Geskiedenis Podcasts

Regulus I AK -14 - Geskiedenis

Regulus I AK -14 - Geskiedenis

Regulus I

(AK-14: dp. 10,550 (f.); 1, 391'9 "; b. 52'2"; dr. 24 '; s. 11,5 k .;
kpl. 48; a. 2 5 ", 4 3"; kl. Regulus)

Die eerste Regulus, gebou as Glenora in 1920 in Bethlehem Steel Co., Wilmington, Del., Is in November 1921 deur die vloot van die War Shipping Board verkry. Comdr. James Doyle in bevel.

Regulus, wat op 14 Desember 1940 volledig in gebruik geneem is, stoom via die weskus na Pearl Harbor, haar tuiste, van Februarie 1941 tot die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy was toegewys aan die 14de vlootdistrik en het voorrade na die Wake- en Midway -eilande gebring totdat die Japanse aanval op Pearl Harbor plaasgevind het. By Midway op 7 Desember 1941 keer Regulus terug op Pearl Harbor op die 14de, en vaar dan na die weskus, waarna sy tot en met Mei vrag na Hawaii vervoer het. Na die Slag van Midway vroeg in Junie, het sy hervatings na die eiland hervat en dit voortgesit tot in September 1943. Sy was toe toegewys aan ServRon 8 en het tussen die Samoaanse en Ellice-eilande opereer totdat sy in April 1944 die lading van die weskus-Hawaii hervat het.

Na die inval van die Filippyne het Regulus weer vrag weswaarts vervoer. Op 21 November kom sy by Eniwetok aan, waarvandaan sy verder gaan na Ulithi. Toe sy op 30 November aankom, verhuis sy middel Januarie 1945 na Manus en keer aan die einde van die maand terug na die Carolines. Sy bly in Ulithi tot in Mei en vaar op die 20ste na die Filippyne. Sy anker by die Leyte op die 25ste en 2 weke later begin Okinawa, waar sy vragoperasies vir die res van die oorlog en tot in die herfs van 1945 uitvoer. Op 26 November seil sy na die ooste, kom by San Francisco aan en meld aan vir inaktivering 8 Januarie 1946. Op 25 Maart uit diens geneem, is sy van die vlootlys 17 Auril verwyder, 1 Julie oorgeplaas na die Maritieme Kommissie; en verkoop op 29 September 1947 vir afval aan die Kaiser Co.


Regulus I AK -14 - Geskiedenis

Die AK 47, amptelik bekend as die Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russies: Автома́т Кала́шникова, aangesteek. 'Kalashnikov se outomatiese geweer', ook bekend as die Kalashnikov of net AK), is 'n gasgeweerde aanvalsgeweer wat in die 7,62 × 39 mm-patroon ingebou is. Dit is in die Sowjetunie ontwikkel deur die Russiese kleinwapenontwerper Mikhail Kalashnikov, en dit is die oorspronklike vuurwapen van die Kalashnikov (of "AK") geweerfamilie. Na meer as sewe dekades bly die AK-47-model en sy variante die gewildste en mees gebruikte gewere ter wêreld.

Die aantal 47 verwys na die jaar waarin die geweer klaar was. Die ontwerpwerk aan die AK-47 het in 1945 begin. Dit is in 1947 die volgende jaar vir amptelike militêre proewe aangebied, en in 1948 is die vaste-voorraad weergawe in aktiewe diens vir geselekteerde eenhede van die Sowjet-leër ingebring. Vroeg in 1949 is die AK amptelik deur die Sowjet -weermag [9] aanvaar en deur die meerderheid van die lidlande van die Warskou -verdrag gebruik.

Die model en sy variante bly die gewildste en mees gebruikte gewere ter wêreld vanweë hul betroubaarheid onder moeilike omstandighede, lae produksiekoste (in vergelyking met hedendaagse wapens), beskikbaarheid in feitlik elke geografiese streek en gemak. Die AK is in baie lande vervaardig en het diens gedoen by gewapende magte sowel as onreëlmatige magte en opstand regoor die wêreld. Vanaf 2004 [update], "[o] van die beraamde 500 miljoen vuurwapens wêreldwyd, behoort ongeveer 100 miljoen tot die Kalashnikov-familie, waarvan driekwart AK-47's is". [4] Die model is die basis vir die ontwikkeling van baie ander soorte individuele vuurwapens, wat deur bemanning bedien word en gespesialiseer word.


Die Eerste Puniese Oorlog

Dit was in die jaar 255 vC en die Eerste Puniese Oorlog was agt jaar lank aan die gang. Die soldate was besig met slagvelde wat oor Sicilië gestrek het en die waters omring die eiland. Eintlik het hinderlae en skermutselinge tot by die kus van Italië naby die hoofstad Rome gestrek.

Om die gevegte egter te beëindig, het die Romeine besluit om 'n inval in Noord -Afrika te onderneem, maar die naaste ingangspunt was Kartago.

Dit het net een keer gebeur toe die tiran koning Agathocles van Syracuse 65 jaar tevore in 310 vC probeer het om Noord-Afrika binne te val, maar is verslaan na 'n moeilike en gevaarlike opmars van twee maande. Hy het na die nederlaag in die geheim gevlug.

Die Romeine het die geskiedenis weggegooi en die staatsman, konsul en generaal Marcus Atilius Regulus gekies om die veldtog na Noord -Afrika te lei. Net soos Agathocles voor hom, het die Regulus ’ -leër 'n vernederende nederlaag gely deur die hande van die Kartagoërs wat die huurling Spartaanse generaal gehuur het, Xanthippus wat Regulus en sy leër op oop grond laat veg het, wat hom in staat gestel het om die uitwerking van die uitstekende Kartagoër te maksimeer kavalerie en oorlog olifante.

Die daaropvolgende geveg het gelei tot die dood van 12 000 Romeine, met 500 van hulle as krygsgevangenes, waaronder Regulus. Hierdie nederlaag het die kans gestop dat die Romeine Kartago in Afrika sou verslaan en die res van die oorlog op see en op Sicilië geveg het.

Maar voor hierdie ontmoeting met Xanthippus het Regulus en sy manne 'n gevaarliker vyand ontmoet, en dit is die onderwerp van hierdie artikel.


Regulus I AK -14 - Geskiedenis

USS Regulus (AK-14) op 20 Maart 1942
Klik op hierdie foto vir skakels na groter beelde van hierdie klas.

Klas: REGULUS (AK-14)
Ontwerp EFC 1046
Verplasing (ton): 3,590 lig, 10,550 vol
Afmetings (voet): 391,75 'oa, 377,0' pp x 52,0 'wl x 24,0' mn
Oorspronklike bewapening: geen geïnstalleer nie (1921)
Latere bewapening: 2-5 "/51 4-3"/50 0 & lt8-20mm (1941)
Aanvulling 110
Spoed (kt.): 11
Aandrywing (HP): 2500
Masjinerie: Vertikale drievoudige uitbreiding, 1 skroef

Konstruksie:

AK Naam Acq. Bouer Kiel Begin Kommissaris.
14 REGULUS 7 Nov 21 Bethlehem Steel, Wilm. 19 Des 14 Augustus 20 14 Desember 40

Beskikking:
AK Naam Decomm. Staak Beskikking Die noodlot MA Verkoop
14 REGULUS 25 Maart 46 17 April 46 1 Julie 46 MC/D. 10 September 47

Klasnotas:
EFC Design 1046 was 'n ontwerp waarvoor die Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Sparrows Point, Md., In 1917-1918 vier skepe vir die Britte gebou het (wat deur die VSA in Augustus 1917 aangevra is). Die Shipping Board's Emergency Fleet Corporation het nog tien skepe bestel vir hierdie ontwerp, sewe by Sparrows Point en nog drie by Bethlehem se werf in Wilmington, Del. Drie van die Sparrows Point -skepe is gekanselleer en die Wilmington -skepe is eers middel tot laat 1920 voltooi. In November 1921 verkry die vloot twee van die Wilmington-skepe as ARCTURUS en REGULUS (AK-12 en AK-14). ARCTURUS het gou goue ster geword (AG-12, q.v.).

