Geskiedenis Podcasts

RANDALL LEE GIBSON, CSA - Geskiedenis

RANDALL LEE GIBSON, CSA - Geskiedenis

ALGEMEEN RANDALL LEE GIBSON, CSA
VITALE STATISTIEK
GEBORE: 1832 in Versaille, KY.
STERF: 1892 in Hot Springs, ARK.
Veldtogte: Shiloh, Kentucky, Chicamauga, Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville en Mobile.
HOOGSTE PUNT BEHALTE: Brigadier Generaal.
BIOGRAFIE
Randall Lee Gibson is gebore naby Versailles, Kentucky, op 10 September 1832. Hy is opgevoed oor die plantasie van sy ouers in Louisiana, en het daarna Yale bygewoon. Nadat hy in 1853 aan Yale studeer het, studeer hy regte in New Orleans, reis 'n paar jaar in Europa en was 'n kort tydjie attaché in die Amerikaanse ambassade in Madrid. Gibson het teruggekeer na die Verenigde State kort voordat die burgeroorlog begin het. Toe Louisiana van die Unie afskei, word Gibson 'n hulp van goewerneur Thomas O. Moore, en sluit by die 1ste Louisiana Artillery aan in Maart 1861. As kolonel van die 13de Louisiana Infanterie, veg hy by die Slag van Shiloh. Met die Army of Tennessee het hy deelgeneem aan die Kentucky -veldtog van 1862 en die Slag van Chickamauga. Nadat hy op 11 Januarie 1864 tot brigadier -generaal bevorder is, veg hy in die Slag van Atlanta en die Franklin en Nashville -veldtog; is toe aangewys vir die verdediging van Mobile, Alabama. Hy het sy troepe geïnspireer om die Spaanse fort, wat onder beleg was, tot op die laaste oomblik te hou, waarna hulle snags op 8 Maart 1865 ontsnap het. Dit was sy laaste diens in die burgeroorlogpoging. Na die Burgeroorlog het Gibson regte beoefen en is hy verkies tot die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers vir vier termyne en die Amerikaanse Senaat vir twee termyne. Hy sterf op 15 Desember 1892 in Hot Springs, Arkansas, te midde van sy tweede termyn in die Amerikaanse senaat.

Konfederale Redoubt No. 3 / Gibson se Brigade

Gibson se brigade. Brig. Randall Gibson se Louisiana Brigade het die loopgrawe tussen Battery Blair en die uiterste regterkant van die Konfederale lyn tydens die Slag van Spanish Fort beset. Nadat generaal Gibson onder bevel van die Spaanse Fort Garrison geplaas is, kry kolonel Francis Campbell tydelike bevel oor die brigade. Dit het uit die volgende eenhede bestaan: die 4de LA Sharpshooter Bataljon gekonsolideer met die 1ste/16de/20ste gekonsolideerde LA Infanterie, die 4de/13de/30ste gekonsolideerde LA Infanterie, die 19de LA Infanterie en die 25ste LA Infanterieregimente.

Gibson se brigade Brig. Genl Randall Gibson se Louisiana Brigade het die loopgrawe tussen Battery Blair en die uiterste regterkant van die Konfederale linie tydens die Slag van Spaanse Fort beset. Nadat generaal Gibson onder bevel van die Spaanse Fort Garrison geplaas is, kry kolonel Francis Campbell tydelike bevel oor die brigade. Dit het uit die volgende eenhede bestaan: die 4de LA Sharpshooter Bataljon gekonsolideer met die 1ste/16de/20ste gekonsolideerde LA Infanterie, die 4de/13de/30ste gekonsolideerde LA Infanterie, die 19de LA Infanterie en die 25ste LA Infanterieregimente.

2014 opgerig deur Seuns van die Konfederale Veterane - Admiral Semmes Camp 11.

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplyste gelys:

Fort en kastele en stieroorlog, Amerikaanse burgerlike. 'N Beduidende historiese datum vir hierdie inskrywing is 4 April 1865.

Ligging. 30 & deg 40.633 ′ N, 87 & deg 54.753 ′ W. Marker is in Spanish Fort, Alabama, in Baldwin County. Marker is op General Gibsonweg, 0.1 myl wes van Lancers Lane, aan die regterkant wanneer u oos ry. Raak vir kaart. Marker is by of naby hierdie posadres: 512 General Gibson Rd, Spanish Fort AL 36527, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne loopafstand van hierdie merker. Konfederale hoofweerstand (ongeveer 600 voet weg, gemeet in 'n direkte lyn) Rooi fort (ongeveer 800 voet weg) Caisson Trace (ongeveer 0,2 myl weg) Konfederale redoute nr. 4 / Holtzclaw's Brigade (ongeveer 0,3 myl weg) Fort McDermott (ongeveer 0,4 myl weg) Ft. McDermott Confederate Memorial Park (ongeveer 0,4 myl weg) Confederate Redoubt No. 5 / Ector's Brigade (ongeveer 'n halwe kilometer ver) Die 8ste Iowa -infanterie (ongeveer 'n half kilometer verder). Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in die Spaanse fort.

Meer oor hierdie merker. Die merker toon die woord "ordonnansie" in die eerste sin verkeerdelik aan. Dit moet 'ordnance' wees (geen 'i').

Hierdie merkers is die afgelope paar jaar oorgeverf en herstel.

Sien ook. . . Burgeroorlog wiki oor die Slag van Spaanse Fort. (Ingesit op 16 Januarie 2017 deur Mark Hilton van Montgomery, Alabama.)


RANDALL LEE GIBSON, CSA - Geskiedenis

Die huidige administrasiegebou van T ulane, Gibson Hall, is vernoem ter ere van Randall Lee Gibson, plantasie -eienaar, Konfederale generaal en wetgewer wat die eerste president geword het van die Raad van Administrateurs van die Tulane Educational Fund, wat van 1882 tot sy dood in 1892.

Sy pa, Tobias Gibson, Esq., Het suikerplantasies met 148 slawe in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, besit. Randal Lee Gibson (geb. 1832) is opgelei by privaat tutors, studeer in 1853 aan die Yale College, behaal 'n regsgraad aan die Universiteit van Louisiana in 1855 en reis drie jaar na die buiteland voordat hy terugkeer huis toe om die familie te onderhou.

Aan die begin van die burgeroorlog het Gibson aangesluit by die Konfederale weermag, waar hy vinnig deur die geledere gestyg het om 'n generaal te word wat baie bloedige militêre veldtogte beveel het voor sy finale nederlaag en oorgawe in 1865 naby Mobile, Alabama. Na die oorlog, wat sy plantasiebesigheid finansieel verwoes het, vestig hy 'n regspraktyk in New Orleans, betree die politiek en word hy uiteindelik verkies tot die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers en die Amerikaanse Senaat.

Gibson het baie van dieselfde ideologiese waardes gedeel as die handelaar en filantroop Paul Tulane wat hom in 1881 gesoek het, en as lid van die kongres het hy die politieke konneksies gehad wat nodig was om Paul Tulane se begeerte om 'n instelling in New Orleans te stig vir die opvoeding van "jong blanke persone" wat hierdie ideale sou beliggaam.

Die grondwet van Louisiana van 1868 het openbare onderwys tot swartes uitgebrei en 'n dilemma geskep vir teenstanders van desegregasie. Hulle was verontwaardig oor die vooruitsig dat hulle hul kinders na 'n instelling vir hoër onderwys moes stuur wat nie meer die eksklusiewe domein van blankes was nie, en privatisering was 'n oplossing.

Gibson, wat as agent van Paul Tulane werk, het in 1881 begin met die samestelling van 'n groep prominente burgers wat bankiers, prokureurs, geestelikes, regters en sakelui insluit, wie se doel was om die staatswetgewer te oortuig om hulle toe te laat om die finansieel ontsteld universiteit van Louisiana — Gibson se ou alma mater in New Orleans — en plaas dit onder hulle beheer as 'n nuwe opvoedkundige instelling, 'n onderneming wat geregverdig is deur die finansiële skenking deur Paul Tulane.

