Geskiedenis Podcasts

Shepard Knapp - Geskiedenis

Shepard Knapp - Geskiedenis

Herder Knapp
(Skip: t. 838, 1. 160'10 ", b. 33'8"; dph. 22'3 ", dr. 13 '
(Dit.); kpl. 93; a. 8 gewere)

Shepherd Knapp-'n seilskip wat op 'n skip gerig is-is op 28 Augustus 1861 in New York gekoop van Laurence Giles Co.

Aangesien die logboeke van Shephard Knapp ontbreek, is baie besonderhede van haar loopbaan onbekend. Haar eerste bevelvoerder was blykbaar waarnemende vrywilliger -luitenant Henry S. Eytinge, wat op 1 November 1861 beveel is om in Wes -Indië te vaar om 'vaartuie van die rebelle' wat hy teëkom, te vang of te vernietig. Die besondere voorwerp van sy aandag was die Konfederale handelsaanvalle, Sumter, wat sedert die vroeë somer op die skeepsvaart van die Unie besig was. Na 'n lang vaart waarin sy nooit vir kaptein Raphael Semmes en sy ontwykende stoomskip ingehaal het nie, het Shepherd Knapp die middag van 17 April 1862 na New York teruggekeer.

Die skip is vir die res van die jaar by die New York Navy Yard gelê. Op 20 Januarie 1863 word sy weer beveel om in Wes -Indië te vaar op soek na Konfederale skepe, veral die Alabama. Semmes het weer daarin geslaag om die oorlogskip van die Unie te ontwyk. Nadat hy meer as drie en 'n half maande lank in die Karibiese Eilande gevaar het, het Shepherd Knapp 'n koraalrif van Kaap Haiten af ​​getref en is verlate.


Versteek in die omgewing: die VSA Pittsburgh Bell in New Milford

Die monument ter ere van admiraal Henry Shepard Knapp op die New Milford green.

In die middel van die New Milford -groen is 'n granietskag met 'n klokkie wat dit versier. Dit vereer 'n Amerikaanse vlootbeampte met 'n diep familiebande met die stad.

Henry Shepard Knapp is in 1856 in New Britain gebore en studeer aan die Naval Academy van die Verenigde State in 1878. Hy dien die volgende 42 jaar in die vloot. In 1908 het hy gevegservaring opgedoen in die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog, en hy het bevel gekry oor sy eie skip, die kruiser U.S.S. Charleston. In 1915 word Knapp aangewys as bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse Atlantiese Vloot, en in 1916 verklaar hy die Amerikaanse besetting van die Dominikaanse Republiek, waarvan hy in 1917 as die militêre goewerneur aangewys sou word. uitgebreek.

Tydens die oorlog het Knapp bevel gekry oor Amerikaanse pogings om die skeepvaart teen Duitse U-Boats te beskerm en is hy met die Navy Cross bekroon vir hierdie “-diens. magte in Europese waters. Gedurende hierdie tyd het die U.S.S. Pittsburgh het as sy vlagskip gedien. Hy tree in 1920 af, maar word so hoog geag dat hy as konsultant en nie -amptelike diplomaat aangehou is om krisisse in Haïti en die Dominikaanse Republiek te hanteer en tot sy dood in 1923 somerkursusse by die United States Naval Institute geleer het.

Die klok van die U.S.S. Pittsburgh. Dit is interessant om op te let uit die inskripsie dat die klok voorheen op 'n skip gebruik is, die Steamer Pensacola, wat in 1859 in gebruik geneem is en in 1911 by die Mare Island Navy Yard in Kalifornië (sigbaar op die klok), 'n jaar voor die Pittsburgh in opdrag gekry het.

In 1951 het New Milford ’s Ezra Woods Post 31 van die American Legion die monument vir Knapp op die groen stad opgerig. (Woods was die eerste inwoner van New Milford in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog). Knapp het eiendom in die stad gehad, insluitend 'n kommersiële gebou in Bankstraat en het somers in New Milford by die familie se voorvaderhuis deurgebring.

In 1956 is die Knapp -huis geskenk aan die New Milford Historical Society in 1956 deur Mary Clissold Knapp. Dit was die huis van skoenmaker Levi Knapp wat dit in 1838 by Royal Davis gekoop het. dit is gebou in 1815. Die huis staan ​​aan die noordelike punt van die setperk op die historiese eiendom van die samelewing.


Shepard Knapp - Geskiedenis

Harry Shepard Knapp, gebore op 27 Junie 1856 in New Britain, Conn., Studeer aan die Naval Academy op 20 Junie 1878. Nadat hy in Pensacola gedien het as kadetskipper en in Minnesota en Jamestown as middelskip, het hy die opdrag ontvang as vaandrig 8 Julie 1882. Na opdragte na 'n aantal skepe en stasies aan wal, is hy by die uitbreek van die Spaanse Amerikaanse Oorlog by Dorothea beveel as uitvoerende beampte. Uitstekende diens op 'n verskeidenheid belangrike stokke wat aan boord en aan wal was, is op 3 Augustus 1908 beloon toe Knapp die bevel oor Charleston neem (C-22). Knapp is op 8 Januarie 1910 aangestel as kaptein 1909 en is op 8 Januarie 1910 by die Algemene Raad aangewys. Omtrent hierdie tyd het hy onderbroke diens gedoen in die Joint Army and Navy Board ter Verdediging van die Panamakanaal. Hy was in beheer van Florida (BB-30) terwyl sy ingerig was en bevelvoerder oor die slagskip was toe sy vir 15 September 1911 die eerste keer in diens was. Hy neem die bevel oor Cruiser Force, Atlantic Fleet, 8 November 1915.

Knapp is op 17 Maart 1917 bevorder tot admiraal en 'n week voordat die Verenigde State die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betree het, word hy aangestel as militêre goewerneur van Santo Domingo en militêre verteenwoordiger van die Verenigde State in Haïti. "Verdienstelike diens" in hierdie pos, wat gewerk het om die geallieerde skeepvaart teen Duitse U-bote te beskerm en om die Karibiese Eilande teen vyandelike aggressie te beskerm, het admiraal Knapp die vlootkruis gewen. Kort na die wapenstilstand was hy Naval Attache in Londen met personeelfunksies en het hy op 4 Februarie 1920 die bevel geneem oor die Amerikaanse vlootmagte wat in Europese waters werk met die rang van vise -admiraal. Selfs nadat vise -admiraal Knapp op 27 Junie 1920 op die afgetrede lys geplaas is, het die vloot sy unieke vermoëns benut. Dit het hom tydelike aktiewe plig as konsultant en as kwasi-diplomaat besorg. Hy sterf te Hartford, Conn., 6 April 1928.

(DD-653: dp. 2.050 1. 376'6 "b. 39'7" dr. 17'9 "s. 37 k. Cpl. 319 a. 5 5", 10 21 "tt., 6 dcp, 2 dct. Cl. Fletcher)

Knapp (DD-653) is op 8 Maart 1943 neergelê deur Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine van stapel gestuur op 10 Julie 1943 geborg deur mej. Margaret L. en Mary C. Knapp en in opdrag van 16 September 1943, Comdr. Frank Virden in bevel.

Nadat Knapp uit Bermuda geskud is, vertrek Knapp op 26 November uit Boston na die Stille Oseaan en arriveer op 21 Desember in Pearl Harbor. Sy het op 16 Januarie vertrek uit Pearl Harbor saam met die magtige draers van Admiral Mitscher's Task Force 58 vir die inval op die Marshall -eilande. Op hierdie diens van 16 Januarie tot 12 Februarie toe sy by Majuro ingaan, het Knapp ook Kwajalein -eiland gebombardeer. Sy gaan voort met haar keuring terwyl lugrederye op Truk 16-17 Februarie en op basisse in die Marianas van 21 tot 22 Februarie van stapel gestuur word, en dan van Majuro na Espiritu Santo vaar om draers te kyk wat lugdekking bied vir die beslaglegging van Emirau-eiland van 20 tot 25 Maart en die aanval op die Palaus, Yap en Woleai van 30 Maart tot 1 April.

Die vernietiger keer terug na Majuro 6 April 1944 en 'n week later sorteer sy met swaar skepe vir die Hollandia -landings van 21 tot 24 April en lugaanvalle op Truk, Satawan en Ponape aan die einde van die maand.

