Geskiedenis Podcasts

6 Februarie 1944

6 Februarie 1944

6 Februarie 1944

Februarie

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> Maart

Oorlog op see

Duitse duikbote U-177 het van die Hemelvaart-eilande gesink

Birma

Japanse troepe vorder op die Arakan -front

Oosfront

Sowjet -troepe vang vyf Duitse divisies naby Nikopol



6 Februarie 1944 - Geskiedenis

In die donker van 1 Februarie 1944 het die slagskip Indiana omgedraai om die taakgroep 58.1 te verlaat. TG 58.1 stoom op negentien knope deur die Marshall -eilande, bestaande uit drie vliegdekskepe, drie slagskepe, 'n ligte kruiser en nege vernietigers (**: skepe word hieronder gelys) en ondersteun die inval van Kwajalein Atoll. Indiana het bevel gekry om vier vernietigers op te vul, wat snags gedoen moet word om 'n volledige skerm teen die duikboot te verseker tydens die gevegsoperasies die volgende dag.

Indiana het om 0420 per radio aangekondig dat sy na links draai en tot vyftien knope vertraag. Haar bevelvoerder, gebaseer op 'n & quotseaman's eye & quot -evaluering van die situasie, het egter blykbaar beter oor die koers gedink en 'n kort rukkie later van rigting na die formasie verander. Dit is nie aan die res van die skepe gerapporteer nie, en ongeveer sewe minute nadat sy aan die beurt gekom het, is Indiana naby die slagskip Washington se hawe boog gesien. Laasgenoemde beveel haar enjins om te "terug", noodvol "en haar roer hard links sit. Indiana het ook gemanoeuvreer in 'n poging om 'n botsing te voorkom. In ongeveer 'n minuut hardloop die twee groot skepe egter saam, met Washington se boog wat die agterkant van Indiana se stuurboord afskraap.

Beide skepe is genoeg beskadig om herstelwerk van die werf te vereis, wat albei op 'n ongunstige tydstip uit die geveg kon haal. Indiana se stuurboord se kant is ingedien en oopgeskeur. Bo die dek is haar na 'n sestien duim geweer rewolwer se afstandbreker beskadig, verskeie masjiengewere is vernietig en haar stuurboord vliegtuig se katapult en 'n seevliegtuig is afgeskeur. Sowat sestig voet van Washington se voorste romp is weggemaal, wat veroorsaak dat sy dek in die water val. Tien lewens is dood in hierdie ongeluk, ses dood of vermis in Washington en vier in Indiana. Laasgenoemde se bevelvoerder, wie se optrede ernstig gekritiseer is deur die daaropvolgende hof van ondersoek, is van bevel onthef en nie weer op see werksaam nie. In teenstelling hiermee is die Washington's Officer of the Deck geprys vir 'n skitterende en seemanlike optrede wat die botsing amper afgeweer het en die gevolge beslis tot 'n minimum beperk het. & Quot kapteins, offisiere van die dek en gevegsinligtingsentrum wagte.

As 'n aanduiding van die industriële vermoëns en prioriteite in die oorlog, was albei slagskepe redelik vinnig in aksie. Indiana, herstel deur die Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, kon aan die einde van April 1944 deelneem aan strooptogte op die Japannese basis by Truk. Die ernstiger beseerde Washington het na die Puget Sound Navy Yard gegaan, wat binne minder as drie maande 'n nuwe boog vervaardig en geïnstalleer het. Sy was einde Mei terug in die gevegsgebied, betyds om aan die Marianas -veldtog in Junie 1944 deel te neem.

**: Die draers van Taakgroep 58.1 was Enterprise, vlagskip van agteradmiraal John W. Reeves, jr. (Bevelvoerder TG 58.1 en offisier in taktiese bevel) Yorktown, vlagskip van agteradmiraal Marc A. Mitscher (bevelvoerder, taakmag 58) en Belleau Wood. Slagskepe het Washington, die vlagskip van agter -admiraal Willis A. Lee (bevelvoerder, slagskepe, Pacific Fleet en taakeenheid 58.1.3), Indiana, vlagskip van agter -admiraal Glenn B. Davis (bevelvoerder -slagskip -afdeling 8) en Massachusetts, ingesluit. Die ligte kruiser was Oakland. Vernietigers wat aan TG 58.1 toegewys is, was Clarence K. Bronson (DD-668), Cotten (DD-669), Dortch (DD-670), Gatling (DD-671), Healy (DD-672), Cogswell (DD-651) , Caperton (DD-650), Ingersoll (DD-652) en Knapp (DD-653).

Hierdie bladsy bevat al die menings wat ons het oor die botsing van 1 Februarie tussen USS Washington (BB-56) en USS Indiana (BB-58).

As u reproduksies met 'n hoër resolusie wil hê as die digitale beelde van die aanlynbiblioteek, sien: "Hoe om fotografiese reproduksies te verkry."

Klik op die klein foto om dieselfde prentjie groter te sien.

Langs USS Vestal (AR-4) vir aanvanklike herstelwerk, na botsing met USS Indiana (BB-58) tydens die Marshalls-operasie, 1 Februarie 1944.
Let op ernstige skade aan die boog van Washington.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 89KB 740 x 590 pixels

Onderweg met 'n ineengestorte boog, nadat hy tydens die Marshalls-operasie, 1 Februarie 1944, met die USS Indiana (BB-58) gebots het.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 117KB 740 x 615 pixels

Skade is opgedoen tydens haar botsing van 1 Februarie 1944 met USS Indiana (BB-58).
Let op haar ineengestorte boog, vasgehou deur ankerkettings.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 159 KB 740 x 610 pixels

Skade is opgedoen tydens haar botsing van 1 Februarie 1944 met USS Indiana (BB-58).
Let op die harmonieuse plooiing van haar syplaat.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 152KB 740 x 615 pixels

Skade is opgedoen tydens haar botsing van 1 Februarie 1944 met USS Indiana (BB-58).
Uitsig kyk binne -in deur die opening in die romp voor die stuurboog.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 131KB 740 x 615 pixels

By Majuro Atoll vir herstelwerk op 3 Februarie 1944. Sy het gedurende die nag van 1 Februarie met USS Washington (BB-56) gebots terwyl sy aan die Marshalls-operasie deelgeneem het.
Skade aan haar stuurboord se rompkant is onder haar sigbaar na 'n 16-duim-geweertoring.
USS Washington, wie se boog in die ongeluk geskeur is, is op die linker agtergrond, langs USS Vestal (AR-4).

Amptelike Amerikaanse vlootfoto, nou in die versamelings van die National Archives.

Aanlynbeeld: 83KB 740 x 625 pixels

Reproduksies van hierdie beeld is moontlik ook beskikbaar via die National Archives fotografiese reproduksiestelsel.

By Pearl Harbor op 13 Februarie 1944, wat skade aan haar stuurboordkant veroorsaak het tydens haar botsing van 1 Februarie 1944 met USS Washington (BB-56).

