onthou ek gesê: Hopelik sal daar geen oorlog wees nie. En sy het gesê: Ja, ek hoop daar sal wees. Hopelik sal iemand teen Hitler opstaan. Hierin was sy meer beslissend as Hans. "(17)

By die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was Sophie se kêrel, Fritz Hartnagel, in die Duitse leër en 'n getroue ondersteuner van Adolf Hitler. Sy skryf aan hom en spreek haar bitterheid uit: "Nou het u sekerlik genoeg om te doen. Ek kan nie begryp dat mense voortdurend in lewensgevaar deur ander mense bedreig sal word nie. Ek kan dit nooit begryp nie, en ek vind dit verskriklik. Moenie sê dit is vir die vaderland nie. " (18)

Gedurende die oorlog het Elisabeth Scholl 'n kinderverpleegster geword. Op 23 Februarie 1943 wag sy by 'n bushalte toe sy na die hoofopskrif kyk Voelkischer Beobachter. Die opskrif het haar amper flou gemaak omdat dit nuus was dat haar broer en suster, Hans Scholl en Sophie Scholl, en 'n familievriend, Christoph Probst, onthoof is weens hoogverraad. Hulle is almal skuldig bevind aan die verspreiding van anti-Nazi-pamflette. (19)

'N Paar dae nadat Sophie en Hans tereggestel is, is Elisabeth, saam met haar pa, ma en suster, Inge, in hegtenis geneem. Hulle is almal in afsondering opgesluit. "Vir Elisabeth beteken dit 'n kaal sel met net 'n beker water, 'n Bybel en 'n kelder sout. Sy is twee maande lank onder ellendige omstandighede gehou, slegs bevry toe sy 'n nier- en blaasinfeksie opgedoen het." (20)

In Augustus 1943 is hulle verhoor en hoewel Robert 'n vonnis van twee jaar gekry het, is die vroue onskuldig bevind. (21) Elisabeth onthou later: "Ons was uitgeworpenes. Baie van my pa se kliënte - hy was 'n belastingrekenmeester - wou niks meer met die gesin te doen hê nie. Dit was altyd niks persoonliks nie - net as gevolg van die besigheid. Verbygangers aan die ander kant van die pad gevat. ” (22)

Met die aankoms van die geallieerde troepe is Robert Scholl vrygelaat en aangestel as burgemeester van Ulm. (23) Met sy terugkeer uit die oorlog het Fritz Hartnagel, die voormalige kêrel van Sophie Scholl, Elisabeth gehelp om werk te kry. Dit was die begin van 'n romanse wat gelei het tot die huwelik en die geboorte van vier seuns. (24) Hulle het albei aktief in die vredesbeweging geraak en raad gegee aan jeugdige gewetensbeswaardes. (25)

In Januarie 2014 het die 93-jarige Elisabeth Hartnagel-Scholl 'n onderhoud aan die wêreld se media gegee. Soos die Daaglikse spieël het daarop gewys: "Nou is sy die enigste uit vyf Scholl -kinders wat nog lewend is. Haar ander broer Werner was 'n weermagmedisyn wat aan die oostelike front verdwyn het. Haar ander suster Inge is in 1998 dood. Alhoewel sy deur baie Duitsers vermy is ná die teregstellings , Elisabeth trou met die verwoeste kêrel van haar suster en geniet 'n lang en gelukkige huwelik voor sy dood in 2001 ". (26)

Dit was 'n koue wintersdag in 1943 toe drie studente 'n pamflet in die trap by die Ludwig Maximillian -universiteit in München gooi, die laaste van ses wat hulle veroordelende Nazisme versprei het.

Die jong aktiviste wou die aandag vestig op die misdade wat in hul naam in Rusland gepleeg word - die massa -skietery op Jode, die verbranding van dorpe, die barbaarsheid van die oorlog wat Hitler verklaar het as 'sonder reëls' in sy poging om die Slawiërs te verpletter ' submense. '

En hulle geskrifte vertel die sterk onderdrukte verhaal van hoe die Wehrmacht 'n maand vroeër op Stalingrad verslaan is - 'n geveg wat die keerpunt van die oorlog bewys het.

Maar, sonder om hulle te weet, het 'n bediende by die universiteit hul bedaglike pamflet opgemerk en dit by die Gestapo, die gevreesde geheime polisie van die Hitler -regime, aangemeld.

Vier-en-twintig uur later is hulle in hegtenis geneem en binne enkele dae is Sophie Scholl, haar broer Hans (24) en hul vriend Christoph Probst (ook 24) onthoof weens verraad.

Nou, 71 jaar later, is gevind dat die guillotine wat gebruik is om die gruwelike vonnis uit te voer stof in die kelder van 'n München -museum ophoop, wat 'n debat in Duitsland veroorsaak oor die vraag of dit moet vertoon of vir ewig buite sig bly.

Vir veral 'n bejaarde vrou het die pyn, angs en angs wat sy meer as sewe dekades gelede beleef het skerp aandag getrek toe haar jonger suster en ouer broer dapper na hul dood gegaan het.

Elisabeth Hartnagel-Scholl is die laaste oorlewende broer van Hans en Sophie Scholl, twee van die jong martelare wat dit gewaag het om die mees sinistere tirannie ter wêreld uit te daag en die uiteindelike prys daarvoor betaal het.

Sy is nou 'n 93-jarige weduwee en woon alleen in Stuttgart, maar sy onthou duidelik die dag toe sy agterkom dat haar broer en suster onder die flikkerende lem van die guillotine gesterf het.

Die kinderverpleegster Elisabeth Scholl drink 'n koppie koffie op 'n koue dag in Februarie terwyl sy op 'n bus wag. Terwyl sy teug, kyk sy na 'n koerant. En die opskrif op die voorblad het haar amper flou gemaak.

Dit was Nazi -Duitsland in 1943, die koerant was 'n propagandablad genaamd Voelkischer Beobachter - die People's Observer - en die nuus het Elisabeth, slegs 22, met ongeloof, skok en pyn vervul.

Dit het berig hoe haar suster Sophie, haar broer Hans en hul vriend, Christoph Probst, die vorige dag almal guillotineer is - onthoof weens hoogverraad.

Nou, 71 jaar later, het die guillotine aan die lig gekom in die kelder van 'n München -museum. Dit het 'n debat in Duitsland veroorsaak oor die vraag of so 'n afskuwelike instrument moet verskyn ter nagedagtenis aan Sophie en haar mede -teenstanders.

