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Die hoogvliegende bedrieër van vroeë lugvaart

Die hoogvliegende bedrieër van vroeë lugvaart


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Terugskouend lyk dit vreemd dat Henry Woodhouse net meer as 'n halfeeu weggekom het. Dit was immers nie elke dag dat 'n verlate moordenaar sonder waarneembare opvoeding 'n geliefde van die ontluikende Amerikaanse lugvaartelite geword het nie - bekend as 'n bekende deskundige en skrywer in 'n uitgebreide Wie is wie in Amerika biografie. Dit word ook nie bereken dat dieselfde man dekades lank ongemerk sou bly nadat hy in daardie milieu ontmasker is as een van die gewaagdste, suksesvolste reeksvervalsers van Amerikaanse geskiedenisartefakte.

Maar Henry Woodhouse het. En soos die wêreld uiteindelik sou leer, as dit 'n deskundige was in iets, was dit self-uitvinding. Net soos sy fiktiewe tydgenoot Jay Gatsby, het Woodhouse 'n suksesvolle verhaal-tot-rykdom geleef, kompleet met 'n opgemaakte naam en 'n troebel misdadige verlede. Maar anders as die karakter van F. Scott Fitzgerald, het Woodhouse homself nie net een keer uitgevind nie. Hy het dit herhaaldelik gedoen.

Anders as die ongelukkige Gatsby, sou hy meestal daarmee wegkom.

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In 1918, terwyl Amerikaanse vegvliegtuie en hul Duitse vyande in die lug oor Europa geveg het, het Woodhouse die definitiewe boek oor lugoorlogvoering gepubliseer. Syne Handboek vir Militêre Lugvaartkunde was 'n soort opvolg van hom Handboek van Naval Aeronautics, die jaar tevore vrygestel. In 1920 sou hy opvolg met 'n Handboek vir lugwette.

Woodhouse, wat reeds 'n bekende gesag in die lugvaartwêreld was, was 'n leier in die gerespekteerde Aero Club of America en besturende redakteur van die publikasie daarvan, Vlieg. Sedert 1910 het hy vir baie gewilde tydskrifte geskryf en 'n goeie bron geword vir koerantverslaggewers. Die New York Times alleen het hom in ongeveer 80 artikels aangehaal.

Toe die Lusitania in 1915 deur 'n Duitse torpedo gesink is, het Woodhouse aan verslaggewers gesê die tragedie kon vermy gewees het as die skip twee seevliegtuie vervoer het om vooruit te kyk vir duikbote. In 1918 stel hy voor dat die VSA hul beleërde bondgenote tot die redding kom deur 'n "swerm" van 1000 oorlogsvliegtuie oor die Atlantiese Oseaan na Europa te vlieg - meer as 'n jaar voordat Britse vlieëniers John Alcock en Arthur Brown die eerste suksesvolle, ononderbroke Atlantiese kruising sou maak. . In 1919 het hy voorspel dat die wêreld binnekort '' 'n trans-Atlantiese lyn reuse vlieënde bote '' sou sien om kommersiële passasiers te vervoer.

Dieselfde jaar, Die Amerikaanse tydskrif, 'n belangrike tydskrif van die dag, noem hom 'waarskynlik 'n hoë gesag oor lugvaartaangeleenthede as wat ons in hierdie land kan vind', en voeg by dat 'sy regering herhaaldelik advies ingewin is'.

Deur vaardige selfpromosie het Woodhouse homself gevestig, nie net as 'n tegniese deskundige nie, maar ook as 'n visioenêr. Die probleem was dat dit lyk asof sy lugvaartkundigheid uit die niet gehaal is.

LEES MEER: 10 dinge wat u nie van die Wright -broers mag weet nie

'N Ou skuldigbevinding aan moord kom aan die lig

Woodhouse se hoogvlieg-lugvaartloopbaan het in 1920 begin afneem toe donateurs aan die Aero Club wou weet hoe hul geld bestee word. By die dekking van die saak, Die New York Evening Post ontdek dat Woodhouse, 'n lid van die raad van goewerneurs van die groep, 'n veroordeelde moordenaar was.

Dit het in Desember 1904 gebeur toe Woodhouse, toe bekend as Henry Casalegno, as kok in 'n hotel in Troy, New York, gewerk het. Casalegno en 'n mede-kok het blykbaar gestry oor die vraag of 'n kombuisvenster oop of toe moet wees en die ander man is dood, 'n mes van 10 cm in sy hart. Casalegno het van die toneel gevlug, maar is gou deur die polisie betrap, met 'n tas in die een hand, 'n mandolien in die ander.

