Geskiedenis Podcasts

25 Maart 2017 Dag 65 van die eerste jaar - Geskiedenis

25 Maart 2017 Dag 65 van die eerste jaar - Geskiedenis


Beroerte feite

Vind feite en statistieke oor beroerte in die Verenigde State.

Beroerte statistiek

  • In 2018, 1 uit elke 6 sterftes as gevolg van kardiovaskulêre siektes as gevolg van beroerte. 1
  • Iemand in die Verenigde State kry elke keer 'n beroerte 40 sekondes. Elke 4 minute, sterf iemand aan 'n beroerte. 2
  • Elke jaar, meer as 795 000 mense in die Verenigde State het 'n beroerte. Ongeveer 610 000 hiervan is eerste of nuwe beroertes. 2
  • Ongeveer 185 000 beroertes en mdashbyna 1 uit 4& mdashare by mense wat 'n vorige beroerte gehad het. 2
  • Ongeveer 87% van alle beroertes is isgemiese beroertes, waarin bloedvloei na die brein geblokkeer word. 2
  • Beroerteverwante koste in die Verenigde State het amper gestyg $ 46 miljard tussen 2014 en 2015. 2 Hierdie totaal sluit die koste van gesondheidsorgdienste, medisyne teen beroerte en gemiste werksdae in.
  • Beroerte is die hoofoorsaak van ernstige langtermyn gestremdheid. 2 Beroerte verminder mobiliteit by meer as die helfte van beroerte -oorlewendes van 65 jaar en ouer. 2

Beroerte statistiek volgens ras en etnisiteit

  • Beroerte is die grootste oorsaak van dood vir Amerikaners, maar die risiko om 'n beroerte te kry, hang af van ras en etnisiteit.
  • Die risiko om 'n eerste beroerte te kry, is byna twee keer so hoog vir swartes as vir blankes, 2 en swartes het die hoogste sterftesyfer as gevolg van beroerte. 1
  • Alhoewel die sterftesyfer vir beroerte al dekades lank onder alle rasse/etniese groepe afgeneem het, het Spaanse mense sedert 2013 'n toename in sterftesyfers gehad.

Beroerte risiko wissel volgens ouderdom

  • Beroerte risiko neem toe met ouderdom, maar beroertes kan op enige ouderdom voorkom.
  • In 2009, 34% van die mense wat in die hospitaal opgeneem is weens 'n beroerte minder as 65 jaar oud. 3

Vroeë optrede is belangrik vir beroerte

Ken die waarskuwingstekens en simptome van beroerte, sodat u vinnig kan optree as u of iemand wat u ken 'n beroerte kan kry. Die kans op oorlewing is groter as noodbehandeling vinnig begin.

  • In een opname het die meeste respondente en mdash93%& mdash skielike gevoelloosheid aan die een kant as 'n simptoom van beroerte erken. Enigste 38% was bewus van al die belangrikste simptome en het gebel om 9-1-1 te bel as iemand 'n beroerte gehad het. 4
  • Pasiënte wat binne 3 uur na hul eerste simptome by die noodkamer aankom, het dikwels minder gestremdheid 3 maande na 'n beroerte as diegene wat vertraagde sorg ontvang het. 4

Amerikaners loop 'n risiko vir beroerte

Hoë bloeddruk, hoë cholesterol, rook, vetsug en diabetes is die hoofoorsake van beroerte. 1 uit 3 Amerikaanse volwassenes het ten minste een van hierdie toestande of gewoontes. 2


Ek word oor 'n paar maande 65. Wanneer moet ek by Medicare aanmeld?

En español | As u reeds voordele vir sosiale sekerheid ontvang, meld Social Security u outomaties aan vir Medicare deel A en deel B - alhoewel u deel B -inskrywing kan weier as u wil. Andersins moet u aansoek doen om Medicare. Die beste tyd om dit te doen, hang heeltemal af van u eie situasie. In die algemeen is daar twee opsies:

Tydens u aanvanklike inskrywingstydperk (IEP)

Dit duur sewe maande, waarvan die vierde die maand is waarin u 65 word. As u 65ste verjaardag byvoorbeeld in Junie is, begin u IEP op 1 Maart en eindig op 30 September (Uitsondering: as u verjaardag val die eerste dag van die maand beweeg die hele IEP een maand vorentoe. As u byvoorbeeld 1 Junie verjaar, begin u IEP 1 Februarie en eindig op 31 Augustus.)

Om laat boetes en vertraagde dekking te vermy, moet u tydens u IEP in hierdie omstandighede by Medicare aanmeld:

  • U het geen ander gesondheidsversekering nie
  • U het 'n gesondheidsversekering wat u self gekoop het (nie deur 'n werkgewer verskaf nie)
  • U het pensioenvoordele van 'n voormalige werkgewer (u eie of u gade)
  • U het COBRA -dekking wat die versekering wat u of u gade van u werkgewer ontvang het, verleng tydens u werk
  • U het voordele van veterane uit die gesondheidstelsel van die Departement Veterane Sake (VA) (maar geen versekering word deur 'n huidige werkgewer verskaf nie)
  • U het 'n huweliksverhouding sonder huwelik met iemand van dieselfde of teenoorgestelde geslag en u word gedek deur sy of haar werkgewerversekering

As u gedurende die eerste drie maande van u IEP inskryf, begin u Medicare -dekking op die eerste dag van die maand wat u 65 word (of die eerste dag van die vorige maand as u verjaardag op die eerste dag van 'n maand val). As u gedurende die vierde maand aanmeld, begin dekking op die eerste dag van die daaropvolgende maand. Maar as u dit tot die vyfde, sesde of sewende maand verlaat, word die dekking met twee of drie maande vertraag. As u verjaarsdag byvoorbeeld in Junie is en u in September (die laaste maand van u IEP) aanmeld, begin die dekking eers op 1 Desember.

Tydens u IEP kan u ook aanmeld by Medicare Part D voorskrifmedikasie - alhoewel u dit nie nodig het as u 'kredietwaardige' geneesmiddeldekking het uit pensioenvoordele, COBRA of die VA nie. (“Krediteerbaar” beteken dat Medicare die dekking as goed of beter as deel D beskou ) tydens u IEP.

Tydens 'n spesiale inskrywingsperiode (SEP)

Hierdie SEP is slegs beskikbaar as u 'n gesondheidsversekering het (na die einde van u IEP) van 'n werkgewer waarvoor u of u gade aktief werk. Dit stel u in staat om in te skryf vir deel B (en die maandelikse premies te vermy) totdat die diens of die dekking eindig - wat ook al die eerste gebeur.

Die SEP duur eintlik die hele tyd wat u dekking het van die huidige werk en tot agt maande nadat dit eindig. As u op enige tydstip gedurende hierdie tydsbestek inskryf, begin u Medicare -dekking op die eerste dag van die daaropvolgende maand, en is u nie aanspreeklik vir laat boetes nie - ongeag hoe oud u is as u uiteindelik aanmeld.

Hou in gedagte dat 'n IEP altyd 'n SEP troef as die twee toevallig oorvleuel. As u IEP byvoorbeeld op 31 Augustus eindig en u op dieselfde datum uittree, is u nie geregtig op 'n SEP nie. As u die inskrywing tot na 31 Augustus vertraag het, sou u dus nie tot die volgende algemene inskrywingsperiode (1 Januarie tot 31 Maart) kon aanmeld nie en sou u dekking eers op 1 Julie begin - sodat u byna 'n jaar sonder dekking. Selfs as u gedurende die laaste maande van u IEP aangemeld het, sal u dekking steeds met twee of drie maande vertraag word. Maar om hierdie voorbeeld voort te sit: as u op 1 September uittree, volgens die SEP -reëls, kan u in Augustus inskryf en Medicare vanaf 1 September ontvang sonder dat u dekking verloor.

As u die dekking van voorskrifmedisyne verloor wanneer die werkgewerplan eindig, kan u aanmeld by 'n Medicare Deel D -geneesmiddelplan. U sal nie aanspreeklik wees vir laat boetes as u binne twee maande nadat u die werkgewer se dekking verloor het, inskryf nie.

Twee ander Medicare -inskrywingscenario's het verskillende reëls.

As u buite die Verenigde State woon: As u buite die Verenigde State woon, sonder dat u of u gade werk, het u 'n moeilike besluit. U kan óf aanmeld vir Deel B en die maandelikse premies daarvan betaal, alhoewel u nie Medicare -dienste in die buiteland kan gebruik nie - óf u kan wag om aan te meld totdat u na die VSA terugkeer en dan met permanente boetes en vertraagde dekking in die gesig gestaar word. .

Maar as u of u gade werk en u gesondheidsversekering het van 'n werkgewer of onder die openbare nasionale gesondheidstelsel van die land waar u woon, gedek is, het u die reg om die inskrywing van Medicare uit te stel totdat die diens eindig. U sal dan geregtig wees op dieselfde SEP wat vroeër in hierdie afdeling verduidelik is.

