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Stone of Scone

Stone of Scone

The Stone of Scone (Gaelies: Lia Fail), ook bekend as die Stone of Destiny of Coronation Stone, is 'n blok sandsteen wat verband hou met die kroning seremonies van die Middeleeuse konings van Skotland. Hierdie seremonies is gehou op Scone, 'n prehistoriese plek in Perthshire, hoewel die presiese gebruik van die klip nie bekend is nie.

In 'n doelbewuste politieke propaganda is die Stone of Scone uit Skotland verwyder deur Edward I van Engeland (r. 1272-1307), wat dit deel van die Engelse Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey gemaak het. Die klip is uiteindelik in 1996 na Skotland terugbesorg en woon nou in die kasteel van Edinburgh.

Eienskappe

The Stone of Scone is 'n reghoekige plaat geel sandsteen wat waarskynlik Skots van oorsprong is, miskien uit die onderste ou rooi sandsteengesteentes in die omgewing van Perthshire. Dit meet ongeveer 66 cm x 28 cm (26 x 11 in) en weeg ongeveer 152 kg (336 pond). Die klip is effens, met die uitsondering van 'n enkele Latynse kruis. Vandag woon dit in die Crown Room van Edinburgh Castle saam met ander items van die Skotse regalia.

Mites en legendes

Vir 'n taamlik onbeskryflike stuk sandsteen, bevat die Stone of Destiny 'n merkwaardige bagasie van mite en folklore. Volgens die legende was die steen die einste wat Jakob - die voorvader van die volk Israel - as 'n kussing gebruik het toe hy in Bethel was ('n stad noord van Jerusalem) en 'n visioen beleef het hoe engele opklim en daal van 'n hemelse leer na die hemel.

'N Legende het gegroei dat slegs Skotse konings sou regeer waar die Steen van Bestemming geleë was.

Die klip geniet toe 'n buitengewone mediterrane toer, waardeur dit van die Midde -Ooste na Egipte, Sicilië en Spanje beweeg het. Uiteindelik het die klip ongeveer 700 vC in Ierland aangekom, waar dit op die Hill of Tara, die neolitiese terrein in County Meath, opgerig is, waar die ou konings van Ierland geprys is. In sommige bronne was dit toe die legendariese Ierse heerser Fergus Mor wat die steen omstreeks 500 na Skotland gebring het. In 'n ander weergawe van die legende is die klip van Ierland na Skotland gebring deur prinses Scota, die dogter van 'n Egiptiese farao. Daar is ook 'n mate van verwarring of die huidige Destiny Stone dieselfde klip is as dié wat met hierdie legendes verband hou, omdat sommige vroeë Middeleeuse kroniekskrywers dit beskryf as 'n gekerfde kliptroon. Alternatiewelik was die huidige klip moontlik eens deel van hierdie meer uitgebreide troon.

Die klip se nuwe tuiste in Skotland was óf die Dunstaffnage -kasteel aan die westelike kus, óf, meer gegewe sy geskiedenis, die nabygeleë eiland Iona, deel van die Inner Hebrides -groep. Iona was 'n eertydse heilige plek vir die Christelike aske, bekend as die Culdees, en dit het die tradisionele begraafplaas geword vir Skotse monarge. Die webwerf het inderdaad 'n baie lang geskiedenis met sy prehistoriese kruiwaens en monumente. Die klip het die volgende 350 jaar by Iona gebly, en 'n legende het gegroei dat slegs waar die Steen van Bestemming geleë was, Skotse konings sou heers. Die skrywer sir Walter Scott (1771-1832 nC) beweer dat daar ooit 'n stuk metaal aan die klip geheg was met die volgende gegraveerde vers:

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Tensy die lotgevalle foutief groei

En die stem van die profeet is tevergeefs

Waar is hierdie heilige klip gevind?

Die Skotse ras sal heers.

Verhuising deur Kenneth MacAlpin

Die Keltiese koning Kenneth MacAlpin (ook gespel Cinaed mac Ailpin of mac Ailpein, c. 842-858) regeer die Koninkryk van die Skotte of Alba soos dit soms bekend staan. Kenneth word erken dat hy die Stone of Destiny omstreeks 843 in Perthshire na Scone geneem het, miskien as 'n simbool van sy onderwerping aan die Pikte wat die klip moontlik vir hul eie kroning seremonies gebruik het. Dit is gebruik tydens die seremonies wat op Scone gehou is om Skotse konings daarna in te dien. Here en biskoppe het by Scone, en later in Scone Abbey, vergader om te sien hoe hulle koning geprys word en om lojaliteit te sweer. Die lang geslagsregister van die koning is ook aan die versamelaars bekend gemaak. Skotse konings is nog nie gekroon of gesalf met heilige olie nie - hierdie vorm van kroning sou eers vanaf die 14de eeu plaasvind. Die koning het ook nie op die klip gesit nie, maar dit is eerder tydens die seremonie as 'n altaar gebruik en op die klein kunsmatige heuwel, bekend as Moot Hill of die 'Hill of Belief', neergesit. Alternatiewelik is die steen deur die eeue heen op verskillende maniere gebruik, aangesien dit in 'n gedetailleerde beskrywing van die seremonie van Alexander III van Skotland (r. 1249-1286) deur John van Fordun gesê word dat Alexander wel op die klip gesit het .

By die verwydering van die Stone of Scone verklaar Edward I effektief dat Skotland nie meer 'n koninkryk is nie, maar 'n blote provinsie van Engeland.

As die koning getroud was, ontvang die koningin haar inhuldiens ná haar man. Teen die 12de eeu het Skotse konings bekende simbole van mag gekry, soos 'n swaard, septer, staf en bol. Boonop het die ou heilige plek van Scone sy eie klooster gekry c. 1115 deur Alexander I van Skotland (r. 1107-1124). Die klooster, eers 'n priory en later 'n volledige abdij, is gestig deur Augustiniese kanonne uit die Nostel Abbey in Yorkshire.

Verwydering deur Edward I

Die lot van Stone of Scone sou op die punt staan ​​om te verander deur 'n Engelsman, een van Skotland se grootste vyande ooit. Edward I van Engeland oordeel oor wie die opvolger van Alexander III van Skotland word, 'n gebeurtenis wat dikwels die Groot Oorsaak genoem word. Topkandidate was die magtige edelman John Balliol en Robert Bruce (geb. 1210 en oupa van sy meer bekende naamgenoot). In 1292 het Edward vir Balliol gepla, miskien omdat hy die swakker van die twee was en dus makliker gemanipuleer kon word. John sou op 30 November 1292 die laaste Middeleeuse Skotse koning wees wat op of naby die Stone of Scone gekroon is. In 1295 het Skotland formeel met Frankryk verbind - die eerste stap in wat bekend staan ​​as die 'Auld Alliance' - 'n stap te ver vir die Engelse koning.

Edward I val toe Skotland binne en lei persoonlik 'n leër van 25.000-30.000 man. Die koning het dus sy bynaam gekry as 'die hamer van die Skotte', en hy was van plan om algehele verowering te behaal. Balliol het oorgegee na die Slag van Dunbar in 1296, en drie Engelse baronne is aangewys om Skotland te regeer. Altyd met die oog op dramatiese gebare rakende vyandelike kulture, het Edward die Skotse monargie se regalia en die Stone of Scone gesteel en dit in 1297 na die Westminster Abbey verplaas. Edward's Chair omdat Edward I sy prys opgedra het aan die Engelse koning en heilige, Edward the Confessor (r. 1042-1066). In hierdie verwyderingsaksie verklaar Edward I effektief dat Skotland nie meer 'n koninkryk is nie, maar 'n blote provinsie van Engeland.

Daar was 'n legende dat die snaakse Skotte vir Edward 'n plaasvervangersteen gegee het en die ware op die Isle of Sky bewaar het, maar die waarheid daarvan sal waarskynlik nooit gestaaf word nie, en daar is geen bewyse dat Edward nie sy hande gekry het nie op die oorspronklike. Skotland was in elk geval nooit heeltemal gedemp nie, en meer rebellies het gevolg, veral die opstand van 1300 onder leiding van William Wallace (ongeveer 1270-1305). Edward II van Engeland was moontlik bereid om die klip (r. 1307-1327) terug te gee as deel van 'n vredesverdrag met Skotland wat in 1328 ooreengekom is. Dit blyk egter dat die abt van Westminster Abbey geweier het om dit op te gee. Gevolglik het die Stone of Scone die volgende sewe eeue in Engeland gebly. Op 25 Maart 1306 was Robert the Bruce (r. 1306-1329) die eerste Skotse koning wat sonder die klip gekroon is, hoewel die seremonie soos gewoonlik in Scone Abbey gehou is.