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 102KB 740 x 605 pixels

By Pearl Harbor op 13 Februarie 1944 met skade aan haar stuurboordkant wat op 1 Februarie 1944 in die botsing met USS Washington (BB-56) ontvang is.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 110KB 740 x 605 pixels

By Pearl Harbor op 13 Februarie 1944 met skade aan haar stuurboordkant wat op 1 Februarie 1944 in die botsing met USS Washington (BB-56) ontvang is.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 100KB 740 x 600 pixels

By Pearl Harbor op 13 Februarie 1944 met skade aan haar stuurboordkant wat op 1 Februarie 1944 in die botsing met USS Washington (BB-56) ontvang is.
Sleepboot YT-471 help.
Let op die & quotcage & quot -mast wat aan die linkerkant op die wal gemonteer is. Dit is verwyder van USS California (BB-44) terwyl sy gered is na die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor op 7 Desember 1941.

Foto van die US Naval Historical Center.

Aanlynbeeld: 93KB 740 x 615 pixels

In droogdok by die Pearl Harbor Navy Yard terwyl sy tydelike herstelwerk ontvang het, omstreeks Maart 1944. Haar boog is verpletter tydens 'n botsing met USS Indiana (BB-58) op 1 Februarie 1944, tydens die Marshalls-operasie.


Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Sheldrake & raquo 09 Apr 2021, 13:02

O, bedoel u nie dat u die Casablanca -konferensie weer moet besoek en kyk of OP Roundup in 1943 aan die gang kan kom nie? Geen kant toon slegs die belangrikste poging op die voor die hand liggende voorkant nie. Net soos hoe die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog gewen is.

Montgomery het gedink dat dit moontlik was, in November en Desember '42.

Die langdurige veldtog in Tunisië het waarskynlik die geleentheid gebied, selfs al was Brooke ten gunste daarvan.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Gooner 1 & raquo 09 Apr 2021, 15:30

Uit 'Montgomery en die agtste weermag' onder redaksie van Stephen Brooks.

Brief aan Alan Brooke 27 November 1942

'Ek het baie gedink oor ons volgende skuiwe toe ons N. Africa opgeklaar het. Dit is eienaardig hoe moeilik dit is om betroubare nuus te kry oor wat in Tunis gebeur, en oor die vordering van ons mag daar. Ek maak planne om verder te gaan na Tripoli nadat ek die posisie van Agheila hanteer het, maar die onderhoud en verskaffing sal die duiwel wees, dit is 750 myl van Benghazi af, 'n baie onverskillige hawe, en daar is net een pad. sê ek sal iets daaraan kan doen.
Daarna is ek nie so seker nie. As die Bosche 'n baie sterk lugmag in Sicilië en Italië versamel, sien ek groot probleme by enige inval in die dele.
Dit kan heel moontlik wees dat ons offensief op die land teen die Duitsers die beste ontwikkel sou word uit Engeland oor die Kanaal, dit vermy alle probleme met skeepvaart, lugondersteuning, ensovoorts, en ons moet die offensief van 'n vaste basis ontwikkel.
Dit sou duur wees. Maar dit sou 'n geveg met die Duitsers veroorsaak.
Ek is heeltemal seker dat die manier om die Duitser te hanteer, is om hom in die geveg te trotseer en teen hom te veg, dit is die enigste manier om hom te hanteer, want dan vermoor jy hom. Die probleem met ons Britse seuns is dat hulle nie van nature moordenaars is nie; hulle moet so geïnspireer word dat hulle wil doodmaak, en dit is wat ek met hierdie leër van my probeer doen het.
Gegewe 'n groot aantal Amerikaners, glo ek dat die inval van Wes -Europa volgende somer, ongeveer Junie, met 'n goeie weer suksesvol kan wees. Maar die weermag in Engeland sou ingestel moes word, en die stryd waardig moes maak. Al hierdie dinge is egter baie bo my gebied, my onmiddellike taak is om Rommel af te sluit en na Tripoli te kom, maar nou en dan dink 'n mens aan ander dinge. "

Alan Brooke antwoord 12 Desember 1942
“. U idee oor toekomstige bewegings hou NIE heeltemal verband met die bestaande feit nie. Dit is in elk geval noodsaaklik om eers Duitsers uit Noord -Afrika klaar te maak. ”

Die tweede brief gaan in meer besonderhede, maar dan bly Monty schtum.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Gooner 1 & raquo 09 Apr 2021, 15:59

Die geallieerde leërs Italië kon Elba probeer gryp as hulle wou. Sans US VI Corps en die F.E.C. Ek sien nie hoe enige operasies deur die rump A.A.I. in Mei/Junie '44 sou dit nie eindig soos die Battle for Cassino deel II en deel III nie. Eerder nuttelose gevegte wat fyn infanterie -bataljons verslaan het vir min noemenswaardige wins.

Met wat ons weet, as die Geallieerdes vasbeslote was om Anvil in Junie te lanseer, sou die AAI die beste in die verdediging gaan, tot Augustus sê, wanneer genoeg vyandelike troepe na Frankryk afgetrek is en dan 'n behoorlike offensief onderneem.
Of, miskien nog beter, gaan heeltemal oor na die verdediging en dra 'n paar korps oor na die 21ste weermaggroep.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Carl Schwamberger & raquo 09 Apr 2021, 17:55

Uit 'Montgomery en die agtste weermag' onder redaksie van Stephen Brooks.

Brief aan Alan Brooke 27 November 1942

'Ek het baie gedink oor ons volgende skuiwe toe ons N. Africa opgeklaar het. Dit is eienaardig hoe moeilik dit is om betroubare nuus te kry oor wat in Tunis gebeur, en oor die vordering van ons mag daar. Ek maak planne om verder te gaan na Tripoli nadat ek met die Agheila -posisie te doen gekry het, maar onderhoud en verskaffing sal die duiwel wees, dit is 750 myl van Benghazi af, 'n baie onverskillige hawe, en daar is net een pad. sê ek sal iets daaraan kan doen.
Daarna is ek nie so seker nie. As die Bosche 'n baie sterk lugmag in Sicilië en Italië versamel, voorsien ek groot probleme by enige inval in die dele.
Dit kan heel moontlik wees dat ons offensief op die land teen die Duitsers die beste ontwikkel sou word uit Engeland oor die Kanaal, dit vermy alle probleme met skeepvaart, lugondersteuning, ensovoorts, en ons moet die offensief van 'n vaste basis ontwikkel.
Dit sou duur wees. Maar dit sou 'n geveg met die Duitsers veroorsaak.
Ek is heeltemal seker dat die manier om die Duitser te hanteer, is om hom in die geveg te trotseer en teen hom te veg, dit is die enigste manier om hom te hanteer, want dan vermoor jy hom. Die probleem met ons Britse seuns is dat hulle nie van nature moordenaars is nie; hulle moet so geïnspireer word dat hulle wil doodmaak, en dit is wat ek met hierdie leër van my probeer doen het.
Gegewe 'n groot aantal Amerikaners, glo ek dat die inval van Wes -Europa volgende somer, ongeveer Junie, met 'n goeie weer suksesvol kan wees. Maar die weermag in Engeland sou ingeskakel moes word, en die stryd waardig moes maak. Al hierdie dinge is egter baie bo my gebied, my onmiddellike taak is om Rommel af te sluit en na Tripoli te kom, maar nou en dan dink 'n mens aan ander dinge. "

Alan Brooke antwoord 12 Desember 1942
“. U idee oor toekomstige bewegings hou NIE heeltemal verband met die bestaande feit nie. Dit is in elk geval noodsaaklik om eers Duitsers uit Noord -Afrika klaar te maak. ”