Daar is nog 'n uitsondering: as u nie ten volle verseker is nie - dit wil sê as u nie op deel A -voordele geregtig is sonder om premies daarvoor te betaal nie - kan u nie inskryf vir deel A of deel B terwyl u in die buiteland is nie. U kan binne drie maande na u terugkeer na die Verenigde State inskryf om permanent te woon. In hierdie situasie begin dekking op die eerste dag van die maand nadat u ingeskryf het, en u loop geen risiko vir laat boetes nie, ongeag hoe oud u is of hoe lank u in die buiteland gewoon het.

Andersins, as u by Medicare wil aanmeld terwyl u buite die Verenigde State woon, kan u aansoek doen by u naaste Amerikaanse ambassade of konsulaat. Die staatsdepartement het 'n aanlyn gids waar u kontakinligting van Amerikaanse diplomatieke stasies in elke land kan vind.

Deel D -geneesmiddeldekking het verskillende reëls. By u terugkeer om permanent in die Verenigde State te woon, het u 'n spesiale inskrywingsperiode van tot drie maande (as u 65 in die buiteland geword het) of tot twee maande (as u 65 geword het voordat u die VS verlaat het) om aan te meld met 'n deel D -geneesmiddelplan sonder om laat boetes te waag. Dekking begin op die eerste dag van die maand nadat u ingeskryf het.

As jy in die tronk is: As u 65 word terwyl u in die gevangenis woon of 'n ander soort korrektiewe instelling het, kan u tydens u IEP in deel B inskryf en maandelikse premies betaal, alhoewel u nie Medicare -dienste kan gebruik terwyl u in die gevangenis is nie - of wag totdat u vrygelaat word en dan permanente laat boetes en vertraagde dekking in die gesig staar.

Net so, as u in die gevangenis is na die ouderdom van 65 jaar en reeds by Medicare ingeskryf is, word verwag dat u voortgaan om premies te betaal om boetes te vermy as u uitkom.

Deel D -geneesmiddeldekking het verskillende reëls. By u vrylating het u die reg op 'n spesiale inskrywingsperiode van tot drie maande (as u 65 jaar in die gevangenis geword het) of tot twee maande (as u 65 geword het voordat u in die tronk was) om aan te meld by 'n deel D -dwelmplan en vermy laat boetes. Dekking begin op die eerste dag van die maand nadat u ingeskryf het.


Sleutelzoom Gebruikerstatistieke

Lyft aktiewe ruiters
V1 2016 3,5 miljoen
V2 2016 4,5 miljoen
V1 2016 5,7 miljoen
V1 2016 6,6 miljoen
Q1 2017 8,1 miljoen
Q2 2017 9,4 miljoen
Q3 2017 11,4 miljoen
Q4 2017 12,6 miljoen
Q1 2018 14,0 miljoen
Q2 2018 15,5 miljoen
Q3 2018 17,4 miljoen
Q4 2018 18,6 miljoen
Q1 2019 20,5 miljoen
Q2 2019 21,8 miljoen
Q3 2019 22,3 miljoen
Q4 2019 22,9 miljoen
Q1 2020 21,2 miljoen

Inhoud

2001–2004: Stigting wysig

In 2001 het Elon Musk gekonseptualiseer Mars Oase, 'n projek om 'n miniatuur eksperimentele kweekhuis te laat land en plante op Mars te laat groei. [7] [8] [9] Hy het aangekondig dat die projek 'die verste is wat die lewe ooit gereis het' in 'n poging om die openbare belang in ruimteverkenning te herwin en NASA se begroting te vergroot. [7] [8] [9] Musk het goedkoop vuurpyle uit Rusland probeer koop, maar met leë hande teruggekeer nadat hy nie vuurpyle vir 'n bekostigbare prys kon vind nie. [10] [11]

Op die vlug huis toe besef Musk dat hy 'n onderneming kan begin wat die bekostigbare vuurpyle kan bou wat hy nodig het. [11] Deur vertikale integrasie toe te pas, [10] waar moontlik goedkope kommersiële komponente uit die rak te gebruik, [11] en die modulêre benadering van moderne sagteware-ingenieurswese aan te neem, het Musk geglo dat SpaceX die bekendstellingprys aansienlik kan verlaag. [11]

Vroeg in 2002 het Musk begin soek na personeel vir sy nuwe ruimtemaatskappy, wat binnekort SpaceX genoem sou word. Musk het die vuurpylingenieur Tom Mueller (later SpaceX se CTO van aandrywing) genader en hom genooi om sy sakevennoot te word. Mueller het ingestem om vir Musk te werk, en dus is SpaceX gebore. [12] SpaceX se eerste hoofkwartier was in 'n pakhuis in El Segundo, Kalifornië. Teen November 2005 het die onderneming 160 werknemers gehad. [13] Musk het al die vroeë werknemers van SpaceX persoonlik ondervra en goedgekeur, selfs so ver as om Larry Page te oortuig om 'n Google -werknemer van San Francisco na Los Angeles oor te plaas, sodat die werknemer se gade, 'n moontlike SpaceX -huurling, die pos sou aanvaar. [14]

Musk het gesê dat een van sy doelwitte met SpaceX is om die koste te verlaag en die betroubaarheid van toegang tot ruimte te verbeter, uiteindelik met 'n faktor van tien. [15]

2005–2009: Falcon 1 en eerste orbitale lanseer Edit

SpaceX het sy eerste wentelbaanvoertuig, die Falcon 1, met private befondsing ontwikkel. [16] [17] Die Falcon 1 was 'n gebruikbare tweevlak-om-om-wentelwa met 'n klein hysbak. Die totale ontwikkelingskoste van Falcon 1 was ongeveer US $ 90 miljoen [18] tot US $ 100 miljoen. [19]

In 2005 kondig SpaceX planne aan om teen die einde van die dekade 'n kommersiële ruimteprogram vir mense te volg, 'n program wat later die Dragon-ruimtetuig sou word. [20] In 2006 het NASA aangekondig dat die maatskappy een van twee is wat gekies is om demonstrasiekontrakte vir bemanning en vrag aan die ISS te verskaf onder die COTS -program. [21]

Die eerste twee Falcon 1 -bekendstellings is deur die Amerikaanse ministerie van verdediging aangekoop onder 'n program wat nuwe Amerikaanse lanseervoertuie evalueer wat geskik is vir gebruik deur DARPA. [17] [22] [23] Die eerste drie lanserings van die vuurpyl, tussen 2006 en 2008, het almal mislukkings tot gevolg gehad. Hierdie mislukkings het die onderneming amper beëindig soos Musk beplan en finansiering gehad het om die koste van drie bekendstellings te dek, Tesla, SolarCity en Musk was persoonlik almal terselfdertyd bankrot [24] Musk het na berig word "wakker geword van nagmerries, skreeuend en in fisiese pyn "as gevolg van spanning. [25]

Dinge het egter begin omdraai toe die eerste suksesvolle bekendstelling kort daarna bereik is met die vierde poging op 28 September 2008. Musk het sy oorblywende $ 30 miljoen tussen SpaceX en Tesla verdeel, en NASA het die eerste Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) kontrak aan SpaceX toegeken in Desember, en sodoende die onderneming finansieel bespaar. [26] Op grond van hierdie faktore en die verdere sakebedrywighede wat hulle moontlik gemaak het, is die Falcon 1 kort daarna afgetree na sy tweede suksesvolle en vyfde totaal, wat in Julie 2009 gelanseer is, wat SpaceX in staat gestel het om die maatskappy se hulpbronne te fokus op die ontwikkeling van 'n groter baanraket , die Falcon 9. [27] Gwynne Shotwell is ook op hierdie tydstip bevorder tot president van die onderneming, vir haar rol in die suksesvolle onderhandeling van die CRS -kontrak met NASA. [28]

2010–2012: Falcon 9, Dragon en NASA kontrakte Edit

SpaceX was oorspronklik van plan om sy ligte Falcon 1 -lanseervoertuig te volg met 'n voertuig met intermediêre kapasiteit, die Falcon 5. [29] SpaceX besluit in plaas daarvan om in 2005 voort te gaan met die ontwikkeling van die Falcon 9, 'n herbruikbare swaarder hysbak. Die ontwikkeling van die Falcon 9 is versnel deur NASA, wat hom daartoe verbind het om verskeie kommersiële vlugte te koop as spesifieke vermoëns bewys word. Dit het begin met saadgeld uit die Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) -program in 2006. [30] Die totale kontrakprys was $ 278 miljoen om ontwikkelingsfinansiering vir die Dragon -ruimtetuig, Falcon 9, en demonstrasie -bekendstellings van Falcon 9 met Dragon te verskaf. [30] As deel van hierdie kontrak het die Falcon 9 in Junie 2010 vir die eerste keer met die Dragon Spacecraft Qualification Unit gelanseer, met behulp van 'n model van die Dragon -ruimtetuig. Die eerste operasionele Dragon -ruimtetuig is in Desember 2010 gelanseer aan boord van COTS Demo Flight 1, die Falcon 9 se tweede vlug, en het veilig teruggekeer na die aarde na twee wentelbane en al sy missiedoelwitte voltooi. [31] Teen Desember 2010 vervaardig die SpaceX -produksielyn elke drie maande een Falcon 9 en Dragon. [32]