Later geskiedenis en terugkeer na Skotland

Soos die noodlot dit wou hê, kon 'n Skotse koning uiteindelik gekroon word terwyl hy op die Stone of Scone sit. Dit was James VI van Skotland (r. 1567-1625) wat ook James I van Engeland CE (r. 1603-1625) geword het toe hy in 1603 in Westminster Abbey gekroon is. Dit het gebeur omdat sy voorganger Elizabeth I van Engeland (r. 1558-1603) is sonder kinders oorlede, en James, die naaste familielid van Elizabeth, is deur die edeles van Engeland uitgenooi om die troon te neem. James was van die Stuart -lyn, en die huis sou tot 1714 in Engeland regeer, terwyl al sy monarge hul plek bo die Stone of Scone in hul kroning inneem. Die Skotte het uiteindelik die tafels omgedraai na die Engelse ná diefstal van Edward I 300 jaar tevore, en die legende van die klip het korrek geblyk: 'n Skotse koning regeer nou waar die klip woon.

Vanaf die 19de eeu het die Stone of Scone 'n kragtige nasionale simbool vir die Skotte geword, en daar was herhaaldelik oproepe om die terugkeer van die klip. In 1950 kon 'n groep Skotse nasionaliste op Kersdag van alle dae by Westminster Abbey inbreek. Hulle het die klip gegryp en teruggeneem na Skotland, maar dit is deur die owerhede teruggevind en vier maande later na Westminster teruggekeer. Die klip is uiteindelik op 30 November, Saint Andrew's Day, ter ere van die beskermheilige van Skotland, in 1996 amptelik teruggekeer na die mense van Skotland. Daar was een vangs wat die volgehoue ​​krag van die klip illustreer in die verbeelding van die mense aan weerskante van die grens: die steen moet na die Westminster Abbey teruggestuur word by 'n kroning van 'n Britse monarg.


Edinburgh verwerp die lot van die noodlot

Op 23 Desember kondig Skotland aan dat die Stone of Scone uit die kasteel van Edinburgh verwyder sal word en in 2024 na die klein stad Perth in die Skotse Hoogland sal verhuis. Perth se ou stadsaal word omskep in 'n museum met die klip wat as middelpunt bedoel is.

Een van die middeleeuse Skotse hoofstede, Perth, sit langs die ruïnes van Scone Abbey, waar die klip gedurende die Middeleeue geleë was. Vir honderde jare was dit die kroningsteen van die konings van Skotland totdat die Engelse koning Edward i Skotland verower en die klip in Londen konfiskeer het. Dit het die kroningsteen geword vir Engelse en later Britse konings en koninginne, tot by die kroning van die huidige monarg, koningin Elizabeth II, in 1953. Planne is in plek om die klip terug te stuur na Londen vir toekomstige kroning.

Die klip het in Westminster Abbey gebly tot 1996. Daardie jaar het premier John Major, met toestemming van die koningin, dit na Skotland gestuur om die Skotte te versag wat die Engelse heerskappy ontstel het. Dit word tans in die kasteel van Edinburgh vertoon met die Skotse kroonjuwele: die kroon van Skotland, die septer van Skotland en die swaard van die staat. Die septer is deur pous Alexander vi aan Skotland geskenk en die swaard deur pous Julius ii.

Die idee om die klip na die Skotse Hoogland terug te bring, is die eerste keer in 2019 voorgestel deur die Perth & Kinross Council. Koningin Elizabeth het haar toestemming tot die oordrag gegee.

'The Stone of Destiny, ook bekend as die Stone of Scone, vorm 'n belangrike deel van die verhaal van Skotland,' het die eerste minister van Skotland, Nicola Sturgeon, gesê. “Na behoorlike oorweging was die kommissarisse oortuig dat die voorstelle vir die stadsraad van Perth volledig en behoorlik in ag geneem het die behoefte om die veiligheid en bewaring van die steen, die toeganklikheid daarvan vir die algemene publiek te verseker en dat dit op 'n behoorlike manier vertoon sou word met so 'n belangrike kulturele artefak. "

Ian Hamilton, die laaste lid van 'n groep Skotte wat die klip in 1950 tydelik uit Londen gesteel het, verwelkom die stap. 'By die kasteel van Edinburgh was dit altyd effens oorskadu, want daar is soveel anders om te sien,' het hy gesê. 'Dit sal 'n groot verskil vir Perth maak en besoekers na die omgewing bring. Dit klink vir my baie soos 'n gesonde verstandbeweging. ”

U moet wonder of die verskuiwing van die belangrikste toeriste -aantreklikheid van die hoofstad van Skotland na 'n afgeleë stad in die Hooglande waarvan die meeste buite Brittanje nog nie gehoor het nie, werklik die "toeganklikheid vir die breë publiek" sal help. En terwyl die klip na 'n onduidelike plek verskuif sal word, bly die tradisies van die Vatikaan-die historiese vyand van die Protestantse Skotland-in die middel.

Die klip staan ​​ook bekend as Lia Fáil, wat dit verbind met die legendariese Lia Fáil van Ierland se heuwel van Tara, waar die ou hoë konings van Ierland eeue voor die Romeinse Ryk gekroon is. Terwyl daar vandag nog 'n klip op die heuwel van Tara is, skryf ou kroniekskrywers dat die oorspronklike Lia Fáil deur koning Fergus die Grote na Skotland geneem is en die Stone of Scone geword het.

Maar die oorsprong van die Stone of Scone gaan nog verder as dit.

Herbert W. Armstrong, hoofredakteur van die Trompet se voorganger, die Gewone Waarheid, het in sy boek geskryf Die Verenigde State en Brittanje in profesie van ''n wonderlike steen genaamd' lia-fail 'of' stone of destiny '. 'n Eiesoortige toeval ... is dat Hebreeus van regs na links lees, terwyl Engels van links na regs lees. Lees hierdie naam in elk geval-en dit is steeds 'lia-fail'. "

Waarom het die Hebreeuse taal iets te doen met die kroningsteen van die Britse Eilande? Armstrong gaan voort:

Baie konings in die geskiedenis van Ierland, Skotland en Engeland is bo -op hierdie klip gekroon, insluitend die huidige koningin. Die klip rus vandag in die Westminster Abbey in Londen [Mr. Armstrong is in 1986 oorlede], en die kroningstoel is oor en om dit gebou. Op 'n bordjie langsaan is dit 'Jakob se pilaarsteen'.

"Jakob se pilaarsteen" verwys na 'n verslag in die Bybelse boek Genesis. Jakob het van die huidige Israel af gereis na Haran, 'n stad in die moderne Turkye. Een nag het hy verskeie klippe as sy kussings gebruik (Genesis 28: 10-11).

En [Jakob] het gedroom, en kyk, daar kom 'n leer op die aarde, en die top daarvan reik tot in die hemel; en kyk, die engele van God styg en daal daarop. En kyk, die Here het daarbo gestaan ​​en gesê: Ek is die Here God van Abraham, jou vader en die God van Isak: die land waarop jy lê, aan jou sal Ek dit gee, en aan jou nageslag en jou nageslag sal wees soos die stof van die aarde, en jy sal na die weste en na die ooste en na die noorde en na die suide versprei; en in jou en in jou nageslag sal al die geslagte van die aarde geseën word. En kyk, Ek is met jou, en Ek sal jou bewaar op alle plekke waarheen jy gaan, en Ek sal jou na hierdie land terugbring, want Ek sal jou nie verlaat nie, totdat Ek gedoen het wat Ek met jou gespreek het (Genesis 28: 12-15).

In hierdie droom het Jakob die ware God teëgekom. Boonop het Hy hom 'n skouspelagtige belofte gegee dat sy nageslag uiteindelik sou vermeerder en 'n ongelooflik geseënde nasie sou word.