So is die plan vir die stigting van die Tulane Universiteit van Louisiana gebore, 'n instelling wat jare lank baie van die bestuur se gekoesterde suidelike tradisies sal weerspieël.

In 1882 word Gibson verklaar as die eerste president van die Raad van Administrateurs van die Tulane Educational Fund, en in 1883 noem Gibson sy neef en#151 sy Yale -kamermaat en mede -Konfederale kolonel William Preston Johnston wat die eerste president van die toekomstige nuwe universiteit. Teen 1884 het die pogings van die raad van administrateurs uitgeloop op die aanvaarding van Louisiana Act 43 van 1884, wat die bates van die Universiteit van Louisiana formeel aan die nuwe raad oorgedra het en die hernoeming van die staatsinstelling erken het aan die Tulane University of Louisiana.

*Die Afrikaanse afkoms van Gideon Gibson, die oupagrootjie van senator Randall Lee Gibson, is styf verweef in die historiese rekord van daardie tydperk. Onlangse DNS -analise van 'n manlike afstammeling van senator Randall Lee Gibson het egter die afwesigheid van die afkoms van die senator se Afrika -afkoms aangedui, alhoewel 'sommige afstammelinge' uit Portugal. (Bron: Persoonlike korrespondensie, 26/10/2018 tot 02/05/2019, met me. Claudia Gibson, vrou van Harlan Lee Gibson, die agter-agterkleinseun van senator Randall Lee Gibson) As dit gestaaf word, is die bevinding moontlik dat die senator die vader van 'n Kaukasiese man was. Alternatiewe omstandighede anders as ontrouheid in die huwelik is ook moontlik, en verdere navorsing is nodig. Die vraag oor senator Randall Lee Gibson se Afrika -afkoms kan nooit opgelos word totdat sy liggaam opgegrawe is en sy DNS getoets is nie.


Generaal Randall Lee Gibson en Daniel Hubbard Willis, jr. In die burgeroorlog

Randall Lee Gibson is gebore in Versailles, Kentucky, in Tobias en Louisiana (Hart) Gibson. Sy pa was 'n prominente suikerplanter in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. Young Gibson studeer eers in die klas van 1853 aan die Yale College, studeer regte aan die Universiteit van Louisiana in 1855 en reis deur Europa voordat hy 'n planter word in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana in 1858. Hy het drie seuns in die huwelik met Mary Montgomery in Januarie gehad. 25, 1868. By die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog het Gibson, 'n demokraat, 'n assistent geword vir goewerneur Thomas O. Moore van Louisiana. (Sien ook Randall Lee Gibson se kongresbiografie http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000165 "> GIBSON)

In Augustus 1861 word hy kolonel van die 13de Louisiana Regiment en word spoedig bekend om sy dissipline. Hy het goed presteer terwyl hy aan die bevel was van die 4de Louisiana -brigade tydens die Slag van Shiloh en het groot slagoffers op Hornet's Nest gely. Hy onderskei hom in Perryville in 1862. In 1863 neem Gibson ook deel aan die Tennessee -gevegte van Murfreesboro en Missionary Ridge en beveel hy 'n brigade by Chickamauga.

Op 11 Januarie 1864 word hy bevorder tot brigadier -generaal. Hy het daarna met lof geveg in die veldtog van Atlanta (1864) by die Slag van Bald Hill. In die Slag van Ezra -kerk (buite Atlanta) is Gibson se brigade gedemineer. Hy het tydens die Slag van Jonesboro geveg en het weer ernstige verliese gely. In die Nashville -veldtog (1864) beskerm hy die agterkant van Hood se leër tydens sy terugtog. In die lente van 1865 het hy die Spaanse fort by Mobile gehou. Hy het oorgegee en is later in Mei 1865 saam met my oupagrootjie Daniel H. Willis jr.

Na die oorlog keer Gibson terug na die plant en beoefen hy die regte in New Orleans. Hy is verkies (maar nie sit nie) as 'n demokraat in die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers in 1872. Hy is twee jaar later herkies en sit en dien voortdurend tot 1882. Van 1883 tot 1892 dien hy in die Amerikaanse senaat. In 1886 het my oupagrootjie Daniel H. Willis jr. Sy jongste seun, Randall Lee Willis, vernoem na sy voormalige bevelvoerder in die burgeroorlog, generaal Randall Lee Gibson. Ek is vernoem na my oupa Randall Lee Willis.

Gibson was 'n agent vir Paul Tulane by die stigting van die Tulane Universiteit, waarvan Gibson die eerste president van die raad was in 1885. Hy sterf op 15 Desember 1892 tydens 'n vakansie in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Yale in die Burgeroorlog Fortier, A History of Louisiana, I. Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy, Walkelyn.

My oupagrootjie, Daniel Hubbard Willis, Jr., het op 29 September 1861 by Camp Moore, La, in die Confederate Army as Pvt. 5de. Company Battalion, Washington Artillery van Louisiana. Hy was (16 Maart 1864) in Raxdale's Company E, 16de. La Regiment, Gibson's Brigade, Army of Tennessee. Hy is bevorder tot 2de Sergt. op 5 Maart 1865. Hy is gevange geneem en krygsgevangene gemaak. Daniel is op 14 Mei 1865 in Meridian, Mississippi, op parool vrygelaat. (Sien ook Andrew B. Booth, "Records of Louisiana Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands," (New Orleans, La. 1920) Vol. I: 1115). Current, ed., Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (sien ook Army of Tennessee Louisiana Division The Association en Tumulus deur Jerry Johnson Wier, The Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1999). Sien ook LOUISIANA GESKIEDENIS, die tydskrif van die Louisiana Historical Association, vol. 28, pp. 245-262 en vol. 36, pp. 389-411.

Daniel Hubbard Willis, Jr., het in baie van die groot gevegte van die burgeroorlog geveg, waaronder Shiloh, Bull Run, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Missionary Ridge en Chickamauga.

Hy was lank verbonde aan die beroemde Washington Artillery, en tydens die slag van Chicamauga is soveel perde van die battery waaraan hy geheg was, doodgemaak dat hulle die gewere met die hand van die veld moes trek om te keer dat hulle in val die hande van die vyand.

Uittreksels uit die doodsberig van Daniel H. Willis Jr.: Alexandria Town Talk, 23 Junie 1900: "Hy is in Mei 1865 in Meridian, mej. soldate en van hom kan werklik gesê word dat hy gedurende die oorblywende jare van sy lewe die advies gevolg het wat sy geliefde bevelvoerder gegee het. maar hy leef en sterf vas oortuig van die geregtigheid van die saak waarvoor die Suide soveel van haar beste bloed en skat uitgestort het. Voor die dood het hy 'n wens uitgespreek dat hy sy kinders wat tuis was, veral Randall L. sy babaseuntjie, wat hy genoem het ter ere van sy geliefde brigadier -generaal, Randall Lee Gibson. Hy het ook versoek dat sy Konfederale kenteken op sy bors vasgesteek en saam met hom begrawe word. "


-> Gibson, Randall Lee, 1832-1892

Randall Lee Gibson, generaal van die konfederate -weermag en advokaat in New Orleans, was 'n verteenwoordiger van die Verenigde State en senator van Louisiana. Hy studeer aan die Yale -universiteit in 1853 en aan die regsafdeling van die Universiteit van Louisiana in 1855. Sy pa, Tobias Gibson, was 'n planter van Oak Forest Plantation, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana.

Uit die beskrywing van Randall Lee Gibson-vraestelle, 1848-1891. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 298858456

Verteenwoordiger en senator van die Verenigde State van Louisiana, generaal van die weermag van die Confederate States, en advokaat in New Orleans.

Uit die beskrywing van Randall L. Gibson -toespraak, 1888. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 259355872

Randall Lee Gibson was 'n Amerikaanse senator van Louisiana van 1883 tot sy dood in 1892.