Casalegno het beweer dat dit 'n ongeluk was, dat die slagoffer op hom afgestorm en homself gesteek het. Maar die jurie het dit nie gekoop nie. In Maart 1905 is hy skuldig bevind aan manslag in die eerste graad en tot vier jaar en twee maande gevangenisstraf gevonnis.

Verdere besonderhede oor Casalegno se verlede het ook verskyn. Dit lyk asof hy gebore is in Turyn, Italië, óf 1881 óf 1884, as Mario Terenzio Enrico Casalegno, en immigreer na die Verenigde State in 1904. Sy tronkverblyf het geëindig in April 1908, toe hy 'n jaar te vroeg vrygelaat is weens goeie gedrag .

Na sy vrylating het Casalegno voortgegaan om homself as kok te onderhou terwyl hy aan die kant skryf. H.L. Mencken, destyds 'n Baltimore -koerantredakteur, het 'n paar vryskutartikels aan hom opgedra toe Casalegno by 'n mansklub in daardie stad gewerk het, en onthou dat hy geskryf het as 'in baie eerlike Engels'.

'In 1910 of daarna het hierdie Casalegno na New York gegaan, sy naam verander na Henry Woodhouse ('n vertaling van die Italiaanse oorspronklike) en homself begin interesseer in lugvaart,' het Mencken in 'n latere memoires geskryf. Teen die vroeë 1920's was Mencken verwonderd oor die voormalige kok se "biografie in Wie is wie in Amerika het byna 75 reëls gehardloop. ”

Inderdaad, Woodhouse se inskrywing (waarskynlik selfgeskrewe) bevat talle eerbewyse, afsprake in belangrike regeringskommissies en lidmate in verskeie ingenieursverenigings-hoewel daar blykbaar geen bewys is dat hy selfs die hoërskool bygewoon het nie. Dit het enige vermelding van 'n tronkstraf oorgeslaan.

Woodhouse se geskenk vir CV -inflasie is gekombineer met 'n geselligheid vir die beroemde en kragtige en dikwels gefotografeer. Onder sy kennisse sou hy vermoedelik vlieëniers van die A-lys soos Orville Wright, Alberto Santos-Dumont, Charles Lindbergh en Amelia Earhart, sowel as arktiese ontdekkingsreisigers soos Roald Amundsen en admirale Richard E. Byrd en Robert E. Peary, kon tel. Peary het 'n inleiding vir Woodhouse se boek uit 1917 geskryf, Vliegtuie van alle nasies.

Maar Woodhouse was nie sonder sy kritici nie. In 1920 het C.G. Gray, die meningsverlenende redakteur van 'n Britse lugvaarttydskrif, Die vliegtuig, noem hom 'n 'warm-lug-handelaar' wat 'meer nonsens op die vierkante duim oor lugvaart gedruk het as selfs die gewildste skrywers oor hierdie ongelukkige onderwerp in hierdie land'.

In 1922 het Woodhouse in 'n bitter regsgeskil met die Aero Club gebreek, en terwyl hy 'n aantal jare lank in die lugvaartwêreld bly hang het, het hy steeds meer gemarginaliseer. Hy was besig met olie-beleggings in die Midde-Ooste en het selfs 'n rol gespeel in die teeskottelhuurskandaal van Teapot Dome wat die Harding-administrasie tuis verswelg het.

Intussen het hy homself weer herontdek.

Die bedrieër word 'n vervalser

Dit lyk asof Henry Woodhouse se loopbaan om dokumente en artefakte te vervals, onskuldig genoeg begin het. Met wat blykbaar 'n opregte belangstelling in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis was, het hy artefakte begin koop, veral dié wat met George Washington verband hou.

In Januarie 1929, Die New York Times het berig dat hy 11 landpenne gekry het wat tydens sy vroeë dae as landmeter aan Washington behoort het. Die volgende dag het hy gesê dat hy ongeveer 2000 papiere van Washington ontdek het, in 'n kofferbak wat oorgegee is van die suster van die groot man, Betty Washington Lewis. In April lyk dit asof hy Lewis se versameling boeke gekoop het; in Augustus nog 'n stuk dokumente wat na 'n ander familielid in Washington teruggevoer is.

In Desember het die Tye berig, het Woodhouse die Calico -kamerjas van Washington opgespoor en gekoop, "deur hom gedra tot en met die dag van sy dood in 1799", en "drie lappies versigtig en pragtig aangebring met die mooiste stikwerk deur Martha Washington."