Die tweede brief gaan in meer besonderhede, maar dan bly Monty schtum.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Juan G. C. & raquo 09 Apr 2021, 19:12

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Richard Anderson & raquo 10 April 2021, 02:18

In elk geval, die enigste manier om dit te beoordeel, is om na die beskikbaarheid van die landingsvaartuie -eenhede en vaartuie te kyk. Soveel eenhede het in werking getree en is in die lente van 1944 na Europa gehaas. Soos ek vroeër opgemerk het, was die landings op UTAH afhanklik van die aankoms van vaartuie -eenhede in April, wat die moontlikheid van 'n aanval op UTAH in Februarie teenaangedui het.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Carl Schwamberger & raquo 10 April 2021, 06:01

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur nota & raquo 10 April 2021, 07:23

Ek het eers in die suide van Frankryk EERSTE gedoen soos dit swakker was

en volg so gou moontlik in die noorde
sodat die landingsvaartuie en oorlogskepe tyd kan beweeg/ ens
en die Duitsers om 'n paar troepe te laat beweeg wat die noorde verswak

Stem saam met die weer dat vroeëre staking moontlik is, en dink daarom dat dit die eerste moet wees
plus ietwat minder troepe het dit die eerste dag in die suide nodig gehad
dink nie die weer in Februarie of selfs April sou moontlik wees nie, tensy dit baie gelukkig is in die kanaal

maar beide kan een keer beide loop en is 'n onnodige of gesogte risiko
hulle het oorweldigende magte benodig lugondersteuning ens
verdeel dit en dit is nie meer oorweldigend nie

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Juan G. C. & raquo 10 April 2021, 09:21

In elk geval, die enigste manier om dit te beoordeel, is om na die beskikbaarheid van die landingsvaartuie -eenhede en vaartuie te kyk. Soveel eenhede het in werking getree en is in die lente van 1944 na Europa gehaas. Soos ek vroeër opgemerk het, was die landings op UTAH afhanklik van die aankoms van vaartuie -eenhede in April, wat neig om die moontlikheid van 'n aanval op UTAH in Februarie te kontra.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Juan G. C. & raquo 10 April 2021, 11:31

Ek sal probeer om te hervat en te beveel wat die verskillende bronne sê om dinge op te klaar, hoewel ek miskien meer dinge kan mors. Aanvanklik was daar 'n tekort van 42 LST en 51 LCI (L). Die Amerikaners stel 'n reeks maatreëls voor om hierdie tekort te vergoed, "oorlading van vervoer (APA's), voertuie in die APA's [en ander vervoer?], Die gebruik van AKA's (vragskepe) in die aanvanklike hysbak en vind (vermoedelik uit nuwe produksie) 'n ekstra 27 LCT's "en vertrou ook op groter diensbaarheid en in die algemeen oorlading van vervoer en landingsvaartuie.

Die beplanningsteam van die 21ste weermaggroep maak beswaar teen hierdie maatreëls: hulle skei die Ranger-Comando-hysbak nie asof hierdie troepe saam met ander troepe in vervoer sou wees nie en "om LSI (L )'s, APA's, XAP's en AKA's vol troepe en voertuie op die eerste drie getye, in plaas van LST's en LCI (L), sou nie net hierdie waardevolle skepe en die inhoud daarvan in gevaar stel nie, maar sou die vereniging van troepe weens die tyd wat nodig was om voertuie te ontslaan, vertraag en voertuie in gevegsformasies aan wal ". Lae voertuigontlading sal die opbou ernstig vertraag.

Op 17 Februarie het die meningsverskil toegeneem tot die gebruik van aanvalstransport in plaas van 42 LST vir die opheffing van 2 400 voertuie. Op 18 Februarie het die 21ste weermaggroeppersoneel 7 LST en 30 LCI (L) van die vereistes gedaal, maar die bronne maak nie duidelik waarom (oorlading? Groter diensbaarheid? Maar dit word voorgestel om die tekort na hierdie daling te vergoed) laat 'n tekort van 35 LST en 21 LCI (L). Dan word voorgestel om van ANVIL 20 LST en 21 LCI (L) te neem en as vergoeding vir die LST 6 AKA na die MTO oor te dra, neem ek aan vir ANVIL. Dit laat steeds 'n tekort van 15 LST, wat na verwagting geabsorbeer sal word deur groter diensbaarheid, oorlading en nuwe Amerikaanse produksie.

Re: OVERLORD en ANVIL met die kompromie van Februarie 1944 oor die toewysing van landingsvaartuie

Plaas deur Sheldrake & raquo 10 April 2021, 16:05

Die beplanningsteam van die 21ste weermaggroep maak beswaar teen hierdie maatreëls: hulle skei die Ranger-Comando-hysbak nie asof hierdie troepe saam met ander troepe in vervoer sou wees nie, en "om LSI (L )'s, APA's, XAP's en AKA's vol troepe en voertuie op die eerste drie getye, in plaas van LST's en LCI (L), sou nie net hierdie waardevolle skepe en die inhoud daarvan in gevaar stel nie, maar sou die vereniging van troepe weens die tyd wat nodig was om voertuie te ontslaan, vertraag en voertuie in gevegsformasies aan wal ". Lae voertuigontlading sal die opbou ernstig vertraag.

Op 17 Februarie het die meningsverskil toegeneem tot die gebruik van aanvalstransport in plaas van 42 LST vir die opheffing van 2 400 voertuie. Op 18 Februarie het die 21ste Army Group Staff 7 LST en 30 LCI (L) van die vereistes gedaal, maar die bronne maak nie duidelik waarom

Dit het moontlik 'n arbitrêre besluit in die 21ste weermaggroep weerspieël om 'n sekere persentasie voertuie as 'n kompromie te versier.

Daar was baie dokumente uit die maande voor D -dag wat perdehandel weerspieël oor wat gelaai moet word en wat later oorbly. Daar was baie voertuie wat by die laai gevoeg moes word, asook die besluit oor wat om te laat tot later. Baie toerusting is ongetoets in die omstandighede waarin dit gebruik kan word. Kan 'n waterdigte Centaur 'n rits ammunisie slee sleep? Kan twee Centaurs van 'n LCT (A) afvuur? Wie was verantwoordelik vir die beplanning van die bewegings van die RAF AOP Squadrons? Al hierdie besluite sal 'n impak op die laaiplan hê. My aantekeninge wat uit die beplanningsdagboek van Brigadier Parham (Arty 2nd Army) gehaal is, bevat inskrywings wat die taamlik vloeiende besprekings weerspieël.

16 Feb. Konferensie oor personeel (COS). Biedings vra vir blokke van vervoer.

18 Februarie - Konferensie van personeel - totale tekort in voertuie 1300 voertuie tot D+6. Petroleum Port sal waarskynlik VP wees oor D+10 - oorweeg om AA op Air -velde te bespaar, aangesien dit waarskynlik naby mekaar sal wees. Die reël vir Assault divs-tot 60 % dan na 75 % (D+2-D+6) dan na ONS

21 Feb 4. Biedvergadering 1700h re D+7-D+14. COS besluit
a. Geen weermag AA minder vir Mulberry -hawe, vliegvelde en petroleumhawe nie
b. Geen Army LAA behalwe hierbo + ongeveer een Bty 2 x brûe in I Corps 2 Tps. (Pegasus -brug)
c. Aanbeveling dat 7.2 ”HA en 177 (A) Fd uitgesny en een korps LAA uitgesny word.