In April 2011, as deel van sy tweede ronde Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) -program, het NASA 'n kontrak van $ 75 miljoen vir SpaceX uitgereik om 'n geïntegreerde ontsnappingsstelsel vir Dragon te ontwikkel ter voorbereiding op die beoordeling van mense as 'n bemanningsvoertuig. die ISS. [33] In Augustus 2012 het NASA aan SpaceX 'n vaste Space Act-ooreenkoms (SAL) aan SpaceX toegeken met die doel om 'n gedetailleerde ontwerp van die hele bemanningsvervoerstelsel op te stel. Hierdie kontrak bevat talle belangrike mylpale vir tegniese en sertifisering, 'n onbemande vlugtoets, 'n bemanningsvlugtoets en ses operasionele missies na stelselsertifisering. [34]

Aan die begin van 2012 was ongeveer twee derdes van die SpaceX-aandele in besit van Musk [35] en sy 70 miljoen aandele was toe na raming $ 875 miljoen op private markte, [36] wat SpaceX op $ 1,3 miljard waardeer. [37] In Mei 2012, met die bekendstelling van die Dragon C2+, word Dragon die eerste kommersiële ruimtetuig wat vrag na die Internasionale Ruimtestasie gelewer het. [38] Na die vlug verdubbel die private private waardasie van die onderneming byna tot $ 2,4 miljard of $ 20 per aandeel. [39] [40] Teen daardie tyd het SpaceX gedurende die eerste dekade van sy operasie 'n totale befondsing van ongeveer $ 1 miljard bedryf. Hiervan het private ekwiteit ongeveer $ 200 miljoen verskaf, Musk belê ongeveer $ 100 miljoen en ander beleggers het sowat $ 100 miljoen belê. [41]

SpaceX se aktiewe herbruikbaarheidstoetsprogram het einde 2012 begin met die toets van lae hoogte, lae spoed-aspekte van die landingstegnologie. [42] Die Falcon 9 -prototipes het vertikale opstyg en landings uitgevoer (VTOL). Aan die einde van 2013 het hoë-snelheidstoetse van die booster-atmosferiese terugkeertegnologie begin. [42]

2013–2015: Kommersiële bekendstellings en vinnige groei Redigeer

SpaceX het die eerste kommersiële missie vir 'n privaat kliënt in 2013 geloods. In 2014 het SpaceX nege kontrakte uit die 20 wat wêreldwyd openlik meegeding is, gewen. [43] Daardie jaar het Arianespace versoek dat Europese regerings bykomende subsidies verleen om die kompetisie van SpaceX die hoof te bied. [44] [45] Vanaf 2014 het SpaceX -vermoëns en -pryse ook begin om die mark vir die bekendstelling van Amerikaanse militêre vragmotors te beïnvloed, wat byna 'n dekade lank gedomineer is deur die groot Amerikaanse lanseerder, United Launch Alliance (ULA). [46] Die monopolie het die bekendstellingskoste deur die Amerikaanse verskaffer toegelaat om oor die jare heen tot meer as $ 400 miljoen te styg. [47]

In Januarie 2015 het SpaceX $ 1 miljard se finansiering van Google en Fidelity ingesamel, in ruil vir 8,33% van die onderneming, wat die waardasie van die onderneming op ongeveer $ 12 miljard vasgestel het. [48] ​​Dieselfde maand kondig SpaceX die ontwikkeling aan van 'n nuwe satellietkonstellasie, genaamd Starlink, om wêreldwye breëband internetdiens te lewer. Die daaropvolgende Junie het die maatskappy die federale regering toestemming gevra om te begin toets vir die projek, met die doel om 'n konstellasie van 4,425 satelliete te bou. [49]

Die Falcon 9 het einde Junie 2015 sy eerste groot mislukking gehad, toe die sewende ISS-hervoorsieningsmissie, CRS-7, twee minute na die vlug ontplof het. [50] Die probleem is opgespoor na 'n mislukte 2-voet lange staalsteun wat 'n helium-drukvat gehou het, wat as gevolg van die versnellingskrag losgebars het. Dit het 'n breuk veroorsaak en hoë-helium in die laedruk-tenk laat ontsnap, wat die mislukking veroorsaak het. [51]

2015–2017: Mylpale vir herbruikbaarheid Wysig

SpaceX het vir die eerste keer 'n suksesvolle landing en herstel van 'n eerste fase in Desember 2015 behaal met Falcon 9 Flight 20. [52] In April 2016 het die maatskappy die eerste suksesvolle landing op die outonome ruimtevaart -hommeltuig (ASDS) behaal Natuurlik is ek nog steeds lief vir jou in die Atlantiese Oseaan. [53] Teen Oktober 2016, na die suksesvolle landings, het SpaceX aangedui dat hulle hul kliënte 'n pryskorting van 10% bied as hulle sou besluit om hul vrag op 'n hergebruikte Falcon 9 eerste fase te vlieg. [54]

Begin September 2016 het 'n Falcon 9 ontplof tydens 'n aanvulling van 'n brandstof vir 'n standaard statiese vuurtoets voor die bekendstelling. [55] Die vragvrag, die Amos-6-kommunikasiesatelliet ter waarde van $ 200 miljoen, is vernietig. [56] Die ontploffing is veroorsaak deurdat die vloeibare suurstof wat as dryfmiddel gebruik word, so koud word dat dit stol en ontbrand met koolstof saamgestelde heliumvate. [57] Alhoewel dit nie as 'n onsuksesvolle vlug beskou word nie, het die vuurpylontploffing die onderneming in 'n vier maande lange onderbrekingsonderbreking gestuur, terwyl dit uitvind wat verkeerd geloop het. SpaceX het in Januarie 2017 weer begin vlieg. [58]

Op 30 Maart 2017 het SpaceX 'n teruggekeerde Falcon 9 gelanseer vir die SES-10-satelliet. Dit was die eerste keer dat 'n herlaai van 'n vragdraende vuurpyl na die ruimte terugkeer. [59] Die eerste fase is weer herstel, wat dit ook die eerste landing van 'n hergebruikte orbitale klas vuurpyl maak. [60]

2017–2018: Toonaangewende wêreldwye kommersiële bekendstellingsverskaffer Edit

In Julie 2017 het die maatskappy $ 350 miljoen ingesamel vir 'n waardasie van $ 21 miljard. [61] In 2017 behaal SpaceX 'n wêreldwye markaandeel van 45% vir toegekende kommersiële bekendstellingskontrakte. [62] Teen Maart 2018 het SpaceX meer as 100 bekendstellings op sy manifes gehad, wat ongeveer 12 miljard dollar aan kontrakinkomste verteenwoordig. [63] Die kontrakte het kommersiële sowel as regeringskliënte (NASA/DOD) ingesluit. [64] Dit het SpaceX van die toonaangewende wêreldwye kommersiële bekendstellingsverskaffer gemaak, gemeet aan gemanifesteerde bekendstellings. [65]

In 2017 stig SpaceX 'n filiaal, The Boring Company, [66] en begin met die bou van 'n kort toetstunnel op en aangrensend tot die SpaceX -hoofkwartier en vervaardigingsfasiliteit, met behulp van 'n klein aantal SpaceX -werknemers, [67] wat voltooi is in Mei 2018 [68] en in Desember 2018 vir die publiek oopgemaak. [69] Gedurende 2018 is The Boring Company verdeel in 'n aparte korporatiewe entiteit met 6% van die ekwiteit na SpaceX, minder as 10% aan vroeë werknemers, en die res van die aandele aan Elon Musk. [69]

2019 -hede: Starship, Starlink, en die eerste bemanningslanseerders Edit

Op 11 Januarie 2019 het SpaceX aangekondig dat hulle 10% van sy arbeidsmag gaan afdank om die Starship- en Starlink -projekte te help finansier. [70] Die konstruksie van aanvanklike prototipes en toetse vir Starship het vroeg in 2019 in Florida en Texas begin. Alle konstruksie en toetsing van Starship is later dieselfde jaar na die nuwe SpaceX South Texas -bekendstellingswerf verskuif. In Mei 2019 het SpaceX ook die eerste groot bondel van 60 Starlink -satelliete gelanseer, wat begin het met die implementering van wat die volgende jaar die grootste kommersiële satellietkonstellasie ter wêreld sou word. [71]

SpaceX het 'n totaal van US $ 1,33 miljard se kapitaal oor drie finansieringsrondes in 2019 ingesamel. [72] Teen Mei 2019 het die waardasie van SpaceX gestyg tot US $ 33,3 miljard [73] en bereik dit $ 36 miljard teen Maart 2020. [74]

Op 30 Mei 2020 het SpaceX twee NASA-ruimtevaarders (Doug Hurley en Bob Behnken) suksesvol gelanseer tydens 'n Crew Dragon-ruimtetuig tydens Crew Dragon Demo-2, wat SpaceX die eerste private onderneming gemaak het wat ruimtevaarders na die Internasionale Ruimtestasie gestuur het en die eerste was bemanning van die Amerikaanse grond af in 9 jaar. [75] [76] Die missie van stapel gestuur vanaf Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39A (LC-39A) van die Kennedy Space Center in Florida. [77]