Vir Elisabeth Hartnagel-Scholl, nou 93, het die ontdekking geheue laat terugvloei. Nou is sy die enigste van vyf Scholl -kinders wat nog lewendig is. Alhoewel sy deur baie Duitsers vermy is ná die teregstellings, trou Elisabeth met die verwoeste kêrel van haar suster en geniet 'n lang en gelukkige huwelik voor sy dood in 2001.

"Dit was 23 Februarie 1943 toe ek lees my broer en suster leef nie meer nie," het Elisabeth by haar huis in Stuttgart gesê. 'Hulle is die vorige dag tereggestel in die Stadelheim -gevangenis naby München.'

Sophie (21, Hans 24) en Christoph (24) was lede van die weerstandsgroep White Rose. Hulle misdaad was om pamflette met nazi -misdade in Rusland te versprei en die verpletterende nederlaag van die Duitse Sesde Leër by Stalingrad die vorige maand - 'n keerpunt in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

'N Pamflet wat hulle in die trap van die Ludwig Maximillian -universiteit in München gegooi het, was die laaste van ses. Maar hulle is deur die opsigter gesien, by die Gestapo aangemeld en binne 24 uur gearresteer. Na vier dae het hulle voor 'n hondsdol Nazi -regter gegaan en dieselfde dag tereggestel.

Kristallnacht (antwoordkommentaar)

Adolf Hitler se vroeë lewe (antwoordkommentaar)

Heinrich Himmler en die SS (Antwoordkommentaar)

Vakbonde in Nazi -Duitsland (antwoordkommentaar)

Adolf Hitler v John Heartfield (antwoordkommentaar)

Hitler se Volkswagen (The People's Car) (Antwoordkommentaar)

Vroue in Nazi -Duitsland (kommentaar op antwoord)

German League of Girls (antwoordkommentaar)

Die sluipmoord op Reinhard Heydrich (antwoordkommentaar)

Die laaste dae van Adolf Hitler (antwoordkommentaar)

(1) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 34

(2) Anton Gill, 'N Eervolle nederlaag: 'n Geskiedenis van die Duitse weerstand teen Hitler (1994) bladsy 183

(3) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die wit roos (1986) bladsy 14

(4) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(5) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 32

(6) Anton Gill, 'N Eervolle nederlaag: 'n Geskiedenis van die Duitse weerstand teen Hitler (1994) bladsy 184

(7) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(8) Inge Scholl, The White Rose: 1942-1943 (1983) bladsy 8

(9) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die Wit Roos (1986) bladsy 38

(10) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(11) Inge Scholl, The White Rose: 1942-1943 (1983) bladsy 13

(12) James Taylor en Warren Shaw, Woordeboek van die Derde Ryk (1987) bladsy 168

(13) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 68

(14) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(15) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 69

(16) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die Wit Roos (1986) bladsy 44

(17) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(18) Sophie Scholl, brief aan Fritz Hartnagel (1 September 1939)

(19) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra deur die Daaglikse spieël (17 Januarie 2014)

(20) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(21) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die Wit Roos (1986) bladsy 167

(22) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra deur die Daaglikse spieël (17 Januarie 2014)

(23) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die wit roos (1986) bladsy 181

(24) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(25) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die wit roos (1986) bladsy 181

(26) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra deur die Daaglikse spieël (17 Januarie 2014)


Elisabeth Scholl sing as erstes Mädchen im Knabenchor ihres Heimatortes, bei den Kiedricher Chorbuben. Die Rolle des 1. Knaben in Mozarts Zauberflöte (1982/1983–1987) am Hessischen Staatstheater in Wiesbaden verstärkte den Wunsch, Sängerin zu werden. Nach dem Abitur studieste sie zunächst Musikwissenschaft, Anglistik and Kunstgeschichte an der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz and erhielt privaten Gesangsunterricht bei Eduard Wollitz. Im Anschluss absolvierte sie ein Aufbaustudium in Alter Musik an der Schola Cantorum Basiliensis bei René Jacobs en Richard Levitt sowie das Opernstudio der Musikakademie Basel. Seither sing sie mit renommierten Ensembles der Alten Musik wie dem Freiburger Barockorchester, der Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin, Concerto Köln, Anima Eterna und Cantus Cölln.

Elisabeth Scholl is die Schwester des Countertenors Andreas Scholl.

Auftritte und Repertoire Bearbeiten

Elisabeth Scholl ist bei vielen großen europäischen Festivals as Solistin eingeladen (Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, Rheingau Musik Festival, Lufthansa Festival London, Festwochen Luzern, Festival van Vlaanderen, Händel-Festspiele in Halle, Göttingen und Karlsruhe, BBC Proms ua) en werk met Dirigenten wie René Jacobs, Jos van Immerseel, Frieder Bernius, Enoch zu Guttenberg, Bruno Weil, Nicholas McGegan, Sir Neville Marriner zusammen. Ihr Repertoire und zahlreiche CD-Einspielungen mit Werken von Alessandro Grandi bis in die Romantik spiegeln ihre stilistische Vielseitigkeit wide. Neben ihrer Konzerttätigkeit im Bereich der Alten Musiek gibt sie Liederabende und war an verschiedenen europäischen Opernhäusern mit Rollen von Händel en Vivaldi bis Mozart as Gast engagiert.

Zum Wintersemester 2009/2010 sal die Ruf as professor in Barockgesang in die Musikhochschule in Nürnberg en sedert die sommersemester 2018 Professor in für Gesang an der Hochschule für Musik Mainz. [1] [2]


'N KORT GESKIEDENIS

In September 1953 is die Direkteur van Onderwys deur die Komitee van Bestuur van die Vereniging vir Gestremdes genader om die 23 kinders in hul sorg onderrig te gee. Die direkteur het die samewerking aangewend van die Anglikaanse kerkraad (nou bekend as die Anglikaanse raad van onderwysbestuur), wat die naburige St. Crispin's Anglikaanse skool bestuur het.

Juffrou Esme Carr is vrygelaat uit die St. Crispin Anglikaanse Skool en word die eerste onderwyser by die Princess Elizabeth Home. Twee weke later het mev Claris Manswell-St Luis 'n opvoedingsprogram van 'n halfdag (2 ½ uur elke oggend) opgestel. Mevrou Manswell-St Luis het die eerste skoolhoof van die skool geword.

Met die toevoeging van 'n ander onderwyser in 1957 tydens die uitbreek van poliomyelitis, het die studentebevolking tot 60 toegeneem.

In 1969 het die eerste studente by die skool ingeskryf vir die nasionale gemeenskaplike toelatingseksamen.