En Jakob het uit sy slaap wakker geword en gesê: Waarlik, die Here is op hierdie plek, en ek het dit nie geweet nie. En hy was bang en het gesê: Hoe verskriklik is hierdie plek! dit is niemand anders nie as die huis van God, en dit is die poort van die hemel. En Jakob het die môre vroeg opgestaan ​​en die klip geneem wat hy vir sy kussings gesit het, en dit as 'n pilaar opgerig en olie daarop gegooi. En hy noem die plek Bet -el [Hebreeus vir “Huis van God”] ... om te eet en klere om aan te trek, sodat ek in vrede na my vader se huis kan kom, dan sal die Here my God wees. en hierdie klip wat ek vir 'n pilaar neergesit het, sal die huis van God wees (verse 16-22).

Hierdie klip word weer genoem tydens verskeie belangrike oomblikke in die geskiedenis van die nasies wat van Jakob afstam: die koninkryk van Israel en die koninkryk van Juda. Moses se opvolger, Josua, het dit gebruik om 'n verbond tussen die Israeliete en God te sluit (Josua 24: 26-27). Dit was teenwoordig tydens die kroning van 'n vroeë koning, Abiméleg (Rigters 9: 6), en het dit gebruik geword by die kroning van Israelitiese konings en later Judese konings uit die geslag van koning Dawid. En God het belowe dat Dawid se dinastie eintlik ewig sou wees (2 Samuel 7:16). Een afstammeling, koning Joas, is daarmee gekroon (2 Kronieke 23: 11-13). Die klip het verband gehou met God se verbond met Dawid se troon. Die Bybel profeteer selfs dat Jesus Christus bestem is om op daardie troon te sit (Lukas 1: 30-33). Hoofstuk 6 van ons gratis boekie Die sleutel van Dawid het 'n meer gedetailleerde verduideliking van die Bybel se verslag van daardie klip.

Hoe die Steen van Bestemming, die steen wat die verbonde van God met die volk Israel en vir koning Dawid verteenwoordig, die kroningsteen van Engeland geword het, is een van die wonderlikste, opvallendste openbarings van die geskiedenis. Herbert W. Armstrong maak daardie geskiedenis duidelik in sy boek Die Verenigde State en Brittanje in profesie.

Die mense van Groot -Brittanje het vroeër in die geskiedenis van die klip geglo. Daardie geslagte Britte sou geweier het om dit te laat gaan. Maar namate die jare aangaan en die geloof in die Bybel verminder het, het die Westminster Abbey die gedenkplaat wat die Stone of Scone gemerk het, as Jacob's Pillar Stone verwyder en uiteindelik die klip self verwyder.

Trompet hoofredakteur Gerald Flurry het in 1996 geskryf dat die Stone of Scone “die kosbaarste fisiese ding op hierdie aarde is”. Toe die Britte die klip in 1996 na Skotland stuur. Mnr. Flurry skryf: 'Ek glo ook dat koningin Elizabeth net die slegste besluit van haar lewe geneem het! En die Britse regering het die grootste fout in sy geskiedenis gemaak! [Engeland se] optrede het die almagtige lewende God verag. En hulle sal 'n skrikwekkende straf wees tensy hulle hulle bekeer. ”

Wat sou die “ontsettende straf” wees?

Kyk na alles wat met die Britse monargie gebeur het sedert dit die klip na Skotland terugbesorg het. Prinses Diana se tragiese lewe het geëindig in 'n tragiese motorongeluk in 1997. Australië het byna gestem om die troon te verwerp en 'n republiek te word in 1999. Skotland het byna dieselfde gedoen in 2014 en het amper die Verenigde Koninkryk self verskeur. In 2018 het die Britse koninklike familie sy eerste burgerlike unie van dieselfde geslag gehad. In dieselfde jaar trou die koningin se kleinseun, prins Harry, met die geskeide Amerikaanse aktrise Meghan Markle. In 2019 het die verhouding van prins Andrew met die pedofiele miljardêr Jeffrey Epstein 'n skandaal geword, die Britse hooggeregshof (wat in 2009 geskep is) het 'n opskorting van die parlement met koninklike instemming tot niet gemaak, wat beteken dat die gesag van die koningin in die land van die hand gewys is. In 2020 tree prins Harry en prinses Meghan uit alle koninklike ampte (terwyl hulle probeer om hul koninklike titels en inkomste te behou) het die koningin gereageer deur hulle van hul koninklike titels te ontneem. Die covid -19 -epidemie het die koningin genoop om haar koninklike verantwoordelikhede aan haar erfgenaam, prins Charles, oor te dra.

Met ander woorde, die Britse monargie het aardbewing na aardbewing na aardbewing beleef. Die monargie staan ​​nog steeds, maar vir hoe lank? En hoe sal omstandighede verander sodra Charles koning word?

Tog is daar nog steeds groot hoop. God het Dawid 'n belofte gemaak in 2 Samuel 7:16. Niks - selfs nie die verwerping van die Steen van Bestemming en die Bybelgeskiedenis en profesie wat dit simboliseer nie - kan veroorsaak dat Hy dit breek. En terwyl God sy beskerming van die Britse koninklike familie verwyder, het Hy nie sy woord gebreek nie. In plaas daarvan laat Hy sy verbond met Dawid meer blom as ooit tevore.

Vind uit hoe om die gratis boek van mnr. Flurry aan te vra Die nuwe troon van Dawid. Vra ook u gratis eksemplaar van die boek van Mr. Armstrong aan Die Verenigde State en Brittanje in profesie om te leer waarom God se verbond met Dawid so belangrik is vir alle mense in alle nasies.


Stone of Scone

In die 1328 -verdrag van Northampton tussen die Koninkryk Skotland en die koninkryk van Engeland, het Engeland ingestem om die gevange klip aan Skotse oproerige skare terug te keer, wat verhinder dat dit ver van Westminster Abbey af was. [13] Die klip het nog ses eeue in Engeland gebly, selfs nadat Jakobus VI van Skotland die Engelse troon aangeneem het as Jakobus I van Engeland. Vir die daaropvolgende eeu het die Stuart -konings en koninginne van Skotland, sodra hulle weer op die klip gesit het, tydens hul kroning as konings en koninginne van Engeland.

Daar bestaan ​​twyfel oor die klip wat deur Edward I. vasgevang is. . Sommige voorstanders van hierdie idee verklaar dat historiese beskrywings van die klip nie by die huidige klip pas nie. [12]

In 1296, tydens die Eerste Skotse Onafhanklikheidsoorlog, is die klip deur Edward I geneem as buit van oorlogvoering en uitgeskakel na die Westminster Abbey, die plek waar dit regs in 'n houtstoel geplaas is - dikwels King Edward ’s Chair genoem - waarop die meeste daaropvolgende Engelse, waarna Britse soewereine beklee is. Edward I wou sy standpunt sê omdat die “Lord Paramount ” van Skotland, met die toepaslike om toesig te hou oor sy koning. [11]

'N Brief aan die redakteur van die Morning Chronicle, gedateer 2 Januarie 1819, lui:

In stryd met hierdie legendes, het geoloë bevestig dat die klip wat Edward I van Engeland na Westminster geneem het [8] 'n afname in Old Red Sandstone is, wat in die omgewing van Scone ontgin is. [9] Twyfel bestaan ​​oor die egtheid van die klip in Westminster vir 'n baie lang tyd: 'n weblog opgestel deur afgetrede Skotse tutoriaal en skrywer van historiese fiksie, vertoon Marie MacPherson dat hulle weer ten minste tweehonderd jaar oud is. [10]

Daar bestaan ​​verskillende teorieë en legendes met betrekking tot die historiese verlede van die klip voor sy plasing in Scone. Een verhaal oorwegings Fergus, seun van Erc, die primêre koning van die Skotte in Skotland, wie se vervoer van die klip van Ierland na Argyll, die plek waarop hy bo was, aangeteken is. [3] Sommige variasies bevestig die klip wat Fergus ingevoer het met die Lia Fáil wat by Tara gebruik is vir die hoë koning van Ierland. Ander tradisies beweer dat die Lia Fáil -verblyf by Tara is. [4] [5] (Inis Fáil, The Island of Destiny, is een van die standaardname van Ierland.) Ander legendes plaas die oorsprong van die klip in Bybelse gevalle en vestig dit omdat die Steen van Jakob, wat deur Jacob uit Bethel geneem is terwyl op die manier waarop na Haran (Genesis 28: 10–22). [6] Presies dieselfde Steen van Jakob is dan vermoedelik deur die profeet Jeremia na die historiese Ierland geneem. [7]

In die 14de eeu het die Engelse predikant en historikus Walter Hemingford die vroeëre ligging van die Skotse kroningsteen beskryf omdat die klooster Scone, drie kilometer noord van Perth:

Histories is die artefak gered op die nou verwoeste Scone Abbey in Scone, naby Perth, Skotland, nadat dit daar van Iona af ingevoer is deur Kenneth MacAlpin omstreeks 841 nC. Nadat dit in 1296 onder druk van die verwydering van Scone tydens die inval van Edward I in Skotland in 1296 onder druk gebring is, is dit gebruik tydens die kroning van die monarge van Engeland, benewens die monarge van Groot -Brittanje en laastens van die Verenigde Koninkryk na die Verdrag van die Unie. Die afmeting is 66 cm, 42 cm, 26,7 cm en die gewig is ongeveer 152 kg. 'N Grof gesnyde kruis is op een vloer, en 'n ysterring aan elke afwerking help met vervoer. [1] The Stone of Scone is in 1953 finaal gebruik vir die kroning van Elizabeth II van die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland.