Na aanvulling by Majuro, het Knapp in Mei by die draers aangesluit en gekeur tydens operasies teen Saipan. Op 19 Junie het Knapp haar mag bewaak tydens die belangrike lugslag van die Filippynse See waarin Japan se lugmag vernietig is. Van 25 Julie tot 5 Augustus gaan sy voort met die ondersoek in die aanvalle op Palau, Ulithi, Yap, Iwo Jima en Chichi Jima tydens die laaste wat sy by die oppervlakskietery aangaan wat verskeie skepe van 'n Japannese konvooi laat sink het wat vroeër erg deur die vragmotor verslaan is. vliegtuie. Knapp is van 11 tot 30 Augustus by Eniwetok toegerus.

Knapp het uit Eniwetok gestoom vir die inval in die Palaus. 30 Augustus het vyf gevegskepe gekeur en later 'n ontmoeting met die draers Langley, Lexington, Essex en Princeton voor hul dodelike aanvalle op teikens in die Palaus tydens die bloedige stryd om Peleliu te neem. Gedurende September het Knapp swaar skepe getoets wat op die Filippyne toeslaan, en op 6 Oktober het sy van Ulithi afgevaar vir die lugaanvalle op Okinawa en Formosa ter voorbereiding van die Leyte-landings, en 'n beskermende lugafdekking vir haar mag afgevuur tydens die Formosa-lugslag van 12-14 Oktober. Nadat sy die aftrede bewaak het vir die veiligheid van die geteisterde Canberra, wat op 13 Oktober deur 'n lugtorpedo getref is, het sy weer by haar krag aangesluit vir lugaanvalle op Luzon, en dit gekeur tydens die Slag van Surigao Strait, een fase van die beslissende Slag van Leyte Golf . Sy keer 30 Oktober terug na Ulithi, 2 dae later terug na die Filippyne. Nadat Reno op 3 November deur 'n duikboot -torpedo beskadig is, het Knapp haar terugtrekking na veiligheid beskerm. Van 25 November tot middel Januarie 1945 het Knapp lugaanvalle op Luzon, Frans -Indo -China en stede aan die kus van China ondergaan en Japanse basisse geneutraliseer ter voorbereiding op die Lingayen -inval. Knapp begelei Ticonderoga wat tydens 'n lugaanval op 21 Januarie getref is, en kom op 24 Januarie 1945 in Ulithi aan met die kreupel vervoerder. Die veteraanvernietiger het haar missie voltooi en op 30 Januarie na die Weskus gevaar, en op 20 Februarie aangekom vir opknapping.

Knapp het op 23 April na die Westelike Stille Oseaan gevaar, met die aankoms van Okinawa op 27 Mei 1945. Sy het tot 26 Junie op 'n gevaarlike en veeleisende diens diens gedoen. Drie dae later het sy by die Task Force 39 aangesluit vir die laaste reeks strooptogte op die Japanse tuiseiland. Na afloop van die gevegte van 15 Augustus, arriveer Knapp op 27 Augustus in Sagami Wan, Honshu, Japan, en vaar I September in Tokiobaai vir die oorgawe-seremonies aan boord van die Missouri (BB-63) 2 September. Gedurende die vroeë dae van die besetting het sy gehelp om die Japannese duikboot -duikboot- en selfmoordbootbasisse te demilitariseer.

Sy vaar 5 Desember na die Verenigde State en arriveer op 21 Desember 1945 in San Diego. Kort daarna vaar Knapp via die Panamakanaal na Boston en arriveer op 17 Januarie 1946. Sy vaar op 2 April na Charleston, SC en staak 5 Julie 1946.

Knapp het op 3 Mei 1951 weer begin toe die uitbreek van die Koreaanse konflik meer vlootvaartuie noodsaak. Sy het diens gedoen in die Atlantiese Vloot in Newport, RI. Sy het van 20 Julie tot 13 September in die Karibiese Eilande gery toe sy Charleston binnegedring het, waar sy met moderne toerusting ingerig is en daarna op 4 Februarie 1952 met 'n taakspan na Engeland, Noorweë, gevaar het. en Duitsland. Sy het 22 November na die Middellandse See gereis en hawens in Italië, Turkye en Spanje besoek. Knapp het op 26 Januarie 1953 deur die Straat van Gibraltar gegaan en in Boston opgeknap tot 10 Augustus 1953 toe sy saam met Destroyer Division 182 vir 'n wêreldvaart gewerk het. Haar vaart was vertraag toe sy in die Verre Ooste aankom. Sy patrolleer die Koreaanse kus met die Task Force 77 tot en met 14 Januarie 1954, toe sy haar vaart hervat het via Hong Kong Singapore Colombo Aden Saoedi -Arabië Suezkanaal het Port Said, Napels, Barcelona, ​​Lissabon, Bermuda besoek en by Fall River, Mass., 10 Maart aangekom 1954.

Knapp seil van Newport na San Diego en arriveer op 15 Desember. Sy is op 4 Januarie 1955 aan die gang in die Westelike Stille Oseaan en patrolleer die Oos -Chinese See en die Formosa -straat tot in die eerste deel van Junie, toe sy terugkeer na San Diego op 19 Junie 1955. Na operasies langs die kus van Kalifornië keer sy terug na die Par -Oos 27 Januarie 1956, besoek die hawens van Kobe, Subic Bay, Bucknersbaai en patrolleer die Formosa -straat wat ons belange in die deel van die wêreld aan die kommuniste wys, voordat sy op 31 Mei 1956 na San Diego terugkeer. Sy werk langs die kus van Kalifornië en kom by Long Beach Naval Shipyard 4 September vir opknapping. Knapp is op 4 Maart 1957 ontmantel en toegewys aan die Long Beach Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet. Tans lê sy in Bremerton, Washington, aan.


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Ons bied 'n unieke nommer van die barcos en estaciones en tierra aan, en ons bied ook 'Dorothea' en 'n amptelike administrasie aan by die Guerra Española-America.

Realizó un excelente service and una varietyad de palanquillas importantes en mar y en tierra y fue recompensado el 3 de agosto 1908, siendo nombrado al mando del crucero protegido Charleston (C-22).

Ascendido a capitán in 1909, Knapp fue asignado a la Junta General el 08 de enero de 1910. En esta época se desempeñó de manera intermitente en el Ejército y la Marina Conjunta de Defensa del Canal de Panamá. Estuvo a cargo del barco & quotFlorida & quot (BB-30), mientras este se habilitaba y dirigió el acorazado en su primera misión, op 15 op 19 September 1911.

Die knoppie van die CRUISE FORCE, die era van die Flota Naval Norteamericana del Atlántico, 8 November 1915.

Francisco Henríquez en Carvajal, president van Santo Domingo in 1916, het 'n nommer geword in die eerste plek van Gobernador Norteamericano de la Isla, en het ook beheer oor Tomas. Opnames van Francisco Henríquez en Carvajal, wat sy lewensverwagting deur Juan Isidro Jiménez en la presidencia opneem, kan ook 'n opeenvolging van 'n nabootsing van 'n rekord van die adjunkte en die verwydering van ons lewens by Knapp gee.

El 29 de Noviembre de 1916, el Contralmirante Harry Shepard Knapp, leyó a bordo del Vapor de Guerra OLIMPIA, una proclama, donde se ponía a la República Dominicana, bajo la soberanía del gobierno Norteamericano.

Ons kan op 17 Maart 1917 'n kontralmirante van die Estados Unidos entrara en la Primera Guerra Mundial, 'n foor nombrado gobernador militar van Santo Domingo en Representante Militar de los Estados Unidos en Haití.

Met die onderskeie dienste van Meritorio, kan ons 'n werklike funksie en 'n beskerming van die barcos -aliados, 'n submarinos -alemanes, 'n groot deel van die Caribe en 'n sito seguro van die agressión, 'n kontrole van Knapp, 'n Cruz de la Marina hê.

Poco después del armisticio, fue Agregado Naval en Londres con las funciones de jefe de STAFF en op 04 Februarie 1920 kan al die mandjies van die Fuerzas Navales que operaron in aguas europeas, with rango de Vice almirante.