Op 19 Augustus 2020, na 'n finansieringsronde van US $ 1,9 miljard, een van die grootste enkele fondsinsamelings deur enige private onderneming, het SpaceX se waardasie tot $ 46 miljard gestyg. [78] [79] [80] In Februarie 2021 het SpaceX 'n bykomende US $ 1,61 miljard in 'n ekwiteitsronde ingesamel van 99 beleggers [81] teen 'n waarde van ongeveer $ 420 per aandeel, [80] wat die waardasie van die maatskappy tot ongeveer US $ 74 verhoog het miljard. Dit het tot dusver 'n totaal van meer as US $ 6 miljard se aandeelfinansiering ingesamel. Die kapitaalintensiewe fase van die afgelope jare was hoofsaaklik om die operasionele veldwerk van die Starlink-satellietkonstellasie en die ontwikkeling en vervaardiging van die Starship-lanseervoertuig te ondersteun. [81]

Teen 2021 het SpaceX ooreenkomste aangegaan met Google Cloud Platform en Microsoft Azure om rekenaar- en netwerkdienste op die grond vir Starlink te lewer. [82]

Opsomming van prestasies Redigeer

Die belangrikste prestasies van SpaceX is die hergebruik van lanseervoertuie van orbitaalklasse en die vermindering van koste in die ruimte-lanseerbedryf. Die opvallendste hiervan is die voortgesette landings en herbegin van die eerste fase van Falcon 9 na 'n meerjarige program om die herbruikbare tegnologie te ontwikkel. Vanaf Mei 2021 het SpaceX twee afsonderlike eerste-fase boosters, B1049 en B1051, onderskeidelik nege en tien keer gebruik. [83] Elon Musk het verder gesê dat hulle sal voortgaan om die vlootleier, B1051, verby die oorspronklike doel van tien vlugte te stoot. [84] SpaceX is 'n privaat ruimtemaatskappy met die meeste van sy prestasies as gevolg van self-befondsde ontwikkelingspogings, nie ontwikkel deur tradisionele koste-plus-kontrakte van die Amerikaanse regering nie. As gevolg hiervan word baie van die prestasies daarvan ook deur die private onderneming as eerste beskou.

Lys van prestasies deur SpaceX
Datum Prestasie Vlug
28 September 2008 Die eerste vuurpyl wat ten volle met vloeistof aangedryf is, word privaat befonds om 'n wentelbaan te bereik. [85] Falcon 1 vlug 4
14 Julie 2009 Eerste privaat ontwikkelde vloeibare vuurpyl om 'n kommersiële satelliet in 'n wentelbaan te plaas. RazakSAT op Falcon 1 vlug 5
9 Desember 2010 Eerste private onderneming wat 'n ruimtetuig suksesvol gelanseer het, omdraai en herstel het. SpaceX Dragon op SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 1
25 Mei 2012 Eerste private onderneming wat 'n ruimtetuig na die Internasionale Ruimtestasie (ISS) gestuur het. [86] Dragon C2+
22 Desember 2015 Eerste landing van 'n orbitaalklas-vuurpyl se eerste fase op land. Falcon 9 B1019 op Orbcomm OG2 M2
8 April 2016 Eerste landing van 'n orbitaalklas se eerste fase op 'n seeplatform. Falcon 9 B1021 op SpaceX CRS-8
30 Maart 2017 Eerste hergebruik, herligging en (tweede) landing van 'n orbitale eerste fase. [59] Falcon 9 B1021 op SES-10
30 Maart 2017 Eerste gekontroleerde terugvoer en herstel van 'n laaipak. [87] SES-10
3 Junie 2017 Eerste hervlug van 'n kommersiële vragruimtetuig. [88] Dragon C106 op SpaceX CRS-11
6 Februarie 2018 Eerste private ruimtetuig wat in heliosentriese wentelbane gelanseer is. Elon Musk se Tesla Roadster op Falcon Heavy toetsvlug
2 Maart 2019 Eerste private onderneming wat 'n ruimtetuig wat deur mense gegradeer is, na 'n wentelbaan gestuur het. Crew Dragon Demo-1
3 Maart 2019 Eerste private onderneming wat 'n ruimtetuig outonoom by die Internasionale Ruimtestasie (ISS) opdok.
25 Julie 2019 Eerste vlug van 'n volstroom-fase-verbrandingsiklusmotor (Raptor). [89] Starhopper
11 November 2019 Eerste hergebruik en herligging van die laaiverpakking. Die kuip was van die ArabSat-6A-sending in April 2019. Starlink 2 v1.0
Januarie 2020 Die grootste kommersiële satellietkonstellasie -operateur ter wêreld. [71] Starlink 3 v1.0
30 Mei 2020 Eerste private onderneming wat mense in 'n wentelbaan gestuur het. [90] Crew Dragon Demo-2
31 Mei 2020 Eerste private onderneming wat mense na die Internasionale Ruimtestasie (ISS) gestuur het. [91]
24 Januarie 2021 Die meeste ruimtetuie is op 'n enkele missie met 143 satelliete in die ruimte gelanseer. [a] [92] Vervoerder-1 op Falcon 9
17 Junie 2021 Die eerste keer dat die opstartversterker hergebruik is vir 'n 'nasionale veiligheid' -missie. (Nasionale veiligheidsmissies het voorheen slegs nuwe boosters gebruik.) [93] GPS III-05 op Falcon 9, tweede vlug van booster B1062

Begin voertuie Edit

SpaceX het drie lanseervoertuie ontwikkel. Die Falcon 1 met 'n klein hysbak was die eerste lanseervoertuig wat ontwikkel is en is in 2009 afgetree. Die Falcon 9 met medium hysbak en die Falcon Heavy-hysbak is albei in werking. Die Falcon 1 was 'n klein vuurpyl wat honderde kilogram in 'n lae wentelbaan kon plaas. Dit is tussen 2006 en 2009 vyf keer bekendgestel, waarvan 2 suksesvol was. [94] Dit het as 'n vroeë toetsbed gedien vir die ontwikkeling van konsepte en komponente vir die groter Falcon 9. [94] Die Falcon 1 was die eerste privaat befondsde, met vloeistof aangedrewe vuurpyl wat 'n wentelbaan bereik het. [85]

Falcon 9 is 'n medium-opskietvoertuig wat tot 22,800 kilogram (50,265 lb) in 'n wentelbaan kan lewer, wat meeding met die Delta IV- en Atlas V-vuurpyle, asook met ander lanseerderverskaffers regoor die wêreld. Dit het nege Merlin -enjins in sy eerste fase. Die Falcon 9 v1.0 -vuurpyl het 'n wentelbaan bereik met sy eerste poging op 4 Junie 2010. Sy derde vlug, COTS Demo Flight 2, wat op 22 Mei 2012 gelanseer is, en was die eerste kommersiële ruimtetuig wat die Internasionale Ruimtestasie bereik en aanlê ( ISS). [38] Die voertuig is opgegradeer na Falcon 9 v1.1 in 2013, Falcon 9 Full Thrust in 2015, en uiteindelik na Falcon 9 Block 5 in 2018. Die eerste fase van Falcon 9 is ontwerp om retropropulsief te land, terug te vind en terug te val . [95]

Die Falcon Heavy is 'n lanseervoertuig met 'n swaar hysbak wat tot 63.800 kg (140.700 lb) in 'n lae aarde-baan (LEO) of 26.700 kg (58.900 lb) in 'n geosinchrone oordragbaan (GTO) kan lewer. Dit gebruik drie effens aangepaste Falcon 9 -kernee met 'n totaal van 27 Merlin 1D -enjins. [96] [97] The Falcon Heavy het op 6 Februarie 2018 met sukses sy intreevlug gevlieg en Musk se persoonlike Tesla Roadster in 'n heliosentriese wentelbaan gelanseer [98]

Beide die Falcon 9 en Falcon Heavy is gesertifiseer om bekendstellings vir die National Security Space Launch (NSSL) uit te voer. [99] [100] Vanaf 18 Junie 2021 is die Falcon 9 en Falcon Heavy 125 keer gelanseer, wat gelei het tot 123 volledige missiesukses, een gedeeltelike sukses, een in die vlug. Boonop het 'n Falcon 9 'n mislukking voor die vlug beleef voor 'n statiese brandtoets in 2016. [101] [102]

Vuurpylmotors Redigeer

Sedert die stigting van SpaceX in 2002, het die maatskappy verskeie vuurpyl -enjins ontwikkel - Merlin, Kestrel en Raptor vir gebruik in lanseervoertuie, Draco vir die reaksiebeheerstelsel van die Dragon -ruimtetuig en SuperDraco vir die afbreekfunksie in Crew Dragon.

Merlin is 'n familie raketmotors wat vloeibare suurstof (LOX) en RP-1 dryfmiddels in 'n gasopwekker gebruik. Merlin is die eerste keer gebruik om die eerste fase van die Falcon 1 aan te dryf, en word nou op beide stadiums van die Falcon 9- en Falcon Heavy -voertuie gebruik. Die Merlin-enjin gebruik 'n spuitinspuiter wat diepgasvermoë bied wat tydens Falcon 9-landings gebruik word. Die dryfmiddels word gevoer via 'n enkele as, dubbele waaier turbopomp.