Die Stone of Scone ( / Dit is goed u / n / Skotse Gaelies: 'N Lia Fáil, Skotte: Stane o Scuin) - ook genoem die Steen van die lot, en soms in Engeland na verwys as Die Kroningssteen- is 'n reghoekige blok pienk sandsteen wat al honderde jare gebruik is tydens die kroning van die vorste van Skotland. Dit word ook genoem Jacob ’s Kussingsteen en die Tanist Stone, en as clach-na-cinneamhain in Skotse Gaelies.


Die Steen van Bestemming en die einde van die Nuwe Wêreldorde


Onlangs is 'n man met die naam Anthony John Hill gearresteer en word nou korrup en kragtig uitgelewer aan die nazi-Londen waar hy teregstaan ​​vir die gruwelike misdaad: die stuur van 'n DVD na 'n hof. Ja. Regtig.

Dink ek maak 'n grap? Ek wens maar die waansin stop nie daar nie.

Soos met ALLE regerings, het die Britse establishment 'n lang, uitgebreide en gedokumenteerde geskiedenis van stilmaak en gevangenisstraf van mense wat skadelike inligting vir die staat (bose) belange gehad het. Mnr. Hill is hul volgende doelwit vanweë wat Hy weet en wat Hy vir mense vertel en hoe onweerlegbaar dit die korrupsie aan die bokant kan beskadig. Eers het hulle probeer om Hom met klippe te muur, en toe mense te honger was vir sy kennis, besluit HULLE (die slym in ALLE hoë posisies) dat dit die beste sou wees om Hom te arresteer om sy stilte te probeer dwing. Dit het duidelik nie gewerk nie, want sy video oor die werklike gebeurtenisse met die Londense buitetreinbomaanvalle, genaamd & quot; 7/7 Ripple Effect & quot, het 'n groot toename in belangstelling gehad. As u dit nog nie gesien het nie, moet u dit regtig doen, en soos die goeie siel wat Hy is, het John dit op die internet laat sit om gratis te kyk, en u kan dit hier sien.

En dit is net die nuutste!

Lees die volgende baie goed versteekte verhaal/Waarheid wat John ook opgegrawe het aangaande die Britse monarg, onder leiding van Elizabeth Mountbatten/Battenberg (ook bekend onder kriminele aliasse Windsor en QE2). Ek sal dit vir jou bederf. Sy is NIE die regte koningin nie, en het dit al meer as 50 jaar vervals, en sy weet dit.

Die Steen van Bestemming en die einde van die Nuwe Wêreldorde

(Ook bekend as: The Lia Fail, Stone of Scone, Jacob's Pillar/Pillow, David's Throne, Bethel Stone, etc & quot)

Min mense buite Brittanje en Ierland het al ooit van The Stone of Destiny gehoor, laat staan ​​nog die wonderlike 4000 jaar lange geskiedenis daaragter. Selfs kleiner getalle het ooit die waarheid van die huidige toestand of ligging van die werklike steen raakgeloop en waarom die bedekte feite en valse klippe wat so dryf, in die nabye toekoms van so groot belang is. Die gevolge van die inwerkingtreding van hierdie inligting kan en sal verstommend wees as mense dit in massa doen.

Aangesien die volledige artikel oor hierdie onderwerp volledig beskikbaar is vir almal wat die presiese besonderhede wil ingaan, bied hierdie opstel slegs 'n baie kort opsomming van die gebeure. Dit gesê, hierdie skrywer raai almal wat in hierdie onderwerp belangstel, sterk aan om die webwerf te besoek waar al die volgende afkomstig is: http://jahtruth.net/stone.htm .


Die Steen van Destiny:

Die verhaal begin in die land Palestina op 'n plek genaamd Bethel met die Bybelse aartsvader Jakob (Genesis 28: 11-22). Die outentiek Steen van die lot is die klip/rots wat Jakob as kussing gebruik het toe hy gedroom het van engele wat op en af ​​op 'n leer daal tussen hemel en aarde . Toe hy uit die droom wakker word, het hy 'n gelofte van trou aan God afgelê en daarna die klip wat hy gebruik het, as 'n kussing geneem en dit met olie gesalf, soos dit van toe af gebruik sou word as die troon wat elke daaropvolgende deur God gesanksioneerde heerser van Israel gekroon sou word. Op daardie stadium het dit die troon van Israel geword, wat duisende jare lank deur alle erfgename van Jakob bewaar en fel beskerm is.

Ongeveer 1100 jaar nadat Jakob oorspronklik sy droom in 'n grot naby Bethel gehad het, het die Steen deur al die Israeliese tye gekom en Sedekia het in Jerusalem daaroor geheers. Op daardie stadium, vanweë die hardnekkige weë van die Israeliete en hul weiering om te hou Die verbond , God het die Babilonies magte om die Huis van Juda (Israel) aan te val en te vernietig en die hele Jerusalem in puin te laat. Tydens hierdie beleg en verowering, Jeremia die Bybelprofeet het die steen weggesteek, saam met Die Ark van die Verbond en ander Israelitiese oorblyfsels totdat dit veilig was om dit weg te neem. Met hierdie skatte in besit, het Jeremia ook Sedekia se dogters saamgeneem, waarvan die jongste was Teia Tephi , wat die voortsetting van die bloedlyn sou wees, soos God eeue tevore aan koning Dawid beloof het.

Toe hulle uit Jerusalem ontsnap, het die koninklike geselskap The Stone and Ark geneem en na Tanis, Egipte, gereis waar hulle 'n paar jaar veilig gebly het. Uiteindelik word Jeremia deur God gewaarsku dat Tanis nie meer veilig is nie, en hy neem Teia Tephi en die skatte na Gibraltar langs die pad kortstondig stilhou. Nadat hulle vyf maande in Gibraltar deurgebring het, vertrek die groep noordwaarts en stop by Breogan in Spanje en uiteindelik beland by Mara-Zion in Cornwall.

Op daardie stadium was die heerser van Cornwall destyds 'n man met die naam Elatha wat Jeremia en Teia Tephi gehelp het na wat hul eindbestemming sou wees - Ierland . Elatha het boodskappers na die hoë koning (Ard ri) ​​van Ierland gestuur en hom in kennis gestel van die situasie en daarna 'n wag van 53 skepe om 'n veilige deurgang vir Tephi en Jeremia te verseker. By aankoms het Tephi The Stone saamgeneem na Tara waar sy en die hoë koning, Eochaidh, hul beloftes van die huwelik oor die Steen van Bestemming, en Teia Tephi het op die Steen gestaan ​​en word erken as koningin van die hele Ierland.

Tans, in Ierland by die Heuwel van Tara , is een van die valse klippe. Dit is 'n onwelvoeglike falliese klip wat dwase mense het en probeer verbygaan as die ware Lia Fail (Gaelic for Stone of Destiny). Om 'n falliese klip die Troon van Israel (en Christus) te noem, is soos om vir Christus te sê om op 'n klippenis te gaan sit, wat veroorsaak het dat die Iere deur so 'n belediging deur God vervloek is. Dit is egter slegs een van die vals & quotLia Fail & quot -klippe wat tans bestaan.

Die ware Lia Fail/Stone of Destiny het meer as duisend jaar in Ierland op die heuwel van Tara gebly nadat Teia Tephi dit in 583 v.C. uit Jerusalem saamgebring het. en al die konings van Ierland is daarop gekroon werklike Stone, tot by Muircheartach (Murdoch) seun van Earc.