LEES MEER: 5 Beroemde antieke vervalsings

Teen die dertigerjare het koerantberigte na Woodhouse verwys as 'n historikus, 'n ekonoom, 'n wetenskaplike, dr. Woodhouse en selfs 'kolonel' Woodhouse.

Maar om net historiese oorblyfsels te versamel, outentiek of twyfelagtig, was nie genoeg vir Woodhouse nie. Hy was ook besig om sy eie uit te haal. Die ontslape skrywer en handtekeninghandelaar Charles Hamilton het selfs bespiegel dat Woodhouse self die opnamepennetjies vermink het.

Soos Hamilton die verhaal vertel het, in sy boek Groot vervalsers en beroemde vervalsings, Het Woodhouse gespesialiseer in die ondertekenaars van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring, en sy "gunsteling foefie was om 'n bedrieglike handtekening op 'n egte ou dokument te plak", soos "'n waardelose daad van die agtiende eeu."

Om sy vervalsings te bevorder, het Woodhouse dit, saam met 'n paar outentieke items, in 'n museum in die middestad van Manhattan vertoon en dit te koop aangebied in Gimbels, 'n groot afdelingswinkel in New York. Vir 'n tyd het hy ook sy eie galery in 'n spoggerige Manhattan -hotel gehad.

Intussen het hy 'n tweede spesialiteit ontwikkel wat verband hou met sy vroeëre inkarnasie. Hy het begin om die handtekeninge van beroemde vlieëniers en ander hooggeplaastes te smee. Ironies genoeg het hy nou die name van sy eie vriende en kennisse vervals. Onder hulle: Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Calvin Coolidge, Alexander Graham Bell, Admiral Peary en Amelia Earhart.

'Woodhouse kon hul handtekeninge gekry het. Maklik. Al wat hy hoef te doen was om te vra, ”het Hamilton geskryf. 'Maar hy verkies om hul name te smee ... Hy vul 'n groot stam met sy kontemporêre vervalsings.' Hy het so 'n produktiewe vervalser geword dat hy uiteindelik pakhuisruimte moes huur om sy produksie te huisves, merk Hamilton op.

Terwyl baie historici en ander kenners vermoed het dat daar iets fout was met Woodhouse se ware, lyk dit asof hy nie tydens sy leeftyd as 'n vervalser blootgestel is nie. Een rede was moontlik sy skaars oorredingskragte; 'n ander een was moontlik sy voorliefde vir die indiening van regsgedinge.

Teen die tyd van sy dood, blykbaar in 1970, het hy in die duisternis verdwyn. Maar hy het 'n kleurryke geskiedenis oor sy bykans nege dekades agtergelaat, plus 'n groot voorraad vervalsings - waarvan baie nog steeds daar is, wat nuwe generasies van die onversorgdes mislei en die erfenis van Henry Woodhouse voortduur.


30 beste lugvaartaanhalings van alle tye

Van die ou wysheid van Sokrates tot die droë humor van George Carlin, daar is baie lugvaartaanhalings op die internet.

U vind inspirerende aanhalings wat ons herinner aan die skoonheid van vlug en aan wat die mensdom na die lug trek. Dit is die aanhalings om in u kantoor te hang of 'n gelukwensingskaart vir 'n pas -gesertifiseerde vlieënier in te skryf.

Hoe beskou vlieëniers hulself en hoe beskou die res van die wêreld ons? Wat beteken dit om 'n vlieënier te wees? Deel hierdie aanhalings met u gade.

Kan nie die snaakse grappies oorslaan nie, en daar is baie humor in ons beroep, dus beskou dit as die definitiewe lys van al u beste partytjiegrappe.

Humor opsy, dit was net gepas om die eertydse en wyse advies in te sluit wat van vlieënier tot vlieënier oorgedra is.

Inspirerend, humoristies, wys - hulle het almal 'n plek op ons lys van die 30 beste lugvaartaanhalings verdien. Lees dit en ontdek of u gunstelinge die snit gemaak het.