Uit die beskrywing van Gibson, R. L., brief, 1891. (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 82217861

Randall Lee Gibson studeer aan die Yale College in 1853 en aan die regsafdeling van die Universiteit van Louisiana (later Tulane University) in 1855. Hy het tussen 1861 en 1864 in die Konfederale Weermag gedien toe hy tot brigadier -generaal bevorder is. Gibson beoefen regte in New Orleans, La., Na die oorlog en was 'n Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger (1875-1883) en Amerikaanse senator (1883-1892) vir Louisiana.

Uit die beskrywing van Randall Lee Gibson-vraestelle, 1861-1863. (Louisiana State University). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 166253313


AUTOGRAFIES> Konfederale handtekeninge

Legh Wilber Reid, is gebore naby Brentsville, Va., Op 15 April 1833. Hy studeer nommer 2 in die Virginia Military Institute -klas van 1858, dus een van sy professore sou Thomas J. Jackson gewees het, wat binnekort verewig sou word as & quotStonewall & quot Jackson. Hy was 'n siviele ingenieur en was hoofsuperintendent van die Great Kanawha Coal & Oil Co.

Handtekening, generaal Samuel W. Ferguson

Kaartondertekening as Past Grand Commander van die Grand Commandery of Mississippi met plek en datum

(1834-1917) Gebore in Charleston, SC, studeer hy aan West Point in 1857 en dien onder kolonel Albert Sidney Johnston, tydens die Utah-ekspedisie, 1857-58, en in Fort Walla Walla, Washington Territory, 1859-60. Toe Abraham Lincoln in 1860 tot president verkies word, bedank hy sy kommissie van die Amerikaanse weermag en keer terug na Charleston. In Maart 1861 word hy aangestel as kaptein in die Voorlopige Konfederale Weermag, en as assistent vir die generaal.

Handtekening, generaal John B. Floyd

Handtekening as Amerikaanse minister van oorlog

(1806-63) Gegradueer aan die South Carolina College in 1829. Hy is 'n advokaat van beroep en word in 1847 verkies tot die huis van afgevaardigdes in Virginia, en goewerneur van die staat in 1848. President Buchanan het hom in 1857 as oorlogsekretaris aangestel, 'n pos wat hy tot sy bedanking op 29 Desember 1860 beklee het. Dit is die gevolg van die weiering van president Buchanan om majoor Robert Anderson terug te beveel van Fort Sumter na Fort Moultrie. Floyd is daarna bitter gekritiseer in die.

Handtekening, generaal George G. Dibrell

Gevang saam met die Konfederale President Jefferson Davis in Georgië in 1865!

Dien as Amerikaanse kongreslid van Tennessee

(1822-88) Gebore in Sparta, Tennessee, studeer hy in 1843 aan die East Tennessee University in Knoxville, studeer regte en word toegelaat tot die balie. Hy was ook 'n suksesvolle handelaar en boer voor die oorlog. Hy dien as 'n lid van die Tennessee House of Representatives in 1861. Toe die oorlog uitbreek, het hy hom as 'n privaat in die 25ste Tennessee Infantry aangestel en tot rang van luitenant -kolonel gestyg. Hy verhoog toe die 8ste.

Handtekening, generaal Randall Lee Gibson

Amerikaanse kongreslid en senator van Louisiana

(1832-84) By die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog was hy die assistent van die goewerneur Thomas O. Moore van Louisiana, en in Augustus 1861 kry hy die opdrag van kolonel van die 13de Louisiana Infanterie wat hy gelei het by Shiloh, in Kentucky veldtog, en by Chickamauga. Hy is vroeg in 1864 bevorder tot die rang van brigadier -generaal en veg met lof in die veldtog in Atlanta, in Hood se inval in Tennessee en in die verdediging van Mobile. Na die oorlog dien hy as 'n Amerikaanse kongreslid en 'n Amerikaanse senator van.

Handtekening Augustus H. Garland

Konfederale kongreslid en senator

Prokureur -generaal van die Verenigde State

(1832-99) Hy is gebore in Covington, Tennessee, en volg die Spring Hill Academy, St. Mary's College, en studeer in 1849 aan St. Joseph's College in Bardstown, Ky. Hy studeer regte en word in 1853 in die balie toegelaat. Garland het een van die mees prominente prokureurs in Arkansas geword en is toegelaat tot die balie van die Hooggeregshof van die Verenigde State in 1860. 'n Presidentsverkieser in Arkansas vir die.

Prominente Amerikaanse en Konfederale staatsman

Hierdie internasionale geleentheid, wat in 1861 vasgelê is, het bekend geword as die Trent Affair!

(1798-1871) Afstammeling van 'n baie prominente Virginia-gesin, studeer hy regte en dien later as 'n Amerikaanse senator en kongreslid. Terwyl hy 'n senator was, het hy die & quotFugitive Slave Act & quot; opgestel in 1850. As lid van die Konfederale Kongres is hy in 1861 saam met John Slidell na Frankryk gestuur om die steun van Frankryk vir die Konfederale saak te verkry. Die twee diplomate is in hegtenis geneem.

Handtekening -generaal Joseph E. Johnston

Bevelvoerder van die Army of Northern Virginia en die Army of Tennessee!

Erg gewond tydens die slag van Seven Pines, Va.!

Amerikaanse kongreslid van Virginia

(1807-1891) Gegradueer van West Point in die klas van 1825. Een van sy klasmaats was Robert E. Lee. Hy het met groot onderskeiding gedien in die Seminole en Mexikaanse oorloë, waarin hy herhaaldelik gewond en kortgeknip is. Hy is in Mei 1861 aangestel as 'n brigadier -generaal in die Konfederale Weermag.

Amerikaanse senator van Louisiana

Konfederale offisier tydens die oorlog tussen die state

(1801-70) Gebore naby Bordeaux, Frankryk, studeer hy regte en praktiseer in Parys. Sy vader was 'n luitenant -generaal onder Napoleon. Hy was besig met joernalistiek en is in die gevangenis gesit omdat hy revolusionêre artikels in 1825 gepubliseer het, maar hy het na Engeland ontsnap en uiteindelik na die Verenigde State beland in New Orleans, La, waar hy die regte beoefen het. Hy was 'n lid van die Louisiana State Senate in 1846, en dien toe as 'n Amerikaanse senator, van 1847-53. Hy was.

Handtekeninge James M. Mason & Robert M.T. Jagter

Prominente Virginia Konfederale Politici

James M. Mason: (1798-1871) Afstammeling van 'n baie prominente Virginia-gesin, studeer hy regte en dien later as 'n Amerikaanse senator en kongreslid. Terwyl hy 'n senator was, het hy die & quotFugitive Slave Act opgestel in 1850. As lid van die Konfederale Kongres is hy in 1861 saam met John Slidell na Frankryk gestuur om die steun van Frankryk vir die Konfederale saak te verkry. Die twee diplomate is in beslag geneem op die oop see terwyl hulle aan boord was van die Britse posstoomboot & quotTrent, wat tot gevolg gehad het.

Handtekening, generaal William H. Forney

Gewond en gevange geneem op Gettysburg!

Dertien keer gewond tydens die oorlog tussen die state!

Amerikaanse kongreslid van Alabama

Omslag in sy hand aangespreek

(1823-94) Hy is gebore in Lincolnton, NC, en verhuis in 1835 saam met sy ouers na Alabama en studeer aan die Universiteit van Alabama in 1844. Sy regstudies word onderbreek toe hy besluit het om in die 1ste Alabama-infanterie as luitenant te dien tydens die Mexikaanse Oorlog. Daarna hervat hy sy studies, word in 1848 tot die balie toegelaat en begin hy 'n praktyk in.

Handtekening Generaal Gustavus W. Smith

Oorlogsdatum dokument onderteken

(1821-96) Gegradueer in die West Point-klas van 1842. Hy is drie keer tydens die Mexikaanse Oorlog vir galanterie beskrywe. Hy dien later as instrukteur by die U.S. Military Academy. By die uitbreek van die Burgeroorlog het hy die opdrag van 'n generaal -majoor in die Konfederale Weermag gekry. Tydens die Peninsular -veldtog was hy bevelvoerder van die vleuel van die Army of Northern Virginia. Hy dien kortliks in 1862 as die Konfederale Oorlogsekretaris en organiseer later die staatsmagte van Georgia en beveg hulle met uitnemende uitnemendheid, veral op die gebied van.