Omstreeks 500 nC Fergus Mor Mac Earc het Muircheartach se broer suksesvol Wes -Skotland binnegeval en wou hy gekroon word as koning van die (Skotte) Iere wat gemigreer het na Skotland op die werklike Stone of Destiny en sy broer Muircheartach het vir daardie geleentheid die regte Stone aan hom geleen.

Fergus is gekroon as die eerste koning van die Skotte in Skotland op die werklike Lia misluk in 'n gebied met die naam Argyll in die Kilmartin -vallei van Skotland. Van hom het veertig konings van Skotland voortgegaan. Evenus, die twaalfde koning, het 'n stad gebou wat hy na hom vernoem het, Evonium, nou Dunstaffnage genoem, waarna die werklike Klip is verwyder en die res van die veertig konings is almal in Dunstaffnage gekroon, daar regeer en begrawe.

Uiteindelik het Edward die eerste van Engeland (Edward & quotLongshanks & quot in die film Braveheart) Skotland binnegeval en die werklike Stone na Engeland in 1296 nC, waar hy dit na die Westminster Abbey in Londen gebring het en al die konings van Engeland tot en met George die 6 ste daarop gekroon is werklike Stone of Destiny/Lia Fail.

Some Scots have always maintained that a fake Stone was handed over to Edward "Longshanks" by the Abbot of Scone, as he must have known in advance that Edward's soldiers were coming to take the Stone from the Scots. To make that long story much shorter, the ancient writings depict the other stone in question as looking different in shape and colour. Also, the werklike Stone of Destiny's path to Scotland, and the history of the fake, or other coronation stone/throne known as the Scottish Regal Stone, do not match up, as they came at two different times, being brought by two different people by similar but nevertheless two different routes, which many historians have tried to lump together and which, like a square peg and a round hole, the facts of both do not fit together. This has caused great confusion for the average person looking into the topic because both are similar in content, although the fact remains that they are two totally separate stories about two separate stones that were simply used for the same purpose by two separate branches of the same people and historians have mistakenly tried to jumble up both into one story. Die werklike klip was taken by Edward to Westminster Abbey.

At this point it would be prudent to introduce the Biblical prophecy , located in the book of Ezekiel , about the movement of the true Stone of Destiny:

21:26 Thus saith the Lord "I AM" Remove the diadem (sovereignty), and take off the crown: this [shall] not [be] the same: exalt [him that is] low (Line of Zarah), and abase [him that is] high (Line of Pharez).
21:27 I will overturn (1), overturn (2), overturn (3), it: and it shall be no [more], [overturned] UNTIL he come whose Right it is and (4) I will give it [him - Shiloh (see also Genesis 49 v 10)].

The first overturn of the Stone was from Jerusalem to Ireland. The second overturn was from Ireland to Scotland. The third overturn was from Scotland to England. The fourth overturn is as follows.

Early Christmas morning, 1950, a group of four student-aged Scottish nationals, removed the werklike Stone of Destiny/Lia Fail from Westminster Abbey and hurried it off to Scotland. The leader of the group, Ian Hamilton, states in his book, "The Taking of the Stone of Destiny", that king George 6 th had a "fear that the loss portended the end of his dynasty ", which of course it did. This removal of the authentic Stone of Destiny justly caused a big stir in England and the authorities immediately began searching for it.

In preparation for the Stone's removal from London, the group of Scots practiced using a fake sandstone replica made by stone mason and sculptor, Bertie Gray. Then, after successfully removing the werklike Stone of Destiny from Westminster Abbey, Bertie Gray helped Ian Hamilton and another friend of theirs to place the fake sandstone duplicate, wrapped in a Scottish flag, on the high altar at Arbroath Abbey on the 11 th of April, 1951. They then notified the authorities that it could be found there, which they did the following day. The fake sandstone replica was then sent to London and Elizabeth 2 was later crowned upon it. Since Elizabeth 2 has nooit been crowned upon the werklike Stone of Destiny/Coronation Stone, she has never been and is not officially the queen of Britain (Israel) in the eyes of God.

When the fake stone was sent to London, George 6 th must have seen it and known, as must his daughter Elizabeth, that the stone left at Arbroath Abbey was a fake, and Elizabeth must have known, from that, that she was cursed by God and never regtig crowned. As further proof that Elizabeth knows she is a fake, once her dad George 6 th died, Elizabeth Mountbatten (also known by the criminal aliases Windsor and QE2) delayed her coronation whilst desperately seeking and hoping to find the genuine Coronation Stone, but, when it was not found and she had to hold a coronation ceremony, she flatly refused to have the ceremony televised because she was afraid that people would see the fake stone, recognize it as being such, and realize she was a pretender to the Throne. Due to popular-demand, Mrs. Mountbatten was forced to allow the ceremony to be televised, so she set a firm condition upon the BBC that there must be absolutely no close-up shots, and nothing shown at a closer distance than thirty feet, so that no-one would be able to see a close-up of the fake stone that she knew she was pretending to be crowned upon. She must also have known of the prophecies, as did her great, great grandmother Queen Victoria, who said that if Christ came to take the Throne, she would immediately step down and give the throne it to its rightful owner, and everyone of them knew it down to George 6 th . It is unthinkable that George 6 th would not also have taught this to his children, that Christ would come one day and rightfully claim the British Throne (Throne of David and Israel), in fulfillment of prophecy.

Elizabeth 2 who is descended from the royal line of David from the tribe of Judah was then crowned on the fake stone in 1953, so, as above, she has nooit been crowned queen of Britain in the eyes of God as God Himself prevented her from being, by having the Stone taken from her in fulfillment of the first half of the prophecy in Genesis chapter 49:10. All that now remains to fulfill the second half of that prophecy is for Christ to come and take His Rightful place on God's Throne "&ldquo Bethel "&ldquo The Lia Fail "&ldquo Stone of Destiny.

Elizabeth has absolutely no right to be the monarch, and she knew it to begin with and surely remains well aware of the situation-and it can be proven with the aforementioned indisputable and bulletproof evidence.

Hopefully everyone reading this article will realize how serious a matter this is as the fake British monarch is at the very top of the entire N.W.O. beast-system , according to ex-MI6 agent Dr. John Coleman in his book: "The Conspirators' Hierarchy", "The Committee of 300". Taking down "queen" Elizabeth and the whole house of Windsor would be a huge victory for the good guy and a giant start and step towards destroying the entire satanic New World Order.

All that presently needs doing is informing people of the situation and asking them to make a lot of noise about it. The NWO thugs made a gigantic mistake in letting this information get out, and if taken advantage of, the resulting waves that could be made across the entire world would be immense. This is big news that must go viral. Please do your part in passing it on to everyone you know.

Study the information yourself and pass it as far and wide as possible so that we can start taking down the New World Order and reverse all the immense damage and suffering that it has caused.


Lia Fáil – The Stone of Destiny

ELSEWHERE, mention has been made of the Irish Lia misluk, Stone of Fate, Fatal Stone, or Stone of Destiny, generally believed to have been the Irish Kings’ Inauguration Stone, afterwards used for Pictish and Scottish kings at Scone, ultimately becoming the Coronation Stone in Westminster Abbey.

Like other subjects connected with Irish history, this point has been considerably discussed. As the present work is mainly intended to give ordinary readers a citation of opinions upon ancient Irish religious topics, it is unnecessary to do more here than present various authorities upon this mysterious stone.

There are two competitors for the honour of authenticity, and both to be now seen one, a dozen feet long, standing erect, half out of the ground, on the Hill of Tara, in Ireland the other, twenty-six inches long, in the coronation chair at Westminster Abbey.

A legend in the Scalacronica, dated 1355, declared it was Simon Brec (a name of solar association) “who brought with him a stone on which the Kings of Spanje were wont to be crowned, and placed it in the most sovereign beautiful place in Ireland, called to this day the Royal Place and Fergus, son of Ferchar, brought the Royal Stone before received, and placed it where it is now, the Abbey of Scone.” The Royal Place was Fordun’s Themor, and Blind Harry’s Canmor of Teamor i. e. Tara.

Baldred Bisset, early in the fourteenth century, had another version saying, “The daughter of Pharaoh, King of Egypt, with an armed band, and a large fleet, goes to Ireland, and there being joined by a body of Irish, she sails to Scotland, taking with her the royal seat, which he, the King of England, with other insignia of the Kingdom of Scotland, carried with him, by violence, to England.” This Bisset sought to gain the Pope’s good offices for its restoration to Scone by our Edward I.