Teen 1920 het die vloot besef dat baie van sy hulpvaartuie voor die oorlog die einde van hul lewensduur bereik het, dat die kongres geen krediete vir vervangings sou voorsien nie, en dat die skeepsraad 'n groot aantal oorskotvaartuie gehad het uit sy bouprogram in oorlogstyd. die vloot se behoeftes sou vervul. In 1920 het die vloot se prokureurs bepaal dat skepe deur die presidensiële bevel van die skeepsraad verkry kon word, en teen 17 Oktober 21 het die onderhandelinge tussen die vloot en die skeepsraad die stadium bereik waarop 27 spesifieke rompe (12 tenkwaens, 3 koelskepe, 11 vragskepe en een passasiers- en vragskip) is gekies, almal behalwe die tenkwaens om 'n gelyke aantal verslete vloothulpe te vervang. Op 29 Okt. 21 het uitvoerende bevel nr. 3570 die oordrag goedgekeur. SecNav het op 2 November 21 nuwe vlootname aan 17 van die skepe toegeken, waaronder twee EFC Design 1046 vragmotors, GOLD STAR en GLENORA, wat ARCTURUS geword het (AK-12, wat binnekort GOLD STAR hernoem en AG-12 herklassifiseer is) en REGULUS (AK-14 ). Albei skepe was onbedrywig en onmiddellik beskikbaar op Hog Island, Pa.

Op 2 November 21 beveel CNO die kommandant, 4de vlootdistrik, om ARCTURUS en REGULUS in kommissie by die Philadelphia Navy Yard te plaas as reliëf vir onderskeidelik CAESAR (AC-16) en QUINCY (AK-10). CAESAR en QUINCY moes, na hul aankoms aan die Atlantiese kus, die personeel en materiaal wat nodig was om hierdie twee skepe in diens te neem, na die ARCTURUS en REGULUS in Philadelphia oordra. Teen 8 Desember was die opdragte vir verligting verander en ARCTURUS sou nou SATURN (AG-4) verlig. Die verwagte voltooiingsdatums vir ARCTURUS en REGULUS was nou onderskeidelik 1 Maart 22 en 1 Mei 22. Op 22 Desember 21 het CNO opgemerk dat QUINCY vanweë die opeenhoping van vragte aan die Stille Oseaan -kus noodsaaklik geword het om 'n reis na Pearl Harbor te maak en dat dit QUINCY se aankoms aan die Atlantiese kus ongeveer 2 weke kan vertraag. QUINCY het Hawaii in Januarie –, Februarie 1922, besoek en eers op 11 April na Philadelphia teruggekeer. Teen 6 Januarie 22 was REGULUS opgedra aan die Naval Transportation Service om vrag van Atlantiese hawens na hawens in die Stille Oseaan te vervoer, maar sy sou na verwagting op 1 Mei 22 gereed wees. QUINCY sou vervang word deur SIRIUS (AK-15) wat opdrag was om na 1 April 22 na Philadelphia te gaan. Haar gemagtigde battery gedurende hierdie tydperk was 2-5 "/51 en 4-3"/50 AA-gewere; dit is uiteindelik in Januarie 1941 geïnstalleer, 'n maand nadat die skip in volle diens was.

As 'n aktiewe vloot -eenheid het REGULUS van Februarie tot Desember 1941 voorrade na die Wake- en Midway -eilande vervoer en was dan hoofsaaklik besig om Hawaii vanaf die Weskus tot laat 1944 te voorsien, onderbreek deur operasies in die Samoa- en Ellice -eilande aan die einde van 1943 en vroeg in 1944. REGULUS kom in November 1944 by Eniwetok en Ulithi aan, en in Mei 1945 vaar sy eers na die Filippyne en daarna na Okinawa waar sy vragoperasies tot in die herfs van 1945 uitgevoer het.


Regulus I AK -14 - Geskiedenis

Regulus America se eerste seegedrewe kernskerm

Namate die Koue Oorlog in die dekade na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog toegeneem het, en veral met die sukses van die Sowjetunie om die Verenigde State by die ontwikkeling van atoomwapens te pas, het kernafskrikking 'n belangrike element van globale diplomasie geword. Teen die vroeë vyftigerjare het albei supermoondhede groot bemande bomwerpermagte ontplooi wat in staat was om mekaar se tuislande te bereik deur middel van voorwaartse basis of met lugvulling, en daarbenewens het die Verenigde State atomiese wapens op vliegdekskepe begin ontplooi. deur Edward C. Whitman

Die kern-aangedrewe geleide missiel duikboot USS Heilbot (SSGN-587) stuur 'n Regulus I-missiel hemelwaarts. Die slanke, turbojet-aangedrewe raket het 'n kernkop gepak en was sedert 1955 in die vloot werksaam. Op die agtergrond is die vliegdekskip USS Lexington (CV-16).

Beide kante was ook vinnig besig om voordeel te trek uit die gevange Duitse V-1- en V-2-tegnologie uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog om te begin met die ontwikkeling van beide geleide en ballistiese missiele vir taktiese en strategiese gebruik, terwyl die Amerikaanse leër aanvanklik die voortou geneem het in die Verenigde State . Om nie klaar te wees nie, het die Amerikaanse vloot twee vlootbote van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, USS, omskep Carbonero (SS-337) en USS Cusk (SS-348) om 'n Amerikaanse variant van die Duitse V-1-polsstraal-missiel, bekend as die Loon, te dra, wat in Februarie 1947 vir die eerste keer op see gelanseer is. Die nominale reikafstand van Loon was onder kommando-leiding ongeveer 50 seemyl, maar 'n tweede duikboot as aflos, kan dit effektief wees tot 135 seemyl, met 'n gerapporteerde Circular Error Probable (CEP) van 6,000 yards.

Teen hierdie tyd het die vloot ook ontwikkelingskontrakte vir nog twee ambisieuse bombardementrakette, die supersoniese Grumman Rigel (SSM-N-6) en die subsoniese Chance-Vought Regulus (SSM-N-8), elk bedoel om 3000 pond slagkop vir 500 seemyl. Alhoewel Rigel in 1953 langs die kantlyn geval het, is Regulus suksesvol ontwikkel tot Amerika se eerste seevaarkern, en is dit eers op die swaarvaartuig USS ontplooi. Los Angeles (CA-135) in 1955. Uiteindelik is vyf duikbote toegerus om ook Regulus te vervoer en te lanseer, en dit het die belangrikste afskrikmiddel geword.