Onder meer kan ons 'n paar kolossale knoppies en 'n 27 -jarige lys van 1920 vir ons gebruik. Esto le valió el servicio activo temporal como consultor y como cuasi-diplomáti co. Murió in Hartford, Connecticut, 06 April 1928.

Teks: Historia Dominicana en Gráficas
Foto: Remasterizada en kleur deur Carlos Olivo


Inhoud

Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. is gebore op 18 November 1923 in Derry, New Hampshire, [1] vir Alan B. Shepard Sr. en Pauline Renza Shepard (née Emerson). [2] Hy het 'n jonger suster, Pauline, gehad wat bekend was as Polly. [3] Hy was een van die vele beroemde afstammelinge van Mayflower passasier Richard Warren. [2] Sy pa, Alan B. Shepard Sr., bekend as Bart, het in die Derry National Bank gewerk, in besit van Shepard se oupa. Alan Sr het in 1915 by die National Guard aangesluit en het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in Frankryk saam met die American Expeditionary Force gedien. rang van luitenant -kolonel. [5]

Shepard het die Adams -skool in Derry bygewoon, waar sy akademiese prestasie sy onderwysers beïndruk het; hy het die sesde graad oorgeslaan, [6] en het na die middelbare skool gegaan by Oak Street School in Derry, [5] waar hy die agtste klas oorgeslaan het. [6] Hy behaal die Boy Scouts of America -rangorde van die eerste klas verkenner. [7] In 1936 gaan hy na die Pinkerton Academy, 'n privaatskool in Derry wat sy pa bygewoon het en waar sy oupa 'n kurator was. Hy voltooi jare 9 tot 12 daar. [6] As gevolg van die vlug, het hy 'n modelvliegtuigklub by die Akademie geskep, en sy kersgeskenk in 1938 was 'n vlug in 'n Douglas DC-3. [8] Die volgende jaar begin hy fietsry na Manchester Airfield, waar hy vreemde werk verrig in ruil vir af en toe 'n rit in 'n vliegtuig of informele vliegles. [9] [10]

Shepard studeer aan die Pinkerton Akademie in 1940. Omdat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog reeds in Europa woed, wou sy pa dat hy by die weermag aansluit. Shepard het eerder die vloot gekies. Hy het in 1940 maklik die toelatingseksamen aan die United States Naval Academy in Annapolis geslaag, maar was op sestien jaar te jonk om in te skryf. Die vloot het hom na die Admiral Farragut Academy gestuur, 'n voorskool vir die Naval Academy, waaruit hy met die Klas van 1941 gegradueer het. [11] Toetse wat by Farragut uitgevoer is, dui op 'n IK van 145, maar sy grade was matig. [12]

By Annapolis het Shepard watersport geniet. Hy was 'n kranige en mededingende matroos en het verskeie wedrenne gewen, waaronder 'n regatta wat deur die Annapolis Yacht Club gehou is. Hy het geleer om alle soorte bote wat die akademie besit, tot en met USS te vaar Vryheid, 'n skoen van 27 meter lank. Hy het ook aan swem deelgeneem en saam met die agt geroei. [12] Tydens sy Kersvakansie in 1942 is hy na die Principia College om by sy suster te wees, wat weens reisbeperkings nie in staat was om huis toe te gaan nie. Daar ontmoet hy Louise Brewer, wie se ouers pensioenarisse op die familie du Pont was, en, net soos Renza Shepard, toegewyde Christenwetenskaplikes was. [13] [14] As gevolg van die oorlog is die gewone vierjarige kursus in Annapolis met 'n jaar kortgeknip. Hy behaal die klas van 1945 op 6 Junie 1944, was op die 463ste plek uit 915 en het 'n vaandel gekry en 'n Bachelor of Science -graad ontvang. Die volgende maand het hy in die geheim verloof geraak aan Louise. [15] [16]

—Shepard aangehaal by die New Mexico Museum of Space History [17]

Na 'n maand van klasonderrig in lugvaart, is Shepard na 'n vernietiger, USS, gestuur Cogswell, in Augustus 1944 [18] was dit die Amerikaanse vlootbeleid dat lugvaartkandidate eers diens op see moes hê. [9] Destyds is die vernietiger vir aktiewe diens in die Stille Oseaan ontplooi. Shepard het daarby aangesluit toe hy op 30 Oktober terugkeer na die vlootbasis by Ulithi. [19] Na slegs twee dae op see Cogswell het gehelp om 172 matrose uit die vaartuig USS te red Reno, wat deur 'n Japannese duikboot getorpeer is, het die kreupel skip daarna na Ulithi begelei. Die skip is in Desember 1944 deur die tifoon Cobra gestamp, 'n storm waarin drie ander vernietigers neergestort het en kamikazes in die inval van die Lingayen -golf in Januarie 1945 beveg het. [20]

Cogswell keer terug na die Verenigde State vir 'n opknapping in Februarie 1945. Shepard het drie weke verlof gekry, in welke tyd hy en Louise besluit het om te trou. Die seremonie het op 3 Maart 1945 in die St. Stephen's Lutheran Church in Wilmington, Delaware, plaasgevind. Sy pa, Bart, het gedien as sy beste man. Die pasgetroudes het net 'n kort tydjie saam gehad voordat Shepard weer by hom aangesluit het Cogswell by die Long Beach Navy Yard op 5 April 1945. [21] Na die oorlog het hulle twee kinders gehad, albei dogters: Laura, gebore in 1947, [22] en Julie, gebore in 1951. [23] Na die dood van Louise se suster in 1956 het hulle haar vyfjarige niggie, Judith Williams, grootgemaak-wat hulle Alice hernoem het om verwarring met Julie te vermy-alhoewel hulle haar nooit aangeneem het nie. [24] [25] Hulle het uiteindelik ses kleinkinders gehad. [26]

Op Shepard se tweede vaart met Cogswell, is hy aangestel as 'n skutoffisier, verantwoordelik vir die 20 mm en 40 mm lugweergeweer op die skip se boog. Hulle het kamikazes betrek in die Slag van Okinawa, waar die skip in die gevaarlike rol van 'n radarpiket gedien het. Die taak van die radarpakkies was om die vloot van inkomende kamikazes te waarsku, maar omdat dit dikwels die eerste skepe was wat deur inkomende Japannese vliegtuie gesien is, was dit ook die waarskynlikste skepe wat aangeval sou word. Cogswell het hierdie plig uitgevoer vanaf 27 Mei 1945 tot 26 Junie, toe dit weer by die Task Force 38 aangesluit het. Die skip het ook deelgeneem aan die geallieerde vlootbombardemente van Japan en was teenwoordig in Tokiobaai vir die oorgawe van Japan in September 1945. Shepard het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State later die maand. [19] [27]

In November 1945 arriveer Shepard by Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, waar hy op 7 Januarie 1946 met basiese vliegopleiding begin het. opleiding en weer aan die oppervlakvloot toegewys. Om dit te vergoed, het hy privaatlesse by 'n plaaslike burgerlike vliegskool geneem - iets wat die vloot frons - en 'n burgerlike vlieënierslisensie verwerf. [29] Sy vliegvaardighede het geleidelik verbeter, en vroeg in 1947 het sy instrukteurs hom bo die gemiddelde beoordeel. Hy is na Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida gestuur vir gevorderde opleiding. Sy laaste toets was ses perfekte landings op die USS Saipan. Die volgende dag ontvang hy sy vlootvlerke, wat sy pa op sy bors vasgemaak het. [30]

Shepard is toegewys aan Fighter Squadron 42 (VF-42), met die Vought F4U Corsair. Die eskader was nominaal gebaseer op die vliegdekskip USS Franklin D. Roosevelt, maar die skip is opgeknap toe Shepard aankom, en intussen was die eskader by Naval Air Station Norfolk in Virginia. Hy vertrek op sy eerste vaart deur die Karibiese Eilande Franklin D. Roosevelt met VF-42 in 1948. Die meeste vlieëniers was, net soos Shepard, op hul eerste opdrag. Diegene wat dit nie gedoen het nie, het die geleentheid gekry om vir 'n gevaarlike maneuver te kwalifiseer vir naglandings, veral in 'n Corsair, wat by aankoms skerp moes bank. Shepard het daarin geslaag om sy eskaderbevelvoerder te oorreed om hom ook in staat te stel om te kwalifiseer. Nadat hy kort na Norfolk teruggekeer het, het die vervoerder 'n nege maande lange toer deur die Middellandse See onderneem. Hy het 'n reputasie gekry omdat hy omgee en jaag na vroue. Hy het ook 'n ritueel ingestel om Louise elke dag om 17:00 (haar tyd) te bel. [31]