Oorlog tussen die state
Kontak Ons!
Posbus 267
Lady Lake, FL 32158
Verenigde State


Die vind van die Gibson -gesin - 'n gemengde rassegeskiedenis

Hierdie week het ek besluit om ernstig te soek na die ontwykende Gibson -familieverbinding. Maar eers het ek besluit om die inligting wat ek reeds het, weer eens te hersien. Vir werklike dokumente het ek net twee Amerikaanse sensusrekords en 'n huweliksertifikaat.

Maar wat ek gevind het in ander bronne, is soveel meer.

Toe ek die eerste keer met hierdie soektog begin het, het ek min gehad. My pa het nie sy ouma se nooiensvan geken nie, en dit het gelei tot die versoek om inligting aan die Social Security Administration. Hou in gedagte dat die enigste rede waarom ek hierdie inligting ontvang het, is dat my oumagrootjie, Susanna Meriwether Porter, net oud genoeg was om in aanmerking te kom vir Medicare toe die wet omstreeks 1960 aangeneem is. Sy was te oud om in aanmerking te kom vir Social Sekuriteitsbetalings, dus moes sy 'n nommer vir sosiale sekerheid aanvra voordat sy in aanmerking kom vir Medicare -voordele.

Maar hierdie versoek het 'n wêreldwye verskil in my navorsing gemaak, want die afskrif van haar aansoek om 'n nommer van sosiale sekerheid het my die nooiensvan van my oupagrootjie, Malverda Gibson, gegee, en hierdie stukkie inligting het die deur na die verlede oopgesluit. My aanvanklike reaksie was "Malverda sal nie moeilik wees om te vind nie, en ek was reg daaroor, maar dit was baie moeiliker om die Gibson -familie te vind.

Ek het Malverda Gibson gevind die eerste keer dat ek in die Amerikaanse sensusrekords gesoek het na persone wat in Mississippi woon. Volgens die Amerikaanse sensus van 1860, geneem in Calhoun County, Mississippi, woon Malverda Gibson saam met haar gesin in die Cherry Hill -gemeenskap. Daar word getoon dat haar pa en haar ma 'J. P. Gibson' en 'Margaret J. Gibson' is. Die beroep van J. P. Gibson word as 'smid' aangedui. Ander kinders in die huishouding was susters met die naam Elvira, Mary, Martha en Becky. Ander manlike gesinslede was broers met die naam Asberry en Francis. Toe ek die name van die twee broers van Malverda sien, besluit ek ter plaatse dat die gesin Metodiste moes wees, aangesien dit blyk dat hulle twee seuns genoem het vir die bekende vroeë biskop van die Metodistekerk, Francis Asbury. Ek het ook gevind dat die gesin weer opgesom is by die Amerikaanse sensus van 1870, hierdie keer in Carroll County, in die Duck Hill -gemeenskap.

Gedurende dieselfde tydperk waarin ek die sensusrekords opgespoor het, het die LDS -kerk al hul familiegeskiedenisrekords aanlyn op www.familysearch.org geplaas. Een soektog op die nuwe LDS -webwerf, en ek het die huweliksdatum vir 'n John P. Gibson en Martha J. Williams. Hulle is op 3 Januarie 1843 in Aberdeen, Monroe County, Mississippi, getroud. Nou het ek iets gehad wat name vir die volgende generasie kan onthul, naam van ouers vir John en Margaret.

Die volgende dag bel ek die Monroe County, Mississippi County Clerk in Aberdeen, Mississippi en versoek 'n afskrif van die huweliksrekord. 'N Baie vriendelike en behulpsame persoon in die kantoor van die klerk het die dokument opgespoor, en ongeveer 'n week later het ek 'n afskrif van die huwelikslisensie en 'n huweliksband ontvang wat $ 500 gepos het deur iemand met die naam "Joseph Gibson." My eerste gedagte was dat Josef die vader van Johannes moes gewees het, maar dit sou te goed gewees het om waar te wees, en soos dit blyk, was dit nie waar nie. 'N Ruk later het ek 'n afskrif van die testament van Joseph Gibson opgespoor, wat in Monroe County, Mississippi, getoets is, en dat inligting, tesame met 'n paar onlangse navorsingspogings, vasgestel het dat Joseph en John waarskynlik nie broers was nie, maar moontlik neefs.

Die volgende inligtingsbron het heeltemal per ongeluk by my opgekom. Ek was aanlyn op soek na die naam Gibson en South Carolina en het 'n verwysing na 'n PBS Frontline -aanbieding getiteld "Blurred Racial Lines" gevind. Een van die gesinne wat geprofileer is, was die Gibson -familie van Suid -Carolina, saam met 'n kort lys van ander name met soortgelyke rasse -agtergronde. Hierdie inligting is beskikbaar op www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/secret/famous/

Ek het toevallig op iets afgekom wat die weg gebaan het vir verdere navorsing oor die Gibson -familie en ander persone soos hulle wat destyds gebel is "vrye persone van kleur." Sommige van hierdie individue, waaronder Gideon Gibson, is spesifiek na verwys as "mullatos."

Op dieselfde tyd het ek gevind dat Winthrop Jordan 'n boek geskryf het met die titel "Wit oor swart" Dit bevat soortgelyke inligting oor die rasse -agtergrond van die Gibson -gesin in Suid -Carolina.
Onlangs het ek ander verwysings na die geskiedenis van die Gibson -familie gelees in verskeie historiese publikasies, insluitend "Children of Perdition: Melungeons and the Struggle for Mixed America" deur Tim Hershaw, "Eenwording van 'n slawestaat " deur Rachel Klein, en "Black Slaveowners - Free Black Slave Masters in SC, 1790 - 1860", deur Larry Koger. Al drie publikasies bevat talle verwysings na die Gibson -familie, sowel as 'n paar van hul familielede en bure in Suid -Carolina, die Bunch, Sweat (t) en Murph -families. Voorskoue van hierdie boeke is aanlyn beskikbaar by www.books.google.com.

Verskeie lede van die Gibson-familie in Mississippi en Louisiana is goed opgeteken. Port Gibson, Mississippi, een van die historiese dorpe van Mississippi, is vernoem na Samuel Gibson, 'n vroeë setlaar in die ou Natchez -distrik, voordat Mississippi staatskaping bereik het. Die ou Presbiteriaanse Kerk, met sy toring met 'n hand wat na die hemel wys, is 'n baken in Port Gibson, saam met Chamberlain-Hunt Military Academy, en verskeie huise en ander geboue met historiese betekenis. Tobias Gibson is gebore naby Warrenton, Mississippi, en sy betrokkenheid by die Methodiste Kerk in Mississippi word gedokumenteer in 'n boek wat geskryf is oor die geskiedenis van metodisme in die staat. Randall Lee Gibson, seun van Tobias, is bekend vir sy opkoms van 'n privaat na Brigadier-generaal tydens sy diens in die Burgeroorlog, en later vir sy diens aan die staat Louisiana tydens verskeie termyne in die kongres. Randall Lee Gibson word ook veral onthou vir sy steun aan die stigting van Tulane University deur Paul Tulane, 'n voormalige inwoner van Louisiana. Inligting oor Randall Lee Gibson kan gevind word op http://www.tulanelink.com.

Vroeër hierdie week het ek afskrifte gevind van die transkripsies van twee briewe wat in die laat 1800's geskryf is. Die een is van 'n dogter van Randall Lee Gibson, wat destyds naby haar ma se gesin in Kentucky gewoon het, en 'n ander van 'n predikant in Adams Co., MS, wat die Gibson -familie goed geken het. Beide individue het persoonlike inligting oor Gibson -familielede gedeel en hoe hul gesin teruggevoer kan word na Gideon Gibson en die Gibson -familie van Suid -Carolina.

Ironies genoeg word niks in beide briewe genoem oor die gemengde rasse -agtergrond van die Gibson -familie nie.