The Irish story in the Leabhar Gabhala, or Book of Conquests, mentions the bringing to Ireland, van Falias in Scotland, of the Lia misluk, by the Tuath de Danaans.

Upon this, W. F. Skene has stated–“The two legends at all events are quite antagonistic to each other, and there is one historic fact certain as to each. First, the Lia misluk, or Irish Stone, did not leave Tara, but was still there in the eleventh century and secondly, the Scotch one was not in Argyle during the existence of the Irish colony of the Dalriada, nor was used in the inauguration of their kings.”

Wintownis Chironikel, written in St. Serf’s monastery, of Inch, Loch Leven, about 1420, has this account–

“A gret Stane this Kynge than had
That for this Kynge’s Sete was made
And haldyne was a great Jowale
Wytht in the kynryk of Spayne hale.
This King bad this Simon (Brec) ta
That Stane, and in-tyl Yrland ga,
And wyn that land and occupy
And halde that Stane perpetually,
And make it his Sege thare
As thai of Spayne did it of are, p. 315
Broucht this Stane wytht in Scotland
Fyrst gwhen he came and wane that land,
And fyrst we set in Ikkolmkil,
And Scune pare estyr it wes broucht tyl
And there it was syne mony day,
Qwhyll Edward gert have it away,
Nor will I the werd rehars
As I fynd of that Stane in wers
Ne fallat fatum, Scoti quocung locatum,
Invenient Lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem

But gyf werdys faly hand be,
Qwhare euer that Stane yhe segyt se
Thare sall the Scottis be regnand,
And Lorddys hale oure all that Land.”

The Latin inscription said to have been on the stone has been thus rendered by another–

“Except old seers do feign,
And wizards’ wits be blind,
The Scots in place must reign,
Where they this stone shall find.”

This has been fulfilled, say some, by James VI. of Scotland, but of Irish descent, becoming James I. of England or, by so many Irish and Scotch holding official posts in England and the colonies.

But James Mason did not believe the story, when he called the stone in Westminster “a spurious relic, and utterly worthless” as “not the ancient coronation stone of Scotland at all,” but a base imitation palmed off on Edward I. That the Scots in their retreat should abandon the real stone, is to him “the most monstrous of suppositions.” Hidden awhile, it may have been lost sight of in the subsequent wars, or lost by the death of the custodian, as many another treasure has been.

Geikie, the geologist, who found it perfectly resemble the sandstones of the Scone district, says, “To my eye the stone appears as if it had been originally prepared for building purposes, but had never been used.” Even Shakespeare in Richard III. called it

“A base, foul stone, made precious by the foil
Of England’s chair.”

It is curious, also, that while the stone Holy Rood, containing a portion of the true cross, was given up by Edward at earnest Scottish solicitation, no pressing was used for the return of the Coronation Stone, not even after the crushing battle of Bannockburn.

It was, perhaps, intended to return the stone to Scotland, and a writ for the removal was dated July 1, 1328, according to the decision of a council at Northampton. Dalrymple states that it was further determined on at a conference between David I. and Edward III. in 1363. The Londoners, however, who accepted the belief of the stone being a national palladium, strongly objected to its leaving Westminster.

Irish, Scotch, Culdees, and Anglo-Israelites have honoured the stone from the fancy that it was the stone pillow of St. Columba, after having been the stone pillow of Jacob at Bethel, afterwards transferred to Scone. The material, however, is unlike the geological formation of either Judah or Iona, any more than of Ireland itself. But it is like that of Scone. McCulloch’s Western Isles has this notice–“The stone in question is a calcareous sandstone, and exactly resembles that which forms the doorway of Dunstaffnage Castle.”

How came Columba to have this Stone of Destiny for his nightly pillow? It is said, however, that when Fergus carried it from Ireland, it was placed in Iona, before being transferred to the monastery of Dunstaffnage. If it had been Jacob’s pillow, the reported visit of the angels at night to Columba is easily accounted for.

In Camden’s time, the Jacob theory was received. But the Scottish Reformer and Historian, Buchanan, left this testimony three hundred odd years ago–“The connecting this stone with the name of the patriarch Jacob was most likely a monkish invention, and not improbably had origin in this Abbey, since the most ancient document in which it was thus described appears to have been a tablet that was formerly suspended above the chair, but which has long ago partaken of the same fate as all the other written memorials that were in this chapel.”

As to the nature of that one in our Abbey, Neale, in his Westminster Abbey, describes it as “chiefly quartz, with light and red-coloured felspar, light and dark mica, with probably some green hornblende, intermixed some fragments of a reddish-grey clay slate or schist are likewise included in its composition and, on the upper side, there is also a dark, brownish, red-coloured, flint pebble.” Dean Stanley thought the stone certainly from Scotland. Scone is of Old Red Sandstone formation. The Dean had a piece of it tested in Percy’s laboratory, when it was found to be slightly calcareous. Examined under the microscope, grains of quartz and small scales of mica were detected. Prof. Ramsay, 1865, had the like opinion of its geology.

Keepe’s Monumenta Westmonasteriensia, in 1681, tells us–“Here is likewise on the west side the Feretory (shrine) of St. Edward, hard by the screan that separates the High Altar from the Chappel, the chair or seat whereon our Kings are accustomed to be inaugurated and crowned. It appears extreamly antient both in its fashion and materials, being made of solid, hard, firm wood, with a back and sides of the same, under whose seat, supported by four lions curiously carved, instead of feet, lies that so much famed Stone, whereon the patriarch Jacob is said to have reposed.–The ruines of this chair itself shows that heretofore it hath been fairly painted, and gilt with gold.” The cost of the labours of carpenters, painters, and gilders upon the same, nearly seven hundred years ago, was £1 19s. 7d.

The chair itself is 6 ft. 9 in. by 3 ft. 2 in. The seat is 2 ft. 3 in. from the ground. There appears a groove in the stone. The circular iron handles, for lifting it, are fixed to a staple. A crack may be observed. The stone is 26 in. long, 16 ¾ broad, 10 ½ high.

Returning to its Scotch history, Skene discovers not a single example of a Pictish sovereign being crowned thereon and, supposing an instance were known, he wonders why the Scots, as racial foes of Picts, should have used it for the purpose. Robertson, the historian, traced Columba’s relics to Dundalk, not Scone.

A work published about 1686 describes the stone as 22 in. long, 13 broad, and 11 deep and says, “whereof history relates that it is the stone whereon Jacob is said to have lain his head in the Plain of Luga and that it was brought to Brigantia (Corunna) in the Kingdom of Spain, in which place Gathol, King of Scots, sat on it as his throne. Thence it was brought into Ireland by Simon Brec, first King of Scots, about 700 years before Christ’s time, and from thence into Scotland about 300 years before Christ, and in A.D. 850 was placed in the Abbey Scone.” Will. Rishanger mentions Milo, King of the Spanish Scots, giving it to his son Simon Brek.

Dr. O’Connor cites an Irish MS. which records the removal of Lia misluk from Tara to the Connaught Kings at Cruachan, and so it lost its sounding property till Con’s day, second century that it was sent by Murtagh Mac Earca to his brother Fergus Mac Earca of Dalriada in Argyle. O’Flaherty, confounding its asserted removal from Iona to Scone in the ninth century, affirmed it was sent then by Aodh Finliath to his father-in-law, Kenneth Mac Alpin. Another version is, that Simon Brek (speckled sun) brought it up with his anchor off the west coast of Ireland.

Pennant narrates–“The stone which had first served Jacob for his pillow, was afterwards transported into Spain, where it was used as a seat of justice by Gathalus, contemporary with Moses.” Boece declares this Gathalus was the son of Cecrops of Athens, and that he married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh. Haydn’s Dictionary of Dates relates that “the Lia misluk, on which the Kings of Munster were crowned, was laid in the Cathedral of Cashel.”

The Royal Irish Academy had the full Tara story from Dr. Petrie’s pen. Referring to what he considered the Lia Fail, the author mentioned its position by the Mound of Hostages, though removed to the Forradh Rath in 1798, over some graves after the Tara fight. “But the mound,” said he, “is still popularly called Bed Thearghais that is, Penis Fergusii, an appellation derived from the form of this stone.” Other MSS. “identify the Lia Fail with the stone on the Mound of the Hostages.” Elsewhere he said–“Between the Irish and Scottish accounts of the history of this stone there is a total want of agreement, which shows that the Scottish writers, when they recorded their tradition, were not acquainted with, or disregarded, the accounts of it preserved by the Irish. The Irish accounts uniformly state that the Lia Fail was brought into Ireland from the north of Germany by the Tuatha de Danaan colony.”