Die Regulus I -raket self was in wese 'n klein turbo -vliegtuig, 42 voet lank, met 'n vlerkspan van 21 voet. Die bruto lanseringsgewig was net minder as sewe ton, insluitend 'n ton brandstof, en sy Allison J33-A-14-enjin kan die missiel tot Mach 0.91 (ongeveer 550 knope) dryf. Regulus is gelanseer vanaf 'n skuins oprit, 'later opgelei', en dit het twee Jeton Assisted Take-Off (JATO) eenhede van 3300 pond nodig gehad om vinnig te werk. Die wapen is op kommando gelei, aanvanklik na die radarhorison deur die stuurkommando's op die lanseringsplatform se volgradar-golfvorm te plaas, en dan deur 'n aflos-duikboot nader aan die teiken te gebruik om die missiel op te spoor en na die finale doelpunt te stuur. 'N Kernvliegtuigkop van 40-50 kiloton of 'n termonucleaire toestel van 1-2 megaton kan gedra word.

USS Tonnig (SSG-282) was die eerste duikboot wat Regulus vervoer het. Oorspronklik 'n vloot duikboot van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van die Gato klas, Tonnig is in Junie 1942 van stapel gestuur, nege oorlogspatrollies voltooi en nege gevegsterre in die Stille Oseaan -oorlog verdien. Sy is in Desember 1945 uit diens geneem, en is kortliks weer in diens geneem vir die Koreaanse Oorlog, weer uit diens gestel, maar word vroeg in 1953 uitgebring vir omskakeling na 'n geleide missiel -duikboot (SSG). Dit het bestaan ​​uit die montering van 'n groot, silindervormige hangar onder druk, ongeveer 15 voet in deursnee, net voor die seil, met 'n opklapbare oprit wat na agter strek. Die hangar kon twee Regulus I -missiele in 'n roterende ringopstelling huisves. Die wapens kon uitgekyk word terwyl die duikboot nog onder water was deur die hangar deur 'n toegangskofferbak te betree, maar die werklike lanseer het vereis dat die duikboot die wapen op die spoor moes kry en met die hand kan hanteer voordat dit afgevuur kon word. Die boot sou dan ten minste op die periskopdiepte moes bly om die missiel na die radarhorison te lei.

Tonnis die omskakeling het vinnig volgens die huidige standaarde beweeg, en sy het haar eerste Regulus in Julie 1953 op see afgevuur. Vir die volgende paar jaar, Tonnig bedryf uit Point Mugu, Kalifornië, hoofsaaklik as 'n Regulus -toetsplatform. In Oktober 1955 het USS Barbero, oorspronklik SS-317 en ook 'n vlootboot uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, is in gebruik geneem as die tweede SSG van die vloot, nadat dit uit motbolle gehaal is en deur die Mare Island Naval Shipyard 'n silindriese hangar, identies aan Tunny's, voorsien is. Na werk aan die kus van Kalifornië, Barbero het die Panamakanaal in April 1956 oorgesteek en by die Atlantiese Vloot aangesluit.

Teen hierdie tyd was Regulus ook op see op vier swaar kruisers: Benewens Los Angeles, reeds genoem, Helena (CA-75), Toledo (CA-133), en Macon (CA-132) was almal toegerus met fantail-lanseringsrails en het gereelde operasionele ontplooiings begin, die eerste drie in die Stille Oseaan, en Macon in die Atlantiese Oseaan. Selfs tien vliegdekskepe was toegerus om die missiel te lanseer, afhangende van 'n begeleide vliegtuig om middel-kursus leiding te gee, maar hoewel ten minste een ontplooiing in die Stille Oseaan plaasgevind het, was die gevolglike mengsel aan boord van missiele en bemande vliegtuie nooit gewild onder die lugvaartgemeenskap nie.

Vroeë pogings. Die Verenigde State en die Sowjetunie het albei vinnig gebruik gemaak van die gevange Duitse V-1- en V-2-tegnologie uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog om hul eie begeleide en ballistiese missiele te begin ontwikkel. Duitse suksesse met die afstuur van langafstand-missiele en toenemende kommer oor die groei van die Sowjet-mag na die oorlog het tot die einde van die veertigerjare gelei tot eksperimente met die aflaai van strategiese missiele uit duikbote. Bo, USS Carbonero (SS-337) lanseer 'n Loon-die Amerikaanse ramjet-missiel wat volgens die Duitse V-1 gevorm is. SSG -omskakeling. USS Tonnig (SSG-282) was die eerste duikboot wat die Regulus I-missiel gedra het. Oorspronklik 'n vloot duikboot uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat in 1942 gelanseer is en reeds twee keer buite werking gestel is Tonnig is vroeg in 1953 omskep in 'n geleide missiel duikboot. Tonnig is weggesteek in 'n golwende rookspoor terwyl 'n Regulus I -missiel hemelwaarts skiet. Regulus II. Byna twee keer so groot as Regulus I, kon die tweede generasie Regulus II 1 200 seemyl bereik by Mach 2. Teen einde 1955 het die Vloot langafstandplanne gehad om tot 23 Regulus II-duikbote te lanseer, maar alhoewel Regulus II was suksesvol in die finale toetsing, maar die druk op die begroting het weerhou daarvan dat dit ooit ontplooi kan word.
1940's (laat) 1953 1955

In die middel van 1956 het dit 'n vlootbeleid geword om een ​​SSG in elke oseaan te hou, en Tonnig het haar bedryfsbasis in 1957 na Pearl Harbor verskuif. Intussen het die vloot twee groot diesel-elektriese duikbote neergelê, spesifiek om Regulus te vervoer, en USS gelanseer. Greyback (SSG-574) in Maart 1958 en USS Groeier (SSG-577) in Augustus van dieselfde jaar. Elk van hierdie twee naby-suster skepe wat ongeveer 3.600 ton onder die water verplaas het, kon altesaam vier Regulus I-missiele in 'n paar silindriese hangars in die groot bolvormige boog huisves. Hierdie hangars het agterdeur oopgemaak deur 'n stel deure waarmee die wapens op 'n opleibare oprit na 'n put voor die seil beweeg kan word. Die oprit is omwaarts gedraai om te begin.

Nadat die Sowjetunie en daarna die Verenigde State hul eerste interkontinentale ballistiese missiele (ICBM's) in 1957 suksesvol getoets het, het die kernwapenwedloop in 'n gevaarliker fase oorgegaan. Aan die einde van 1958, met vier SSG's en vier Regulus -kruisers in opdrag, het die vloot gereageer deur al die duikbote en drie van die kruisers na die Stille Oseaan te skuif om gereeld afskrikpatrollies te handhaaf wat die Sowjet -Verre Ooste bedreig. In die besonder is Submarine Squadron ONE gevorm uit die vier SSG's by Pearl Harbor en het 'n gereedheidshouding aangeneem wat ten minste ten minste vier missiele op die stasie in die Westelike Stille Oseaan geplaas het, om bestaande vliegtuie wat op kernskip gebaseer is, aan te vul, gewapen met kernwapens. (Dit het vereis dat die twee bekeerde vlootbote saam of een van die twee ingespan is Greybacks.) Tonnig vertrek met die eerste van hierdie gereeld geskeduleerde afskrikpatrollies in Oktober 1959, terwyl Grayback's en Growler se Die eerste patrollies het vroeg in 1960 begin.