Randall L. Gibson

Randall Lee Gibson (10 September 1832 - 15 Desember 1892) was 'n prokureur en politikus, verkies as lid van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en Amerikaanse senator uit Louisiana. Hy het gedien as brigadier -generaal in die weermag van die Konfederale State. Later was hy regent van die Smithsonian Institution, en president van die raad van administrateurs van die Tulane Universiteit.

Gibson is in 1832 gebore te "Spring Hill", Versailles, Kentucky, die seun van Gibson, 'n planter en slawehouer. Sy ma was van 'n slawe -familie in Lexington, Kentucky.

Sy oupagrootjie van vaderskant was Gideon Gibson Jr., wat waarskynlik in die kolonie South Carolina in 1731 gebore is. Sy oupagrootjie, Gideon Gibson, was 'n vry man van kleur wat met 'n blanke vrou getroud was en besit grond en 'n paar slawe in Virginia (waarskynlik waar hy gebore is) en Noord -Carolina, voordat hulle in die 1730's saam met ander setlaars na Suid -Carolina getrek het. Die regering was bekommerd dat hy 'n slaweopstand sou veroorsaak en die koloniale goewerneur het 'n onderhoud met hom gehad. Toe hy van sy lewe leer, verklaar die goewerneur hom 'n vry man met alle voorregte en gee hom grond.

Gibson se pa het sy gesin na Louisiana verhuis toe Randall 'n kind was, waar die jeug in die plaaslike akademie opgevoed is. Hy het universiteit toe gegaan in die noorde en studeer aan die Yale -universiteit in 1853, waar hy lid was van die Scroll and Key -samelewing. Hy keer terug na Louisiana om te studeer vir sy baccalaureus in die regte (LL.B) aan die Law School van die University of Louisiana, later Tulane University.

Kort na die afstigting van die Louisiana uit die Unie, word Gibson hulp van goewerneur Thomas O. Moore. Op 8 Mei 1861 het hy die hoofstad verlaat om as kaptein by die 1ste Louisiana Artillery aan te sluit.

Op 13 Augustus 1861 word hy aangestel as kolonel van die 13de Louisiana Infanterie. Gibson het geveg tydens die Slag van Shiloh en die daaropvolgende aksies. Met die Army of the Mississippi het hy aan die Kentucky -veldtog van 1862 en die Slag van Chickamauga deelgeneem. Nadat hy op 11 Januarie 1864 tot brigadier-generaal (spesiaal) bevorder is, veg hy in die Atlanta-veldtog en die Franklin-Nashville-veldtog wat hy daarna vir die verdediging van Mobile, Alabama, aangewys het. Hy het sy troepe geïnspireer om die Spaanse Fort, wat onder beleg was, tot op die laaste oomblik te hou, waarna hulle snags op 8 April 1865 ontsnap het. Gibson is op 8 Mei 1865 by Cuba Station, Alabama, gevange geneem en in Meridian, Mississippi, laat parool. op 14 Mei 1865. Hy is op 25 September 1866 begenadig.

Gibson keer na die oorlog terug na Louisiana en werk daaraan om die staat te help herstel. Dit het groot skade aangerig aan die dam langs die Mississippi, wat die grootskaalse plantasies vir katoen en suiker bedreig het. Planters het ná die oorlog gesukkel om gratis arbeid te hanteer.

In 1874 word Gibson verkies as 'n demokraat in die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers, herverkies en dien van 4 Maart 1875 tot 3 Maart 1883. Hy het die stigting van die Amerikaanse Huiskomitee oor die Mississippi Levees bevorder Op 10 Desember 1875, om die toestand van die Mississippi -dakke te ondersoek en federale steun te kry vir die bou en herstel daarvan, was die kwessies wat hy oortuig het dat sy genote in die nasionale belang was vanweë die belangrikheid van die Mississippi, sy handel en die landbou in die streek. The committee's name was changed to the Levees and Improvements of the Mississippi River on November 7, 1877.

In 1882, Gibson was elected by the Louisiana state legislature (as was the procedure at the time) as United States Senator, serving from March 4, 1883, until his death on December 15, 1892.

According to historian Daniel L. Sharfstein in The Invisible Line: Three American Families and the Secret Journey From Black to White (2011), during these years a political opponent challenged Gibson's status as a white man, based on records. Gibson investigated but learned only that his ancestors were property owners, which was "enough to satisfy most of Gibson's contemporaries."

“Such status,” Sharfstein explains, “could not mean anything but whiteness. . . . As much as racial purity mattered to white Southerners, they had to circle the wagons around Randall Gibson. If someone of his position could not be secure in his race, then no one was safe"."

Sharfstein claims that Gibson's paternal line went back to freed African slaves in colonial Virginia.

Randall Gibson died as a United States senator while in Hot Springs, Arkansas. His body was returned to Kentucky, where he was buried at Lexington Cemetery in Lexington, Kentucky.


"No Gettysberg- How the Southern States won their Independance"

In early 1863, Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens proposed that a delegation be sent to the north to seek terms for an end to hostilities and a recognition of the Confederacy. After the initial opposition of President Jefferson Davis, the ideas of a conference with these aims was approved, and channels were set up between the opposing sides to put it together. But the events of July- the South's defeat at Gettysburg and the fall of Vicksburg- ended any chance for the success of the conference, and the idea was quickly rejected out of hand by northern leaders. Years later, Stephen's wrote a selection in his book "A Constitutional View of the War Between the States" pondering this conference and its failure:

"At the time these events were transpiring I thought, if General Lee had remained quietly on the defensive south of the Rappahannock if all the forces he had collected over and above what were necessary to hold his position there had been sent in aid of the dislodgement of Grant, in his seige of Vicksburg, instead of joining in the movement made into Pennsylvania, that it would have been greatly better for us and in that state of things, I thought that the conference suggested would most probably have been agreed to and , also, that the results looked to in its projection would most probably have eventually ensued. . Upon these questions others must form their own speculative judgements. Indeed, all that could be said on the subject now, as stated before, would be nothing but speculation." ("A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States" by Alexander H. Stephens)
This, of course, encouraged me to speculate, and inspired me to write, and now humbly present to you, the results of that speculation- an Alternate History timeline.
(Note- The vast majority of people in this timeline really existed. Photographs are of real persons, taken at approximately the same time in which the events listed in the timeline occur. It should be assumed that all events before June, 1863 remain exactly as in our timeline. Dates of death for political leaders before 1900 remain the same as in our timeline.)

1863- January- President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect. June - President Davis orders General Longstreet to take a portion of the Army of Northern Virginia to eastern Tennessee to re-inforce General Bragg's forces. West Virginia admitted as a US State (6/20). July 4- Vicksburg is conquered by US forces. August 15- A peace party composed of Vice President Alexander Stephens and two Confederate Congressmen is received in Washington by lower level officials of the U.S. State Department, but no action is taken. September 3- Near Knoxville, Bragg and Longstreet defeat Union forces under General Burnside. Bragg and Longstreet win several battles in central and western Tennessee, including the defeat of General Rosecrans in Chattanooga. October- Meade attempts an invasion of Virginia, but is halted by General Lee.

1864- March 12- Officials in the U.S. State Department contact the office of Vice President Stephens, calling for a conference to discuss terms for peace. April- The "New England Convention" meets to issue its "Proclamation for Peace" calling for the New England states' troops to leave the south and calling for an immediate cease-fire with the Confederacy. Lincoln calls their actions "treasonous" . Central Tennessee is re-taken by Generals Longstreet and Bragg. May 19- Governors of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York and Ohio meet to call for an end to hostilities and also threaten to withdraw their forces from the south. Summer- Heavy anti-draft rioting in New York City, Boston and Chicago. Union General Ulysses Grant retreats from Vicksburg to reinforce Tennessee, and is captured. August- delegates from Eastern Maryland meet discuss secession from the U.S. and joining the Confederate States. November 8- In the U.S. Election, George McClellan wins with 2,252,000 votes to Lincoln's 1,773,000. November 14- President-Elect McClellan calls for "an equitable peace" between the beligerents. Christmas Day- A cease-fire is declared by both sides, as Union troops begin pulling out of the south.