1970 word die toelatingsbeleid gewysig om kinders met leergestremdhede in te sluit, selfs al het hulle nie 'n gestremdheid nie. Weens pogings van dr E.L. Robinson, tesame met 'n toename in die studentebevolking en 'n groter leerplan, het die skool sy eerste gebou ontvang. Die skool is gebou vir 100 studente op die perseel aangrensend aan die Princess Elizabeth -sentrum, geskenk deur die stadsraad van die Port of Spain. Die Rotary Club van Port of Spain het 1/3 van die koste geskenk, terwyl die regering van Trinidad en Tobago die balans sowel as die meubels en toerusting vir die skool voorsien het. Die argitekte Claude Guillaume en Bernard Broadbridge, wat hul dienste vrywillig verleen het, het die skool ontwerp.

Op 17 Januarie 1980 het die agbare minister van onderwys, dr Cuthbert Joseph, die Princess Elizabeth Special School for Physically Handicappes (formeel die Princess Elizabeth Home) formeel geopen. In 'n kabinetsbesluit van 1981 kom die skool onder die opvoedkundige toesig van die eenheid vir spesiale onderwys wat in die ministerie van onderwys gevestig is.

Vier en dertig jaar later is die skool uitgebrei met die bou van 'n voorafvervaardigde gebou met drie (3) kamers, in 'n vennootskap tussen die regering van Trinidad en Tobago en die Amerikaanse weermag.

Die Princess Elizabeth Centre (PEC) ondersteun die skool daagliks deur spesiale ondersteuningsdienste te bewys deur die personeel van die sentrum, insluitend:

 Voeding en persoonlike sanitêre dienste

 Vervoer vir studente wat binne die skool se opvanggebied sowel as op uitstappies woon.

Afdeling Studenteondersteuningsdienste van die Ministerie van Onderwys van Trinidad en Tobago bied bykomende ondersteuning in die vorm van 'n Begeleidingsberader en 'n Maatskaplike Werker. Die skool is nou onder direkte toesig van die Port of Spain en Environs Educational District Office.


Geskiedenis

Elisabeth Morrow, die dogter van Elizabeth Cutter Morrow en Dwight Morrow, finansier en ambassadeur in Mexiko, was passievol oor die opvoeding van kinders. Gedurende haar tienerjare het sy 'n skool voorgestel waar studente akademies, sosiaal en eties in 'n ondersteunende omgewing sou ontwikkel. Na voltooiing van haar opleiding aan Smith College en saam met klasmaat Constance Chilton, het Elisabeth se langverwagte droom om in die vroeë kinderjare kwaliteit te gee, 'n werklikheid geword in 1930. Met glimlagte en uitgestrekte hande begroet Elisabeth en Constance 40 studente voor die deur van The Little School, geleë in 'n huis in Lindenlaan in Englewood.

In 1936 verhuis die skool na sy nuwe koshuis in Lydeckerstraat 435 in Englewood, die tuiste van Elisabeth Morrow se kinderhuis. Sedert die hervestiging het die skool uitgebrei na meer as 400 kinders van driejarige tot agtste klas. Vandag het die skool 'n kampus van 14 hektaar met ses geboue wat moderne tegnologie-laboratoriums, gimnasiums, wetenskaplaboratoriums en biblioteke insluit, sowel as 'n atletiekveld, natuurroetes, tuine en speelgronde.


Sophie Scholl en die Wit Roos

Sophie Scholl en die White Rose -beweging, hoewel dit minder bekend is onder Amerikaners, is 'n kragtige voorbeeld van jeugdige verset teen die Nazi -regime.

Binne die Verenigde State is Sophie Magdalena Scholl nie die bekendste versetstryder nie, maar haar verhaal is kragtig. Sy was 'n belangrike lid van die Weiße Rose (White Rose) - 'n versetgroep wat bestuur word deur studente aan die Universiteit van München wat pamflette versprei het en graffiti gebruik het om Nazi -misdade en die politieke stelsel te bestry, terwyl hulle 'n beroep op weerstand teen die Nazi -staat en die oorlog. Op 22 Februarie 1943 is sy op 21 -jarige ouderdom onthoof weens verraad.

Sophie is in Mei 1921 gebore, die vierde van ses kinders uit 'n hoër-middelklasgesin in die suide van Duitsland. Robert, haar pa, was burgemeester van Forchtenberg, 'n idilliese stad in die noordooste van die moderne deelstaat Baden-Württemberg. Toe Sophie tien was, verhuis die gesin na Ulm, 'n middelgrootte suidelike stad wat uit die Middeleeue dateer, waar haar pa as staatsouditeur en belastingkonsultant gewerk het.

Nadat die Nazi's in Januarie 1933 aan bewind gekom het, was Sophie, saam met die meeste van haar broers en susters, 'n opgewonde en gelukkige volgeling van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese jeugkultus. Die tiener het geglo in die ideale wat destyds gepropageer is. Net soos baie van hul tydgenote, was Sophie veral geïntrigeerd deur die fokus op die natuur en gemeenskaplike ervarings. Sy het by die BDM, die Bund Deutscher Mädel (Liga van Duitse meisies) aangesluit en vinnig in hul geledere gestyg. Die ouers, veral haar pa, hou nie van die betrokkenheid van hul kinders by die Nazi -jeuggroepe nie en maak geen geheim daarvan nie. Robert Scholl, 'n kritikus van die party wat hul kinders stewig in die Christelike tradisie grootgemaak het, beskou die ontwikkelinge in Duitsland en hul kinders se belangstelling in Nazisme met toenemende vrees en afgryse. Lewendige besprekings was 'n daaglikse gebeurtenis aan die etenstafel en het die kinders die waarde van oop en eerlike gesprekke geleer - destyds 'n rariteit.

Sophie se broers en susters, veral haar oudste broer Hans, wat later 'n stigterslid van die Weiße Rose geword het, was ook lede van nie-Nazi-groepe jongmense. Hierdie verenigings het 'n liefde vir die natuur, buitelugavonture, sowel as die musiek, kuns en letterkunde van die Duitse romantiek gedeel en gepropageer. Hierdie alternatiewe groepe, wat oorspronklik deur baie mense as verenigbaar met die Nazi -ideologie beskou is, is stadig ontbind en uiteindelik teen 1936 verbied. Hans bly egter aktief in een van hierdie groepe en word in 1937 saam met verskeie van die Scholl -broers en susters gearresteer. Hierdie arrestasie het 'n merk op Sophie se gewete gelaat en begin met die proses wat haar uiteindelik van 'n gelukkige ondersteuner van die Nazi -stelsel tot aktiewe versetstryder verander het.