Op bestelling gemaak. Teen die middel van 1958 het USS Greyback (SSG-574) en USS Groeier (SSG-577) is in gebruik geneem as die eerste diesel-elektriese duikbote wat spesifiek ontwerp is om Regulus-missiele te vervoer. Op daardie stadium het die vloot vier SSG's en vier missieldraende kruisers op see gehad. Bo, Growler se groot booghangers, waar sy vier Regulus I -missiele kon dra, word duidelik as die skip se belangrikste kenmerk beskou. Kernkrag. USS Heilbot was die eerste duikboot wat met kernkrag aangedryf is, spesifiek ontwerp om missiele te vervoer en af ​​te skiet. In Januarie 1960 kan sy vier Regulus II- of vyf Regulus I -missiele in haar hangar dra, wat ook as 'n voorwaartse torpedokamer gedien het.
1958 1960
Laaste jare. Die koms van kompakte kernkopkoppe en groot vuurpylmotors in die laat 1950's het vinnig 'n einde aan die Regulus-era gemaak. Gekombineer met die nuwe George Washington (SSBN-598) duikboot-klas, die Polaris-missiel het alle nadele van die Regulus-stelsel uitgeskakel.

'N Paar jaar tevore het die vloot egter reeds vir Chance Vought beveel om 'n tweede-generasie, supersoniese Regulus II-raket te begin ontwikkel, wat by Mach 2.200 byna 2.200 myl kon bereik. groter duikboot om dit te dra. Verskeie alternatiewe platformontwerpe is bestudeer, waaronder een wat vier Regulus II of agt Regulus I -missiele in 'n groot hangar vorentoe kan vervoer. Uiteindelik is befondsing vir die bou van 'n nuwe SSG ingesluit in die begroting van 1956. Teen die einde van 1955 het Navy langafstandbeplanners ook verwag dat daar uiteindelik 23 Regulus II-duikbote benodig sou word. Vroeër dieselfde jaar het die kernprogram van die Vloot egter met USS tot stand gekom Nautilus (SSN-571) 'Onderweg oor kernkrag' Heilbot (SSGN-587) in Januarie 1960.

Heilbot'N Lengte van 350 voet en 'n verplasing van byna 4900 ton onder water, was toegerus met die destydse standaard -duikbootaanleg, met twee skroewe. Haar enorme enkele missielhangar is diep in die buitenste romp vorentoe gesit, en skuins opwaarts en agtertoe om die dek binne te dring, waar 'n groot, vertikaal oopgemaakte deur toegang bied tot 'n draaitafel-lanseerder voor die seil. Die hangarruimte kan vier Regulus II of vyf Regulus I -missiele bevat en kan ook as 'n vorentoe -torpedokamer dien. Hierdie groot enkeldeur-hangar, wat moontlik tydens die aanvangsontwikkeling na die see oopgemaak kan word, was 'n ernstige kwesbaarheid. As dit oorstroom, kan die skip maklik sink.

Heilbot tree in November 1960 in diens by die Stille Oseaan -vloot en maak haar eerste formele patrollie vroeg in die volgende jaar, en sluit by die vier SSG's aan by die rotasie wat nodig is om vier strategiese missiele voortdurend op die stasie te hou. Teen daardie tyd is die swaar kruisers aan die Regulus -sending onttrek Los Angeles die laaste wat in 1961 gegaan het, en die duikbote alleen gelaat het. Iets ironies, alhoewel Regulus II suksesvol was in die finale toetsing, het begrotingsdruk enige daaropvolgende verkryging verhoed en is dit nooit ontplooi nie. Die subsoniese Regulus I het dus vir die hele era van hierdie eerste afskermpatrollies wat deur die see gedryf word, die wapen van keuse gebly.

Die sinergie van twee nuwe militêre tegnologieë-kompakte kernkopkoppe en groot vuurpylmotors-het 'n vinnige einde aan die Regulus-era gemaak. Saam het hulle die ontwerp van relatief klein vaste brandstofmissiele moontlik gemaak wat kernkopkoppe oor interkontinentale afstande kon vervoer en sodoende die moontlikheid van die onder-gestelde ballistiese missiel (SLBM) vasgestel. Gevolglik is die kantoor van die vloot se spesiale projekte in November 1955 gestig en onder RADM William F. Raborn het hy vinnig beweeg om die Polaris SLBM en 'n klas kern-aangedrewe ballistiese missiel-duikbote te ontwikkel om dit te vervoer. Slegs vyf jaar later, net soos Heilbot het in November 1960 by die Pacific Fleet aangesluit, die eerste van die nuwe klas, USS George Washington (SSBN-598), vertrek op haar eerste Polaris-patrollie in die Atlantiese Oseaan.

In een slag het die SSBN/Polaris -kombinasie al die nadele van die Regulus -stelsel uitgeskakel: oppervlakbekendstelling, vloeibare brandstof, afhanklikheid van aktiewe opsporing en begeleiding, beperkte omvang, klein hangar -kapasiteit en 'n magdom ander nadele. Met 'n ondergedompelde bekendstelling, feitlik onbeperkte uithouvermoë en byna onkwetsbaarheid, het die nuwe strategiese afskrikmiddel Regulus en die SSG/SSGN vinnig verdring. Dit was egter eers in Desember 1964 dat USS Daniel Boone (SSBN-629) het die eerste Polaris-patrollie in die Stille Oseaan uitgevoer en die maand Guam vertrek. So word die afskrikking van Regulus in die westelike Stille Oseaan gehandhaaf tot in Mei 1964 toe Heilbot het die laaste patrollie van die reeks uitgevoer. Teen daardie tyd het die vyf Regulus -bote sedert Oktober 1959 altesaam 40 WESTPAC -afskrikpatrollies uitgevoer. Twee geslagte SSBN's het gevolg.

Die duikbote. Waar is hulle nou? Van die twee voormalige vlootbote, Barbero was die eerste wat in Junie 1964 uit die vlootlys verwyder is en van die vlootlys verwyder is. Tonnig het in Mei 1965 teruggekeer na SS-282, maar haar groot Regulus-hangar het haar in Oktober 1966 na 'n troepeduikboot, nuut aangewese APSS-282, moontlik gemaak. In hierdie rol gedurende 1967 het sy aan 'n aantal spesiale operasies deelgeneem aan die kus van Viëtnam. Daarna, Tonnig is in Junie 1969 vir die laaste keer uit diens geneem en net 'n jaar later as 'n teiken gesink.

Net soos haar Regulus -installasie verwyder is, Greyback het van Mei 1969 tot middel 1980 as amfibiese vervoer (LPSS-574) gedien. Die skip is later in Januarie 1984 uit die vlootlys gehaal en as 'n missielteiken in 1986 gesink. Heilbot is omstreeks 1965 omgeskakel na 'n toetsplatform en is skynbaar gebruik in die ontwikkeling van die Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV), maar eintlik vir meer hoogs geklassifiseerde projekte tot sy in Junie 1976 ontmantel is.

Die gelukkigste lot was voorbehou Groeier, wat uit diens gestel is en in Mei 1964 in die reservaat geplaas is. Growler word in Augustus 1980 uit die vlootlys gehaal en word nou in feitlik oorspronklike toestand bewaar as deel van die USS Onversetlik Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York, saam met 'n voorbeeld van die Regulus I-missiel. David K. Stumpf Regulus - die vergete wapen (Turner Publishing, 1996) bied 'n gesaghebbende en gedetailleerde weergawe van die hele Regulus -program en die gepaardgaande platforms.
Dr Whitman is die Senior Redakteur van Undersea Warfare Magazine.


Bekende Kin

Bill Nye kan Walt Disney as een van sy neefs beskou, wat net gepas lyk Die Walt Disney Company was een van sy programme vervaardigers. Bill Nye se bekende familielede sluit ook mede -TV -persoonlikhede Johnny Carson, gasheer van die Vanaand Show, en Lucille Ball, ster van Ek is lief vir Lucy. Ander bekende familielede sluit in die rolprentaktrise Raquel Welch, die sangeres en liedjieskrywer Taylor Swift, die voorbladmodel van Sports Illustrated -baadjie Kate Upton en die filmakteur Matt Damon.