Inspirerend


1. "As u eers vlug geproe het, sal u vir ewig op die aarde loop met u oë na die hemel, want daar was u, en daar sal u altyd terugverlang."
- Leonardo da Vinci

2. "Die mens moet uitstyg bo die aarde - tot bo in die atmosfeer en daarbuite - want net so sal hy die wêreld waarin hy leef, ten volle begryp."
- Sokrates

3. “In ons almal is 'n wisselende hoeveelheid ruimtepluis en sterstof, die oorblyfsels van ons skepping. Die meeste is te besig om dit raak te sien, en in sommige is dit sterker as ander. Dit is die sterkste by ons wat vlieg en is verantwoordelik vir 'n onbewuste, subtiele begeerte om in 'n paar vlerke te gly en die ontwykende grense van ons oorsprong te probeer soek. "
- K.O. Eckland

4. "Ek vlieg omdat dit my gedagtes bevry van die tirannie van klein dinge."
-Antoine de Saint-Exupery

5. “Die begeerte om te vlieg is 'n idee wat ons voorvaders oorgedra het, wat in hul uitmergelende reise in spoorlose lande in prehistoriese tye afgunstig op die voëls gekyk het wat vryelik deur die ruimte sweef, op volle spoed, bo alle hindernisse, op die oneindige snelweg van die lug. ”
- Wilbur Wright

6. “Soms voel vlieg te goddelik om deur die mens bereik te word. Soms lyk die wêreld van bo te mooi, te wonderlik, te ver om menslike oë te sien. ”
- Charles A. Lindbergh

Wat dit beteken om 'n vlieënier te wees

7. “Vegvlieëniers het ys in hul are. Hulle het nie emosies nie. Hulle dink, verwag. Hulle weet dat vrees en ander bekommernisse u gedagtes vertroebel van wat aangaan en waarby u betrokke moet wees. ”
- Buzz Aldrin

8. “Om te leer om met 'n vliegtuig te vlieg, het my 'n manier van dink geleer, 'n benadering tot probleemoplossing wat toepaslik en effektief was. Vlieëniers is baie metodies en nougeset, en kunstenaars is gewoonlik nie so nie. ”
- Chris Carter

9. “Vlieëniers is 'n seldsame mens. Hulle verlaat die gewone oppervlak van die woord om hul siel in die lug te suiwer, en hulle kom op die aarde, eers nadat hulle die gemeenskap van die oneindige ontvang het. ”
- Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra

10. “Kom ons kry een ding reg. Daar is 'n groot verskil tussen 'n vlieënier en 'n vlieënier. Die een is 'n tegnikus, die ander 'n kunstenaar wat verlief is op vlug. "

11. “Hy beweeg nie oor die afstand nie, maar deur die mate van tevredenheid wat kom deurdat hy homself in die lug sleep met volledige en totale beheer om homself te ken en sy vliegtuig so goed te ken dat hy êrens naby kan kom, in sy eie spesiale en eensame manier, die ding wat volmaaktheid genoem word. ”

Algemene gesegdes

12. '' 'n 'Goeie' landing is een waaruit u kan wegstap. 'N' Goeie 'landing is een waarna hulle weer die vliegtuig kan gebruik. "

13. “Elke opstyg is opsioneel. Elke landing is verpligtend. ”

Pilot Humor

14. “Vlieg is nie gevaarlik nie. Botsing is wat gevaarlik is. ”

15. “As jy die stok vorentoe stoot, word die huise groter. As jy die stok terugtrek, word hulle kleiner. Dit is, tensy u die stok heeltyd terugtrek, word hulle weer groter. ”

16. “Die skroef is net 'n groot waaier voor die vliegtuig wat gebruik word om die vlieënier koel te hou. As dit stop, kan u eintlik sien hoe die vlieënier begin sweet. ”

17. “Lugsnelheid, hoogte en brein. Twee is altyd nodig om die vlug suksesvol te voltooi. ”

18. "Liefhebbers van lugreise vind dit opwindend om te hang tussen die illusie van onsterflikheid en die feit van die dood."
- Alexander Chase

19. “Beide optimiste en pessimiste dra by tot ons samelewing. Die optimis bedink die vliegtuig en die pessimis die valskerm. ”
- Gil Stern

20. "As swart bokse lugongelukke oorleef, waarom maak hulle dan nie die hele vliegtuig uit die goed nie?"
- George Carlin

21. "Die enigste raaisel in die lewe is waarom die kamikaze -vlieëniers helms gedra het."
- Al McGuire

22. “Wat is die ooreenkoms tussen lugverkeersleiers en vlieëniers? As 'n vlieënier opdroog, sterf die vlieënier As ATC skroef, sterf die vlieënier. "

23. "U was nog nooit verlore totdat u by Mach 3 verlore geraak het nie."
- Paul F. Crickmore

Woorde van wysheid

24. “Leer uit die foute van ander. Jy sal nie lank genoeg lewe om almal self te maak nie. ”

25. “Jy begin met 'n sak vol geluk en 'n leë sak ervaring. Die truuk is om die sak ervaring vol te maak voordat jy die sak met geluk leegmaak. ”

26. “Goeie oordeel kom uit ervaring. Ongelukkig kom die ervaring gewoonlik uit slegte oordeel. ”

27. “Daar is ou vlieëniers en daar is gewaagde vlieëniers. Daar is egter geen ou, gewaagde vlieëniers nie. ”

28. "Onthou, jy vlieg 'n vliegtuig met jou kop, nie jou hande en voete nie."