Normaalweg wissel seediens af met periodes van diens aan wal. In 1950 word Shepard gekies om die United States Naval Test Pilot School by die Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland by te woon. [32] As 'n proefvlieënier het hy toetse op groot hoogtes uitgevoer om inligting te verkry oor die lig- en lugmassas op verskillende hoogtes oor die geskiktheidsertifisering van die Noord-Amerika-draer van die McDonnell F2H Banshee-eksperimente met die vloot se nuwe brandstofaanvullingstelsel en toetse van die skuins vliegdek. [16] Hy vermy nouliks dat hy deur die stasiebevelvoerder, admiraal Alfred M. Pride, deur 'n hof geveg word, nadat hy die Chesapeake Bay-brug omring en 'n lae pas gemaak het oor die strand in Ocean City, Maryland, en die basis, maar die meerderes van Shepard, John Hyland en Robert M. Elder, tree namens hom in. [33]

Shepard se volgende opdrag was aan VF-193, 'n nagvegvliegtuig wat die Banshee vlieg, wat gebaseer was op die Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Kalifornië. Die eskader was deel van bevelvoerder James D. "Jig Dog" Ramage's Air Group 19. Navalvliegtuie met ervaring in straalvliegtuie was nog relatief skaars, en Ramage het spesifiek Shepard se opdrag aangevra op advies van ouderling, wat bevel gegee het oor die suster eskader van VF-193, VF-191. Ramage het Shepard sy eie vleuelman gemaak, [34] 'n besluit wat Ramage se lewe in 1954 sou red, toe sy suurstofstelsel misluk het en Shepard hom deur 'n landing gepraat het. [35] As offisier van die eskader was Shepard se belangrikste taak om sy kennis van vliegvliegtuie aan sy mede -vlieëniers oor te dra om hulle aan die lewe te hou. Hy het twee toere op die vliegdekskip USS gedoen Oriskany in die westelike Stille Oseaan. Dit het 'n gevegstoer na Korea begin in 1953, tydens die Koreaanse oorlog, maar die Koreaanse wapenstilstandsooreenkoms het die gevegte in Julie 1953 beëindig, en Shepard het nie gevegte gesien nie. [36]

Admiraal John P. Whitney het Shepard se hulp as assistent aangevra, maar Shepard wou vlieg. Daarom het Ramage op versoek van Shepard namens hom met die admiraal gepraat, en Shepard is in plaas daarvan na Patuxent teruggestuur. [37] Hy vlug het die McDonnell F3H Demon, Vought F-8 Crusader, Douglas F4D Skyray en Grumman F-11 Tiger getoets. [38] Die Vought F7U Cutlass was geneig om in 'n omgekeerde draai te draai tydens 'n snap roll. Dit was nie ongewoon nie, maar baie vliegtuie het dit gedoen, maar gewoonlik sou die vliegtuig homself regstel as die vlieënier die stok loslaat. Toe hy dit in die F7U probeer, het Shepard bevind dat dit nie die geval was nie. Hy kon nie uit die draai kom nie en moes noodgedwonge uitwerp. In 1957 was hy 'n proeftoetsvlieënier op die Douglas F5D Skylancer. Shepard hou nie van die vliegtuig nie en gee 'n ongunstige verslag. Die vloot het bestellings daarvoor gekanselleer en eerder die F8U gekoop. Hy het ook 'n ongunstige verslag oor die F11F ingedien ná 'n ontstellende voorval waarin die enjin tydens 'n hoëspoedduik op hom afgekom het. Hy het daarin geslaag om die enjin weer te begin en 'n noodlottige ongeluk te vermy. [39]

Shepard was 'n instrukteur by die Test Pilot School en het toe die Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, binnegegaan. [40] Hy studeer in 1957 en word 'n gereedheidsbeampte vir vliegtuie in die personeel van die opperbevelhebber, Atlantic Fleet. [41] Teen hierdie tyd het hy meer as 3 600 uur vliegtyd aangeteken, waaronder 1 700 uur in stralers. [42]

Mercury Seven Edit

Op 4 Oktober 1957 het die Sowjetunie Sputnik 1, die eerste kunsmatige satelliet, gelanseer. Dit het Amerikaanse vertroue in sy tegnologiese meerderwaardigheid geknou, wat 'n golf van angs, die Sputnik -krisis, veroorsaak het. Onder sy reaksies het president Dwight D. Eisenhower die Space Race geloods. Die National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is op 1 Oktober 1958 gestig as 'n burgerlike agentskap om ruimtetegnologie te ontwikkel. Een van sy eerste inisiatiewe is op 17 Desember 1958 in die openbaar bekend gemaak. Dit was Project Mercury, [43] wat daarop gemik was om 'n mens in 'n baan om die aarde te stuur, veilig terug te keer na die aarde en sy vermoëns in die ruimte te evalueer. [44]

NASA het toestemming van Eisenhower gekry om sy eerste ruimtevaarders uit die geledere van militêre toetsvlieëniers te werf. Die diensrekords van 508 gegradueerdes van toetsproefskole is by die Amerikaanse ministerie van verdediging verkry. Hieruit is 110 gevind wat aan die minimum standaarde voldoen: [45] die kandidate moes jonger as 40 wees, 'n baccalaureusgraad of ekwivalent hê en 1,80 m of minder wees. Alhoewel dit nie almal streng toegepas is nie, was die hoogtevereiste stewig vanweë die grootte van die Project Mercury -ruimtetuig. [46] Die 110 is daarna in drie groepe verdeel, met die mees belowende in die eerste groep. [47]

Die eerste groep van 35, wat Shepard ingesluit het, het op 2 Februarie 1959 by die Pentagon vergader. Die offisiere van die vloot en die marinekorps is verwelkom deur die hoof van vlootoperasies, admiraal Arleigh Burke, terwyl die Amerikaanse lugmagoffisiere deur die Personeelhoof van die Amerikaanse lugmag, generaal Thomas D. White. Albei het hul steun aan die Ruimteprogram toegesê en belowe dat die loopbane van vrywilligers nie nadelig beïnvloed sal word nie. NASA -amptenare het hulle toe ingelig oor Project Mercury. Hulle het toegegee dat dit 'n gevaarlike onderneming sou wees, maar het benadruk dat dit van groot nasionale belang is. Die aand het Shepard die gebeure van die dag bespreek met mede -vlieëniers Jim Lovell, Pete Conrad en Wally Schirra, wat almal uiteindelik ruimtevaarders sou word. Hulle was bekommerd oor hul loopbane, maar het besluit om vrywillig te werk. [48] ​​[49]

Die inligtingsproses is 'n week later herhaal met 'n tweede groep van 34 kandidate. Van die 69 is bevind dat ses die hoogtegrens oorskry, 15 is om ander redes uitgeskakel en 16 het geweier. Dit het NASA met 32 ​​kandidate gelaat. Aangesien dit meer was as wat verwag is, het NASA besluit om hulle nie met die oorblywende 41 kandidate te steur nie, aangesien 32 kandidate 'n meer as voldoende aantal was om 12 ruimtevaarders te kies soos beplan. Die mate van belangstelling het ook aangedui dat baie minder tydens opleiding sou uitval as wat verwag is, wat lei tot die opleiding van ruimtevaarders wat nie van plan sou wees om Project Mercury -missies te vlieg nie. Daarom is besluit om die aantal gekose ruimtevaarders tot net ses te verminder. [50] Toe kom 'n uitmergelende reeks fisiese en sielkundige toetse by die Lovelace Clinic en die Wright Aerospace Medical Laboratory. [51] Slegs een kandidaat, Lovell, is op hierdie stadium uit mediese redes uitgeskakel, en later is bevind dat die diagnose verkeerd was [52] dertien ander is met voorbehoud aanbeveel. Die direkteur van die NASA Space Task Group, Robert R. Gilruth, kon nie net ses uit die oorblywende agtien kies nie, en uiteindelik is sewe gekies. [52]