Op 1 September 1939 val Hitler Pole binne en twee dae later verklaar Frankryk en Brittanje oorlog teen Duitsland. Die ouer Scholl -broers is gestuur om op die voorkant te veg. Sophie se lewe in Ulm het ook verander. Sy het in die lente van 1940 haar hoërskool voltooi en 'n vakleerlingskap begin om 'n kleuterskoolonderwyser te word. Sy wou uiteindelik biologie en filosofie studeer. Om toegelaat te word, moes studente 'n tyd lank vir die staat werk in die Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD National Labor Service). Sophie se hoop dat sy as onderwyser haar in staat sou stel om die RAD te vervang, is in die wiele gery en sy moes in die lente van 1941 die diens betree. Sy het dit gehaat. Die militêr-agtige regime en verstandelose roetine het veroorsaak dat sy troos gevind het in haar eie spiritualiteit, gelei deur voorlesings van die teoloog Augustinus van Hippo. Sy het haar gedagtes neergeskryf en opgemerk dat haar 'siel honger' was - sy verlang na 'n outonome lewe, 'n einde aan die oorlog en na geluk met haar kêrel, Fritz Hartnagel, wat nou aan die oostelike front veg. Haar twyfel oor die regime gegroei het.

Toe sy uiteindelik in Mei 1942 na München verhuis om biologie en filosofie te studeer, het haar broer Hans, 'n mediese student aan dieselfde universiteit, en 'n paar van sy vriende reeds begin om die stelsel aktief te bevraagteken. Hulle dien aan die Oosfront en leer eerstehands van die misdade wat in Pole en Rusland gepleeg is en sien die ellende met hul eie oë. Hulle het geweet hulle kan nie stilbly nie. Vanaf Junie 1942 begin hulle pamflette druk en versprei in en om München en roep hul medestudente en die Duitse publiek tot aksie. Ander lede van hulle kring het bygedra tot die herfs van dieselfde jaar en het vier pamflette geskryf. As student het Sophie die flyers gesien en die inhoud toegejuig, asook die moed van die skrywers om die waarheid aan die mag te spreek. Toe sy uitvind oor haar broer se betrokkenheid, het sy geëis om by die groep aan te sluit. Sy wou nie meer passief bly nie.

Die White Rose was 'n klein poging met groot gevolge. In die kern was die broers en susters Hans en Sophie Scholl, hul medestudente Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf, Christoph Probst en 'n professor in filosofie en musiekwetenskap aan die Universiteit van München, Kurt Huber. Saam het hulle ses pamflette gepubliseer en versprei, eers op 'n tikmasjien getik en dan vermenigvuldig met mimeograaf. Aanvanklik het hulle dit slegs per pos versprei en dit na professore, boekhandelaars, skrywers, vriende en ander gestuur-deur telefoonboeke vir adresse en deur elke koevert met die hand geskryf. Uiteindelik het hulle duisende versprei en huishoudings oor die hele Duitsland bereik. Dit was problematies om sulke groot hoeveelhede papier, koeverte en seëls te bekom tydens 'n streng rantsoenering sonder om die vermoede te skep, maar die studente het daarin geslaag om 'n uitgebreide netwerk ondersteuners in stede en dorpe tot in die noorde van Hamburg en tot in die suide as Wene. Hierdie netwerke is ook geaktiveer om die pamflette te versprei, met die poging om die Gestapo te mislei om te glo dat die Wit Roos oral in die land plekke het.

By die lees van die groep se pamflette vandag kan 'n mens nie anders as om te dink aan hoe chillend akkuraat dit was in hul beskuldigings en oproepe tot aksie nie, en die kragtige insigte wat hulle oor Nazi -Duitsland bied: Die derde pamflet lui:

'Ons huidige' staat 'is die diktatuur van die bose. Ons weet dit al, ek hoor hoe u beswaar maak, en ons hoef u nie weer daarvoor te verwyt nie. Maar ek vra jou, as jy dit weet, waarom tree jy dan nie op nie? Waarom duld u dat hierdie heersers u geleidelik, in die openbaar en privaat, van die een na die ander beroof, totdat op 'n dag niks, absoluut niks, oorbly nie, behalwe die masjinerie van die staat, onder bevel van misdadigers en dronkaards? "

In hul poging om traksie te kry vir die verset en om die oorlogspoging te stop, het hulle duidelike advies gegee en die sabotasie van Hitler se oorlogsmasjien bepleit. Hulle vyfde pamflet lui: 'En nou moet elke oortuigende teenstander van die nasionaal -sosialisme homself afvra hoe hy op die mees effektiewe manier teen die huidige' staat 'kan veg ... in algemene terme, en hy alleen sal die manier vind om hierdie doel te bereik: Sabotasie in wapensaanlegte en oorlogsbedrywe, sabotasie by alle byeenkomste, saamtrekke, openbare seremonies en organisasies van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Party. Obstruksie van die gladde werking van die oorlogsmasjien ... godsdienstige waardes en spoor hulle aan tot passiewe verset! ”

In Januarie 1943 voel die groep bemagtig en hoopvol. Dit lyk asof hul aktivisme werk, die owerhede laat raas en besprekings onder hul eweknieë veroorsaak het. Hulle groep was goed georganiseerd en hulle sou nog meer verbindings met ander ondergrondse versetgroepe oprig. Met inagneming van die politieke situasie in Duitsland in Januarie 1943, het Sophie en die White Rose -lede geglo dat 'n verandering in die land op hande is. Die rampspoedige nederlaag van die Duitse weermag by Stalingrad was 'n keerpunt op die Oosfront, en stemme van onenigheid het harder geword by die Universiteit van München nadat studente in die openbaar uitgeroep is as bloedsuiers en oorlogsweerstanders. Dit het hulle aangemoedig om moediger te werk, die flyers persoonlik te versprei en slagspreuke soos "Down with Hitler" en "Freedom" op die mure rondom München te skryf. Hulle sesde-en laaste-pamflet lui: “Selfs die dofste Duitser het sy oë geopen deur die verskriklike bloedbad, wat hulle in die naam van die vryheid en eer van die Duitse nasie op Europa losgelaat en losgelaat het elke dag nuut. The German name will remain forever tarnished unless finally the German youth stands up, pursues both revenge and atonement, smites our tormentors, and founds a new intellectual Europe. Students! The German people look to us! The responsibility is ours: just as the power of the spirit broke the Napoleonic terror in 1813, so too will it break the terror of the National Socialists in 1943.”