1865- January 10- Representatives from the opposing armies meet in Alexandria, Virginia to establish terms for a permanant treaty. January 16- Many in Lincoln's cabinet, upon seeing the first drafts of the Treaty, say that they will bitterly oppose it, but Lincoln urges restraint, and saying, "It's in other's hands now." February 22- Treaty of Manassas is agreed to by the Vice Presidents of the United States and the Confederate States in Manassas, VA, ending the war and granting independence to the South. (Read a Newspaper account of the treaty) Terms of the treaty:

1) Borders= Washington D.C. will not be invaded or occupied, the "Baltimore-DC corridor" will remain forever within the United States, while parts of Maryland east of this corridor will enter the Confederacy as a state The Confederate States will renounce all claims to territory west of the Mississippi River north of the 37th parallel, excepting Southern Missouri the Ohio River will be recognised as the northern border of the CSA, excepting Western Virginia, which will remain in the US. and pending pleblicites in Kentucky and Southern Missouri, which will determine if they will join the Confederacy. A pleblicite will also be held in Arizona Territory on its admission to the Confederacy,
2) Shipping=The Chesapeake will remain free for 25 years to United States shipping, but access to the Mississippi River will be regulated by the CS Congress,
3) Slavery= Fugitive Slave Laws must be enforced. All slaves who escape from the Confederate States into the United States in the future are to be returned, and an indemnity must be paid from the US government to the CS government as payment for all slaves who have escaped during the war (but they will not be compelled to return).
(February 25- President Davis, in a private letter to a friend in Mississippi, says that he actually cares not if the United States abides by all of the terms of the treaty, "so long as they leave us alone in peace.")
March 5- On his first day as President, McClellan urges Congress to approve the Treaty of Manassas as a "Fair and equitable peace for the future of our two peoples." Until now, the Republicans in the U.S. Senate had refused to even allow it to come to a vote. March 21- Congress approves the Treaty of Manassas. June 10- The state of East Maryland is admitted as a Confederate State, as allowed by the Treaty of Manassas. July- The 13th Amendment is passed by Congress ending slavery in the United States and all it's territories. August- Kentucky plebiscite votes to leave the US and apply for membership in the Confederacy. Sept.- Southern Missouri also votes to leave the Union. Oct.- Arizona narrowly votes to seek admission to the Confederacy. Nov- Britain recognizes the Confederate States, and signs a trade treaty ensuring the cotton trade and offering military and industrial assistance. Dec.- Southern Missouri and Kentucky are admitted as Confederate States.

1866- Arizona and New Mexico Territories are admitted to the Confederacy as states. The "Union Republicans" , (radical Republicans) regain a majority in the US Congress, blaming the recent defeat on Democrats, "Weak Republicans" , and Lincoln. They call for a rapid settlement of the American west to counter the "Southern Empire" now expanding westward. April- Justices of the Confederate Supreme Court are appointed by the President and ratified by the Senate. Their first session, however, doesn't take place until September. Fall- Confederate President Davis announced in a letter to Congress dated August 17, 1866, that the proper numeration of his term began when he took office as President under the Permanent, rather than the Provisional, Constitution, and therefore his term would end in February, 1868 rather than in February, 1867, as many had expected. After a complaint was lodged by several Senators, the newly-established Confederate Supreme Court ruled in his favor in late October, 1866. This move caused many to call Davis "ambitious" and "dictatorial". September 16- The US Congress sets up a "Committee of Inquiry Concerning the Late War Between the States" , hearings on the war, and it calls many generals into the hearings to explain their actions, which results in several court-martials.
1867- Dakota Territory and Nebraska are admitted as U.S. states. In Mexico, revolutionaries oust French puppet Emperor Maximillian after French forces leave Mexico. Russia sells Alaska to Britain, and it becomes a territory of the newly-proclaimed Dominion of Canada.

1868- February 1- Robert E. Lee officially declines the offer of several political figures to serve as President of the Confederacy, but serves as Secretary of War under Alexander Stephens (GA), who is inaugurated (March 4) as the second president of the Confederacy, with Augustus Hill Garland (Tennesee) serving as Vice President. November- Edwin McMasters Stanton (Union Republican) is elected President of the US, beginning the era of radicalism in the US.

1869- April 10- President Stanton orders troops to mass upon the US/CS border, to "protect against invasion from the slaveholding states". President Stephens, in an address to the CS Congress, calls for preparedness, and calls President Stanton's actions "Bordering on the nonsensical" and without cause. Colorado Territory and Washington Territory are admitted as US states. The New England states' governors meet to consider secession, and are arrested by federal troops. Rioting in Boston and Hartford kills 50. President Stanton calls for order, and sends more troops to New England. December 24- President Stanton dies from complications caused by his lifelong asthmatic condition. He is replaced by Vice President John Sherman, who pledges to continue Stanton's programs.

1870- February 18- The U.S. Congress declares martial law in the nation's capitol, fearing "Southern subversion and Secessionist Treason" . June- In a referrendum, separation from the USA is approved by the mostly Mormon voters in Utah Territory. After a few skirmishes with Federal troops in the Spring, no further military confrontation occurs. August- An alliance is proclaimed between the new "Nation of Deseret" and the Confederate government.

1871- In the USA, the 14th Amendment is passed, August 29, barring secession from the United States, and is quickly ratified by: NewYork, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illiniois, North Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Dakota, California, Oregon, Washington and Kansas, as well as the territory of Idaho. Notably absent from the list of ratifying states are the New England states, who are seriously discouraged with the federal government's handling of the war and what has followed.

1872- Spring- Fighting breaks out in Massachusetts between secession advocates and Federal troops, which is easily put down by Union forces. July 6-12- A fire does massive damage in New York City, blamed on both Confederate agitators and New England separatists. November- President Sherman is elected to a full term as US President, amid accusations of massive vote fraud.

1873- January- President Sherman declares martial law in the New England states and in New York City, which are divided into military districts and administered by the US Congress. Summer- A scarlet fever epidemic hits several cities in the CSA, killing hundreds.

1874- March 4- Confederate Secretary of State Robert W. Barnwell (of South Carolina) becomes the third President of the CSA, with Howell Cobb (of Georgia) serving as Vice President.

1875- March 16- CSA President Barnwell and Congress secretly authorize a build-up of ironclads and wooden vessels, in the face of the growing militarism of the United States. Autumn- A bumper crop of cotton increases international sales by 20% throughout the CSA.

1876- May- Dissatisfied with Sherman's continued militarism, and with his high tariff policy, a group of Moderate Republicans meet in Chicago to form the Liberal Republican Party, in opposition to the "Radical Republicans" and in favor of freer trade policies. They nominate Charles Francis Adams, the former US Minister to England, as their candidate for President, and Senator Lyman Trumbull as their candidate for Vice-President. That same month, the Republicans re-nominate President Sherman for a second full term. June- Rioting breaks out in Boston. Leaders of the fighting call for a "Second Revolutionary War" to put down the "Republican Dictatorship", but meet with little popular support due to the increasingly violent tone of the leaders of the rioting. June 10- The Democratic Party meets in Baltimore and endorses the Liberal Republican nominee Adams. July 4- Citizens both in the USA and CSA celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. August- Along with dozens of rioters, several of the leaders of the New England insurrection are arrested, with the assistance of New England's governors. President Sherman announces that the insurrection has been officially supressed. Ratification of the 14th Amendment, barring further secessions, is rushed through the Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont legislatures before the end of the year. November- Union Republican President Sherman is defeated by Liberal Republican candidate Charles Francis Adams , by a wide margin.

1877- March 4- President Charles Francis Adams is inaugurated, and pledges to reform government and to end all martial law in the United States during peacetime. May- A bi-partisan committee is set up in Congress to investigate graft and corruption in the just-ended Sherman administration. Two former cabinet officials and several minor officials were convicted of bribery and lesser offenses in the following months.

1878- April- President Adams' allies in Congress narrowly pass the Civil Service Reform Act of 1878, which created the Civil Service Commission and took thousands of government offices out of the "spoils system".