22 Feb Besluit of RAF S/L op vliegvelde wil hê - (nee)

28 Februarie - US 155 -bataljon bevestig as bykomende eenheid - (wat uiteindelik gelaai sal word om geen D -dag te kry nie)

4 Maart COS -konferensie - almal het 'n oorbod vir kunsvlyt gemaak. Nie net vir ruimte nie, maar om die gewig wat toegelaat word in die vaartuig te oorlaai. Die beperkings is in 'n onduidelike bylae versteek.

8 Maart Dit sal tot D+14 neem om vooraf gereëlde AA -uitlegte te voltooi. (a) strande, Mulberry & Petroleum Port (b) al 10 vliegvelde. (c) Orne Bridges (d) LAA vir Corps en een LAA Regt as reserwe. Residu -100 Bde & amp; 2 x HAA

9 Maart Spekulasie oor die insluit van 1 x HAA Regt in die plek van med arty.

14 Maart 8 x OP tenks op WE vir Armd & amp Tk Bde HQ wit verkenningsmotors vir BC en CO's om regts 20 Maart te bereik

20 Maart RAF wil 'n SL-gordel hê vir nagvegters van D+7- word aangesê om vinnig op te skort

23 Maart “Die groot feit wat na vore kom, is dat 83Gp van mening is dat die AOP -kwadrate onder ons is en in werklikheid vir alle doeleindes weermagseenhede is. = & gt
a. ons moet uithouvermoë toetse vir die auster IV bestel. b. Reël om lugversorging oorsee te kry c. Reël die "hele diens" Beplanning en vervoer vir AOP.

1 April Dringende probleem 93 LAA Regt. 27 kruisvaarders drievoudige 20 mm SP nog nie uitgereik nie. 27 x drievoudige 20 mm gesleep deur kruisvaarders, maar NBG omdat elektrisiteit en krag onvoldoende en foutief is

4 April 83 Groep bevestig dat geen SL nodig is nie totdat D+17 85Gp sê Nee 14 radar kan nie by hul landings ingesluit word nie, aangesien dit nie waterdig kan wees nie.

5 April word M10's uitgereik aan BCs SP Atk Regts

7 April LAA 20 mm -probleme met elektriese toestelle word nie so erg gerapporteer nie. Makers kontroleer. Om te kyk of gesleepte driedubbele 20mm waterdig kan wees, indien nie, is die oplossing Crusader triple 20mm wat 'n bofors 40mm sleep. Barberry (CRA 3 Cdn Div berig T14 radar ingesluit in 1ste hysbak. Memo aan CoS dat 1 x Regt HAA gevra het kort nadat D+17 nou D+38 en 9 slegs AGRA is D+33-38

22 April 3. Crossland (9 AGRA) word ingelig nie eers D+30 nodig nie

2 Mei Ontwerpbewegingsplan 2de Weermag

17 Mei 2. Vertel deur MGRA Monty het die voorgestelde counter mortar -organisasie van die hand gewys.


D-Day en daarna met 'n Skotse artillerieregiment: 6 Junie 1944 tot 27 Februarie 1945 herbesoek.

Met my gesin het ek besluit om die veldtog wat ek gevolg het, wat op 6 Junie 1944 begin het en op 27 Februarie 1945 in Duitsland geëindig het, om te keer. Die plan was om ook 'n paar van die Groot -oorlogse slagvelde en plekke te besoek, waarby die regiment in die donkerte van een nag in die middel van September 1944 verbygegaan het. Ons sou die reis eindig deur die landingsgebied van 6 Junie te besoek in Normandië en die toneel van die gevegte wat daarna in die binneland plaasgevind het, op die datum van die 60ste herdenking.

Ons eerste missie was om die plek te besoek waar my laaste aanval op die pad tussen die twee Duitse dorpe Udem en Weese gestop is. 'N Nuwe pad is gebou, so die ou pad waar my infanteriekollegas sulke ernstige verliese gely het, het net soos 'n uitgawe wat gereeld gebruik word, gelyk. Die pad wat daardeur deur die bos lei, het egter baie gelyk soos ek dit onthou het. Dit was stil en vreedsaam, afgesien van sommige muskiete, maar voordat die laaste aanval op 27 Februarie 1945 begin het, het ek gestaan ​​en kyk hoe Duitse skulpe teen die einde van hul vlug deur die lug vlieg en twee of driehonderd meter agter ons bars.

Nadat ek die pad bereik het, het die infanterie aan wie ek geheg was, links gedraai, reghoekig op die bospad, en langs die sloot langs die pad gelei. Iets in my opleiding het daarop gedui dat dit nie veilig is nie, want dit is waar die vyand die meeste geneig is om hul gewere te fokus, so ek het langs die bome 'n paar meter van hulle af geloop.

Skielik het skulpe oral in die gebied begin bars en 'n masjiengeweer het oopgegaan en die hele groep soldate in die sloot is uitgewis. Ek het agter 'n boom geval, in die hoop dat dit my 'n bietjie beskerming sou bied teen die skulpe, maar ongelukkig is ek op die agterkant van my been en skouers getref deur dopsplete en is ek dus geïmmobiliseer. Alhoewel feitlik almal saam met wie ek was, insluitend die oorblywende South Lancashires -offisier en my eie OP Ak (waarnemingsposassistent en radiooperateur) hulself lankal skaars gemaak het, was daar groot geluk, maar 'n brankpartytjie was nog steeds op haagafstand en ek is gered en agter die lyne teruggeneem.

Ondanks die voorstel aan 'n militêre padre dat ek gedink het ek sou 48 uur van die aksie af wees, was dit die einde van my oorlog. Na 'n dag in Nijmegen, is ek vir 'n week van Eindhoven na Brugge gevlieg in 'n klooster wat as hospitaal gebruik is, voordat ek teruggevlieg is na Swindon en vir 'n verdere twee maande na die hospitaal in Leicester in 'n hospitaal daar oorgeplaas is. Toe die oorlog eindig, was ek terug in Skotland en het by my ma se gesin in Newport, Fife, gebly.

Vanaf die plek van die verlowing het ons na die Reichswald Forest War Cemetery gery, waar diegene wat in die gevegte gedood is, onthou word. Die begraafplaas is op grond wat die Duitse nasie aan die British War Graves Commission gegee het. Dit was 'n heerlike aand wat die vrede en skoonheid van die plek beklemtoon het, wat duisende derduisende grafstene bevat het, insluitend dié van die twee kommandante van die South Lancashire Company saam met wie ek op daardie noodlottige dag was - 27 Februarie 1945.

Op pad terug na die hotel het ons deur die stad Venraij gegaan, wat in 1944/5 weinig meer was as 'n groot dorp, maar nou 'n bloeiende stad is. Ek was 'n paar dae in Desember 1944 in 'n ontruimde klooster daar wat uitkyk op die Maasrivier. Een van my take was om die laers van die damproetes van V2 -vuurpyle uit Duitsland af te meld.