Hans and Sophie distributed them at their university on February 18, for their fellow students to find walking between classes. At some point, in what we can assume was an attempt to make even more people see the flyers, Sophie pushed a stack off a railing unto the central hall. What is now an iconic scene in every movie and documentary about the group, was the moment that changed everything. The pamphlet drop was seen by a janitor, a staunch supporter of the Nazis, who had Hans and Sophie immediately arrested by the Gestapo. The draft for the seventh pamphlet was still in Hans’ bag, which led to Christoph Probst’s arrest the same day.

The three endured a mock trial after long and arduous interrogations. They took all blame for the White Rose’s actions. This attempt to save their friends from persecution failed in the end, and Willi Graf, Alexander Schmorell, and Kurt Huber were arrested later in February and put to death shortly after.

After a half-day trial led by the infamous Roland Freisler, president of the People’s Court, Hans, Sophie, and Christoph were sentenced to death for treason. Despite this horrific prospect, Sophie did not waver. Freisler asked her as the closing question whether she hadn’t “indeed come to the conclusion that [her] conduct and the actions along with [her] brother and other persons in the present phase of the war should be seen as a crime against the community?” Sophie answered:

“I am, now as before, of the opinion that I did the best that I could do for my nation. I therefore do not regret my conduct and will bear the consequences that result from my conduct.”

Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl, and Christoph Probst were executed by guillotine on February 22, 1943.

While their deaths were only barely mentioned in German newspapers, they received attention abroad. In April, Die New York Times wrote about student opposition in Munich. In June 1943, Thomas Mann, in a BBC broadcast aimed at Germans, spoke of the White Rose’s actions. The text of the sixth leaflet was smuggled into the United Kingdom where they were reprinted and dropped over Germany by Allied planes in July of the same year.

In post-war Germany, the White Rose was and is revered. A myriad of schools, streets, and a prestigious award are named after individual members, the group or the siblings Scholl. Sophie’s story looms especially large in the history of Ulm, my hometown. She personifies the importance of acting according to one’s beliefs and of following your conscience, even in the face of great sacrifice. In our collective memory, her story reminds us to not be silent, and fight for what Sophie wrote on the back of her indictment a day before she was killed: Freiheit—Freedom.

Tanja B. Spitzer

Tanja B. Spitzer, a native of Germany who came to New Orleans a little over a decade ago to study at Tulane University, is an expert on transatlantic history and cultural diplomacy.


Does Scientology put Elisabeth Moss at odds with Hollywood?

Elisabeth Moss' apprehension toward discussing Scientology does set her apart from other Hollywood adherents like John Travolta or Tom Cruise, but her reluctance has also probably helped her reputation in the non-Scientology wing of Hollywood. One fellow actress that Moss does find herself at odds with is Leah Remini, who famously exited the group and has been outspoken since. When Remini accepted an Emmy for her docu-series Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath in 2017, Moss stood up and left the room, per Metro U.K.

The same year, Remini spoke about Moss specifically (via ELLE Australia), saying, "Elisabeth Moss believes that she can't talk to me. because I've spoken out against Scientology. And knowing that, I wouldn't put her in the awkward position." She explained that the two aren't really feuding, but with a caveat: "I don't hold anything against Elisabeth Moss other than she's continuing to support a group that is abuse and destroying families. That's for her to learn — just as I needed to learn it."

Moss' adherence to Scientology is also believed to have been part of the reason for her divorce from SNL alum Fred Armisen. The marriage only lasted about eight months, with Us Weekly (via Daaglikse pos) reporting, "Her religion was as important to her as their marriage, if not more," which proved a stumbling block when Armisen "could not get with it."


The Hidden History of Hans Scholl

A leader of the rebel student group, The White Rose, who fought against the Nazi regime and was ultimately arrested and executed for his actions- alongside his sister Sophie and friend Cristoph- Hans Scholl is undoubtedly a hero of history.

But in recent years Hans story has largely been overshadowed, at least in terms of the popular historical narrative, by his sister, Sophie. And that make sense. Sophie Scholl has become one of the most well known women in modern history. Growing up she pretty much the first (non royal) female figure from history that I learnt about in depth she was on my school curriculum, there were countless books and films about her and every year on her death social media goes into a flurry remembering this incredible young woman. So is it unfair that when raising up women in an incredibly over saturated historical narrative, sometimes those men that stood with them will become a footnote. Natuurlik. Is it understandable? Sadly, yes.

But we can’t let that happen to Hans Scholl. Here’s why:

  1. We’re just realising that a huge part of Hans story has been intentionally buried. He was most likely bisexual, and before his work with The White Rose he had actually been arrested for homosexuality.
  2. More importantly – because Hans challenges what we think a hero is.

He didn’t just start on the wrong side of history, he was at the 1936 Nuremberg rally as a poster-boy for the Nazi regime.

It’s so easy to look at history and say ‘I would have been the one to stand up, risk it all and fight’, it’s much harder to do. And that’s why we need stories like Hans, especially in the current global political climate! So, without further ado, lets dive into the hidden history of Hans Scholl.

The Scholl siblings with their Dad Robert – Inge, Hans, Elisabeth, Sophie and Werner

Born in 1918 in Forchtenberg Hans was the second oldest of his siblings, Inge, Elisabeth, Sophie, Werner and Thilde.

He joined The Hitler Youth, with his brothers and sisters all following suit. But though the siblings all revelled in their roles in this new nation creating youth group, their parents weren’t so keen.

Their father, Robert, was incredibly against the rising Nazi Regime. A former mayor, he’d actually been kicked out of office for his progressive views. But this didn’t stop him from still vocalising his thoughts against Hitlers rise to power. And so the Scholl children joined the Hitler Youth against their parents wishes. No matter how much Robert debated Hitler and his government’s policies with his children, they just rolled their eyes. As Elisabeth later said, the reason behind the kids refusal to budge was one as old as time:

‘We just dismissed it: he’s too old for this stuff, he doesn’t understand’

Their dad was from a different generation, one whose future ambitions were limited, a hangover from the nationwide social and economic scarring from Germany’s defeat in WW1. And so, his children thought that there was just no way he could get the kind of bold promises that were being made by Adolf Hitler under the guise of National Socialism.

Hans believed in the promise of the Nazis. A future lay before him full of opportunity and better yet it was a future where he was more than wanted. Tall, strong, smart, blonde and blue eyed, Hans was the ideal young man for Germany’s future. Even being chosen as a flag bearer at 1936’s Nuremberg Rally.

He was prepped as a potential high ranking official in the parties future. Hans natural leadership skills nurtured and honed.