Shepard is ingelig oor sy keuse op 1 April 1959. Twee dae later reis hy saam met Louise na Boston vir die troue van sy neef Anne, en kon hy die nuus aan sy ouers en suster bekend maak. [53] [54] Die identiteit van die sewe is op 'n perskonferensie in Dolley Madison House in Washington, DC, op 9 April 1959 aangekondig: [55] Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard en Deke Slayton. [56] Die omvang van die uitdaging wat voor hulle uitgelê is, is 'n paar weke later, op die nag van 18 Mei 1959, duidelik gemaak toe die sewe ruimtevaarders by Cape Canaveral bymekaargekom het om hul eerste vuurpyllansering van 'n SM-65D Atlas te sien, wat soortgelyk was aan die een wat hulle in 'n wentelbaan sou vervoer. 'N Paar minute nadat dit opgestyg het, het dit skouspelagtig ontplof en die naghemel verlig. Die ruimtevaarders was verstom. Shepard draai na Glenn en sê: "Wel, ek is bly dat hulle dit uit die weg geruim het." [57]

Vryheid 7 Redigeer

Gekonfronteer met intense mededinging van die ander ruimtevaarders, veral John Glenn, het Shepard opgehou rook en het Glenn die gewoonte aangeneem om 'n oggenddraf te neem. [58] Op 19 Januarie 1961 het Robert R. Gilruth, die direkteur van NASA se Space Task Group, die sewe ruimtevaarders meegedeel dat Shepard gekies is vir die eerste Amerikaanse bemanning in die ruimte. [59] Shepard onthou later die reaksie van Louise toe hy haar vertel dat sy haar arms om die man gehad het wat die eerste man in die ruimte sou wees: "Wie het 'n Rus hier ingelaat?" [60] Tydens opleiding vlieg hy 120 gesimuleerde vlugte. [61] Alhoewel hierdie vlug oorspronklik vir 26 April 1960 geskeduleer was, [62] is dit verskeie kere uitgestel deur onbeplande voorbereidings, aanvanklik tot 5 Desember 1960, dan middel Januarie 1961, [63] 6 Maart 1961, [ 64] 25 April 1961, [65] 2 Mei 1961 en uiteindelik tot 5 Mei 1961. [66] Op 12 April 1961 word die Sowjet -kosmonaut Yuri Gagarin die eerste persoon in die ruimte en die eerste om die aarde . [67] Dit was nog 'n slag vir die Amerikaanse trots. [64] Toe Shepard die nuus hoor, het hy sy vuis op 'n tafel neergeslaan, so hard dat 'n NASA -skakelbeampte bang was dat hy sy hand gebreek het. [68]

Op 5 Mei 1961 het Shepard die Mercury-Redstone 3-sending geloods en die tweede persoon, en die eerste Amerikaner, geword om die ruimte in te reis. [69] Hy het sy ruimtetuig, Mercury Spacecraft 7, genoem Vryheid 7. [64] Hy het om 01:10 wakker geword en ontbyt gehad, bestaande uit lemoensap, 'n filet -mignon toegedraai in spek en roereier saam met sy rugsteun, John Glenn, en vliegchirurg William K. Douglas. Hy is deur die paktegnikus Joseph W. Schmitt in sy ruimtepak gehelp en het om 03:55 op die bakkie geklim. Hy het om 05:15 die portaal bestyg en vyf minute later die ruimtetuig binnegegaan. Na verwagting sou die opruiming oor twee uur en vyf minute plaasvind, [70], sodat Shepard se pak nie voorsiening maak vir die verwydering van liggaamlike afval nie, maar nadat hy in die kapsule se sitplek vasgemaak was, het vertragings in die pak hom in die pak gehou meer as vier uur. [71] Shepard se uithouvermoë het voor die bekendstelling ingegee, en hy moes sy blaas in die pak leegmaak. Medical sensors attached to it to track the astronaut's condition in flight were turned off to avoid shorting them out. The urine pooled in the small of his back, where it was absorbed by his undergarment. [72] [73] After Shepard's flight, the space suit was modified, and by the time of Gus Grissom's Mercury-Redstone 4 suborbital flight in July, a liquid waste collection feature had been built into the suit. [74]

Unlike Gagarin's 108-minute orbital flight in a Vostok spacecraft three times the size of Freedom 7, [67] Shepard stayed on a suborbital trajectory for the 15-minute flight, which reached an altitude of 101.2 nautical miles (116.5 statute miles 187.4 kilometers), and then fell to a splashdown 263.1 nautical miles (302.8 statute miles 487.3 kilometers) down the Atlantic Missile Range. [75] Unlike Gagarin, whose flight was strictly automatic, Shepard had some control of Freedom 7, spacecraft attitude in particular. [76] Shepard's launch was seen live on television by millions. [77] It was launched atop a Redstone rocket. According to Gene Kranz in his 2000 book Failure Is Not an Option, "When reporters asked Shepard what he thought about as he sat atop the Redstone rocket, waiting for liftoff, he had replied, 'The fact that every part of this ship was built by the lowest bidder.'" [78]

After a dramatic Atlantic Ocean recovery, Shepard observed that he "didn't really feel the flight was a success until the recovery had been successfully completed. It's not the fall that hurts it's the sudden stop." [79] Splashdown occurred with an impact comparable to landing a jet aircraft on an aircraft carrier. A recovery helicopter arrived after a few minutes, and the capsule was lifted partly out of the water to allow Shepard to leave by the main hatch. He squeezed out of the door and into a sling hoist, and was pulled into the helicopter, which flew both the astronaut and spacecraft to the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain. The whole recovery process took just eleven minutes. [80] Shepard was celebrated as a national hero, honored with ticker-tape parades in Washington, New York and Los Angeles, and received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal from President John F. Kennedy. [81] He was also awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. [82]

Shepard served as capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for Glenn's Mercury-Atlas 6 orbital flight, which he had also been considered for, [83] and Carpenter's Mercury-Atlas 7. [84] He was the backup pilot for Cooper for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, [85] nearly replacing Cooper after Cooper flew low over the NASA administration building at Cape Canaveral in an F-102. [86] In the final stages of Project Mercury, Shepard was scheduled to pilot the Mercury-Atlas 10 (MA-10), which was planned as a three-day mission. [87] He named Mercury Spacecraft 15B Freedom 7 II in honor of his first spacecraft, and had the name painted on it, [88] but on June 12, 1963, NASA Administrator James E. Webb announced that Mercury had accomplished all its goals and no more missions would be flown. [87] Shepard went as far as making a personal appeal to President Kennedy, but to no avail. [89]

Project Gemini Chief Astronaut Edit

Project Gemini followed on from Project Mercury. [90] After the Mercury-Atlas 10 mission was canceled, Shepard was designated as the commander of the first crewed Gemini mission, with Thomas P. Stafford chosen as his pilot. [91] In late 1963, Shepard began to experience episodes of extreme dizziness and nausea, accompanied by a loud, clanging noise in the left ear. He tried to keep it secret, fearing that he would lose his flight status, but was aware that if an episode occurred in the air or in space it could be fatal. Following an episode during a lecture in Houston, where he had recently moved from Virginia Beach, Virginia, Shepard was forced to confess his ailment to Slayton, who was now Director of Flight Operations, and seek help from NASA's doctors. [92]

The doctors diagnosed Ménière's disease, a condition in which fluid pressure builds up in the inner ear. This syndrome causes the semicircular canals and motion detectors to become extremely sensitive, resulting in disorientation, dizziness, and nausea. There was no known cure, but in about 20 percent of cases the condition went away by itself. They prescribed diuretics in an attempt to drain the fluid from the ear. They also diagnosed glaucoma. An X-ray found a lump on his thyroid, and on January 17, 1964, surgeons at Hermann Hospital made an incision on his throat and removed 20 percent of his thyroid. [93] [94] The condition caused Shepard to be removed from flight status. Grissom and John Young flew Gemini 3 instead. [95]