29. "'n Dwaas en sy geld vlieg binnekort meer vliegtuie as wat hy kan hanteer."

30. "Om met die vliegtuig te vlieg, is belangriker as om jou benarde situasie uit te stuur na 'n persoon op die grond wat dit nie kan verstaan ​​nie."

So, daar het u dit - die 30 beste lugvaartaanhalings van alle tye met 'n bietjie van alles, van inspirasie tot humor tot wysheid.
Skakel met ons op Facebook of Twitter en laat ons weet: Watter aanhalings was u gunsteling en wat sou u by die lys voeg?


Lugvaart

Die lugvaartbedryf handel oor die ontwerp, ontwikkeling, vervaardiging en bedryf van vliegtuie. Die bedryf is betrokke by die verskillende aspekte van die bou, toets en verkoop van vliegtuie, vliegtuigkomponente, missiele, ruimtetuie en vuurpyle, bekend as lugvaart -vervaardiging. Tot 'n paar dekades gelede is die lugvaartbedryf in baie dele van die wêreld sterk deur die regerings gereguleer. Meer onlangs het baie private spelers hierdie veld betree deur lugrederye en algemene lugvaartvlugte. Lugrederye is die maatskappye wat die vliegtuie wat passasiers en vrag lewer, huur of besit. Algemene lugvaart sluit in lugvaart, vlugopleiding, privaat lugvaart, valskermspring, lugfotografie, sweefvaart, afstof, ens. Dit bied groot geleenthede vir potensiële entrepreneurs om te verken. Dit bied ook 'n uitstekende geleentheid vir produsente van kleiner vliegtuie. Algemene lugvaart dek die meerderheid van die wêreld se lugverkeer en is dus 'n baie gewilde besigheidsopsie onder die welgestelde en ambisieuse entrepreneurs. Die lugvaartbedryf het met 'n fenomenale tempo gegroei sedert die regerings van baie lande die norme en regulasies van lugvaart geliberaliseer het. Globalisering het ook 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die groei van hierdie bedryf. Lees verder om meer te wete te kom oor die lewe en werke van verskillende bekende sakelui in die lugvaartbedryf van regoor die wêreld.


Verwante verhale

My Gold Wings verdien: 'n Amerikaanse vlootvlieënier aan die begin van die sestigerjare

'N Helikoptervlieënier van die Amerikaanse vloot vertel van die ups en downs van sy vlugopleiding aan die begin van die sestigerjare.

Hoe 'n Hollywood -aktrise 'n lugsender geword het

Die Hollywood-aktrise Susan Oliver het haar vrees vir vlieg oorwin om die tweede vrou te word wat 'n enkelmotorige vliegtuig solo van New York na Europa bestuur het.

Lugmynevee: vindingryke oplossing vir 'n verborge onderzeese bedreiging

Toe Duitsland vroeg in die oorlog magnetiese myne ontplooi het, het Brittanje teëgestaan ​​met vliegtuie wat dit kon ontplof deur 'n skip se magnetiese handtekening na te boots.

X-Plane Pilot Scott Crossfield: eerste om Mach 2 te bereik

Hierdie skarniervliegtuig kan vou om ruimte te bespaar op vliegdekskepe

Een van die eerste vliegtuie wat op die vervoerder was, beskik oor 'n ruimtebesparende opvoubare romp en opblaasbare toestelle as die vlieënier sou val.


Lugvaartgeskiedenis

Shell bedryf lugvaart vanaf die vroegste begin ... hier is slegs 'n paar van die mylpale waaraan die onderneming deel was.

Pioniersvlug (Krediet: Screenocean/Owner)

Swart -en -wit skoot met 'n patroon met die opskrif 'Novel Christening'. Die eerste '' mot '' -vliegtuig vir kommersiële reisigers word met petrol gedoop op Stag Lane Aerodrome. 1673, Gaumont Graphic. ''

Swart en wit beeldmateriaal van 'n vliegtuig met mans in uniform daar rondom.