But that’s not to say that Hans hadn’t started to notice things that jarred. At the Nuremberg Rally, he met party leaders whose extreme views shocked him. With these men there was no room for debate or discussion on how things should or could be. Their world view was set in stone, the Nazi ideology the only true answer. They would even dictate what Hans could read, with a leader snatching a book by one of the era’s most popular authors, the Jewish born, Stefan Zweig, out of Hans’ hands, declaring it to be banned.

Still Hans continued. He returned to his normal life, now a Hitler Youth troop leader.

Though his day to day was struck through to the core with the Nazi ideals, their ever rising power everywhere, Hans life felt a world away from the zealotry of the Nuremberg Rally. But then Hans allowed his troop to create their own banner. Intertwining the organisations existing banner with meaningful tributes from the boys own lives and community. And the unbudging might of the Nazi Regime came crashing down. Hans was out, his role as a Hitler Youth Leader gone.

At the same time, as Hans run in with the regime, the Scholl siblings noticed that their Jewish classmates were leaving school. Sophie, was disciplined for performing a poem by a Jewish poet. And all the while there were whispered stories of young people being spirited away to camps after speaking out against the party.

Suddenly they realised their parents had been right all along. As the new order that the Scholl siblings had believed in so deeply mutated into something entirely different, all they could do was huddle ever closer together as the world around them span out of control.

Hans and his brother Werner

Possibly seeking some escape, teenage Hans and Werner both joined a chapter of the German Youth Movement. For a few hours they could lose the harsh realities of home and flee to the woods hiking, swimming and singing round campfires.

But the respite didn’t last long and in 1937, at nineteen, Hans was conscripted to carry out mandatory military duties.

By all accounts Hans did well in the army. Just like in his Hitler Youth days he was held in esteem by his superiors. He joined the Calvary and it was expected that he despite his previous indiscretions, this young man would achieve great things.

But that didn’t happen. Because on December 13 1937, Hans was arrested by the Gestapo.

Hans was arrested along with his brother Werner and sisters, Inge and Sophie, as well as several other youths. They were accused of being in an illegal youth group, which was true.

In 1936 most youth groups outside of government sanctioned ones, were outlawed. So those days Hans had spent in hiking and camping with his friends were illegal.

Still, this was a minor infraction committed by well behaved middle class kids. And so Sophie, Inge and Werner were released.

But Hans was kept incarcerated. It had come out during the investigation that he had committed a far greater crime:

Homosexuality

Hans had fallen for another boy in his youth group, Rolf Futterknecht. The two shared an teenage romance the kind of idlic first love whose relationship blossomed throughout their weekend camping trips.

There’s little to suggest that this relationship outlived the typical teenage relationship, but as with any first love, it left a lasting impact. Which could explain why, despite Rolf having admitted to the affair under questioning, by the time Hans was interrogated he still sought to shield Rolf from the full criminal impact, saying:

‘I must admit I am the guilty party. To some extent I was seen by (Rolf) as someone in a position of authority to who he subordinated himself.’

Though later in the interrogation saying:

‘I can only justify my actions on the basis of the great love I felt’

Rolf was spared being charged, in return for testifying against Hans.

Ultimately Hans was found guilty.

But he was lucky. Thanks to his previous roles in the Hitler Youth and already strong military record, a lot of people came out to bat for him during sentencing. All of this combined meant that Hans’ judge was persuaded to let him go free. Putting it all down to youthful ‘indiscretion’.

Hans was lucky. His friend, Ernst Reden was not. A fellow member of the illegal youth group, Ernst was also put on trial for homosexuality and was sentenced to a term in a concentration camp, where he would join hundreds of other men and women, all guilty of the same ‘crime’. By the end of the Nazi regime, thousands of those branded with the pink triangle badge would perish inside the camps.

Much later, Hans surviving family would choose not to let this part of his life become public knowledge, perhaps scared that his sexuality and arrest might in some way stop people from remembering him as a ‘hero’. This chapter of Hans’ life was missing, glossed over and was only uncovered in full recently when historians started re-examining the Gestapo transcripts from the trial.

Alexander Schmorell and Hans in their military uniforms

Following his trial, Hans wrote in his diary:

‘If you tear our hearts from our bodies, you yourselves will burn to death for it’

Inwardly, he may have started to battle against the dictatorship he now lived under, but that’s not what Hans was portraying to the outside world.

He was a young man who had just gone through a hugely traumatic experience. He now knew the full ramifications that being ‘caught’ in love could cause. Yes, he wanted to speak out -after all he’d done so before – but at what cost? Hans knew full well that you didn’t get three strikes in Nazi Germany – one more arrest and he’d be out.

So he quietly continued his life. He gained a place to study medicine in Munich and when World War Two kicked off, he worked as a medic on the front line.

Here he met other young men, who like him had hopefully believed in the Nazis promised utopian future and were now getting their legs blown off for their trouble.

He slept in homes whose families had been thrown into the street, shipped off or now lay dead nearby. He saw not only the horrors of war but realised the emerging scale of the atrocities that were now being carried out at home.

Then, in 1942 Hans’ father was arrested. Robert was reported for speaking out against Hitler and the war, and was sentenced to four months in prison. The family rallied around their father as best they could. They wrote to him every two weeks (all they were allowed to do) with Sophie attempting to see her father by playing music for him under the prison window she believed him to be in.

Hans was on the front line when the arrest happened. Away from home, he hoped he might be able to help by using his position in the army to plead for clemency on behalf of his dad. But he was talked out of doing so by a senior in the army. Feeling powerless he wrote to his mum:

“…I think so much about father, and in the way it can only happen in Russia, I shoot up the whole tone-scale of my personality to the highest tone of rage”

That rage boiled inside him. Hans knew how unstoppable the Nazi regime was. The unthinkable damage it would do if allowed to continue. Yes he knew the risks, but someone had to speak up. To fight tyranny with fact and freedom of thought. Slowly his rage evolved into resolve. And by the time Hans arrived back in Munich to continue his studies, he was a fully changed man.

The White Rose was ready to bloom.

Hans, his sister Sophie and Cristoph Probst, leaders of the White Rose

The White Rose has gone down in history as arguably the most well known civilian resistance group to fight the Nazi regime. Primarily made up of students, they were the antithesis to the brutality they sought to bring down. Utilising intellectual passive protest to both oppose and spread awareness of the atrocities being committed by the regime.