Kestrel is 'n LOX/RP-1 drukgevoerde vuurpylenjin en is gebruik as die tweede fase hoofmotor van die Falcon 1-vuurpyl. Dit is gebou rondom dieselfde pintle -argitektuur as die SpaceX se Merlin -enjin, maar het nie 'n turbopomp nie en word slegs gevoed deur tenkdruk. Die enjin word ablatief afgekoel in die kamer en keel, en word stralend afgekoel op die uitlaatspuitstuk. Die mondstuk van die torenvalk is vervaardig uit 'n hoë sterkte niobiumlegering. [103] [104]

Draco is 'n hipergoliese vuurpyl-enjin met vloeibare dryf wat monometielhidrasienbrandstof en stikstoftetroksied-oksideermiddel gebruik. Elke Draco -boegwerper genereer 400 N (90 lbf) van druk. [105] Hulle word gebruik op die reaksiebeheerstelsel van die Dragon and Dragon 2 -ruimtetuie. [106]

SuperDraco is 'n hipergoliese vuurpyl-enjin wat, net soos Draco, monometielhidrasien en stikstoftetroksiedryfstowwe gebruik. Agt SuperDraco -enjins bied ontsnappingsvermoë vir Dragon 2 -ruimtetuie tydens 'n afbrekingscenario. Elke SuperDraco -enjin lewer 73 kN (16.000 lbf) van stoot. Aanvanklike konsepte vir die Crew Dragon -ruimtetuig het die SuperDraco -enjins gebruik om 'n retropropulsiewe landing op die land uit te voer, maar dit is in 2017 geskrap toe besluit is om 'n tradisionele valskerm af te val en op see te spat. [107]

Raptor is 'n nuwe familie vloeibare suurstof en metaangedrewe volvloeistadiese verbrandingsiklus-enjins om die eerste en tweede fase van die in-ontwikkeling Starship-lanseerstelsel aan te dryf. [108] Ontwikkelingsweergawes is laat 2016 getoets. [109] Op 3 April 2019 het SpaceX 'n statiese vuurtoets in Texas uitgevoer Starhopper voertuig, wat die enjin aangesteek het terwyl die voertuig vasgebind op die grond gebly het. [110] In 2019 het Raptor vir die eerste keer gevlieg en die Starhopper voertuig tot 'n hoogte van 20 m (66 voet). [111] SpaceX gaan voort met verdere toetsvlugte van die Starship -voertuig in 2020 en 2021. [112]

Draak ruimtetuig Edit

SpaceX het die Dragon -ruimtetuig ontwikkel om vrag en bemanning na die Internasionale Ruimtestasie te vervoer. Die eerste weergawe van Dragon, wat slegs vir vrag gebruik word, is die eerste keer in 2010 gelanseer. [31] Die huidige tweede generasie Dragon -ruimtetuig, bekend as Dragon 2, het vroeg in 2019 sy eerste vlug sonder bemanning na die ISS uitgevoer, gevolg deur 'n bemande vlug van Dragon 2 in 2020. [113] [75] Dragon 2 is in staat om 'n bemanning van tot vier in NASA -konfigurasie na 'n lae wentelbaan te vervoer. [114]

On 7 December 2020 SpaceX flew the cargo variant of Dragon 2 to the Space Station for 100th successful Falcon 9 flight. This is the first launch for this redesigned cargo Dragon, and also the first mission for SpaceX's new series of CRS missions under a renewed contract with NASA. [115]

On 27 March 2020 SpaceX revealed the Dragon XL resupply spacecraft to carry pressurized and unpressurized cargo, experiments and other supplies to NASA's planned Lunar Gateway space station under a Gateway Logistics Services (GLS) contract. [116] NASA plans to use Dragon XL to transport sample collection materials, spacesuits and other supplies to be used on the Gateway and on the surface of the Moon. Dragon XL will launch on the Falcon Heavy and will transport more than 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) to the Gateway. Dragon XL will stay at the Gateway for six to twelve months at a time, when research payloads inside and outside the cargo vessel could be operated remotely, even when crews are not present. [117] [118]

Autonomous spaceport drone ships Edit

SpaceX routinely returns the first stage of Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets after orbital launches. The rocket flights and land to a predetermined landing site using only its own propulsion systems. [119] When propellent margins do not permit a return to launch site (RTLS), rockets return to floating landing platform in the ocean, called autonomous spaceport drone ships (ASDS). [120]

SpaceX also plans to introduce floating launch platforms. These are modified oil rigs to use in the 2020s to provide a sea launch option for their second-generation launch vehicle: the heavy-lift Starship system, consisting of the Super Heavy booster and Starship second stage. SpaceX has purchased two deepwater oil rigs and are refitting them to support Starship launches. [121]

Starship Edit

SpaceX is developing a fully reusable super-heavy lift launch system known as Starship. The Starship system comprises a reusable first stage, called Super Heavy, and the reusable Starship second stage and space vehicle. The system is intended to supersede the company's existing launch vehicle hardware by the early 2020s. [122] [123]

SpaceX initially envisioned a 12-meter-diameter ITS concept in 2016 which was solely aimed at Mars transit and other interplanetary uses. In 2017 SpaceX articulated a smaller 9-meter-diameter vehicle to replace all of SpaceX launch service provider capabilities — Earth-orbit, lunar-orbit, interplanetary missions, and potentially, even intercontinental passenger transport on Earth — but do so on a fully reusable set of vehicles with a markedly lower cost structure. [124] In 2018, the Starship system was redesigned to use stainless steel instead of carbon fiber construction, with the aims of improving performance while drastically decreasing cost. Private passenger Yusaku Maezawa has contracted to fly around the Moon in a Starship vehicle in 2023. [125] The company's long-term vision is the development of technology and resources suitable for human colonization on Mars. [126] [127] [128]

Starlink Edit

Starlink is an internet satellite constellation under development by SpaceX. The Internet service will use 4,425 cross-linked communications satellites in 1,100 km orbits. Owned and operated by SpaceX, the goal of the business is to increase profitability and cash flow, to allow SpaceX to build its Mars colony. [129] Development began in 2015, initial prototype test-flight satellites were launched on the SpaceX Paz satellite mission in 2017. In May 2019 SpaceX launched the first batch of 60 satellites aboard a Falcon 9. [130] By May 2021, SpaceX had launched 1737 Starlink satellites. [131] Initial test operation of the constellation began in late 2020. [132]

In March 2017 SpaceX filed with the Federal Communications Commission plans to field a constellation of an additional 7,518 V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services. [133] In February 2019 SpaceX formed a sibling company, SpaceX Services, Inc., to license the manufacture and deployment of up to 1,000,000 fixed satellite Earth stations that will communicate with its Starlink system. [134] The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) awarded SpaceX with nearly US$900 million worth of federal subsidies to support rural broadband customers through the company's Starlink satellite internet network. SpaceX won subsidies to bring service to customers in 35 U.S. states. [135]

On May 15, 2021 SpaceX and Google collaborated [136] to provide data and cloud services for Starlink Enterprise customers.

Controversies Edit

The planned large number of Starlink satellites has been criticized by astronomers due to concerns over light pollution, [137] [138] [139] with the brightness of Starlink satellites in both optical and radio wavelengths interfering with scientific observations. [140] In response, SpaceX has implemented several upgrades to Starlink satellites aimed at reducing their brightness during operation. [141] The large number of satellites employed by Starlink also creates long-term dangers of space debris collisions resulting from placing thousands of satellites in orbit. [142] [143]

Other projects Edit

In June 2015 SpaceX announced that they would sponsor a Hyperloop competition, and would build a 1.6 km (0.99 mi) long subscale test track near SpaceX's headquarters for the competitive events. [144] [145] The company has held annual competitions since 2017. [146] [147]

In collaboration with doctors and academic researchers, SpaceX invited all employees to participate in the creation of a COVID-19 antibody-testing program in 2020. As such 4300 employees volunteered to provide blood-samples resulting in a peer-reviewed scientific paper crediting eight SpaceX employees as coauthors and suggesting that a certain level of COVID-19 antibodies may provide lasting protection against the virus. [148] [149]

SpaceX is headquartered in Hawthorne, California, which also serves as its primary manufacturing plant. The company operates a research and major operation in Redmond, Washington, owns a test site in Texas and operates three launch sites, with another under development. SpaceX also operates regional offices in Texas, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. [64] SpaceX was incorporated in the state of Delaware. [150]

Headquarters, manufacturing, and refurbishment facilities Edit

SpaceX Headquarters is located in the Los Angeles suburb of Hawthorne, California. The large three-story facility, originally built by Northrop Corporation to build Boeing 747 fuselages, [151] houses SpaceX's office space, mission control, and, Falcon 9 manufacturing facilities. [152]

The area has one of the largest concentrations of aerospace headquarters, facilities, and/or subsidiaries in the U.S., including Boeing/McDonnell Douglas main satellite building campuses, Aerospace Corp., Raytheon, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, United States Space Force's Space and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles Air Force Base, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, Northrop Grumman, and AECOM, etc., with a large pool of aerospace engineers and recent college engineering graduates. [151]