The conclusion of Dr. Petrie is as follows–“It is an interesting fact, that a large obeliscal pillar stone, in a prostrate position, occupied, till a recent period, the very situation, on the Hill of Tara, pointed out as the place of the Lia Fail by the Irish writers of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries and that this was a monument of pagan antiquity, an idol stone, as the Irish writers call it, seems evident from its form and character.”

It is, in fact, the remnant of an ancient object of worship, the honouring of the symbol of production, or source of life.

One may smile at a clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Glover, saying of the stone of Jacob, that it was reverenced long by the Jews, and “being lost in the destruction of their sanctuary, 588 B.C., has appeared in Ireland as the precious Liag Phail brought thither by Hebrew men in a ship of war, cir. 584″ Mr. Hine, in Leading the Nations to Glory, regards that stone as “a witness to God’s covenants in the futures.”

One may, also, smile at Dean Stanley’s enthusiasm over the rival stone at Westminster, as a “link which unites the throne of England with the traditions of Tara and Ions.”

Skene determines that the Lia Fail “never was anywhere but at Tara,” while the other stone “never was anywhere but at Scone.” Mr. G. Hudson rightly exclaims–“It is a matter of surprise that the Council of the Royal Irish Academy, if they believe this (at Tara) to be the Lia Fail, have made no effort to save such a relic.” But Skene’s conclusion upon this vexed question of, authenticity is as follows–

“There was no connection between the stone at Scone and the Lia Fail at Tara, and the legends of their wanderings, like those of the tribes with whom they were associated, are nothing but myth and fable.”

It is uncomfortable to have one’s pleasing romances disturbed and the Stone of Destiny has had to encounter the searching light of modern inquiry, to the destruction of many pretty fancies. It is good to be happy it is better to be true.


Inhoud

The pronunciation of the word within the English-speaking world varies, with some pronouncing it / s k ɒ n / (rhymes with "gone"), [2] and others / s k oʊ n / (rhymes with "tone"). [3] The dominant pronunciation differs by area. pronunciation rhyming with "tone" is strongest in the Midlands and Republic of Ireland though it seems to have less prominent patches in Cornwall and Essex. The pronunciation rhyming with "gone" is strongest in Northern England and Scotland, although this also seems to be the favoured pronunciation in Southern England, Wales, the Home Counties, and East Anglia. [4] [5] Natives of the Republic of Ireland and the United States mainly use the / s k oʊ n / pronunciation. [6] British dictionaries usually show the /skɒn/ form as the preferred pronunciation, while recognising the /skoʊn/ form. [2]

The difference in pronunciation is alluded to in a poem:

I asked the maid in dulcet tone
To order me a buttered scone
The silly girl has been and gone
And ordered me a buttered scone. [7] [8]

Die Oxford English Dictionary reports that the first mention of the word was in 1513.

The origin of the word scone is obscure and may derive from different sources. That is, the classic Scottish scone, the Dutch schoonbrood or "spoonbread" (very similar to the drop scone), and possibly other similarly-named quick breads may have made their way onto the British tea table, where their similar names merged into one. Dus, scone may derive from the Middle Dutch schoonbrood (fine white bread), from schoon (pure, clean) and brood (bread), [9] [10] or it may derive from the Scots Gaelic term sgonn meaning a shapeless mass or large mouthful. The Middle Low German term schöne meaning fine bread may also have played a role in the origination of this word. And, if the explanation put forward by Sheila MacNiven Cameron is true, the word may also be based on the town of Scone ( / s k uː n / ( listen ) ) (Scots: Scuin, Scottish Gaelic: Sgàin) in Scotland, the ancient capital of that country – where Scottish monarchs were crowned, and on whose Stone of Scone the monarchs of the United Kingdom are still crowned today. [11]

It is believed that historically scones were round and flat, usually as large as a medium-sized plate. It was made and baked on a griddle (or girdle, in Scots), then cut into triangular sections for serving. Today, many would call the large round cake a bannock. In Scotland, the words are often used interchangeably. [12]

When baking powder became available to the masses, scones began to be the oven-baked, well-leavened items we know today. [13] Modern scones are widely available in British bakeries, grocery stores, and supermarkets. A 2005 market report estimated the UK scone market to be worth £64m, showing a 9% increase over the previous five years. The increase is partly due to an increasing consumer preference for impulse and convenience foods. [14]

Scones sold commercially are usually round, although some brands are hexagonal as this shape may be tessellated for space efficiency. When prepared at home, they may take various shapes including triangles, rounds and squares. [15] Baking scones at home is often closely tied to heritage baking. They tend to be made using family recipes rather than recipe books, since it is often a family member who holds the "best" and most-treasured recipe. [16]

British scones are often lightly sweetened, but may also be savoury. They frequently include raisins, currants, cheese or dates. In Scotland and Ulster, savoury varieties of scone include soda scones, also known as soda farls, sour dough scones known as soor dook scones made with sour milk, and potato scones, normally known as tattie scones, which resemble small, thin savoury pancakes made with potato flour. Potato scones are most commonly served fried in a full Scottish breakfast or an Ulster fry.

The griddle scone (or "girdle scone" in Scots) is a variety of scone which is cooked on a griddle (or girdle) on the stove top rather than baked in the oven. This usage is also common in New Zealand where scones of all varieties form an important part of traditional colonial New Zealand cuisine.

Other common varieties include the dropped scone, or drop scone, like a pancake, after the method of dropping the batter onto the griddle or frying pan to cook it, and the lemonade scone, which is made with lemonade and cream instead of butter and milk. There is also the fruit scone or fruited scone, which contains currants, sultanas, peel and glacé cherries, which is just like a plain round scone with the fruit mixed into the dough. To achieve lightness and flakiness, scones may be made with cream instead of milk.

In some countries one may also encounter savoury varieties of scone which may contain or be topped with combinations of cheese, onion, bacon, etc.

Scones can be presented with various toppings and condiments, typically butter, jam and cream. Strawberries are also sometimes used.

Australië Redigeer

Pumpkin scones, made by adding mashed cooked pumpkin to the dough mixture, had increased exposure during the period when Florence Bjelke-Petersen was in the public eye. [17] [18] Date scones, which contain chopped dried dates, can also be found in Australia. Another old style of cooking scones, generally in the colder months, is to deep-fry or deep pan-fry them in dripping or oil, when they are called "puftaloons".

Germany & Hungary Edit

In Hungary, a pastry very similar to the British version exists under the name "pogácsa". The name has been adopted by several neighbouring nations' languages. (E.g. Pogatsche in German.) Pogácsa is almost always savoury and served with varied seasonings and toppings, like dill and cheese.

New Zealand Edit

Scones make up a part of kiwiana, and are among the most popular recipes in the Edmonds Cookery Book, New Zealand's best-selling cook book. [19] The Edmonds recipe is unsweetened, using only flour, baking powder, salt, butter and milk. [20] Other ingredients such as cheese, sultanas and dates can be added. [21]

Cheese scones are a popular snack sold in cafes or tea shops, where they are commonly served toasted with butter. [22]

South Africa Edit

Scones are commonly served with clotted cream and jam grated cheddar cheese is another popular accompaniment.

South America Edit

Scones are quite popular in Argentina as well as Uruguay. They were brought there by Irish, English and Scottish immigrants and by Welsh immigrants in Patagonia (Britons are the third largest foreign community in Argentina). [23] They are usually accompanied by tea, coffee or mate.

Verenigde State Redigeer

Scones often appear in US coffee houses. The American version is sweet, heavy, dry and crumbly, similar to British rock cakes. They are usually triangular, and often contain fruit such as blueberries or sultanas, or such flavorings as pumpkin, cinnamon or chocolate chips. They may also be topped with icing. They are often eaten as they are (not topped with butter, jam or cream), along with coffee or tea.

In Idaho and Utah, the bread products locally called "scones" are similar to Native American frybread or New Orleans beignets and are made from a sweet yeast dough, with buttermilk and baking powder or soda added, and they are fried rather than baked. They are customarily served with butter and either honey or maple syrup. [24]

The plot of Season 10, Episode 3 of Curb Your Enthusiasm [25] involves a heated dispute about the proper texture for scones.

In Scots the verb scon means to crush flat or beat with the open hand on a flat surface, and "scon-cap" or "scone-cap" refers to a man's broad flat cap or "bunnet".