There is no true historical consensus on exactly how the White Rose was formed. However we do know that Hans was at the heart of its conception, along with fellow students, Alexander Schmorell, Juegen Wittenstien, Christopher Probst, Will Graf and Hans younger sister, Sophie. The group committed themselves to turning the tide against Hitlers regime. And unlike the Nazis they vowed not to change minds by brute force, but by arming people with the truth.

Protest graffiti was painted in the dead of night, secret meetings held and an illegal printing factory created.

The groups numbers swelled, secretly assisted and advised by one of the university’s staff, Professor Huber. Hans soon emerged as the leader of the White Rose.

Time and time again, Hans was warned of the grave risk his actions put him in. That if caught, he’d pay the ultimate price. But Hans remained undeterred. He had a duty to tell people about the atrocities happening under their noses, to reach people that were, like he had once been, tied up into the Nazi regime. To show that there was another way.

And so when the White Rose’s printing press whirred into action, it marked hundreds of papers with the words:

‘We will not be silenced. We are your bad conscience.’

Text from the first White Rose leaflet, from The Holocaust Research Project

The group secretly organised to spread their leaflets through multiple German cities and targeted them both at the general population and directly mailed them to influential higher ups.

Their message was heard far and wide, as the group exposed hidden atrocities, and called for people to stand up and be heard in the struggle for freedom of speech.

On 18 February 1943, Hans and Sophie joined forces to arrange another leaflet drop. They set their sights on the main Munich University building, leaving bundles of leaflets outside lecture halls for students to come across after classes had finished. As they were about to leave, they realised a number of leaflets were leftover and so in the final push of the day, tossed them over a staircase onto the universities atrium floor. The leaflets lying as an inescapable carpet of protest for anyone entering or exiting the building.

But the pair were seen and quickly captured.

Evidence was gathered and Hans and Sophie were arrested, along with fellow White Rose member and a young father of three, Cristoph Probst, after a draft leaflet signed by him was found in one of the siblings rooms.

Gestapo mug shots of Sophie and Hans Scholl

Four days later on 22 February 1943, Christoph, Sophie and Hans were all made to take part in a show trial. The judge, Roland Freisler was notorious for both his harshness and for deciding sentencing before a trial had actually begun.

Hans and Sophie were both fortunate enough to be able to see their families in court. Christoph pleaded for the judge to think of his three children and now sick wife.

It fell on deaf ears. Freisler found all three guilty of treason and sentenced them to death. The sentence would be carried out that evening.

Before being rushed out of court, Hans managed to say goodbye to his parents, and urge his brother Werner, who was on the verge of tears to:

“stay strong. No compromises.”

That evening, after being allowed to briefly meet again one last time, brother, sister and friend, were all beheaded by guillotine. Hans’ last words were a defiant:

“Long live freedom”

But the story doesn’t end there. The rest of the Scholl family were arrested whilst they ate breakfast. It was an act of Sippenhaft, a German term that means families take responsibility for the action of their kin. Thousands more families like the Scholls would be arrested as WW2 marched on.

Professor Huber, along with students and White Rose members, Hans Leiput, Willi Graf, Alexander Schmorell were all executed after quick show trials.

This was quickly followed by more of the members being rounded up and either sent to the front line or to prison.

Then in late 1943, a group of Hamburg students who’d been inspired by The White Rose and were attempting to keep the movement alive, were captured. Reinhold Meyer, Katharina Leipelt, Elisabeth Lange, Greta Rolfe, Kurt Leiden, Friedrich Rudolf Geussenhainer, and Margarethe Mrosek, would all die, either from disease or hunger in prison, or hastily executed without trial as the war came to a close.

  • Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf, Katharina Leipelt, Friedrich Rudolf Geussenhainer, Margarethe Mrosek and Professor Huber

Shortly after Hans, Sophie and Cristoph’s deaths, the White Rose sixth, final and censored leaflet was liberated. Mass printed and released with the heading:

‘Despite everything their spirit lives on’

It was spread across Germany. Copies dropped as a form of peaceful bombing by The Royal Airforce. The leaflets wound their way around Europe before going trans Atlantic. They showed a side to the German people many on the allied side had forgotten. With anecdotal evidence, historians believe that the word of the White Rose even found its way into concentration camps.

To this day the White Rose remains a key part of world history, taught in school and a constant reminder that even the quietest voice can be heard through the darkness.

And that brings me back to why Hans Scholl’s story is so important.

‘Heroes’ aren’t born a’la Harry Potter. There’s no crack of green light and suddenly you’re the chosen one. It’s just normal people, with mistakes and pasts, but who make that difficult choice. And sometimes those people are remembered and celebrated. But sometimes, like Hans, they’re an ‘and’ parts of their history glossed over. Their story is just to spikey, there’s too much grey, there’s no clear hero moment. But the difference they made, big or small, still echoes.

So here’s to not only Hans, but all of the forgotten members of the White Rose. Whose true stories may just be being discovered, but whose legacies live on.


More German Immigrants to Virginia

Between 1717 and 1725, others arrived from the Kraichgau.

Some were related to the 1717 arrivals. Some were neighbors in Germany of the 1717 arrivals.

Others could have been here since 1717, but were either too young to be listed in 1717, or escaped official notice in the records.

Some who were traveling with the first wave in 1717 were left behind in England to wait for the next ship.

Whatever the reason for not being listed, some went to the Robinson River Valley at the same time as the earlier group and patented land in the same time period, while others stayed on their 1717 land near the village of York, which is now known as Stevensburg.

  • Zimmermann/Carpenter, Johann Wilhelm/William, and wife Elizabeth Castler/Kastler/Gessler
  • Zimmermann/Carpenter, Mathias, and wife Susanna Christina children: Matthias Friedrich, Anna Magdalena
  • Kabler/Cobbler, Christopher
  • Kabler/Cobbler, Frederick, and wife Barbara
  • Kabler/Cobbler, Nicholas
  • Wayland/Wieland, Thomas, and wife Mary children: Jacob and Catherine
  • Yowell/Uhl/Owell, Christoph, and wife Eva, children: Georg Frederich, Magdalena, Anna Catharina, Frederich David, Anna Barbara, Hans Jacob
  • Yowell/Uhl/Owell, Nicholas, and wife Catharine son Jacob Michael
  • Rouse/Rausch, John, and wife Maria/Mary
  • Tanner/Danner, Robert, and wife Mary and five children

Elisabeth Scholl - History

Elizabeth I as Princess
attributed to William Scrots

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Born: 7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace

Became Queen: 17 November 1558

Coronation: 15 January 1559
Westminster Abbey

Died: 24 March 1603
Richmond Palace

Buried: 28 April 1603
Westminster Abbey

Elizabeth's life was troubled from the moment she was born. Henry VIII had changed the course of his country's history in order to marry Anne Boleyn, hoping that she would bear him the strong and healthy son that Catherine of Aragon never did. But, on September 7, 1533 in Greenwich Palace, Anne bore Elizabeth instead.