SpaceX utilizes a high degree of vertical integration in the production of its rockets and rocket engines. [10] SpaceX builds its rocket engines, rocket stages, spacecraft, principal avionics and all software in-house in their Hawthorne facility, which is unusual for the aerospace industry. Nevertheless, SpaceX still has over 3,000 suppliers, with some 1,100 of those delivering to SpaceX nearly weekly. [153]

Development and test facilities Edit

SpaceX operates its first Rocket Development and Test Facility in McGregor, Texas. All SpaceX rocket engines are tested on rocket test stands, and low-altitude VTVL flight testing of the Falcon 9 Grasshopper v1.0 and F9R Dev1 test vehicles in 2013–2014 were carried out at McGregor. Testing of the much larger Starship prototypes is conducted in the SpaceX South Texas launch site near Brownsville, Texas. [152]

The company purchased the McGregor facilities from Beal Aerospace, where it refitted the largest test stand for Falcon 9 engine testing. SpaceX has made a number of improvements to the facility since purchase and has also extended the acreage by purchasing several pieces of adjacent farmland. The company built a half-acre concrete launch facility in 2012 to support the Grasshopper test flight program. [154] As of October 2012 [update] , the McGregor facility had seven test stands that are operated "18 hours a day, six days a week" [155] and is building more test stands because production is ramping up and the company has a large manifest in the next several years. [156] In addition to routine testing, Dragon capsules (following recovery after an orbital mission), are shipped to McGregor for de-fueling, cleanup, and refurbishment for reuse in future missions. [157]

Launch facilities Edit

SpaceX currently operates three orbital launch sites, at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, Vandenberg Space Force Base, and Kennedy Space Center, and is under construction on a fourth in Brownsville, Texas. SpaceX has indicated that they see a niche for each of the four orbital facilities and that they have sufficient launch business to fill each pad. [158] The Vandenberg launch site enables highly inclined orbits (66–145°), while Cape Canaveral enables orbits of medium inclination (28.5–51.6°). [159] Before it was retired, all Falcon 1 launches took place at the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site on Omelek Island. [160]

Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Edit

In April 2007 the USAF approved the use of Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40) by SpaceX. [161] The site has been used from 2010 for Falcon 9 launches, mainly to low Earth and geostationary orbits. SLC-40 is not capable of supporting Falcon Heavy launches. As part of SpaceX's booster reusability program, the former Launch Complex 13 at Cape Canaveral, now renamed Landing Zone 1, has since 2015 been designated for use for Falcon 9 first-stage booster landings. [162]

Vandenberg Space Force Base Edit

Vandenberg Space Launch Complex 4 (SLC-4E) leased in 2011, is used for payloads to polar orbits. The Vandenberg site can launch both Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy, [163] but cannot launch to low inclination orbits. The neighboring SLC-4W has been converted to Landing Zone 4 since 2015, where SpaceX has successfully landed three Falcon 9 first-stage boosters, the first in October 2018. [164]

Kennedy Space Center Edit

On 14 April 2014, SpaceX signed a 20-year lease for Launch Complex 39A. [165] The pad was subsequently modified to support Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launches. SpaceX launched its first crewed mission to the ISS from Launch Pad 39A on 30 May 2020. [166]

Boca Chica, Texas Edit

SpaceX manufactures and flies Starship test vehicles from a facility at Boca Chica, Texas, with future plans to conduct orbital Starship flights in 2021. [167] SpaceX first publicly announced plans for a launch facility near Brownsville, Texas in August 2014. [168] [169] The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued the permit in July 2014. [170] SpaceX broke ground on the new launch facility in 2014 with construction ramping up in the latter half of 2015, [171] with the first suborbital launches from the facility in 2019. [152]

Satellite manufacturing facility Edit

In January 2015 SpaceX announced it would be entering the satellite production business and global satellite internet business. The first satellite facility is a 30,000 sq ft (2,800 m 2 ) office building located in Redmond, Washington. As of January 2017, a second facility in Redmond was acquired with 40,625 sq ft (3,774.2 m 2 ) and has become a research and development laboratory for the satellites. [172] In July 2016, SpaceX acquired an additional 8,000 sq ft (740 m 2 ) creative space in Irvine, California (Orange County) to focus on satellite communications. [173] [174]

SpaceX won demonstration and actual supply contracts from NASA for the International Space Station (ISS) with technology the company developed. SpaceX is also certified for U.S. military launches of Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-class (EELV) payloads. With approximately 30 missions on the manifest for 2018 alone, SpaceX represents over US$12 billion under contract. [64]

NASA Edit

COTS Edit

In 2006 NASA announced that SpaceX had won a NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Phase 1 contract to demonstrate cargo delivery to the International Space Station (ISS), with a possible contract option for crew transport. [175] Through this contract, designed by NASA to provide "seed money" through Space Act Agreements for developing new capabilities, NASA paid SpaceX US$396 million to develop the cargo configuration of the Dragon spacecraft, while SpaceX self-invested more than US$500 million to develop the Falcon 9 launch vehicle. [176] These Space Act Agreements have been shown to have saved NASA millions of dollars in development costs, making rocket development

4–10 times cheaper than if produced by NASA alone. [177]

In December 2010 the launch of the SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 1 mission, SpaceX became the first private company to successfully launch, orbit and recover a spacecraft. [178] Dragon successfully berthed with the ISS during SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 2 in May 2012, a first for a private spacecraft. [179]

Commercial cargo Edit

Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) are a series of contracts awarded by NASA from 2008 to 2016 for delivery of cargo and supplies to the ISS on commercially operated spacecraft. The first CRS contracts were signed in 2008 and awarded US$1.6 billion to SpaceX for 12 cargo transport missions, covering deliveries to 2016. [180] SpaceX CRS-1, the first of the 12 planned resupply missions, launched in October 2012, achieved orbit, berthed and remained on station for 20 days, before re-entering the atmosphere and splashing down in the Pacific Ocean. [181] CRS missions have flown approximately twice a year to the ISS since then. In 2015, NASA extended the Phase 1 contracts by ordering an additional three resupply flights from SpaceX, and then extended the contract further for a total of twenty cargo missions to the ISS. [182] [180] [183] The final Dragon 1 mission, SpaceX CRS-20, departed the ISS in April 2020, and Dragon was subsequently retired from service. A second phase of contracts was awarded in January 2016 with SpaceX as one of the awardees. SpaceX will fly up to nine additional CRS flights with the upgraded Dragon 2 spacecraft. [184] [185]

In March 2020 NASA contracted SpaceX to develop the Dragon XL spacecraft to send supplies to the Lunar Gateway space station. Dragon XL will be launched on a Falcon Heavy. [186]

Commercial crew Edit

SpaceX is responsible for transportation of NASA astronauts to and from the ISS. The NASA contracts started as part of the Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program, aimed at developing commercially operated spacecraft capable of delivering astronauts to the ISS. The first contract was awarded to SpaceX in 2011, [187] [188] followed by another in 2012 to continue development and testing of its Dragon 2 spacecraft. [189]

In September 2014 NASA chose SpaceX and Boeing as the two companies that would be funded to develop systems to transport U.S. crews to and from the ISS. [190] SpaceX won US$2.6 billion to complete and certify Dragon 2 by the year 2017. The contracts include at least one crewed flight test with at least one NASA astronaut aboard. Once Crew Dragon achieves NASA certification, the contract requires SpaceX to conduct at least two, and as many as six, crewed missions to the space station. [190] SpaceX completed the first key flight test of its Crew Dragon spacecraft, a Pad Abort Test, in May 2015. [191]

In early 2017 SpaceX was awarded all six missions to the ISS from NASA. [192] In early 2019 SpaceX successfully conducted a full uncrewed test flight of Crew Dragon, which docked to the ISS and then splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. [193] In January 2020, SpaceX conducted an in-flight abort test, the last test flight before flying crew, in which the Dragon spacecraft fired its launch escape engines in a simulated abort scenario. [194]

On 30 May 2020 the Crew Dragon Demo-2 mission was launched to the International Space Station with NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley, the first time a crewed vehicle had launched from the U.S. since 2011, and the first commercial crewed launch to the ISS. [195] The Crew-1 mission was successfully launched to the International Space Station on 16 November 2020, with NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover and Shannon Walker along with JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi, [196] all members of the Expedition 64 crew. [197] On 23 April 2021, Crew-2 was launched to the International Space Station with NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough and K. Megan McArthur, JAXA astronaut Akihiko Hoshide, and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet. [198] The Crew-2 mission successfully docked on 24 April 2021. [199]

National defense Edit

In 2005 SpaceX announced that it had been awarded an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, allowing the United States Air Force to purchase up to US$100 million worth of launches from the company. [200] In April 2008, NASA announced that it had awarded an IDIQ Launch Services contract to SpaceX for up to US$1 billion, depending on the number of missions awarded. The contract covers launch services ordered by June 2010, for launches through December 2012. [201] Musk stated in the same 2008 announcement that SpaceX has sold 14 contracts for flights on the various Falcon vehicles. [201] In December 2012, SpaceX announced its first two launch contracts with the United States Department of Defense (DoD). The United States Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center awarded SpaceX two EELV-class missions: Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) and Space Test Program 2 (STP-2). DSCOVR was launched on a Falcon 9 launch vehicle in 2015, while STP-2 was launched on a Falcon Heavy on 25 June 2019. [202]