Shepard was designated Chief of the Astronaut Office in November 1963, receiving the title of Chief Astronaut. [96] He thereby became responsible for NASA astronaut training. This involved the development of appropriate training programs for all astronauts and the scheduling of training of individual astronauts for specific missions and roles. He provided and coordinated astronaut input into mission planning and the design of spacecraft and other equipment to be used by astronauts on space missions. [88] He also was on the selection panel for the NASA Astronaut Group 5 in 1966. [97] He spent much of his time investing in banks, wildcatting, and real estate. He became part owner and vice president of Baytown National Bank and would spend hours on the phone in his NASA office overseeing it. He also bought a partnership in a ranch in Weatherford, Texas, that raised horses and cattle. [98] During this period, his secretary Gaye Alford had two "mood-of-the-day" photographs taken of Shepard, one of a smiling Al Shepard, and the other of a grim-looking Bevelvoerder Shepard. To warn visitors of Shepard's mood, she would hang the appropriate photograph on the door of her boss's private office. [99] Tom Wolfe characterized Shepard's dual personalities as "Smilin' Al" and the "Icy Commander". [100]

Apollo program Edit

In 1968, Stafford went to Shepard's office and told him that an otologist in Los Angeles had developed a cure for Ménière's disease. Shepard flew to Los Angeles, where he met with William F. House. House proposed to open Shepard's mastoid bone and make a tiny hole in the endolymphatic sac. A small tube was inserted to drain excess fluid. The surgery was conducted in early 1969 at St. Vincent's Hospital in Los Angeles, where Shepard checked in under the pseudonym of Victor Poulos. [88] [101] The surgery was successful, and he was restored to full flight status on May 7, 1969. [88]

Shepard and Slayton put Shepard down to command the next available Moon mission, which was Apollo 13 in 1970. Under normal circumstances, this assignment would have gone to Cooper, as the backup commander of Apollo 10, but Cooper was not given it. A rookie, Stuart Roosa, was designated the Command Module Pilot. Shepard asked for Jim McDivitt as his Lunar Module Pilot, but McDivitt, who had already commanded the Apollo 9 mission, balked at the prospect, arguing that Shepard did not have sufficient Apollo training to command a Moon mission. A rookie, Edgar Mitchell, was designated the Lunar Module Pilot instead. [102] [103]

When Slayton submitted the proposed crew assignments to NASA headquarters, George Mueller turned them down on the grounds that the crew was too inexperienced. So Slayton asked Jim Lovell, who had been the backup commander for Apollo 11, and was slated to command Apollo 14, if his crew would be willing to fly Apollo 13 instead. He agreed to do so, and Shepard's crew was assigned to Apollo 14. [102] [103]

Neither Shepard nor Lovell expected there would be much difference between Apollo 13 and Apollo 14, [102] but Apollo 13 went disastrously wrong. An oxygen tank explosion caused the Moon landing to be aborted and nearly resulted in the loss of the crew. It became a joke between Shepard and Lovell, who would offer to give Shepard back the mission each time they bumped into each other. The failure of Apollo 13 delayed Apollo 14 until 1971 so that modifications could be made to the spacecraft. The target of the Apollo 14 mission was switched to the Fra Mauro formation, the intended destination of Apollo 13. [104]

Shepard made his second space flight as Commander of Apollo 14 from January 31 to February 9, 1971. It was America's third successful lunar landing mission. Shepard piloted the Lunar Module Antares. [105] He became the fifth and, at the age of 47, the oldest man to walk on the Moon, and the only one of the Mercury Seven astronauts to do so. [106] [107]

This was the first mission to broadcast extensive color television coverage from the lunar surface, using the Westinghouse Lunar Color Camera. (The same color camera model was used on Apollo 12 and provided about 30 minutes of color telecasting before it was inadvertently pointed at the Sun, ending its usefulness.) While on the Moon, Shepard used a Wilson six-iron head attached to a lunar sample scoop handle to drive golf balls. [105] Despite thick gloves and a stiff spacesuit, which forced him to swing the club with one hand, Shepard struck two golf balls, driving the second, as he jokingly put it, "miles and miles and miles". [108] Analysis of high-resolution film scans of the event determined the distance to be about 24 yards (22 m) for the first shot and 40 yards (37 m) for the second. [109] [110]

For this mission Shepard was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal [111] and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. His citation read:

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Distinguished Service Medal to Captain Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. (NSN: 0-389998), United States Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in a position of great responsibility to the Government of the United States, as Spacecraft Commander for the Apollo 14 flight to the Fra-Mauro area of the Moon during the period 31 January 1971 to 9 February 1971. Responsible for the on-board control of the spacecraft command module Kittyhawk and the lunar module Antares in the gathering of scientific data involving complex and difficult instrumentation positing and sample gathering, including a hazardous two-mile traverse of the lunar surface, Captain Shepard, by his brilliant performance, contributed essentially to the success of this vital scientific moon mission. As a result of his skillful leadership, professional competence and dedication, the Apollo 14 mission, with its numerous tasks and vital scientific experiments, was accomplished in an outstanding manner, enabling scientists to determine more precisely the Moon's original formation and further forecast man's proper role in the exploration of his Universe. By his courageous and determined devotion to duty, Captain Shepard rendered valuable and distinguished service and contributed greatly to the success of the United States Space Program, thereby upholding the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. [82]

Following Apollo 14, Shepard returned to his position as Chief of the Astronaut Office in June 1971. In July 1971 President Richard Nixon appointed him as a delegate to the 26th United Nations General Assembly, a position in which he served from September to December 1971. [88] He was promoted to rear admiral by Nixon on August 26, 1971, the first astronaut to reach this rank, although McDivitt had previously been promoted to brigadier general, an equivalent rank in the Air Force. [112] [113] He retired from both NASA and the Navy on July 31, 1974. [88]

Shepard was devoted to his children. Frequently, Julie, Laura and Alice were the only astronauts' children at NASA events. He taught them to ski and took them skiing in Colorado. He once rented a small plane to fly them and their friends from Texas to a summer camp in Maine. He doted on his six grandchildren as well. After Apollo 14 he began to spend more time with Louise, and started taking her with him on trips to the Paris Air Show every other year, and to Asia. [114] Louise heard rumors of his affairs. [115] The publication of Tom Wolfe's 1979 book The Right Stuff made them public knowledge, but she never confronted him about it, [116] nor did she ever contemplate leaving him. [114]

After Shepard left NASA, he served on the boards of many corporations. He also served as president of his umbrella company for several business enterprises, Seven Fourteen Enterprises, Inc. (named for his two flights, Freedom 7 and Apollo 14). [117] He made a fortune in banking and real estate. [118] He was a fellow of the American Astronautical Society and the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, a member of Rotary, Kiwanis, the Mayflower Society, the Order of the Cincinnati, and the American Fighter Aces, an honorary member of the board of directors for the Houston School for Deaf Children, and a director of the National Space Institute and the Los Angeles Ear Research Institute. [88] Together with the other surviving Mercury astronauts, and Betty Grissom, Gus Grissom's widow, in 1984 Shepard founded the Mercury Seven Foundation, which raises money to provide college scholarships to science and engineering students. It was renamed the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation in 1995. Shepard was elected its first president and chairman, positions he held until October 1997, when he was succeeded by former astronaut Jim Lovell. [88]

In 1994, he published a book with two journalists, Jay Barbree and Howard Benedict, called Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America's Race to the Moon. Fellow Mercury astronaut Deke Slayton is also named as an author. The book included a composite photograph showing Shepard hitting a golf ball on the Moon. There are no still images of this event the only record is TV footage. [108] The book was turned into a TV miniseries in 1994. [119]

Shepard was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 1996 and died from complications of the disease in Pebble Beach, California, on July 21, 1998. [120] [121] Among astronauts who had walked on the Moon, he was the second to die (Jim Irwin had been the first, in 1991). [106] Shepard's widow Louise had planned to cremate his remains and scatter the ashes, but before she was able to do that, she herself died from a heart attack—on August 25, 1998, at 17:00, which, coincidentally, was the same time of day at which he had always phoned her when they were apart. They had been married for 53 years. Their family decided to cremate them both, and their ashes were scattered, together, from a Navy helicopter, over Stillwater Cove, in front of their Pebble Beach home. [122] [123]