1880- March 4- Augustus Hill Garland (of Tennessee) elected as 4th President of the Confederate States. Senate President Pro Tempore Robert Mercer Talliaferro Hunter (of Virginia) becomes Vice President. In his inaugural address, President Garland declares that a new era of the Confederacy has arrived, "Tested by war, tempered by peace." and calls for a thaw in US-CS relations. He also proposes an intrastate rail system, "which would facilitate trade and contact among the various states of the Confederacy." In May, Congress appoints a committee to discuss Garlands proposal. November- U.S. President Adams is re-elected, thought the Union Republicans re-gain control of the House of Representatives by 3 seats.

1881- January/February- Border raids by Mexican army into Arizona and New Mexico destroy several towns. March 23- Texas divisions of the Confederate army engage Mexican troops in battle at Laredo, Texas, then strike inside Mexico, winning a major victory at the Salado River. April 1- Mexican troops take Tuscon, Arizona in a bloody battle. April 2- President Garland calls for a declaration of hostilities between Mexico and the Confederate States. Congress complies on April 5, and calls for each state to send it's militia to protect the Confederacy. Alabama governor Thomas Hill Watts at first refuses to send troops, seeing it "Not in the interests of Alabama". The Confederate Supreme Court rules (April 29) that Alabama is not in compliance with the terms of the Confederate Constitution. Watts is removed by the state legislature and replaced by Senate President Edward Asbury O'Neal , who immediately calls for troops to be sent to join the Confederate army forming in Texas. By late summer, all of the troops are assembled in Texas, and the invasion of Mexico commenses in September. August 10-13- Confederate forces engage Mexican units in the Battle of Yuma, Arizona. September 13- CSA forces under the command of General George Washington Custis Lee (son of General Robert E. Lee) force Mexican troops to retreat after the Battle of Matamoros, Mexico.

1882- April 15- Mexican troops strike deep inside California (US) to gain supplies and food, and are persued back into Mexico into Baja California Norte by US Troops. It is a trap, and the US troops are ambushed near Mexicali. A nearby Confederate brigade under the command of Brigadier General Randall Lee Gibson comes to their rescue, defeating the Mexicans. News reports of this battle greatly help to heal relations between the United States and the Confederacy and "An era of brotherly feeling" is declared by many papers in the US for the Confederate troops' actions. Mostly as a result of this, the mid-term Congressional elections in the U.S. are won overwhelmingly by opposition Liberal Republican Party candidates who wish to normalize relations. Fall- The seige and fall of Monterrey, Mexico under General Lee the Mexico City campaign begins.

1883- March 10- The new, Liberal Republican-controlled Congress eases customs restrictions on the CS/US border in the eastern US & CS. May 16- Mexico City falls to CS armies. June 3- The end of the Mexican-Confederate War comes with the signing of the treaty of Monterrey, which gives the CSA all of Northern Mexico, including the Mexican states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, and Baja California Norte. The former Mexican states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas becomes the state of "New Georgia" and its capital, Monterrey, is re-named Garland City. It is admitted as a state on August 21 . Sonora and Baja California Norte are combined into the state of Davis, and admitted to the Confederacy on October 10, with its capital, Hermosillo, renamed Lee City. Chihuahua becomes the state of "Johnston", with it's capital at New Macon, formerly the city of Chihuahua. Coahiula becomes the state of "South Texas", with its capital as Beauregard, formerly Saltillo. Both Johnston and South Texas are admitted on October 27.

1884- February 27- The CSA Congress approves a plan to construct a Confederate Transcontinental Railroad, with each state paying for sections of track within its borders, and responsible for its proper maintenance. March 16- The final plans for the Confederate Transcontinental Railroad are approved by Congress: It would run first from Richmond to Raleigh, then south to Charleston and west to Columbia, South Carolina. Then it would go through Atlanta to Montgomery then on to Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans. From there, the Railroad would pass to Houston and Austin Texas, on to Garland City (Monterrey) and west to Lee City in the state of Davis (Hermosillo). Finally, it would run to the former region of Baja California and end in New Manassas (Ensenada). Work begins with the starting point in Richmond on June 15. August 22- The Confederate Transcontinental Railroad (TCRR) reaches Raleigh, North Carolina. November 4- Liberal Republican candidate General Winfield Scott Hancock wins election as President by over 400,000 votes. Governor David B. Hill of New York is elected Vice-President. November 10- The Confederate Congress begins to examine the slow progress of the building of the Transcontinental Railroad, and appoints a commission to study the problems and suggest solutions.

1885- Feb 22- The Stephens Memorial is unveiled in Atlanta during the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the end of the War for Confederate Independence. The incoming U.S. Secretary of State attends, in a gesture of goodwill. It is the highest-ranking official to visit the CSA since the signing of the Treaty of Manassas. March 4- President Hancock, in his inaugural speech, calls for the construction of a transontinental railroad to "bind the nation up, and heal it's wounds." The idea is wildly popular, and money is appropriated and a committee is appointed by the Congress within a few weeks of President Hancock taking office to discuss possible routes. (A similar action, the "Pacific Railroad Act" had been passed by Congress in July of 1862, but the war and civil strife of the post-war period had rendered it impossible to make substantial progress on such a system.) Confederate Secretary of State Richard Coke (of Texas) attends Hancock's inaugural, the first time any Confederate official has atteneded such an event. April 10- A United States Minister [Ambassador] to the Confederacy is sent to Richmond by President Hancock. Brigadier General Randall Lee Gibson, the "rescuer of Mexicali" in the recent war with Mexico, who was very popular in the U.S., is sent as the first Confederate States Minister to Washington. May 6- Upon the recommendation of the Confederate Transcontinental Railroad Commission, the Confederate Congress passes the "Internal Improvements Amendment" to the Constitution, creating a "National Land and Sea Transport Board" to administer internal improvements traversing two or more states, under the direction of the Confederate Congress. Its funding would come from the contributions of each state, based upon population. It is sent to the states for ratification, which is completed by October after much debate. May 15- Confederate TCRR reaches Columbia, South Carolina. July 4- The Confederate TCRR reaches Atlanta, Georgia, in time for Independence from England Day, and on October 1, it enters Jackson, Mississippi. By November 30th, it has reached New Orleans.

1886- February 9- US President Hancock dies suddenly, succeded by Vice-President David B. Hill (former Governor of New York). February 22- On Confederate Independence Day, the TCRR enters Houston, Texas, to a great celebration. March 4- Former Confederate General George Washington Custis Lee (of Virginia), the "Hero of [the battle of] Matamoros", becomes the fifth Confederate President, with Clifton Rodes Breckinridge (of Kentucky, son of the former U.S. Vice President and Confederate Senator (1865-1867) John C. Breckinridge) as Vice President. May 7- The Confederate TCRR enters Austin, Texas, and on August 6, it lays its first tracks in Garland City (formerly Monterrey). September 29- A final report is issued by the U.S. Congress on the route of the proposed Transcontinental Railroad it will head westward from New York City just north of the Ohio River, through Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis, Topeka, and Denver, then head northward through Wyoming to Pocatello, Idaho, then following the Snake River to western Oregon. Then, it would join the western part of the rail system, connecting Washington state and San Fransisco, California. A Rail Commission is appointed to oversee the various companies building the railroad, and the first track is laid by October 1st.

1887- March 14- The Confederate TCRR enters Lee City, Davis (formerly Hermosillo, Sonora). On June 5, it reaches Mexicali in the state of Davis. July 15- The U.S. railroad reaches St. Louis, Missouri. July 21- On the 26th anniversary of the 1st battle of Manassas/Bull Run, the Confederate Transcontinental Railroad enters New Manassas, Davis (formerly Ensenada) President G. W. C. Lee sends a contratulatory telegraph to the workers and dignitaries watching as the last spike is nailed into the rails. September 29- Land for a Nicaraguan Canal is bought by the Confederate Congress, as an investment designed to help facilitate international trade. October 17- Survey teams arrive in Nicaragua to survey the land for the Canal, which will be of a simple, sea-level design, rather than a "lock" design, rejected by Congress as too costly. October 22- Work on the US Railroad ends for the winter in Topeka, Kansas

1888- Early February- In the CSA, the first teams of workers are sent to Nicaragua, to begin excavation for the Canal project. March 4- Work on the US Railroad resumes. August- The US Railroad reaches Denver, Colorado. October 12- An avalanche near Pocatello, Idaho kills 300 working on the US Railroad. Work is halted for the winter. November- Senator Thomas F. Bayard (Liberal Republican) is elected U.S. President, vowing to finish the US Railroad. Immigration from Europe reaches 350,000 for the year ending on December 31, 1887. President Bayard calls for restrictions, but none are imposed.