In Australia, scone can be a slang term for the head, usually referring to the crown region.


From the archive, 4 July 1996: Stone of Scone going home after 700 years

John Major delighted patriotic Scots but astonished the political establishment at Westminster yesterday by unexpectedly announcing that the ancient Stone of Scone is to be returned to Scotland 700 years after it was seized by the marauding English.

The Prime Minister’s announcement, which ministers insisted was not a political gesture towards Scottish nationalism, means that the “Stone of Destiny” - the historic symbol of Scotland’s monarchs until Edward I brought it to Westminster Abbey in 1296 - will be rehoused later this year, probably in Edinburgh Castle or nearby St Giles’ Cathedral.

Downing Street was quick to quell speculation that Mr Major’s gesture would renew pressure on Britain to hand back other cultural icons seized during its imperial heyday, notably the Elgin Marbles. The stone is the property of the Queen and is simply being removed from one part of her kingdom to another, the Scottish Secretary, Michael Forsyth, confirmed.

Ministers also tried to squash the instant revival of another legend, that the stone, which was stolen by nationalists - stolen back, they would say - in 1950, was not returned to its place below the Coronation Chair in 1952 - the year before the Queen became the latest monarch to be crowned above it.

A fake was substituted and the real stone is still in Scotland, former Labour frontbencher, John McAllion, and others said. Ministers insisted it was authenticated in 1951 and promised to publish the papers which prove it.

Since Jacob’s pillow - as it is supposed to be - reached the now-ruined Scone Abbey in 846 via Egypt, Spain and Ireland’s sacred hill at Tara, mere paperwork is unlikely to prove anything conclusively. By comparison Mel Gibson’s Oscar-winning blockbuster Braveheart - in which Edward I is cast as the villain - is a model of accuracy.

Mr Forsyth, who initiated yesterday’s decision, repeatedly stressed: “I do not regard this as a political gesture,” which is why Mr Major had resisted the temptation to save yesterday’s Commons statement for his appearance at the Scottish grand committee in Dumfries tomorrow. Instead he stressed the stone’s religious symbolism.

Mr Forsyth’s claim is one which few will believe of such a wily politician. He has been working to boost Scottish political self-esteem through a series of symbolic moves, including tomorrow’s committee session in Dumfries. Many MPs see the decision as chiefly symbolic of the Tories’ 15% share in Scottish opinion polls.

Tony Blair and the former Liberal leader, Sir David Steel, welcomed the decision as proof that Britain’s “distinct and proud nations” can celebrate unity and diversity - a hint at devolution battles ahead.

“I hope you recognise it is the settled view of the majority of people in Scotland that they want not just the symbol, but the substance of the return of democratic control over our internal affairs in Scotland,” said Sir David.

Angry Labour backbenchers and the SNP MP, Margaret Ewing, were much more blunt. Mrs Ewing complained that the “stolen goods” were supposed to have been returned under the terms of the Treaty of Northampton in 1328 - but were retained by the Abbey. A return of full sovereignty would not be delayed so long, she predicted.

With some Labour MPs dismissing the stone as an irrelevant symbol of “feudal medieval tyranny”, Andrew Faulds even questioned Mr Major’s claim that Scotland’s crown jewels - to be displayed with the stone - are Europe’s oldest. Hungary’s are older, he claimed.

Mr Forsyth, who has spent the past year hammering Labour’s “tartan tax”, called his initiative “a confident act of celebration of our United Kingdom and the Union of the Crowns”. Ministers stress the stone will be returned to Westminster for the coronation of the next monarch, assuming there is one, and that England and Scotland are still on speaking terms.


How Do You Pronounce “Scone”?

The pronunciation of scone is an arduous battle with no real answer. Some will say it like, “tone”. Others with a “skon” emphasis, like “gone”.

Hell, wars have probably been fought over this issue in the past.

Typically, here at Professional Moron, we aim for “skon”. Maybe it’s because we’re rough and ready Northerners. Who knows?

To be fair, it’s a word we don’t exactly say a lot. We’ve not eaten scones in bloody years, it’s not like we march into a baker’s every other day demanding our daily intake.

Either way, we don’t have any issue how you want to say it. Whatever suits.


Siege of Edinburgh Castle 1296

The stone projectile has been tentatively linked to a siege of Edinburgh castle in 1296. It was probably fired by besieging English forces under the command of Edward I towards the gates and walls of the fortress. However, it may also have been used as a defensive weapon by the garrison in a desperate effort to beat back the English army. Experts from Edinburgh Council are trying to establish which army most likely fired the stone ball during the fighting.

In 1296, Edward I attempted to annex Scotland, and this began the Wars of Scottish Independence. As part of his invasion, he attacked Edinburgh Castle, one of the most important fortresses in all of Scotland. The Sun reports that the siege of 1296, is known as ‘the ‘Longshanks Siege’, after Edward I who was popularly known as Edward Longshanks. This siege saw this fierce monarch capture the stronghold and station a garrison of knights to hold it for the English Crown.

The front gates of Edinburgh Castle ( ex_flow / Adobe Stock )

The fortress became an important base from which the English were able to launch raids in a bid to beat the Scots into submission during the wars of 1296-1316. On one raid from the stronghold they managed to capture the legendary Stone of Destiny also known as the Stone of Scone . This was used for the coronation of successive Scottish monarchs and was a symbol of the nation’s sovereignty.

The Scots began to fiercely resist the occupying English forces, first under William Wallace and later, Andrew de Moray and Robert the Bruce . In 1314, The Sun reports that Moray launched ‘a surprise attack and with a small band of 20 men’’, recaptured Edinburgh Castle. The Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Bannockburn and with this victory they finally secured their independence in 1316.


APPENDIX 5 NOTES

1. E. Raymond Capt, Jacob&rsquos Pillar, p. 31. Capt also states: &ldquoThe arrival in Ireland of the Bethel Stone rests upon the authority of the ancient records of Ireland and the traditions which abound there&rdquo (p. 29).

3. John Fox, The World&rsquos Greatest Throne, p. 30

5. Fox, p. 30 6. Interestingly, the royal crown of Great Britain contains 12 jewels made from the same type of stones that were in the breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:15-21).

6. Interestingly, the royal crown of Great Britain contains 12 jewels made from the same type of stones that were in the breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:15-21).

8. I Corinthians 10:6 shows that Paul was making an analogy&mdash&ldquothese things were our examples.&rdquo The Greek is tupos&mdashmeaning type or figure &ldquothese things&rdquo refers to being &ldquobaptized&rdquo in the cloud and in the sea, eating &ldquospiritual&rdquo food (manna), and drinking &ldquospiritual&rdquo water from a rock that &ldquofollowed&rdquo them. God gave these literal, physical blessings to Israel in the wilderness, yet they still sinned and displeased Him (verse 5). The point Paul is making is that whereas Israel only had the physical type, we have the spiritual reality. Baptism, manna, water, and the rock are all types pointing us to the Messiah. Thus, we are to be all the more diligent to please God and not neglect these spiritual blessings (verses 5-12). The rock that accompanied Israel was no doubt Jacob&rsquos pillar&mdasha type of Christ, God&rsquos greatest blessing on &ldquospiritual Israel,&rdquo the church.

9. There is a tradition that Jacob&rsquos pillar was to be included as a cornerstone in the building of Solomon&rsquos Temple. After all, Bethel means &ldquohouse of God.&rdquo But the builders rejected the stone because of its crack. If this story is true, it is all too fitting: The Jewish leaders of Jesus&rsquo day rejected Him as the Messiah&mdashthe spiritual Cornerstone of the age to come&mdashbecause He failed to conform to their ideals (see Matt. 21:42-45 Acts 4:10-12 Eph. 2:20-21 I Pet. 2:4-8). Moreover, the Coronation Stone is quite an ordinary looking stone, not something one would normally make a &ldquoroyal&rdquo fuss about. Indeed, the pillar has no &ldquoform&rdquo or &ldquocomeliness&rdquo&mdashno &ldquobeauty&rdquo that it should be particularly desired&mdashjust as was true of Jesus (Isa. 53:2). Thus, both Jacob&rsquos stone and Jesus&mdashtype and antitype&mdashwere &ldquodespised&rdquo and &ldquorejected of men&rdquo (verse 3).


Kyk die video: Scottish strongman Andy Cairney wins the Donald Dinnie Games 2019 Ardblair Stones Challenge (Oktober 2021).