Aangesien Bill Nye verskeie boeke geskryf het, is dit interessant om te sien dat hy 'n aantal literêre ikone onder sy familie het, waaronder die digters Ralph Waldo Emerson en Emily Dickinson, en die skrywers Edgar Rice Burroughs en Nathaniel Hawthorne.


Die geskiedenis en toekoms van siklin-afhanklike kinases in kankerterapie

Kanker verteenwoordig 'n patologiese manifestasie van onbeheerde seldeling, daarom word lankal verwag dat ons begrip van die basiese beginsels van die siklusbeheer effektiewe kankerterapieë tot gevolg sou hê. In die besonder sou siklienafhanklike kinases (CDK's) wat oorgang deur die selsiklus bevorder, die belangrikste terapeutiese doelwitte wees omdat baie tumorigeniese gebeurtenisse uiteindelik proliferasie veroorsaak deur CDK4- of CDK6-komplekse in die G1-fase van die selsiklus te beïnvloed. Versteurings in chromosomale stabiliteit en aspekte van S -fase en G2/M -beheer wat deur CDK2 en CDK1 bemiddel word, is ook belangrike tumorige gebeurtenisse. Die vertaling van hierdie kennis in suksesvolle kliniese ontwikkeling van CDK -remmers was histories 'n uitdaging, en talle CDK -remmers het teleurstellende resultate in kliniese toetse getoon. Hier kyk ons ​​na die biologie van CDK's, die rede vir die terapeutiese doelwit van diskrete kinase -komplekse en historiese kliniese resultate van CDK -remmers. Ons bespreek ook hoe CDK -remmers met hoë selektiwiteit (veral vir beide CDK4 en CDK6), in kombinasie met stratifikasie van pasiënte, tot meer aansienlike kliniese aktiwiteit gelei het.

Syfers

Figuur 1. Vordering van die selsiklus ...

Figuur 1. Vordering van die selsiklus wat deur CDK's aangedryf word

Mitogene seine stimuleer sikline-afhanklike kinase ...

Figuur 2. G1 – S regulerende modules en relevansie ...

Figuur 2. G1 – S regulerende modules en relevansie vir kanker

Beheer oor die G1 – S -oorgang is ...

Figuur 3. Opsomming van die biologiese funksies ...

Figuur 3. Opsomming van die biologiese funksies van CDK -komplekse

'N Opsomming van die verskillende ...

Figuur 4. Deregulering van CDK regulerende gene ...

Figuur 4. Deregulering van CDK regulerende gene by kanker

Die frekwensies van genetiese amplifikasie van ...

Figuur 5. Geselekteerde CDK -remmers

Figuur 5. Geselekteerde CDK -remmers

Die chemiese strukture van verskeie pansiklienafhanklike kinase (CDK) en CDK4- ...


'N Onverklaarbare verskynsel van die see

My vaartuig het deur die Straat van Hormuz gegaan, op pad na Indië. Little Quoin Is. Lig was nog steeds sigbaar op die stuurboordkwartier, met 305 ° T, afstand 20 myl. Die nag was helder en helder, met baie goeie sigbaarheid, geen maan nie. Die Derde Stuurman het my na die brug geroep en gesê dat hy iets waargeneem het wat hy dink ek moet sien.

Ongeveer vier punte op die hawe boog, in die rigting van die kus van Iran, was daar 'n ligte band wat skynbaar pols. Sy voorkoms suggereer die aurora borealis, maar eintlik baie laer op of onder die horison. Onderzoek met 'n verkyker het getoon dat die ligoppervlak beslis onder die horison, in die water, was en nader aan die vaartuig kom. Met die benadering van hierdie verskynsel het dit duidelik geword dat dit lyk asof die pulsasies in die middel van die band begin en uitwaarts na die ledemate vloei.


Inhoud

Met die eerste oogopslag sou enigiemand Regulus as 'n volkome onmerkbare persoon beskou. Sy gesig het geen noemenswaardige kenmerke nie en hy het goue oë wat gewoonlik troebel en sonder belangstelling was, maar het begin skitter toe hy passievol besig was met sy lang monoloë. Sy beskeie aantreklike gesig was nie besonder aantreklik of onaantreklik nie, en sy lengte en bouvorm was altwee gemiddeld. Soos 'n mens sou verwag, het sy hare ook nie opvallend gestaan ​​nie, want dit was nie kort of lank nie, maar sonder 'n duidelike styl, maar dit was natuurlik wit ondanks sy jeugdige voorkoms en#912 ]. Die wit vel van Regulus, sonder 'n bruin voorkoms, tesame met sy wit hare en hoofsaaklik wit klere, het hom laat lyk asof hy die toonbeeld van die kleur wit was. Trouens, die volledige kleurloosheid wat Regulus se fisiese voorkoms toon, het hom die indruk gegee van 'n sieklike persoon, waarvan alle kleur weg was. In totaal, in teenstelling met sy persoonlikheid en optrede, het Regulus Corneas gelyk na 'n heeltemal gewone man wat ondanks sy gebrek aan kleur maklik in 'n skare kon smelt.

Regulus se kleredrag, net soos sy gelaatstrekke en liggaamsvorm, was nie uitspattig of armoedig nie, maar gee eerder 'n indruk van gemiddeldheid. Sy primêre kledingstuk was 'n spierwit oorkleed in griekestyl wat tot by sy enkels gestrek het en 'n goue randmanchet gehad het, 'n stel van vyf goue knoppies wat langs die bolyf van sy middelkant afloop, wat gewoonlik verseker het dat die jas bo-toe gesluit is die heuplyn en rande met 'n goue lig. Die binnekant van die jas was swart en het vertikale goue strepe oor die hele jas. Die opvallendste deel van sy jas was die weelderige goue en swart kraag met 'n hoë nek, waarop die simbool vir die oneindigheid aangebring was, wat moontlik die aard van Regulus se gesag weerspieël. Onder sy jas het hy 'n langmou diepblou-gekleurde hemp, 'n wit sneeuwit broek en 'n paar wit skoene, waarvan die laasgenoemde dieselfde kleur as sy hare en oorjas was. Gewoonlik kan slegs die boeie van die hemp gesien word as die lang jas van Regulus wat dit amper heeltemal sou verdoesel. Regulus het 'n enkele diepblou traanvormige oorbel met dieselfde kleur as sy hemp en hang aan sy regteroorlob danksy 'n dun goue ketting wat dit vasgemaak het.

Tydens sy troue met Emilia in Arc 5, het Regulus in 'n meer formele troupak verskyn. Hy het 'n wit smoking met 'n lang rug gedra wat amper tot by sy hakke gekom het, 'n blou -en -wit gestreepte hemp met 'n swart en goud gestreepte lint, wit handskoene en wit skoene. Die kleurpallet van die smoking was dieselfde as sy normale pak.


Geskiedenis van die USS Growler

Die enigste missiel -duikboot ter wêreld wat in die openbaar vertoon word!

Die USS Growler is die enigste oorlewende Regulus -duikboot. Dit is jaarliks ​​by die Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York geleë, en huisves jaarliks ​​honderde duisende besoekers en leer die publiek oor duikbote en die Koue Oorlog.