Shepard was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor by President Jimmy Carter on October 1, 1978. [124] He also received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 1981 [125] the Langley Gold Medal on May 5, 1964 the John J. Montgomery Award in 1963 the Lambert trophy the SETP Iven C. Kincheloe Award [126] the Cabot Award the Collier Trophy [127] and the City of New York City Gold Medal for 1971. [88] He was awarded honorary degrees of Master of Arts from Dartmouth College in 1962, D.Sc. from Miami University in 1971, and Doctorate of Humanities from Franklin Pierce College in 1972. [88] He was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1977, [128] the International Space Hall of Fame in 1981, [17] [129] and the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame on May 11, 1990. [130] [131]

The Navy named a supply ship, USNS Alan Shepard (T-AKE-3) , for him in 2006. [132] The McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center in Concord, New Hampshire, is named after Shepard and Christa McAuliffe. [133] In 1996, the entirety of I-565 (which passes in front of the U.S. Space & Rocket Center, home to both the Saturn V Dynamic Test Vehicle and a full-scale vertical Saturn V replica) was designated the "Admiral Alan B. Shepard Highway" in his honor. [134] [135] Interstate 93 in New Hampshire, from the Massachusetts border to Hooksett, is designated the Alan B. Shepard Highway, [136] and in Hampton, Virginia, a road is named Commander Shepard Boulevard in his honor. [137] His hometown of Derry has the nickname Space Town in honor of his career as an astronaut. [138] Following an act of Congress, the post office in Derry was designated the Alan B. Shepard Jr. Post Office Building. [139] Alan Shepard Park in Cocoa Beach, Florida, a beach-side park south of Cape Canaveral, is named in his honor. [140] The City of Virginia Beach renamed its convention center, with its integral geodesic dome, the Alan B. Shepard Convention Center. The building was later renamed the Alan B. Shepard Civic Center, and was razed in 1994. [141] At the time of the Freedom 7 launch, Shepard lived in Virginia Beach. [142]

Shepard's high school alma mater in Derry, Pinkerton Academy, has a building named after him, and the school team is called the Astros after his career as an astronaut. [143] Alan B. Shepard High School, in Palos Heights, Illinois, which opened in 1976, was named in his honor. Framed newspapers throughout the school depict various accomplishments and milestones in Shepard's life. Additionally, an autographed plaque commemorates the dedication of the building. The school newspaper is named Freedom 7 and the yearbook is entitled Odyssee. [144] Blue Origin's suborbital space tourism rocket, the New Shepard, is named after Shepard. [145]

In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Shepard was ranked as the ninth most popular space hero (tied with astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Gus Grissom). [146] In 2011, NASA honored Shepard with an Ambassador of Exploration Award, consisting of a Moon rock encased in Lucite, for his contributions to the U.S. space program. His family members accepted the award on his behalf during a ceremony on April 28 at the U.S. Naval Academy Museum in Annapolis, Maryland, where it is on permanent display. [147] On May 4, 2011, the U.S. Postal Service issued a first-class stamp in Shepard's honor, the first U.S. stamp to depict a specific astronaut. The first day of issue ceremony was held at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. [148]

Each year, the Space Foundation, in partnership with the Astronauts Memorial Foundation and NASA, present the Alan Shepard Technology in Education Award for outstanding contributions by K–12 educators or district-level administrators to educational technology. The award recognizes excellence in the development and application of technology in the classroom or to the professional development of teachers. The recipient demonstrates exemplary use of technology either to foster lifelong learners or to make the learning process easier. [149]


KNAPP Genealogy

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Searching for Captain Raphael Semmes [ edit | wysig bron]

Since the logs of Shepherd Knapp are missing, many details of her career are unknown. Apparently her first commanding officer was Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Henry S. Eytinge, who was ordered on 1 November 1861 to cruise in the West Indies seeking to capture or destroy any "vessels of the rebels" he might encounter.

The special object of his attention was the Confederate commerce raider, CSS Sumter, which had been preying on Union shipping since early summer. After a long cruise in which she never quite caught up with Capt. Raphael Semmes and his elusive steamer, Shepherd Knapp returned to New York City on the afternoon of 17 April 1862.

The ship was laid up at the New York Navy Yard for the rest of the year. On 20 January 1863, she was again ordered to cruise in the West Indies seeking Confederate ships, especially the CSS Alabama. Again, Semmes managed to elude the Union warship.

Sunk on a coral reef [ edit | wysig bron]

After cruising in the Caribbean for over three and one-half months, Shepherd Knapp struck a coral reef off Cap-Haïtien and was abandoned.


5 When Commander Shepard Survived The Omega-4 Relay Trip

The Omega-4 relay has always been an oddity, just sitting there near the notorious Omega space station. No space vessel ever survives going through that relay, and many theories described what might be on the other side. However, a few people do know that the Collectors often emerged from his eerie relay.

By 2185, Commander Shepard was ready to face the Collector threat, and with the Illusive Man's help, the Commander bravely went through the deadly Omega-4 relay and reached the Collector base (despite the debris field around it). Shepard then made it back in one piece, becoming the first ship captain to navigate such dangerous waters, so to speak. Joker and EDI deserve some credit too, though.


Blue Origin Targets NET 20 July for First Crewed New Shepard Flight

Sixty years to the day since its Project Mercury namesake became America’s first man in space, Blue Origin announced on Wednesday that its next New Shepard booster will fly later this summer with a six-strong human crew. “On 20 July, New Shepard will fly its first astronaut crew to space,” the Kent, Wash.-headquartered launch provider revealed. “We are offering one seat on this first flight to the winning bidder of an online auction.” It is expected that the NS4 vehicle—the selfsame booster and crew capsule that has reached suborbital space twice this year, most recently just last month—will rise again from Launch Site One in West Texas on the 52nd anniversary of the first human lunar landing.

“The winning bid amount will be donated to Blue Origin’s foundation, Club for the Future, to inspire future generations to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and help invent the future of life in space,” it was reported Wednesday.

“On this day, 60 years ago, Alan Shepard made history by becoming the first American to fly to space. In the decades since, fewer than 600 astronauts have been to space above the Kármán Line through a meticulous and incremental flight program to test its multiple redundant safety systems. Now it’s time for astronauts to climb aboard. This seat will change how you see the world.”

The historic flight will be the 16th mission by New Shepard and is expected to mark the third foray into suborbital space for the NS4 booster/capsule combo, which previously flew together in January and April. The 59-foot-tall (18-meter) NS1 first flew back in April 2015 and passed an altitude of 62.4 miles (100.5 km), thereby exceeding the “Kármán Line” which is generally recognized to be the edge of space.

However, a loss of hydraulic pressure during descent meant the NS1 booster was not recovered. In November 2015, the NS2 booster flew its first mission flawlessly and came home to a smooth landing. In doing so, it marked the first occasion that a suborbital-class booster had returned from space and achieved a vertical landing.

Its capsule also benefited from cushioned wall-linings and sound suppression devices to reduce ambient noise levels and cooling and humidity controls to regulate temperatures, scrub carbon dioxide from the air and circumvent window-fogging. On both its January launch and its second flight on 14 April, the NS4 vehicle saw the New Shepard booster rotate at a couple of degrees per second during ascent, which on human flights will afford passengers spectacular 360-degree views.

Perhaps the nearest analog for what the 20 July crew will experience came during last month’s flight, when a group of senior Blue Origin personnel—Vice President of Legal and Compliance Audrey Powers, Chief Financial Officer Susan Knapp, Vice President of Sales Clay Mowry and New Shepard’s designer Gary Lai—rode the two miles (3.2 km) from “the Barn” where the booster is readied for flight out to Launch Site One.

They climbed the four flights of stairs up the gantry, after which Lai and Powers boarded the crew capsule and completed strap-in activities and communications checks with Capsule Communicator (CAPCOM) Sarah Knights. Assisted by the Tower Operations Team, they disembarked before New Shepard’s launch, but after the successful landing of the crew capsule they participated in unstrapping and egress exercises.

The lucky bidder for the 20 July flight can expect quite a ride, although Blue Origin remain tight-lipped about the identities of the other astronauts, or even if a full crew of six will be aboard. “We will not be sharing further details about who will be flying on our first astronaut mission,” Blue Origin told AmericaSpace.