Twee ander uitstekende herinneringe aan die tyd was eerstens op die middag van Kersdag toe ons kyk hoe 'n Amerikaanse B52 -bomwerper uit Duitsland terugkeer. Dit vlieg oor die Maas na ons kant van die rivier en toe bal toe die bemanning. Dit was hartverskeurend om te sien dat elke valskerm onverbiddelik aan die Duitse kant teruggeblaas word. Tweedens, om middernag op Oukersaand, het die Duitsers in hul loopgrawe aan die ander kant van die rivier gekleurde spoorkoeëls uit hul masjiengewere in die lug afgevuur, wat 'n paar minute lank vir 'n wonderlike vuurwerkvertoning gesorg het.

Op 2 Junie 2004 het ons 'n museum in Overloon in Holland besoek, waar daar in September/Oktober 1944 'n baie hewige geveg was. Veldregiment op daardie tydstip in Overloon.

Na 'n lang rit van Holland na Vlaandere, het ons by die stad Ieper aangekom. Dit is die stad waar die Menin -hek gebou is. 'N Wonderlike monument wat gebou is ter ere van die ongeveer 60 000 soldate wat tydens die Groot Oorlog in die gebied vermoor is en geen graf het nie.

Ons was daar teenwoordig toe die Last Post -seremonie om 20:00 plaasgevind het. Dit het die hele jaar deur gebeur sedert die bou van die poort, elke jaar behalwe dié van die Duitse besetting tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Die volgende dag het ons 'n toer deur die Somme -battevelde gemaak, met verskeie bakens, insluitend die Pipers -gedenkteken by Longueval, naby die Suid -Afrikaanse gedenkteken by Delville Wood. Ook die Cross of Remembrance en die Lochnagar -krater by La Boisselle, wat geskep is deur 'n myn onder die Duitse loopgrawe op 1 Julie 1916 op die openingsdag van die Slag om die Somme te ontplof. En 'n 'klein' begraafplaas met die grafte van 99 Gordon Highlanders, wat in masjiengeweervuur ​​vasgeval het toe hulle die dorp Mametz aanval.

By die Ulster -toring, waar daar 'n gedenkplaat is ter herdenking van die nege lede van Ierse regimente wat die Victoriakruis in die aanvalle gewen het, het kleinseun Cameron 'bullet jag' in 'n veld wat langs die toring lê. Op 'n heuwel waar die Ulsters op daardie noodlottige oggend gevorder het, lê 'n verskeidenheid militêre puin wat gereeld opgegrawe word terwyl die plaaslike boer die land ploeg. Op pad terug, sien sy oom Andy 'n geboë klomp metaal wat uit die grond steek, wat by nadere ondersoek 'n volledige handgranaat was sonder die pen. Na 'n bietjie skoonmaak van die aarde met 'n skerp klip, was Cameron verheug om die prys terug te dra vir die res van die gesin se inspeksie. Eers later is hy meegedeel dat die granaat in 'n uitstekende toestand bly, met die ontploffing nog ongeskonde en die plofstof in 'n buitengewone goeie toestand, met inagneming van die tyd! Nee, hy mag dit nie byhou met die ander minder gevaarlike aandenkings wat hy kon versamel nie!

Van daar na die manjifieke Caribou -gedenkteken in Beaumont Hamel aan die Volunteer Newfoundland Regiment van Kanada, wat skrikwekkende slagoffers opgedoen het en waar op een plek, maar een man oorleef het. Ook daar vind die hout Keltiese Kruis en die glorieryke figuur van 'n ongewapende Hooglandse soldaat op 'n steenhok om die deelname van die 51ste Highland Division, in November 1916, ook in Beaumont Hamel te herdenk.

Die geallieerde en Duitse loopgrawe op 'n klein grondgebied is nog steeds baie goed bewaar en duidelik is daar ook verskeie oorlogsbegraafplase wat 'n ongemaklike aantal soldate uit die Highland -regimente bevat - almal liefdevol versorg en daarom pragtig.

Op na Vimy Ridge, 'n Kanadese nasionale park. Aan die rand van die rand is 'n enorme, maar statige heiligdom gebou, waarop die duisende name van Kanadese wat tydens die konflik vermoor is, uitgekap is. Daar was vier Turnbulls onder hulle.

Hierdie kort verslag doen natuurlik nie reg aan die honderde plekke en begraafplase waarby ons vinnig moes verbygaan in die tyd wat ons beskikbaar gehad het nie. Die volgende dag moes ons deurry na Normandië om my reis in die oorlog te keer. Ons het egter 'n afleiding gemaak om die gedenkteken van die 51ste Highland -afdeling van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog op die kranse bo St. Valery te sien, waaruit dit nie kon ontruim word nie, en is daarna gedwing om oor te gee, etlike dae na die ontruiming van Duinkerken in 1940.

In die middag het ons uiteindelik na die pragtige en rustige Les Andelys aan die Seine gereis. Dit was uit Les Andelys dat ek saam met my regiment, in September 1944, in die duisternis van een nag, deur al die slagvelde van die Groot Oorlog gegaan het en hulle deurkruis het asof hulle nog nooit was nie. Want teen dagbreek, die volgende oggend, was ons in Mons.

Op Saterdag 5 Junie ry ons na die landingstrand van Normandië. Ons eerste hawe was die twee kastele naby Bieville-Beauville, een beset deur die Duitsers en een deur die Britte, waar ek 'n hele paar weke begin het, middel Junie 1944. Die Suffolk-regiment het uiteindelik die 'Duitse' kasteel op 28 Junie verower ten koste van 165 offisiere en mans in 'n gebied wat beskryf word as 'die bloedigste vierkante myl in Normandië'.

Alhoewel dit erg beskadig is, is dit nou heeltemal herbou. Die terrein bevat goed gebruikte en versorgde tennisbane, en die bome het heeltemal herstel van die mishandeling en verwoesting van 60 jaar gelede. Die terrein is pragtig, maar ons is meegedeel dat dit 'n paar vuil inhoud bevat. Die gesin wat tans in die kasteel woon, is eintlik direk afkomstig van die familie wat daar voor 1944 gewoon het. Dit was 'n plesier om hulle te ontmoet en ons is hartlik ontvang.

The 'British' chateau, Le Londel, which had been my home for about six weeks, had just been sold and was in the process of being renovated. The marks on the walls, which had been made by shell splinters had all been covered up, but those in the stables building remained to tell the tale of the spasmodic, but persistent, bombardment to which the chateau had been subjected. The cellar in which I had spent most of my nights there had been filled in.

We were fortunate to meet the family farming the land at Le Londel. It was a glorious day, matched only by their kindness and hospitality. We were invited to the home of the parents living next door to the chateau, M. and Mme. Bruand, where we were provided with refreshments and I was presented with a bottle of Calvados, which M. Bruand's father had made there 40 years ago. That was special!

In the afternoon, we watched a parachute drop in the area of Pegasus Bridge and then went down to the beaches at Hermanville. It was beautifully warm, the sun was shining and there were many holidaymakers all enjoying a lovely summer's day. We were all received most kindly, especially by one Frenchman and his daughter, who took some photographs and have since sent them to us. All the houses were decorated with French, British, Canadian and some American flags. It was an afternoon to remember.

Before returning to Les Andelys, we visited the British Cemetery at Ranville. This cemetery, like all the others, is so beautiful and peaceful. It contains the grave of Major Peter Beecroft, with whom I was speaking while he was half-emerged from his tank turret, when suddenly an enemy artillery barrage rained down upon us. I dived into a slit trench below the tank and was less than pleased as the tank moved away as it was my main protection against the shells landing nearby. Unknown to me, he had been killed and his driver was probably unaware even of my presence. I had not been to Ranville before, so it was more than special.