In 1996 historian David K. Stumpf, Ph.D. published the book Regulus: The Forgotten Weapon. As a direct result of his research, Regulus veterans received long overdue recognition. While the book is currently out of print, used copies can sometimes be obtained through Amazon.com. (Update: As of October 2005, the publisher indicates the book may be re-printed soon. Check back for more information.)

Thanks to Dr. David Stumpf, we are proud to present the history of the USS Growler as it appears in his book.

Power from the Depths: The Career of the USS Growler

Excerpted from Regulus: The Forgotten Weapon by Dr. David Stumpf. Published by Turner Press 1996

Contents Copyright 1996 Turner Publishing and Dr. David Stumpf

The USS Growler, like USS Grayback (SSG 574), was an improved 563 Class submarine. Built at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine, Growler had a similar outward appearance to Grayback but was quite different in her internal layout aft of the missile guidance center the layout was nearly identical to the smaller USS Darter (SS-576). Growler was launched on 5 April 1958 at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine and commissioned on 30 August 1958 with Lieutenant Commander Charles Priest, Jr., assuming command.

Growler began her sea trials on 4 November 1958 in the traditional submarine test area off the Isle of Shoals. A successful first day was spent on the surface conducting full power runs, testing various ship systems and cycling all masts. At dawn on 5 November 1958, the Growler crew prepared to conduct the first test depth dive. After submerging to periscope depth, she then proceeded deeper, leveling off at 50 foot increments as the crew checked all systems and hull fittings subject to sea pressure. As Growler passed the fleet-type submarine test depth of 475 feet, the majority of her crew were in new territory, never having been this deep before. Everything was fine until Growler reached 75 feet short of her test depth.

Radioman Leonard Powers was in the Radio Shack directly across the passage way from the Sonar Room. Powers remembers hearing a loud pop and looking across the passage way towards the source of the sound only to find a stream of water roaring down from an empty one-half inch cable fitting in the overhead of the Sonar Room. Captain Priest immediately ordered “Emergency Surface” while everyone nearby grabbed buckets and began collecting the water, passing it along to the galley for disposal. Most of the water was flowing into bilges or staying within the four- inch deck coaming that surrounded the Sonar Room. Unlike most of the crew’s experience on the fleet-type submarines, where the compressed air rushed into the ballast tanks during an emergency surface evolution, at this much greater depth the air seemed to barely hiss. Lieutenant(jg) Robert Duke, the Communications Officer, was monitoring the depth gauge in the Chief Petty Officer’s quarters and recalls the strange sensation of Growler slowly rising to the surface with a slight down angle due to the flooding. Growler surfaced with only superficial damage. The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Planning Superintendent, Lieutenant Commander Hank Hoffman, went topside and determined that an unused cable fitting opening had been plugged with a temporary blank for dockside tests which had not been replaced prior to sea trials. With all the time lost and additional costs if they returned to port, Hoffman suggested to Captain Priest, Jr. that a solution was readily available on board. The cable hole was slightly smaller than the diameter of a nickel and with two nickels sandwiching a rubber gasket, Hoffman was able to securely plug the hole. A compartment air pressure test indicated no leakage present and the trials resumed with torpedo firing and other ship’s system tests. The temporary plug was removed in the shipyard, mounted on a plaque with the label “The Cheapest Repair in Shipyard History,” and was the start of the ship’s commemorative plaque collection.

On 15 November 1958 Growler conducted her first missile operation test when she launched a 56 foot long, 13 ton dummy mass sled balanced to simulate a Regulus II missile. Much to the chagrin of shipyard officials, the first three attempts failed due to electrical problems. On the fourth try, the sled was successfully launched, splashing into the ocean 2,000 yards away as planned.

With acceptance trials completed, Growler headed south for her shakedown cruise. After successful completion of torpedo firing trials, Growler headed for Naval Air Station Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico and the start of her Regulus I launch operations. Growler’s first missile launch took place 24 March 1959. Since the BPQ-2 Trounce guidance equipment was not yet installed, USS Runner (SS 476), a Regulus guidance submarine, took control immediately after launch and guided the missile during the 30 minute flight. The next flight was a two-boat Trounce guidance operation in combination with USS Argonaut (SS 473) and Runner and was again successful.

Growler completed another three launches, all successful, over the next two weeks. Missile operations were then brought to an abrupt halt by a failure in the launcher elevation mechanism. The Short Rail Mark 7 (SR MK 7) launcher was overly complicated due to automatic sequencing and safety controls. Elevation was controlled by limit switches that were positioned to prevent the elevation screws from over extension. These switches failed and the launch rails were forced off the screws, stripping the top of the threads in the process. Repair was seemingly impossible since the boat did not have the necessary tools to re-cut the stripped threads. Captain Priest remembers that, without being asked, off-duty crew members would come topside to take turns trying to repair the threads by filing them back into shape with hand files. He realized his efforts to bring to the crew the team spirit so necessary to successful operation of a submarine had been successful.

Growler returned to Portsmouth for post-shakedown availability. The launcher was modified to prevent the recurrence of the limit switch failure. The BPQ-2 Trounce guidance radar and electronic equipment installation was also completed. During this time period Growler received orders to her new home port, Pearl Harbor. One guidance submarine, USS Medregal (SS 480) and the other East Coast Regulus I launch boat, USS Barbero (SSG 317), were also moving to Pearl Harbor as all Regulus I operations were being consolidated in the Pacific. Growler departed Norfolk 27 July 1959. After several days in Key West, Florida, where she put on several missile ram-out demonstrations, Growler left 14 August 1959 for transit to Pearl Harbor via the Panama Canal.

During the long and slow transit the crew and had one memorable swim call. On 26 August 1959, Captain Priest and the Executive Officer, Lieutenant Commander John C. “Pete” Burkhardt decided it would be appropriate to make a movie, from the surface, of Growler at periscope depth, snorkeling and then surfacing, ramming out a missile and running the missile engine up to full power. A life raft was inflated and a volunteer crew consisting of Lieutenant(jg) Robert Duke, Lieutenant(jg) William Lindeman, Torpedoman First Class John Haney and Commissary Steward Oscar Weigant, paddled 50 yards off to start filming. While submerged and circling the raft, Priest recalls observing the raft and seeing everyone waving quite energetically. He took this to mean that the filming was working out well. When they surfaced and recovered the raft, Priest learned the rest of the story. Duke recalls:

“It was very, very quiet and actually pretty lonely in the raft, even with three fellow volunteers. After successfully filming Growler as she submerged, we were preoccupied with trying to ward off shark attacks. While we were watching for the periscope, I felt a heavy rippling along the bottom of the raft. After the second time, I asked Lindeman, Haney and Weigant if they felt it. They had and as we talked I looked over the side of the raft and saw a six-foot shark pass under the raft, turning to try to take a bite out of the raft’s underside. I calmly asked for the shark repellent and received a reply: ‘There is no shark repellent, Sir.’ I then asked for the flare gun and received the word: ‘There is no flare gun, Sir.’ We were completely ill-equipped and were about to face the consequences. I took an oar, ready to hit the shark the next time it made a pass. Meanwhile, Weigant was standing up, waving a shirt at the periscope he had just spotted. I felt sure we were all about to be dumped into the water. After I got Weigant to sit down and, with Haney paddling like mad towards the periscope, the shark made another pass and this time I managed to give it a good rap on the nose. Much to my amazement, the shark disappeared for the next five minutes.