Anne did eventually conceive a son, but he was stillborn. By that point, Henry had begun to grow tired of Anne and began to orchestrate her downfall. Most, if not all, historians agree that Henry's charges of incest and adultery against Anne were false, but they were all he needed to sign her execution warrant. She was beheaded on the Tower Green on May 19, 1536, before Elizabeth was even three years old.

Elizabeth was probably at the royal manor at Hunsdon when her mother was arrested and executed after being at court for Christmas (and likely the last time she saw her mother). Henry had remarried and was eagerly awaiting the son he hoped Jane Seymour was carrying. As it turned out, she was indeed to bear Henry a son, Edward (future Edward VI). Jane died shortly after her son was born.

Elizabeth's last stepmother was Katherine Parr, the sixth queen to Henry VIII. Katherine had hoped to marry Thomas Seymour (brother to the late Queen Jane), but she caught Henry's eye. She brought both Elizabeth and her half-sister Mary back to court. When Henry died, she became the Dowager Queen and took her household from Court. Because of the young age of Edward VI, Edward Seymour (another brother of Jane's and therefore the young King's uncle) became Lord Protector of England.

Elizabeth went to live with the Queen Dowager Katherine, but left her household after an incident with the Lord Admiral, Thomas Seymour, who was now Katherine's husband. Just what occurred between Elizabeth and Thomas will never be known for sure, but rumors at the time suggested that Katherine had caught them kissing or perhaps even in bed together. Katherine was pregnant at the time of the incident. She later gave birth to a daughter named Mary. Katherine died not too long afterwards and was buried at Sudeley Castle. This left Thomas Seymour as an eligible bachelor once again.

Because Elizabeth was a daughter of the late King Henry VIII, she was in line to the throne (despite several attempts to remove her from the chain, she was in Henry's will as an heir) and was therefore a most sought-after bride. During the reign of Edward VI, Thomas Seymour asked for Elizabeth's hand in marriage, which she refused. From this incident, both Thomas and Elizabeth were suspected of plotting against the king. Elizabeth was questioned, but was never charged. Seymour however, after an attempt to kidnap the boy king, was arrested and eventually executed for treason. Elizabeth was reported to have said, upon hearing of the Lord Admiral's death (although it is probably apocryphal): "Today died a man of much wit, and very little judgment."

Edward may have contracted what was then called consumption (possibly tuberculosis) or had a severe respiratory infection. When it looked inevitable that the teenager would die without an heir of his own body, the plots for his crown began. Reports of the young King's declining health spurred on those who did not want the crown to fall to the Catholic Mary. It was during this time that Guilford Dudley married Lady Jane Grey, who was a descendant of Henry VIII's sister Mary, and was therefore also an heir to the throne. When Edward VI died in 1553, Jane was proclaimed Queen by her father Henry Grey and her father-in-law John Dudley, who rallied armies to support her. However, many more supported the rightful heir: Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Nine days after Jane was proclaimed Queen, Mary rode into London with her sister Elizabeth. Jane Grey and her husband Guilford were imprisoned in the Tower.

Shortly after becoming Queen, Mary was wed to Prince Philip of Spain, which made the Catholic Queen quite unpopular. The persecuted Protestants saw Elizabeth as their savior, since she was seen as an icon of "the new faith". After all, it was to marry her mother Anne Boleyn that Henry instituted the break with Rome. Because of this, several rebellions and uprisings were made in Elizabeth's name, although she herself probably had little or no knowledge of them. However, Mary sensed the danger from her younger sister, and imprisoned her in the Tower.

The story, possibly apocryphal, of Elizabeth's entry into the Tower is an interesting one. She was deathly (pun intended) afraid of the Tower, probably thinking of her mother's fate in that place, and when she was told she would be entering through Traitor's Gate, she refused to move. She had been secreted to the Tower in the dark so as not to raise the sympathy of supporters. That night was cold and rainy, and the Princess Elizabeth sat, soaking wet, on the stairs from the river to the gate. After her governess finally persuaded Elizabeth to enter, she did so and became yet another famous prisoner of the Tower of London.

Elizabeth was released from the Tower after a few months of imprisonment and was sent to Woodstock where she stayed for just under a year. When it appeared that Mary had become pregnant, Elizabeth was no longer seen as a significant threat and the Queen let her return to her residence at Hatfield, under semi- house arrest. Mary Tudor was nearly 40 years old when the news of her "pregnancy" came. After a few months, her belly began to swell, but no baby was ever forthcoming. Some modern historians think that she had a large ovarian cyst, and this is also what lead to her failing health and eventual death.

News of Mary's death on November 17, 1558 reached Elizabeth at Hatfield, where she was said to be out in the park, sitting under an oak tree. Upon hearing that she was Queen, legend has it that Elizabeth quoted the 118th Psalm's twenty-third line, in Latin: "A Dominum factum est illud, et est mirabile in oculis notris" -- "It is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes."


'An exceptional and rounded education that even private schools struggle to compete with.' (The Good Schools Guide, 2016)

“It’s the big day it’s Founder’s Day!” – the QE community gathered online to celebrate an illustrious past and look forward to a bright future

Queen Elizabeth’s School today celebrated Virtual Founder’s Day 2021 with an internet broadcast that featured a good measure of time-honoured tradition and a generous helping of innovation, all laced with.

Let the playing commence!

Scores of the School’s young musicians battle it out today in a competitive Pianoathon Challenge being held to raise money to buy pianos for the new Music School. Each of.

Our rich heritage open to all: proudly presenting QE Collections

Eighty-nine people joined a special Zoom event held to present QE Collections – Queen Elizabeth’s School’s new fully digitised online set of archives relating to the School and the Barnet.

Cherishing our traditions: QE’s youngest pupils find out about Founder’s Day in special event

With pandemic restrictions forcing the School’s Founder’s Day activities to move online for the second consecutive year, QE’s Year 7 learned about the day’s rich history and traditions in a.

From phantoms to whimsy – Rishi “beats QE’s poetic drum” in national competition

When the School put Rishi Watsalya forward for a national poetry recitation competition, he set out both to put smiles on the faces of his audience – and to send.


Kyk die video: Elisabeth u0026 Andreas Scholl sing Monteverdis Pur ti miro (November 2021).