Sunday, June 6, 2004, was another glorious summer's day, which began with another long drive to Caen. Our first visit was to the Caen Memorial Building, behind which on the previous evening, Prince Charles had opened a Memorial Garden for the British forces, which we had hoped to see. However, it had been put 'out of bounds' for security reasons as the 'dignitaries' were dining and making speeches there that same evening.

It was with difficulty that we were allowed even to take a photograph of the building and the flags arrayed outside it. We proceeded from there to the centre of Caen, below the castle where the '3 Div' Memorial commemorating the liberation of the city is situated. It is simple but beautiful.

We had lunch nearby and then drove to Pegasus Bridge via the 'German' Chateau de la Londe. The immediate vicinity of the west end of Pegasus Bridge had been turned into a Fun Fair, noisy and smelling of fast food, and thereby completely lacking any dignity or reverence. A travesty, but the new bridge made a good background for a family photograph!

By this time we had decided to make our way back to the sea front at Hermanville. The traffic was very heavy, so the journey was made with some difficulty. Gendarmes were very much in evidence at every road junction and only those with good reason for going to the beach area were allowed to do so. We were very impressed by the politeness and helpfulness of the Gendarmes, who issued us with a pass to facilitate our progress to Hermanville.

The events of the late afternoon and evening were the only official events that we attended during our stay in Normandy. The first was the unveiling of the plaque dedicated to the East Yorkshire regiment by the present commander of the British 3rd Division. The plaque recalled the events of that memorable day 60 years ago. Dit lui:

'To the everlasting memory of the officers and men of the 2nd and 5th battalions of the East Yorkshire Regiment who landed on the beaches of Hermanville-sur-Mer and La Riviere in the first wave of the Allied Assault on 6th June 1944 and in proud and grateful tribute to those whose courage that day and in the days that followed was to cost them their lives.
EACH RISKED ALL IN FREEDOM'S CAUSE.'

Close by, there was a small plinth dedicated to the East Yorkshires fellow assault battalion that day - the South Lancashire regiment. This reads:

'The town of Hermanville-sur-Mer was liberated on the morning of 6th June 1944 by the 1st Battalion of the The South Lancashire Regiment (Prince of Wales Volunteers).'

This memorial is dedicated to the memory of the 288 officers and men of the battalion who sacrificed their lives on D Day and in the subsequent campaign to free North West Europe.

Both messages, timely reminders of what happened in those dreadful days of 60 years ago.

After this parade was over, we went to the Hermanville War Cemetery, where the casualties incurred on the beach and nearby are interred. The headstones served to emphasise that the people they represent, some of whom I knew like brothers, just did not come home. Again however, a most beautiful and peaceful place and a service was held there, after which the children of the village placed flowers on the lovingly tended graves. As usual, a most moving time.

The ceremonies came to a close with a reception in the Village Hall hosted by the Deputy Consul General of the Normandy Council and the present commander of the British 3rd Division, when chest badges were presented to those present who had landed on D Day.

Throughout the trip, the weather was glorious and the French people we met so friendly that it was difficult to believe that those terrible days of 60 years ago could ever have happened. Every house was decorated with French, British, Canadian and American flags and the genuine gratitude of the French people was most touching.

We returned home thanking God that those dreadful days filled with death, destruction and dismay, had been replaced by days of life, love and laughter. We must all make the most of them!

Tony Turnbull (Captain, 76th Highland Field Regiment, RA, British 3rd Division)
Ramsay Street, Edzell, Angus, Scotland.

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6 February 1944 - History

Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 : background documents on Germany, 1944-1959, and a chronology of political developments affecting Berlin, 1945-1956
(1959)

Draft election law of the Bundestag of the Federal Republic of Germany, February 6, 1952, pp. 82-84 PDF (1.1 MB)

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Mi Amigo: the deadly WW2 bomber crash in Sheffield play park that killed 10 airmen

Shortly before 5pm on 22 February 1944, Lt John Kriegshauser, a 23-year-old American pilot, found himself in grave danger: his B-17 Flying Fortress, nicknamed 'Mi Amigo', had been badly damaged by enemy fighters over Nazi-occupied Denmark and, struggling back to base in Northamptonshire, he urgently needed somewhere to land. Below him was the bustling city of Sheffield. With the aircraft’s engines fading fast, Lt Kriegshauser realised he would need to crash-land – in Endcliffe Park, where a group of schoolchildren was gathered

This competition is now closed

Published: February 21, 2019 at 12:35 pm

Narrowly avoiding the children, as well as nearby houses and roads, Lt Kriegshauser crashed into mature woodland in the park. Smashing into a hillside, the aircraft exploded, killing all 10 airmen on board.

No civilians on the ground were injured or killed. Had it not been for Lt Kriegshauser’s consummate skill – for which he was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Flying Cross – it is assumed the death toll would have been considerably higher.

The big week

Paul Allonby, author of Courage Above the Clouds: the true heroic story of the crew of B-17 ‘Mi Amigo’, explains that the US bomber had been part of a daylight operation by aircraft from the 305th Bombardment Group, US 8th Army Air Force, based at Chelveston Airfield, Northamptonshire, to bomb the Luftwaffe military air base located at Aalborg in Nazi-occupied Denmark.

On 20 February 1944, the 305 was selected to take part in a raid involving 700 aircraft to Leipzig, Germany, as part of a week-long joint campaign code-named Operation Argument, “which involved US bombers attacking by day, and Royal Air Force bombers striking by night,” writes Allonby. “The aim was to attack the Nazi aviation industry, and Luftwaffe bases.”

Known as the ‘Big Week’, Operation Argument was one of the most critical periods of the entire war, says military historian James Holland. Germany lost significant numbers of Luftwaffe fighters and pilots.

But on 22 February, things did not go to plan – the military air base at Aalborg was covered by fog and so could not be pinpointed, and the group of planes soon found itself under attack by German enemy fighters. Three B-17s in the formation were shot down, with most crew members being killed and the others captured as prisoners of war.

The mission was aborted and the surviving aircraft began their journey home to England, jettisoning their bombs over the North Sea en route (‘Mi Amigo’ was carrying a total bomb load of 4,000 lbs). ‘Mi Amigo’ had been badly damaged in the attack.

Looking for a place to land

Engines fading fast, Mi Amigo’s pilot, Lt Kriegshauser, urgently needed somewhere to land, writes Allonby. “He began to descend cautiously, and suddenly came out through the clouds low over a major city – Sheffield, in South Yorkshire. Ahead were houses, roads, trees and a splash of green: Endcliffe Park, a public play area, complete with a river, woods and a bandstand.

“As Lt Kriegshauser used every bit of his skill and experience, at least one engine began to cut out. Seeing only the grassed area of the park ahead, a split-second decision was needed.”

Would-be rescuers

Moments after ‘Mi Amigo’ crash-landed in Endcliffe Park, firemen hurried to the scene to find trees uprooted and crushed beneath the destroyed bomber, with wreckage strewn across the hillside. The aircraft had split into two and the front section was on fire, says Allonby. Around 20 firefighters fought for more than an hour to put out the blaze.