Together with his or her crewmates, they will be loaded aboard the crew capsule a little more than a half-hour prior to launch. At T-2 minutes, the gantry will be retracted and at T-16 seconds the booster will transition its guidance system to internal power. Engine Start will be commanded at T-4 seconds—as New Shepard’s single BE-3 main rocket engine comes alive with a thrust of 110,000 pounds (50,000 kg)—after which a rapid climb away from the flatness of West Texas will commence.

A minute into the flight, the crew will pass through peak aerodynamic turbulence and the BE-3 will shut down 90 seconds later. As the crew capsule separates from New Shepard, the lucky space travelers will unbuckle from their seats and enjoy a few minutes of weightlessness as their upward momentum pushes them to an apogee of roughly 66.4 miles (106 km), equivalent to 350,800 feet above mean sea level. The effects of gravity will then inexorably draw them back to Earth, with a soft, parachute-aided touchdown some ten minutes after launch.


Mission Statement

Standard-Knapp will design, build and support the ULTIMATEcase and shrink packaging machinery for the most demanding customers.

ULTIMATE Attributes:

Most Reliable

Simplest To Use

Smart Innovation

Simplest to Maintain

Flexible and Adaptable

  • Broad Range of Applications
  • Able to Support New Applications
  • Embrace Customer Requirements

Quality Appearance

History of Standard-Knapp

The history of Standard-Knapp can be traced back to the founding of the Fred H. Knapp company in New Jersey. There is documented evidence that the first Knapp Gravity Labelers were placed on the market and shown during the 1893 World’s Fair at the National Convention of Canners. A few years later, in 1895, the Knapp Boxer, a hand-operated machine designed to pack cans, was perfected. Apparently, it did its job well. In fact, it did so well that, as late as 1901, the Knapp Boxer was the only machine of its kind in the world.

At some time during the early 1900s, a company known as the National Binding Company (based out of New York City, New York), was manufacturing paper cutting and dispensing machines and compression units for case sealing. In December of 1920, the National Binding Company declared bankruptcy. The following year, the company was purchased by a group of past employees for just $10,000. Later that same year, on November 17, 1921, the former National Binding Company resurfaced under the new name of the Standard Sealing Company, Inc.

While the new Standard Sealing Company was beginning its new business, the Fred H. Knapp Company had expanded its operations to include offices in Chicago, Baltimore, Ridgewood (NJ), and a factory in Westminster, Maryland. At this time, the Fred H. Knapp Company was offering a series of labelers with wood or iron frames designed for such “modern” innovations as hand, steam, or electric motor drives.

In 1926, the Standard Sealing Company took its first step in acquiring larger facilities to meet increased demand by moving to Long Island City, New York. Five years later, Standard Sealing merged with the Fred H. Knapp company, thus changing its name to the now familiar Standard-Knapp.

Increased demand for its products forced Standard-Knapp to expand its existing facilities yet again. In 1940, Standard-Knapp relocated to its present location in Portland, Connecticut.

In 1948, the company became a division of the Hartford Empire Company, now known as the Hartford Division. The Hartford Division is world famous for its design and construction of glass container manufacturing equipment. Three years later, in 1951, the Hartford Empire Company effected a corporate name change to the Emhart Manufacturing Company.

And, finally, on June 30, 1964, the Emhart Manufacturing Company merged with the American Hardware Corporation to form the Emhart Corporation.

In 1979, Standard-Knapp was purchased from Emhart by Anderson Manufacturing Company, Rockford, Illinois. Finally, in December of 1984, Standard-Knapp was purchased once more by its employees, becoming an “employee-owned company,” which it remains today.

Machine Innovations

The following machinery represents a partial listing of Standard-Knapp technical innovations spanning more than a century:

Gravity Labeler 1893
Sealer 1918
Gluer and Sealer 1924
Package Packer 1927
Can Packer 1928
Package Collector 1929
Can Elevator 1930
Automatic Bottle Packer 1936
Bottle Rinser 1946
Glass Palletizer 1952
Milk Carton Packer 1953
Traymore Tray Packer 1958
Closed Glue System 1959
Plastic Bottle Unscrambler 1960
Random Auto-adjust Case Sealer 1961
Traymore Tray Packer (Next Generation) 1962
Continuous Motion “One-way” Bottle Rinser 1963
Bulk Glass Palletizer/Depalletizer 1964
Automatic Case Setup/Bottom Sealer 1965
Paper Industry Color Collator/Case Packer 1966
Sealstar Hot Melt Case Sealer 1967
Wonderwall Continuous Motion Auto Partitioner 1968
Lowering Head Case Packer 1969
Continuous Motion Slitter 1970
Tandem Head Drop Packer 1971
Tandem Head Drop Packer with Indexing Case Feed 1973
Single Head Standard Case Packer 1975
Continuous Motion Tab-lock Slitter/Sealer 1980
Apollo Continuous Motion Bottle Packer (Brewery) 1984
Spectrum Tray Packer 1986
Spectrum Integrated Tray Packer/Shrink Wrapper 1987
Synchron 2 & 3 L PET Bottle Packer 1989
Orbitron Continuous Motion Bottle Packer 1992
Centurion Continuous Motion Bottle Packer (Partitions) 1993
Continuous Motion Tray Packer with 𔄜-sided Printing” 1994
Versatron Stainless Steel Case Packer 1995
Continuum Quick Change Tray Packer 1996
Positron Continuous Motion Bottle Packer 1996
Servo Tab-lock Slitter/Sealer 1997
Versatron™ “Soft Catch” Case Packer 1998
Continuum™ High Speed Integrated Tray Packer/Shrink Wrapper 1999
Phoenix Non-round Bottle Handling/Case Packing 2000

Directions to Our Facilities

STANDARD-KNAPP, INC.
63 Pickering Street, Portland, CT 06480 U.S.A.
Telephone: (860) 342-1100

From Hartford or Bradley International Airport, take I-91 South

  • Take I-91 South to Exit 22S (this is a left-hand exit) onto Route 9 South toward Middletown.
  • Take Route 9 South to Exit 16 (Route 17) toward Portland this will take you across the bridge.
  • Take the first right immediately after crossing the bridge.
  • After 200 feet, turn left onto Pickering Street.
  • At the end of Pickering Street (about 1/3 mile) you will be facing Standard-Knapp.
  • Park on your left.

From New York City, take I-95 to New Haven, then…

From New Haven, take I-91 North

  • Take I-91 North to Exit 22 onto Route 9 South toward Middletown.
  • Take Route 9 South to Exit 16 (Route 17) toward Portland this will take you across the bridge.
  • Take the first right immediately after crossing the bridge.
  • After 200 feet, turn left onto Pickering Street.
  • At the end of Pickering Street (about 1/3 mile) you will be facing Standard-Knapp.
  • Park on your left.

From Danbury, take I-84 East

  • Take I-84 East to Exit 27 onto I-691 East.
  • Take I-691 East to Exit 11 onto I-91 North.
  • Take I-91 North to Exit 22 onto Rte. 9 South toward Middletown.
  • Take Route 9 South to Exit 16 (Route 17) toward Portland this will take you across the bridge.
  • Take the first right immediately after crossing the bridge.
  • After 200 feet, turn left onto Pickering Street.
  • At the end of Pickering Street (about 1/3 mile) you will be facing Standard-Knapp.
  • Park on your left.
Quality Policy

Standard-Knapp is a world-class manufacturer and marketer of packaging machinery for the food, beverage, household goods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, oil and personal care industries.

The primary strategic objective of Standard-Knapp is to provide customers with products and services that surpass the competition and exceed customer expectations. Standard-Knapp is committed to achieving this objective through an aggressive Research and Development program, a company commitment to quality and an all-encompassing Customer Service program.

The most important aspects of the pursuit of quality at Standard-Knapp are:

A recognition that machine reliability – the machine performs as expected, the first day and all day every day thereafter – is the most important component of quality to our customers.

Recognition that the other important components of quality to our customers are:

  • After-sales support (correct and prompt spare parts, competent service, and accurate spare parts and operations manuals),
  • Fit and finish of machines and parts,
  • Prompt and courteous communications, and
  • On-time delivery.

Continuous quality improvement will be pursued through a company wide program called Quality First, which is made up of a matrix of quality improvement teams and includes the development and use of a formal, documented quality system.


Kyk die video: How to make these Alternative Dovetail Joints The Knapp Joint (Desember 2021).