1889- March 29- Work is resumed on the US Railroad. April 24- US Railroad reaches Medford, a settlement in western Oregon. May 10- The US Transcontinental Railroad is completed as the final track is laid in Eureka, California. President Bayard telegraphs his congratulations to the workers. July 16- Anarchists set off an explosive devise in a busy New York City marketplace, killing 100 and injuring over 300. Other explosions in US cities cause Congress to declare a state of emergency. August 22- Three anarchists are captured near Buffalo, New York attempting to flee into Canada. On November 21, they are hung in a federal prison in New York City after a hasty trial. In early December, their accomplices are caught in Columbus, Ohio and in Hartford, Connecticut. December 6- Former President Jefferson Davis dies. In later years, his political enemies had forgiven him- even for wanting his "extra year" many people thought he took as president. His name and image had risen in stature and was credited with saving the Confederacy during the troubled war years. Even Confederate President G. W.C. Lee said, during his eulogy, that Davis had "stood by the Confederacy when it tottered on the brink of ruin, and returned it to greatness from ashes." U.S. President Bayard sends his condolences to the Davis family.

1890- July 16- Confederate Transcontinental Railroad "branch" lines are completed, running from the main line to Jacksonville, Little Rock, and Knoxville. August 22- Work is halted on the Nicaraguan Canal because of malaria and cholera epidemics.

1892- March 4- Former Confederate Senator and Secretary of the Navy Augustus Emmett Maxwell of Florida becomes President, and John Edwin Reagan of Texas becomes Vice President. March 22- In an attempt to attract workers for the Canal project, which had received much bad press after the epidemics of the previous summer, President Maxwell proposes the Slave Canal Worker Program, which would offer a $1000 bond to any slaveowner to each slave sent to work on the Nicaraguan Canal for a period of six months. Afterwards, the slave would be emancipated if he remained in Nicaragua or in one of the newly-acquired Mexican states. (This program was also an attempt to lessen the effects of slaves providing free factory labor, which was driving wages down for all Confederates). The program receives a warm welcome in both houses of Congress. April 2- The United States Congress sets up a Sub-Committee to investigate the purchase of land from Columbia for a canal through the isthmus of Panama. May 19- Congress approves the Slave Canal Worker Program. September 3- Work resumes on the Nicaraguan Canal. By mid June, 25,000 slaves had been acquired from their owners for the program and sent to Nicaragua, with many thousands more having been turned away until the next work season. July 14- A report from a team of doctors dispatched to Nicaragua by Congress reports that better sanitation and medical facilities have ended the epidemics caused the previous year. November- U.S. President Bayard is re-elected.

1893- February 27- In his yearly message to Congress, President Maxwell calls upon the nation to finish the Nicaraguan Canal by the end of the decade, "for the greater prosperity of the Confederate Nation, and for the benefit of her People." Several Congressmen propose a one-time, national tax to raise funds to finish the Canal. It is rejected, but a plan to sell bonds are sold through the national treasury is approved, and quickly becomes wildly successful.

1895- A glut of cotton on the world market causes a severe downturn in the price of cotton. An economic recession begins in the Confederacy when prices begin to fall in the Spring. However, U.S. factories begin to buy surplus cotton from Egypt, increasing the output of its factories significantly.

1898- March 4- John Edwin Reagan (of Texas) is inaugurated as the Confederate President. (He is the son of the first Postmaster General, John Henninger Reagan of Texas). Tennessee Senator David McKendree Key is elected Vice-President. In his inaugural speech, Reagan calls for more emphasis on the "continued industrialisation of the Confederacy, which is incumbent for our survival as a nation." Growth in the clothing industry continues to be explosive, as factories sprout up on the east coast's cities- near prominent harbors- and on the Mississippi river. March 15- As the Nicaraguan Canal nears completion, President Reagan travels to Nicaragua to visit the site. He becomes the first Confederate President to leave the Confederacy while still in office.

1899- March 19- President Reagan voices support for rebels seeking to overthrow Spanish rule in Cuba, and says that he won't oppose those seeking Confederate volunteers to assist in an invasion. May 16- Spanish gunships attack Key West, sinking three Confederate ships. May 20- President Reagan asks Congress for a declaration of war against the Spanish Empire, which occurs the next day. June 1- 20,000 volunteers arrive in Tampa, Florida and 13,000 more in New Orleans, Louisiana to prepare for an invasion of Cuba. Among these are over 1500 former slaves. June 9- A skirmish off the coast of Texas leaves three Spanish gunboats severely disabled. Three of these ships surrender, while another one sinks. July 2- In advance of an actual invasion, President Reagan orders a blockade of Cuba. July 15- Warships leave Tampa Bay and New Orleans for the invasion of Cuba. July 22-25- Battle of Santa Clara, Cuba results in a rout of Spanish forces. August 1-9- Battle of Havana. August 9- Havana falls to CSA invasion forces, including a division of former slaves, whose valiant fighting was reported with interest in Confederate papers. August 19- Native rebels take control of Santiago de Cuba, a large city in southeastern Cuba. August 20- The Republic of Cuba proclaimed in Havana. August 26- The final battle of the war occurs near Guantanomo, after which several Spanish naval vessels surrender. September 3- The treaty of Richmond signed by the Spanish ambassador, ceding Cuba to the CSA. October 1- Cuba applies for statehood, and on October 15, is admitted as the 22nd state. November 19- The first ship, the warship CSS Jefferson Davis, passes through the newly-completed Nicaraguan Canal, built in eleven years with the aid of 153,000 now-freed slaves and 20,000 other Confederates. All but 124 survived the building of the Canal, and all of the slaves who remained with the project for at least a year were given their freedom and settled in Nicaragua or in southern Mexico. At the mouth of the westernmost part of the Canal lies "Maxwell Point", named for President Augustus Maxwell. Congress proclaim the day a national holiday - "Canal Day" - which is observed throughout the Confederacy for years to come.


Yale’s First African American Graduate

Civil War, Genealogy, History, Louisiana, Racial Politics, Randall Lee Gibson, Yale

Randall Lee Gibson (above) was valedictorian of the Yale Class of 1853. He had been born a member of the planter aristocracy of Kentucky and Louisiana. He was a keen secessionist and fought for the Confederacy, serving first as an artillery captain then as colonel of the 13th Louisiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment.

Nonetheless, Randall Gibson, Class of 1853, deserves to be counted as Yale’s first African-American graduate rather than Cortlandt Van Rensselaer Creed, MD 1857, or Edward Alexander Bouchet, Class of 1874.

Randall Gibson was the descendant on one Gideon Gibson, who arrived in the Colony of South Carolina in 1730 and who was “a skilled tradesman, had a white wife and … owned land and slaves in Virginia and North Carolina.” Gideon Gibson obtained land grants from the governor of South Carolina and he and his descendants married into the white planter class on the Western frontier. By the 1790s, the Gibson family had forgotten its African origin and ascribed a family tendency toward a dark complexion to Gypsy or Portuguese descent.

Randall Gibson fought at Shiloh. His regiment saw action with the Army of Tennessee at Chicamauga. Gibson ultimately made it all the way to the rank of Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. He fought in the Atlanta Campaign and ended the war defending the city of Mobile.

After the war and Reconstruction, Gibson was elected to Congress as a democrat from 1875 to 1883 and served as senator from 1883 to until his death in 1892. He was a trustee of Tulane and a hall at Tulane University is named for him.

Reading all this moved the Atlantic’s race blogger Ta-Nehisi Coates to observe:


Kyk die video: Randall RG1003H Review (November 2021).