The 10 airmen killed in the ‘Mi Amigo’ crash were:

First Lieutenant John Kriegshauser (pilot)

Second Lieutenant Lyle Curtis (co-pilot)

Second Lieutenant John Humphrey (navigator)

Staff Sergeant Harry Estabrooks (flight engineer/top turret gunner)

Second Lieutenant Melchor Hernandez (bombardier)

Staff Sergeant Robert Mayfield (radio operator)

Sergeant Charles Tuttle (ball turret gunner)

Sergeant Vito Ambrosio (waist gunner)

Sergeant George Williams (waist gunner)

Sergeant Maurice Robbins (tail gunner)

Three of the men are buried in the UK – Harry Estabrooks, Charles Tuttle and Maurice Robbins – at the Cambridge American Cemetery. The remains of the other seven crewmen were returned home after the war.

Remembering the ‘Mi Amigo’ airmen

The first memorial service for the ‘Mi Amigo’ airmen was held in 1969 and there has since been an annual commemoration.

A memorial stone surrounded by 10 oak trees was planted in 1969 to commemorate the 10 airmen killed in the crash.

This year’s memorial service and wreath-laying ceremony will take place in Endcliffe Park on Sunday 24 February at 1.15pm.

This year, for the first time, a fly-past will take place to honour the ‘Mi Amigo’ airmen. A number of planes from both the US Air Force and the Royal Air Force will fly over Endcliffe Park on the morning of 22 February, the official 75th anniversary of the crash. History Extra spoke with BBC Breakfast presenter Dan Walker, whose chance encounter with Tony Foulks – who witnessed the ‘Mi Amigo’ crash as a young boy in 1944 and has tended to the crash memorial for nearly 75 years – led to the organisation of the flypast. Find out more here.

This article was written by Emma Mason, digital editor at History Extra and first published on 5 February 2019.

With special thanks to Paul Allonby, author of Courage Above the Clouds: the true heroic story of the crew of B-17 ‘Mi Amigo’.


Reopening the Case

In 1983, a pro bono legal team with new evidence re-opened the 40-year-old case in a federal district court on the basis of government misconduct. They showed that the government’s legal team had intentionally suppressed or destroyed evidence from government intelligence agencies reporting that Japanese Americans posed no military threat to the U.S. The official reports, including those from the FBI under J. Edgar Hoover, were not presented in court. On November 10, 1983, a federal judge overturned Korematsu’s conviction in the same San Francisco courthouse where he had been convicted as a young man.

The district court ruling cleared Korematsu’s name, but the Supreme Court decision still stands. Writing for the majority, Justice Hugo Black held that "all legal restrictions which curtail the civil rights of a single racial group are immediately suspect" and subject to tests of "the most rigid scrutiny," not all such restrictions are inherently unconstitutional. "Pressing public necessity," he wrote, "may sometimes justify the existence of such restrictions racial antagonism never can."

In a strongly worded dissent, Justice Robert Jackson contended: "Korematsu . has been convicted of an act not commonly thought a crime," he wrote. "It consists merely of being present in the state whereof he is a citizen, near the place where he was born, and where all his life he has lived." The nation's wartime security concerns, he contended, were not adequate to strip Korematsu and the other internees of their constitutionally protected civil rights.

He called the exclusion order "the legalization of racism” that violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. He compared the exclusion order to the “abhorrent and despicable treatment of minority groups by the dictatorial tyrannies which this nation is now pledged to destroy. He concluded that the exclusion order violated the Fourteenth Amendment by “fall[ing] into the ugly abyss of racism."


This Picture Tells a Tragic Story of What Happened to Women After D-Day

T hey called it the épuration sauvage, the wild purge, because it was spontaneous and unofficial. But, yes, it was savage, too. In the weeks and months following the D-Day landings of June 6, 1944, Allied troops and the resistance swept across France liberating towns and villages, and unleashing a flood of collective euphoria, relief and hope. And then the punishments began.

The victims were among the most vulnerable members of the community: Women. Accused of &ldquohorizontal collaboration&rdquo &mdash sleeping with the enemy &mdash they were targeted by vigilantes and publicly humiliated. Their heads were shaved, they were stripped half-naked, smeared with tar, paraded through towns and taunted, stoned, kicked, beaten, spat upon and sometimes even killed.

One photograph from the era shows a woman standing in a village as two men forcibly restrain her wrists a third man grabs a hank of her blonde hair, his scissors poised to hack it away. Just as the punished were almost always women, their punishers were usually men, who acted with no legal mandate or court-given authority. Although some were loyal resistance members, others had themselves dabbled in collaborationist activity and were anxious to cleanse their records before the mob turned on them, too. About 6,000 people were killed during the épuration sauvage &mdash but the intense, cruel, public ferocity of the movement focused not on serious collaborationist crime. Instead, it zeroed in on women accused of consorting with the enemy.

When I first started researching a novel about France during the Second World War, I was expecting to find horrors that took place during the dark years of the Nazi Occupation. Instead, I was surprised to discover that, for thousands of women, the Liberation marked the beginning of a different nightmare. At least 20,000 French women are known to have been shorn during the wild purge that occurred in waves between 1944 to 1945 &mdash and the historian Anthony Beevor believes the true figure may be higher.

The suspicion and punishment of women after World War II is part of a cycle of repression and sexism that began long before D-Day and continues to be seen today, in the conversation around the #MeToo movement. It begins with a terrible event, then women get blamed, then aggressively attacked and finally the assault is forgotten. In the 74 years since the D-Day landings, the barbarity of the épuration sauvage &mdash its violence against women &mdash has often been overlooked. As I learned more about these women, their stories and images haunted me, compelling me to write about them. The result is my novel, The Lost Vintage, which features a character accused of horizontal collaboration.

Some of the women had, indeed, slept with Nazi soldiers. Some were prostitutes. But some were raped. Some were the targets of personal revenge, framed and falsely accused. Some had only the briefest contact with their occupiers, as was the case of a funeral wreath maker in Toulouse. One day she was working at home next to an open window when a German soldier strolled up and began talking to her. Their entire conversation took place at the window &mdash he never even entered her house. After the Liberation, a witness would later recall, a mob came for her, stripping and shearing her, dragging her through town as her teenage daughter cowered behind.

The majority of the punished were single &mdash unmarried, widowed, or married women whose husbands were prisoners of war. For single mothers, sleeping with a German was sometimes the only way to obtain food for their starving children.


Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur Richard Anderson » 02 May 2021, 22:33

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:34

And, it was actually six assault divisions afloat for NEPTUNE - US 1st, 4th, 29th British 3rd, 50th Canadian 3rd.

So, I'd suggest avoiding passive aggressive comments, and engage factually with the discussion or drop out.

Given the assault elements of the 29th Inf Div were attached to the 1st Inf Div and the 29th Inf Div was actually considered a follow-on division as part of FORCE B, the same advice may apply?

Meanwhile, technically the divisions "afloat" (including the "preloaded" divisions) for NEPTUNE were actually the 1st, 2d, 4th, 29th, and 90th US, the 3d, 7th Armoured, 50th, and 51st British, and 2d Canadian..

Are troops "afloat" in anything (in X-APs, APs, USATs, APcs, AKs, etc. and their US WSA and British Merchant Navy and Allied equivalents, much less aboard freighters and landing barges) the same as troops in "assault" (APAs, AKAs, LSIs (of whatever subtype you wish), LSDs, LSTs, LCIs, LCTs, etc.) shipping? Discuss amongst yourselves.