In May 2015 the United States Air Force announced that the Falcon 9 v1.1 was certified for National Security Space Launch (NSSL), which allows SpaceX to contract launch services to the Air Force for any payloads classified under national security. [99] This broke the monopoly held since 2006 by United Launch Alliance (ULA) over the U.S. Air Force launches of classified payloads. [203] In April 2016 the U.S. Air Force awarded the first such national security launch to SpaceX to launch the 2nd GPS 3 satellite for US$82.7 million. [204] This was approximately 40% less than the estimated cost for similar previous missions. [205] SpaceX also launched the 3rd GPS 3 launch on 20 June 2020. [206] In March 2018 SpaceX secured an additional US$290 million contract from the U.S. Air Force to launch another three GPS III satellites. [207]

In 2016 the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) purchased launches from SpaceX, with the first taking place on 1 May 2017. [208] In February 2019, SpaceX secured a US$297 million contract from the U.S. Air Force to launch another three national security missions, all slated to launch no earlier than FY 2021. [209]

On 7 August 2020 the U.S. Space Force awarded its National Security Space Launch (NSSL) contracts for the following 5–7 years. SpaceX won a contract for US$316 million for one launch. In addition, SpaceX will handle 40% of the U.S. military's satellite launch requirements over the period. [210]

Space tourism Edit

In February 2020 Space Adventures announced plans to fly private citizens into orbit on Crew Dragon in late 2021 or 2022. The company would launch a Crew Dragon with up to four paying tourists on board, and spend up to five days in a low Earth orbit above the orbit of the International Space Station. [211]

SpaceX's low launch prices, especially for communication satellites flying to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), have resulted in market pressure on its competitors to lower their own prices. [10] Prior to 2013, the openly competed comsat launch market had been dominated by Arianespace (flying the Ariane 5) and International Launch Services (flying the Proton). [212] With a published price of US$56.5 million per launch to low Earth orbit, Falcon 9 rockets were the cheapest in the industry. [213] European satellite operators are pushing the European Space Agency (ESA) to reduce launch prices of the Ariane 5 and the future Ariane 6 rockets as a result of competition from SpaceX. [214] In 2014 no commercial launches were booked to fly on the Russian Proton rocket. [43]

SpaceX also put an end to the United Launch Alliance (ULA) monopoly of U.S. military payloads when it began to compete for national security launches. In 2015, anticipating a slump in domestic, military, and spy launches, ULA stated that it would go out of business unless it won commercial satellite launch orders. [215] To that end, ULA announced a major restructuring of processes and workforce in order to decrease launch costs by half. [216] [217]

Congressional testimony by SpaceX in 2017 suggested that the NASA Space Act Agreement process of "setting only a high-level requirement for cargo transport to the space station [while] leaving the details to industry" had allowed SpaceX to design and develop the Falcon 9 rocket on its own at a substantially lower cost. According to NASA's own independently verified numbers, SpaceX's total development cost for both the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 rockets was estimated at approximately US$390 million. In 2011 NASA estimated that it would have cost the agency about US$4 billion to develop a rocket like the Falcon 9 booster based upon NASA's traditional contracting processes, about ten times more. [177]

In May 2020, NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine remarked that thanks to NASA's investments into SpaceX, the United States has 70% of the commercial launch market, a major improvement since 2012 when there were no commercial launches from the country. [218]


March 25, 2017 Day 65 of the First Year - History


President Lyndon Johnson at Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam, 10/26/1966. Pictured with General William Westmoreland, Lt. General Nguyen Van Thieu, and Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky of South Vietnam. Photo: White House Photograph Office. Courtesy National Archives.



Martin Luther King, with Mathew Ahmann, at the Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C., August 28, 1963. Photo: U.S. Information Agency, Press and Publications Service. Courtesy National Archives.

Timeline History


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Photo above: Astronaut John Glenn pictured above with President John F. Kennedy looking inside the Mercury Space Capsule in 1962. Courtesy National Archives. Right: Soyuz TMA-7 Spacecraft. Courtesy NASA.

U.S. Timeline - The 1960s

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May 1, 1960 - In the Soviet Union, a United States U-2 reconnaissance plane is shot done by Soviet forces, leading to the capture of U.S. pilot Gary Powers and the eventual cancellation of the Paris summit conference. On August 19, Powers is sentenced by the Soviet Union to ten years in prison for espionage. On February 10, 1962 , he would be exchanged for a captured Soviet spy in Berlin.

Koop chronologie

January 3, 1961 - Disputes over the nationalization of United States businesses in Cuba cause the U.S. Government to sever diplomatic and consular relations with the Cuban government.

February 15, 1961 - The entire United States figure skating team is killed in a plane crash near Brussels, Belgium on their journey to the World Championships. Seventy-three people are killed.

April 17, 1961 - The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba is repulsed by Cuban forces in an attempt by Cuban exiles under the direction of the United States government to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro.

December 28, 1961 - The National Park Service extends its lands into the U.S. Virgin Islands when President John F. Kennedy proclaims the Buck Island Reef as a National Monument. The reef includes an underwater nature trail and one of the best marine gardens in the Caribbean Sea.

February 7, 1962 - The first sign of a looming Vietnam conflict emerges when President Kennedy admits that the military advisors already in Vietnam would engage the enemy if fired upon.

February 20, 1962 - Lt. Colonel John Glenn becomes the first U.S. astronaut in orbit in the Friendship 7 Mercury capsule. He would circle the earth three times before returning to earth, remaining aloft for four hours and fifty-five minutes. This flight equalized the space race with the Soviet Union, whose Vostok I flight on April 12, 1961 with Yuri Gagarin had become the first manned spaceflight into orbit one year earlier.

March 21, 1963 - The last twenty-seven prisoners of Alcatraz, the island prison in San Francisco Bay, are ordered removed by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and the federal penitentiary is closed.

June 11, 1963 - A patent for the first manned space capsule, the Mercury, is issued to Maxime A. Faget, Andre J. Meyer, Jr., Robert G. Chilton, William S. Blanchard, Jr., Alan B. Kehlet, Jerome B. Hammack, and Caldwell C. Johnson, Jr.

June 17, 1963 - The Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Abington School District vs. Schempp that laws requiring the recitation of the Lord's Prayer or Bible verses in public schools is unconstitutional. The vote was 8 to 1.

January 9, 1964 - The Panama Canal incident occurs when Panamanian mobs engage United States troops, leading to the death of twenty-one Panama citizens and four U.S. troops.

January 13, 1964 - Beatlemania hits the shores of the United States with the release of I Want to Hold Your Hand, which becomes the Liverpool group's first North American hit. One week later, their first U.S. album Meet the Beatles is released.

February 25, 1964 - 1960 Olympic champion Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali) wins the World Heavyweight Championship in Boxing from current champ Sonny Liston.

November 3, 1964 - President Lyndon B. Johnson wins his first presidential election with a victory over Barry M. Goldwater from Arizona. Johnson extended the Democratic victory by former running mate John F. Kennedy with a 486 to 52 thrashing of the Republican candidate in the Electoral College and over 15 million surplus in the popular vote.

February 7, 1965 - President Lyndon B. Johnson orders the continuous bombing of North Vietnam below the 20th parallel.

October 15, 1965 - The first public burning of a draft card occurs in protest to the Vietnam War. It is coordinated by the anti-war group of students, National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam.

Kevlar is developed by Dupont scientist Stephanie Louise Kwolek. She would patent the compound, used extensively in bullet proof vests, in 1966.

June 29, 1966 - United States warplanes begin their bombing raids of Hanoi and Haiphong, North Vietnam. By December of this year, the United States had 385,300 troops stationed in South Vietnam with sixty thousand additional troops offshore and thirty-three thousand in Thailand.

July 1, 1966 - Medicare, the government medical program for citizens over the age of 65, begins.

November 8, 1966 - The first black United States Senator in eighty-five years, Edward Brooke, is elected to Congress. Brooke was the Republican candidate from Massachusetts and former Attorney General of that state.

January 15, 1967 - The first Super Bowl is held in Los Angeles between the Green Bay Packers and the Kansas City Chiefs with Green Bay winning 35-10. Over fifty one million people watch on television.

July 1967 - Black riots plague U.S. cities. In Newark, New Jersey, twenty-six are killed, fifteen hundred injured and one thousand arrested from July 12 to 17. One week later, July 23 to 30, forty are killed, two thousand injured, and five thousand left homeless after rioting in Detroit, known as the 12th Street Riots, decimate a black ghetto. The riots are eventually stopped by over 12,500 Federal troopers and National Guardsmen.

March 31, 1968 - President Johnson announces a slowing to the bombing of North Vietnam, and that he would not seek reelection as president. Peace talks would begin May 10 in Paris all bombing of North Korea halted October 31.

April 4, 1968 - Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee while standing on a motel balcony by James Earl Ray.