Meanwhile, Growler surfaced 100 yards off the raft and prepared to ram out the missile. The movie camera was on the floor of the raft, bouncing around in the salt water, useless. The shark returned but this time he had a friend which was quite a bit larger. The newcomer never made a run on the raft but the smaller one continued to worry us. As Growler approached to recover us, the sharks, of course, disappeared and everyone on board remained skeptical of our story.”

Growler arrived at Pearl Harbor 7 September 1959 and was assigned to Submarine Squadron ONE. Missile operations resumed on 2 October 1959 with the first Trounce guidance flight for the Growler guidance team. The operation was successful and the missile recovered at Bonham Auxiliary Landing Field on the Island of Kauai. Growler’s first tactical missile operations took place in late October with two highly successful and accurate terminal dives to impact. Her first unsuccessful launch occurred 8 December 1959 when the missile did not program over to cruise settings and splashed astern. Over the next three months she launched an additional three missiles, including two tactical missiles for warhead development testing. Prior to her first deterrent strike patrol, in nine launch operations Growler had lost one missile at launch and none while in flight.

Regulus Deterrent Patrols 1960-1964

Growler’s first deterrent patrol began on 12 March 1960. A major problem during transit to her assigned patrol station was the gradual loss of both aluminum sheet metal fairings around the missile hangar doors. Started by corrosion due to electrolysis between the aluminum and steel and exacerbated by the heavy seas encountered in the miserable North Pacific winter weather, the aluminum fairings disintegrated and were lost overboard. During this first mission, Lieutenant John J. “Joe” Ekelund, Executive Officer and Navigator, developed an innovative method to determine the submarine’s position in the assigned operating area. The technique was quite simple and similar to that used by submarines to determine the range of a target ship. Using navigation charts, Ekelund identified mountain peaks and their height as listed. He then observed the mountain through the periscope and, utilizing the built-in periscope stadimeter, he could superimpose the image of the base of the mountain on its peak. This double image and known peak height provided a good approximate range to the mountain that was read on the stadimeter dial. Using the range so determined, one can could calculate the amount of height which was not seen (was below the horizon) and correct the charted height to the observed height. Using the observable height a second, more accurate range could then be measured. Three iterations of this sequence would yield a navigationally useful range. Using more than one peak, he could accurately determine his position.

Ekelund remembers that the first “interesting” experience on this patrol involved the Number One periscope. Growler was snorkeling at night and the Conning Officer reported to Ekelund that he had sighted a white object. With no sonar contacts reported and no ice seen during the previous several hours, a complete sweep of the horizon revealed white objects completely surrounding the boat. They had sailed into an ice field. Immediately all masts were lowered but not before the periscope was hit by a large ice flow, damaging it enough to render useless. Priest and Ekelund both recall that from then on the mission was routine, except when it came time to head back to Pearl Harbor. On 2 May 1960 the mission was extended three days after Gary Powers’ U-2 aircraft was shot down over the Soviet Union. Morale sagged temporarily when this announcement was made. After seven weeks on station in terrible weather, even three days was a major burden. Growler returned to Pearl Harbor on 12 May 1960.

Priest was relieved by Lieutenant Commander Robert Crawford on 7 June 1960. Crawford had served on Regulus guidance submarines on the West Coast and was returning to submarine duty after completing a tour in the Bureau of Aeronautics at the submarine-launched guided missile desk. The day Crawford reported for duty was the same day a catastrophic fire occurred on USS Sargo (SSN 583). Ekelund recalls that at about 1700 hours he heard a fire alarm sounding on the base. He went to the bridge and saw columns of smoke over the buildings in the direction of nearby piers. Sargo was on fire, with the flames being fueled by a break in the oxygen transfer line in the stern compartment. The fire was finally extinguished by flooding the stern compartment.

Growler and her crew became involved when Crawford was asked to be host of the King of Thailand during his State Visit since Sargo was now no longer available. A good part of the rest of the night was taken in making all of the myriad of preparations, including meals during the cruise, planning for proper honors, alerting all of the crew that the uniform would be Full Dress Whites with swords. The day went perfectly and the crew and officers of Growler were justifiably proud that when COMSUBPAC needed something done well without prior planning, they had been selected.

One month later Growler was awarded the Battle Efficiency “E” for overall excellence in Submarine Squadron ONE during the previous year. Launch operations resumed in August with two fleet training missile flights and then a tactical missile low-level profile flight. This flight was somewhat different in that the Growler missile team launched the missile on shore at Bonham and transferred control to the Growler guidance team on board the submarine for the remainder of the flight. The missile was expended as planned.

Growler’s second deterrent mission began 10 November 1960 and she returned to Pearl Harbor 18 January 1961. After two months upkeep and two successful missile launches, she left 18 March 1961 on her third mission. Lieutenant Commander Robert Owens had reported to Growler as Prospective Executive Officer in February and was serving as Assistant Ordinance Officer. He recalls that the transit to Adak, Alaska for refueling and then to the assigned station was uneventful. One morning he went up to the bridge to shoot the morning star sight. Unfortunately, dense fog lay on the water surface and there was no discernible horizon. The bridge was above the fog layer while the deck, perhaps 20 feet below, was completely hidden. Suddenly the electronic countermeasures alarm began to blare from the speaker on the bridge. The operator realized it as being transmitted from a Soviet ship. Due to the intensity of the transmission it was determined that the ship was close aboard. Crawford and Owens simultaneously observed a radar mast suddenly appear above the low lying fog. Apparently Growler was inside of possible radar detection range. Crawford made the decision not to dive in order to avoid possible sonar detection. Growler changed course to head directly away from the contact and escaped undetected.

Growler returned to Pearl Harbor 12 May 1961. Lieutenant Commander Donald Henderson relieved Crawford 24 June 1961. During the change of command ceremonies Growler was awarded a Submarine Force Unit Citation by Rear Admiral Roy S. Benson, ComSubPac, for her previous mission. Growler immediately entered Pearl Harbor Navy Shipyard for overhaul. One addition was the installation of a Sperry Gyroscope Mark I Mod 0 Ships Inertial Navigation System (SINS) and the first LORAN C navigation system. A second modification during overhaul was an attempt to improve the handling characteristics of Growler at periscope and snorkeling depth. The problem was one of fluid hydrodynamics. The top of the missile hangar fairings were nearly one-half the height of the sail. At periscope depth this made for some difficult handling and a roller coaster ride as the Bernoulli effect caused the hangar deck area to act like an airplane wing and make the boat move towards the surface. This was especially apparent in rough weather. While Grayback and Growler had nearly identical exteriors, Grayback had a slightly different shape to her missile hangars that lessened this unwanted Bernoulli effect. By adding 10 feet to the height of Growler’s sail, the hangar surfaces would be 10 feet deeper at periscope depth and in theory, depth keeping problems would be somewhat mitigated. This also meant adding 10 feet to each of the periscopes, communications and radar masts as well as the electronic countermeasures equipment and snorkel. This was not a small undertaking by any means. The additional height of the sail changed considerably the metacentric height, a measure of ship’s stability. To prevent excessive rolling on the surface, additional saddle ballast tanks was added outboard of the main ballast tanks.

A welcome modification was also made to the missile launching equipment. The original trainable and transversable launcher that had been designed to launch both Regulus I and II missiles was removed and replaced with one that simply transversed to either missile hangar for missile ram out. Launch was forward over the missile hangars. The removal of the myriad of microswitches and associated hydraulics greatly simplified launcher operation and made this launcher much more reliable. Growler completed her overhaul in early December 1961.