I appreciate the point of the statement about pedantry in your sig line.

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:41

Fair response thank you. Given the significance of the reality that an Allied army group-sized force could be sustained over the beach in the summer of 1943, however, I'd say it's nie a stretch, especially compared to some of the concepts various and sundry boffins thought were necessary.

Given I'm not writing something for Proceedings of Parameters at the moment, I'll plead it really is too nice a day. Waves are breaking, palm trees are swaying, and there's a cold frosty one with my name on it on the lenai.

But let's continue the conversation. It's more entertaining than spending the morning trying to get ahead of Monday's deliverables.

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:48

It was only possible to do it simultaneously by curtailing all operations using LST and LCT in Italy, which would have eliminated the execution of DIADEM and the possibility of annihilating 10. Armee (and, yes, of course Clark screwed that up to, but hindsight. )

I've already noted the narrow margins WRT LCT. NEPTUNE required 238 LST for the assault and follow-on, DRAGOON 77, while there were 229 in the UK, 25 in the Med, 95 on the US East Coast working up, and 101 in the Pacific. NEPTUNE required 94 LCI(L), DRAGOON 121. There were 245 in the UK, 91 in the Med, 89 on the East Coast, 41 on the West Coast, and 132 in the Pacific.

LST requirements are a none-starter, recall Churchill's famous quote. LCI(L) look better, so you can land more unsupported infantry if you want.

Those landing craft were not diverted to NGS assignments, they did not fulfill the role of NGS, they were direct-fire support for the landings, because it was perceived - quite correctly - that NGS was not a panacea. It could not target everything, it was not always available when needed, and communications to it frequently broke down.

You seem to assume yourself the requirement was imaginary? Hoekom? Are you trying to make an ASS out of both U and ME?

Cancelling SHINGLE would have been helpful. I agree.

By your numbers:
LST need (OVERLORD/ANVIL) - 315
LST active (not including any you described as "working up") - 356

LCI need - 215
LCI active (not, presumably, including any in US waters) - 468

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:49

Was there a gradient, however, between "necessity" and "nice to have"?

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:52

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:55

So, an appeal to an unnamed authority - "remarks, probably by Mountbatten" .

And, FWIW, the professional heads of the respective American and British services were the Combined Chiefs of Staff . the CCS. See:

#1 The reference wasn't not an unnamed authority, but to a source document linked from post #202 generated by Mountbatten's HQ.

#2 This was a view accepted by the Combined Combined Staffs, the professional heads of the respective American and British services. No one slammed the table at Quadrant and said "Good god if we landed seven divisions in Husky you can land more than three in Overlord!" Nope they built the additional landing craft to land two more divisions.

The constraint was not the number of divisions afloat but the number of beaches that could be assaulted on D Day.

HUSKY assault forces were (depending on how one counts various maneuver elements, of course) seven reinforced infantry divisions (US 1st, 3rd, 45th, British 5th, 50th, 51st Canadian 1st)' NEPTUNE was six (US 1st, 4th, 29th, British 3rd, 50th, Canadian 3rd). How many beaches do you need?

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:58

Ne ego si iterum eodem modo vicero, sine ullo milite Epirum revertar.

Except there wasn't even an Allied victory at Dieppe : D

If we want to twist words beyond their meaning, the Germans have lost the Battle of France, because it was nothing more than just a stepstone in their way towards defeat, and the BEF got valuable experience how to evacuate. Also it wasn't a battle, but a campaign, and it wasn't in France, because it was also fought in the Low Countries. But those are not really the Low Countries, because the key movements took place in the Ardennes. But that wasn't the key movement, because the key movement was taking place in Berlin. But in fact the key wasn't what the Germans were doing, but what the Allies were doing, so. etc.

In the context of the Canadian Army in 1939-45, actually, the fact they were volunteers is signifcant.

Again, how was JUBILEE a "success"?

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur daveshoup2MD » 02 May 2021, 22:59

Because, as it says, it was a compromise more acceptable to them than any other options. and, I suspect, because it helped delay ANVIL to the point where the CIGS hoped it would be cancelled.

I note you found why the AKA were not utilized in NEPTUNE.

Re: OVERLORD and ANVIL with the February 1944 compromise on landing craft allocation

Plaas deur Richard Anderson » 02 May 2021, 23:39

LST = Landing Ship Tank. It's a landing ship. It lands tanks. On the beach.

Wait, here's one doing just that during HUSKY . ". Tanks from LST 2 helped repulse a German counter attack on the beachhead on July 11, immediately after disembarking."

Yep, on 11 July. When was the landing begun?

"July 8, 1943, o645, Underway from Gulf of Tunis, part of operations BIGOT-HUSKY Task Organization 80.6, Reserve Group KOOL, loaded with cargo consisting of: Twenty (20) medium tanks, thirty-eight (38) other miscellaneous vehicles, and two hundred and seventy-two (272) army personnel, total cargo weighing 995.3 tons.
.
July 10, 1943, 2025, anchored one (1) mile off Blue Beach 67.
.
July 11, 0614, Underway under orders from Commanding General KOOL, to procede to Blue Beach 67 to disembark cargo.
.
0634, Anchored by stern off Blue Beach 67, 300 yards of beach with two (2) fathoms of water at end of ramp. Cargo discharged by LCTs.
.
1025, [First five (5) tanks unloaded to beach.]
.
1100, Beachmaster came aboard requesting that tanks be unloaded as fast as possible, as they were urgently needed.
.
1715, LCT-491 left bow with last of cargo."

LST = Landing Ship Tank. It's a landing ship. It lands tanks. It lands miscellaneous vehicles. It lands equipment. It lands stores. It lands troops. On a secured (theoretically in this case) beach. In this case, it landed those tanks about 32 hours and 25 minutes after the assault began.

Your summary sentence is illuminating: "Given that the NEPTUNE requirement was for 814 LCT of all types and DRAGOON 158 and that as of 1 June 1944, the USN and RN in Europe had just 1,019 on hand, with another 58 still working up on the US East Coast, 1 on the US West Coast, and 142 in the Pacific and Indian oceans, that was problematically tight, especially considering the expected versus the actual serviceability rates."

Need - 972
Active (setting aside those working up, again using your numbers): 1161.


. . . . .

If we were really fighting for turned-up trouser-ends, I should be inclined to be pro-Axis. Turn-ups have no function except to collect dust, and no virtue except that when you clean them out you occasionally find a sixpence there. But beneath that tailor’s jubilant cry there lies another thought: that in a little while Germany will be finished, the war will be half over, rationing will be relaxed, and clothes snobbery will be in full swing again. I don’t share that hope. The sooner we are able to stop food rationing the better I shall be pleased, but I would like to see clothes rationing continue till the moths have devoured the last dinner-jacket and even the undertakers have shed their top-hats. I would not mind seeing the whole nation in dyed battledress for five years if by that means one of the main breeding points of snobbery and envy could be eliminated. Clothes rationing was not conceived in a democratic spirit, but all the same it has had a democratizing effect. If the poor are not much better dressed, at least the rich are shabbier. And since no real structural change is occurring in our society, the mechanical levelling process that results from sheer scarcity is better than nothing.


Kyk die video: D-DAY: June 6, 1944: ACTION at the Normandy Beaches (Oktober 2021).