June 5, 1968 - Presidential candidate, the Democratic Senator from New York, Robert F. Kennedy, is shot at a campaign victory celebration in Los Angeles by Sirhan Sirhan, a Jordanian, after primary victories, and dies one day later.

November 5, 1968 - Richard M. Nixon recaptures the White House from the Democratic party with his victory of Hubert H. Humphrey and 3rd Party candidate George Wallace. Nixon captures 301 Electoral College Votes to 191 for Humphrey and 46 for Wallace.

January 12, 1969 - The New York Jets win Super Bowl III over the Baltimore Colts after a bold prediction by quarterback Joe Namath. This is the first victory in the National Football League for a former American Football League team.

January 25, 1969 - Four-party Vietnam war peace talks begin. In April, U.S. troops in the war reached its zenith at 543,400 and would begin their withdrawal on July 8.

July 20, 1969 - The Apollo program completes its mission. Neil Armstrong, United States astronaut, becomes the first man to set foot on the moon four days after launch from Cape Canaveral. His Apollo 11 colleague, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. accompanies him.

July 25, 1969 - President Richard M. Nixon announces his new Vietnam policy, declaring the Nixon Doctrine that expected Asian allies to care for their own military defense. This policy, and all Vietnam war policies, would be heavily protested throughout the remainder of the year. On November 15, 1969, more than two hundred and fifty thousand anti-Vietnam war demonstrators marched on Washington, D.C. to peacefully protest the war.

November 20, 1969 - Alcatraz Island, the former prison in San Francisco Bay, is occupied by fourteen American Indians in a long standoff over the issues of Indian causes.


Prevention

The hepatitis B vaccine is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention. WHO recommends that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours &ndash followed by two or three doses of hepatitis B vaccine at least four weeks apart to complete the series. Timely birth dose is an effective measure to reduce transmission from mother-to-child.

According to latest WHO estimates, the proportion of children under five years of age chronically infected with HBV dropped to just under 1% in 2019 down from around 5% in the pre-vaccine era ranging from the 1980s to the early 2000s.

This marks the achievement of one of the milestone targets to eliminate viral hepatitis in the Sustainable Development Goals ─ to reach under 1% prevalence of HBV infections in children under five years of age by 2020.

In 2019, coverage of 3 doses of the vaccine reached 85% worldwide compared to around 30% in 2000. However, coverage of the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose remains uneven. Global coverage of the HBV birth dose, for example, is 43%, while coverage in the WHO African Region is only 6%. .

The complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in more than 95% of infants, children and young adults. Protection lasts at least 20 years and is probably lifelong. Thus, WHO does not recommend booster vaccinations for persons who have completed the 3-dose vaccination schedule.

All children and adolescents younger than 18 years and not previously vaccinated should receive the vaccine if they live in countries where there is low or intermediate endemicity. In those settings it is possible that more people in high-risk groups may acquire the infection and they should also be vaccinated. This includes:

  • people who frequently require blood or blood products, dialysis patients and recipients of solid organ transplantations
  • people in prisons
  • people who inject drugs
  • household and sexual contacts of people with chronic HBV infection
  • people with multiple sexual partners
  • healthcare workers and others who may be exposed to blood and blood products through their work and
  • travellers who have not completed their HBV series, who should be offered the vaccine before leaving for endemic areas.

The vaccine has an excellent record of safety and effectiveness and the proportion of children under five years of age chronically infected with HBV dropped to just under 1% in 2019 down from around 5% in the pre-vaccine era ranging from the 1980s to the early 2000s.

In addition to infant vaccination, including a timely birth dose, WHO recommends the use of antiviral prophylaxis for the prevention of hepatitis B transmission from mother-to-child. Pregnant women with high levels of HBV DNA (viral load) and/or the presence of HBeAG have an elevated risk of transmitting the virus to their child, even among infants who receive the timely birth dose and the complete hepatitis B vaccine series. As such, pregnant women with high HBV DNA levels may be eligible for antiviral prophylaxis during pregnancy to prevent perinatal HBV infection and protect their infants from contracting the disease.

In addition to infant vaccination and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, implementation of blood safety strategies, including quality-assured screening of all donated blood and blood components used for transfusion, can prevent transmission of HBV. Worldwide, in 2013, 97% of blood donations were screened and quality assured, but gaps persist. Safe injection practices, eliminating unnecessary and unsafe injections, can be effective strategies to protect against HBV transmission. Unsafe injections decreased from 39% in 2000 to 5% in 2010 worldwide. Furthermore, safer sex practices, including minimizing the number of partners and using barrier protective measures (condoms), also protect against transmission.


Where does Maart come from?

The first records of the word Maart as the name of a month come from before 1050. It comes from the Latin Mārtius mēnsis, meaning “the month of Mars,” referring to the Roman god of war. The months of January and May are also named after Roman deities.

The ancient Roman calendar originally began with the month we call MaartMaart 1 was the first day of the year. Eventually, two additional months—what we now call January and February—were added so that the months would fall during the same seasons each year.

In ancient Rome, Maart marked the start of the military campaign season. However, the word march in the sense of walking in a military formation or in some other purposeful way is not actually related to the name of the month. Die woord march in the walking sense comes from the Old French marchier, “to tread,” possibly from the Frankish markōn, meaning “to mark or pace”—it’s not based on or related to Mars.

In astrology, the sign Pisces applies to those born between February 19 and Maart 20. The sign Aries applies to those born between Maart 21 and April 19.

Discover more to the story behind the word Maart, by reading our article on the name’s fascinating history.


The Orange County Regional History Center, housed in a historic courthouse in the heart of downtown Orlando, offers four floors of exhibits exploring 12,000 years of Central Florida’s rich heritage. A Smithsonian affiliate, the museum also offers visiting exhibitions and a wide range of programs for families, children, and adults.

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Selections from the vast and varied collections of the Historical Society of Central Florida illustrate Central Florida’s fascinating past.

As an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution, the History Center presents limited-run exhibitions of great depth and insight.

Convenient parking options include the Central Boulevard garage across from the Orlando Public Library, the History Center’s neighbor.

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Upcoming Events

History in a Glass: Bootleggers Paradise

Lunch & Learn- Latinx arts in Central Florida: Inclusion and Visibility

Andrew Jackson and the Transfer of Florida in 1821

Lunch & Learn: The Legacy of Voter Suppression

Get Involved

Volunteers play an important role in our efforts to discover, preserve, and present Central Florida’s fascinating history. Join us!

Around the Museum Blog

Designing a Flag for Orange County

Adams’ winning design for the new Orange County flag was announced in a ceremony at the new administration building at noon on June 14, 1985, the 100th anniversary of National Flag Day.

Five Years Since Pulse

Each summer since 2017, the History Center has created an exhibition for the annual remembrance of the Pulse nightclub shooting. This year’s exhibition has been crafted in effort to memorialize the victims and shine a light on the outpouring of love following the events of June 12, 2016.

The Citrus Wizard: Lue Gim Gong

In his most influential innovation, Lue Gim Gong crossed the Hart’s Late Valencia with Mediterranean Sweet varieties to produce an orange that bears his name, a juicy and hardy fruit that could take the cold better than most oranges of the day.

Iconic Fountain Reflects City’s Rich Heritage

The fountain at Lake Eola has become the closest thing Orlando has to an icon, its green bubble a permanent part of the city’s mental landscape, a survivor from the Fabulous Fifties that debuted under Sputnik skies.

Ebsen Dance Revue

Orlando siblings Buddy and Vilma Ebsen make it big as professional dancers and perform in their hometown in May 1940 at Orlando’s City Auditorium.

What our visitors are saying about their experience

I want to thank the staff at the History Center for my daughter’s experience this summer [at camp]. Every staff member has been kind, talented and prepared – and helped nurture my daughter’s love of invention and creation. She deeply enjoyed the program. Dankie!

Ximena Cordova Palma

I just have to tell you what a spectacular time our classes had today! The kids talked about it all afternoon, and all of our teachers raved about it! How early is too early to book for next year?

Teacher Judy Lindquist, Andover Elementary School

The exhibits were interesting and well put together. I particularly enjoyed all the information about Florida’s citrus industry. Exhibits focusing on tourism were a close second favorite. Staff was helpful, and we enjoyed the optional audio tour.

Halee Pearl

Great local museum! Took our daughter when she was 3 and she loved it. She asked to go back and at 5 she loved it even more! If you live in central Florida, or are visiting, you really need to check it out!

Joanna Bond

May 9

During the coronavirus pandemic the Bridges outreach team is working overtime to place the homeless population in Newark in housing. Ahmid Hatcher, homeless for three years, rests in the Bridges Outreach van while he waits for transport to the H.E.L.P Center on May 7, 2020 where he will stay off of the streets. (Photo: AMY NEWMAN, NORTHJERSEY.COM/ USA TODAY NETWORK)

There are 1,759 new positive COVID-19 cases, bringing the statewide total to 137,085.

Officials report 166 New Jerseyans died from COVID-19, bringing the total of loss of life to 9,116.

Another sign of encouragement: NJ officials say they no longer need the services of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which spent 45 days expanding the state's hospital capacity by 1,500 beds.


Kyk die video: 10 Space Photos That Will Give You Nightmares (Desember 2021).