After eight weeks of refresher training, Growler left Pearl Harbor on her fourth deterrent patrol on 11 February 1962, arriving at Midway Island five days later to disembark a sick crewman. Leaving Midway Island the next day, Growler arrived at the patrol area on 24 February 1962. Growler departed for the forward refit base one month later, arriving. 24 April. After a four week repair and upkeep period, Growler departed 24 May 1962. Arriving on station in early June 1962, she commenced her fifth deterrent patrol. Growler returned to Adak on 23 July 1962, departing for Pearl Harbor the next day. Lieutenant Commander Gunn, now Executive Officer, had a battle flag that read “Black and Blue Crew, No Relief Required!” They were flying this banner upon return to Pearl Harbor on 1 August 1962. Rear Admiral Bernard A. Clarey, ComSubPac, joined Growler as she entered Pearl Harbor and upon seeing the unfurled flag flying on the mast, put his hand on Henderson’s shoulder and asked if they really meant it. Henderson responded that it was true, the Regulus submarine crews took great pride in the fact that they did not need the Blue and Gold two-crew system used in the Polaris submarines. Growler received a ComSubPac Unit Commendation for both the fourth and fifth patrols.

After a 30 day upkeep, Growler began her customary refresher training with both torpedo and missile firing exercises. Submarine officers who aspire to command of a submarine must undergo a series of rigorous qualifying tests, exams and practical evaluations, all under the watchful eyes of the senior officers on board. Henderson remembers a most memorable prospective commanding officer evaluation that took place at this time. One of the steps in the evaluation process requires that the candidate personally prepare an exercise torpedo for firing. This meant supervising the loading of the torpedo on board, acting as the Approach Officer (assuming the position of the Commanding Officer during the attack) and upon gaining a satisfactory firing solution, fire the torpedo.

The operating area was off of Barbers Point, Oahu. By seagoing standards, the area was reasonably close inshore but not dangerously so. Areas such as this were frequently utilized to reduce the transit time for torpedo recovery vessels. The assigned target was a Pearl Harbor- based submarine rescue vessel. Lieutenant Gene Wells, the ship’s Torpedo Officer, was being evaluated and had done very well up this particular day. His fire control party attained a firing solution on the target’s speed course and range. Well’s fired his personally prepared torpedo and just like in the movies, he started a stopwatch to time the period of the torpedo run to determine when it should intercept the target and in this case, locate the torpedo after the run. Exercise torpedoes were set to run in one of two modes, either high speed short range or low speed and long range. Usually one would select the high speed option to minimize the opportunities for targets sighting the torpedo and maneuvering to avoid being hit.

Wells selected the high speed option but, due to equipment malfunction, it was not entered into the torpedo. For reasons that were never clear, the torpedo ran the low speed, long range run. Henderson recalls everyone counting down the time with no result, i.e., the torpedo could still be heard whining away. It kept running and running and running and then the sound finally stopped. Both Wells and Henderson were at the periscopes and were astonished at what they saw. To their amazement, as the whining sound stopped, they saw the torpedo break the water surface and run up the beach, finally coming to rest between two large fuel storage tanks in the Barber’s Point fuel farm!

One can only imagine the initial response of the torpedo retrieval team back at the base when Growler requested a cherry-picker retrieval crane to proceed to the middle of the naval air station fuel farm. Wells passed his torpedo firing test since on the balance, the shore-based fuel facility was considered a worthwhile target.

Growler’s sixth deterrent patrol, the third with Henderson in command, began on 24 November 1962. Weather in the assigned station area was again miserable. For Christmas dinner Henderson decided to go deep so the crew could enjoy the meal in relatively stable conditions. A thousand foot floating wire antenna permitted Growler to submerge to three hundred feet and still receive messages. While wave motion could still be felt at 300 feet, the meal was really much more enjoyable. A novel relief during this patrol was contributed by a Quartermaster Second Class who had been on board Growler for all six patrols. Traditionally, daily routine reports are made to the Commanding Officer at 0800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 hours. The 1200 hours report consisted of fuel and water on board, magazine and missile hangar temperatures, average specific gravity of both the forward and aft battery cells, ship’s position and that all chronometers (precision time pieces set to Greenwich Mean Time) had been wound and compared with each other. This report was normally made to the Commanding Officer during lunch. The other officers present paid little attention since it was usually so monotonous and routine. On this particular day this Quartermaster Second Class gained everyone’s full attention when he recited the following poem in place of the routine report:

Good afternoon Captain and the rest of you
Here’s the good word from the O.D. and the crew.
The chronometers wound just about nine
Then checked and compared with Greenwich Mean Time.
1 … 2 … 5 … 2 is the gravity now
And since we’ve submerged its bound to go down.
The magazines checked and found to be well.
With temperature normal, 51 sounds swell.
Now I don’t wear a mask and I don’t hide my face.
The noon reports lately have been a disgrace.
So I’ll make this poetic to keep up the pace.
Now thanks for your patience in hearing me out
I’ll see you tomorrow, on that there’s no doubt.

Needless to say, this got everyone’s attention and a lavish round of applause. Growler returned to Pearl Harbor on 11 February 1963 and received a COMSUBPAC Unit Commendation for this patrol. In addition, CINPACFLT issued a Unit Citation to all officers and men of Submarine Division ELEVEN for the period 1 November 1961 to 27 June 1963.

Lieutenant Commander Robert Owens relieved Henderson on 1 June 1963. Growler conducted two more deterrent missions, 14 June 63 to 12 August 63 and 14 October 63 to 13 December 63. In early 1964 the decision was made to decommission Growler and Grayback. Growler and Grayback sailed for Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California together and were decommissioned in May 1964.

Post Regulus: The Growler Museum

After decommissioning on 25 May 1964, Growler was placed in the Inactive Reserve Fleet at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington. Twenty- five years later it was decided that she was a burden to the annual budget and the Navy decided to use her as a torpedo test target for nuclear attack submarines. Fortunately these tests were never conducted. Instead, through the efforts of Mr. Zachary Fisher, of New York, and by an act of Congress, on 8 August 1988, Growler was assigned to become part of the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City. In early 1989, Growler departed Puget Sound under tow. Proceeding through the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, she began a journey of six thousand nautical miles. After transiting the Canal, Growler was towed to a civilian shipyard on the west coast of Florida. While in the shipyard, Growler received both exterior and interior hull repairs, most important of which were the changes made between the missile hangars and the hull. These changes were made to facilitate access for visitors at the museum. On 18 April 1989, Growler was moored to the north side of Pier 86 in the Hudson River, her final “Home Port.” The entire cost of this operation was absorbed by Mr. Fisher, founder and chairman of the Intrepid Sea- Air-Space Museum. On 26 May 1989 Growler was “re-christened” at Pier 86 and is now one of the most popular exhibits of the Intrepid Museum complex.

N.B.: The Regulus missile on display at USS Growler is a “dummy” which lacks JATO bottles.

Growler Missile Deterrent Patrols:

12 Mar 60 – 17 Mar 60
10 Nov 60 – 18 Jan 61
18 Mar 61 – 24 May 61
11 Feb 62 – 24 Apr 62
24 May 62 – 01 Aug 63
24 Nov 62 – 11 Feb 63
14 Jun 63 – 12 Aug 63
04 Oct 63 – 13 Dec 63


Kyk die video: ТЕОРИЯ: ПОЧЕМУ СИНЬОРА НЕ УМЕРЛА?GENSHIN IMPACT (November 2021).