Mev. George Wilson, die vrou van assistent-hoofbestuurder van Shell-Mex, en 'n man is bo-aan 'n leer, mevrou Wilson gooi Golden Shell Oil in die vliegtuig.

Mev. Wilson kry 'n bos blomme van 'n dogtertjie.

Die vlieënier klim in die vliegtuig en iemand is agterin, mense kom bymekaar.

Mev. Wilson gooi meer brandstof in.

Ons fokus op die passasiers.

Mev. Wilson gooi meer brandstof en aanvaar weer die blomme voordat sy met die kind wegstap.

Terug na die vlieënier en passasier terwyl twee mans die voorste skroewe van die vliegtuig draai.

Vliegtuig is in die lug oor 'n veld en gaan oor 'n huis voordat dit op die gras beland.

Mans hardloop na die vliegtuig terwyl dit land en hardloop langs die kamera.

Die vliegtuig draai en die mans stop dit.

Die mans stap dan langs die vliegtuig en dit vertrek weer die lug in.


Vroue betrokke by lugvaart

Vandag vlieg vroulike vlieëniers vir die lugrederye, vlieg in die weermag en in die ruimte, vlieg lugwedlope, beveel helikopter genadevlugte, sleep vrag, berg hoë mere in met vis, saadwolke, patrolleer pypleidings, leer studente vlieg, onderhou vliegtuigmotors , en vervoer korporatiewe beamptes.

Vroue het 'n beduidende bydrae tot die lugvaart gelewer sedert die Wright Brothers se eerste vlug van 12 sekondes in 1903. Blanche Scott was die eerste vroulike pilo in 1910, toe die vliegtuig wat sy toegelaat het om te ry, geheimsinnig in die lug geraak het. In 1911 word Harriet Quimby die eerste gelisensieerde vrouevlieënier. En in 1912 word Harriet die eerste vrou wat oor die Engelse kanaal vlieg.

In 1921 word Bessie Coleman die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse vrouevlieënier. As gevolg van die diskriminasie in die Verenigde State ten opsigte van vroue as vlieëniers en Bessie se ras, verhuis Bessie na Frankryk en leer hy vlieg by die bekendste vliegskool in Frankryk-die École d'Aviation de Frères Caudron. Bessie keer terug na die Verenigde State en volg 'n stormstormloopbaan tot 1926.

Op 16 Maart 1929 het Louise Thaden in 'n Travel Air haar bod vir die uithouvermoërekord vir vroue vanaf die Oakland Municipal Airport, CA, gemaak en het dit met 'n vlug van 22 uur en 3 minute geslaag. Die rekord is 'n maand later deur Elinor Smith met 26 uur, 21 minute oor Roosevelt Field, New York, gebreek.

Ander eerstes het gevolg: Katherine Cheung, in 1931 in Los Angeles, Kalifornië, was die eerste vrou van Chinese afkoms wat 'n lisensie verwerf het. Anne Morrow Lindbergh, vrou van Charles Lindbergh, was die eerste Amerikaanse vliegvlieënier en die eerste vrou wat die Hubbard -toekenning van die National Geographic Society ontvang het. En Phoebe Fairgrave Omelie was die eerste vrouevervoervlieënier. Phoebe, wat in die twintiger- en dertigerjare as een van Amerika se voorste vrouevlieëniers beskou is, het 'n program ontwikkel vir die opleiding van vrouevluginstrukteurs en is aangestel as spesiale assistent vir lugintelligensie van die National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (die voorloper van NASA), en was aktief in die National Air Marking and Mapping -program om lughawensidentifikasiesimbole op lughawens of nabygeleë geboue te skilder.

Lugwedrenne was 'n manier vir vroue om hul vermoëns te demonstreer, en die prysgeld was natuurlik 'n aansporing. Lugwedrenne vir alle vroue is gou georganiseer, die grootste was die National Women's Air Derby in 1929. Die wedloop was van Santa Monica, CA na Cleveland, OH en het binne agt dae gevlieg. Die idee om vroue met vliegtuie te laat jaag, is nie deur baie mense aanvaar nie. Tydens die lugwedren was daar dreigemente van sabotasie en opskrifte wat lui: "Race moet gestop word." Die Derby het egter twintig vroue van regoor die land getrek en hulle die kans gegee om vir die eerste keer van aangesig tot aangesig te ontmoet.

Na die wedloop het hierdie vroue kontak met mekaar gehou en gepraat oor die vorming van 'n organisasie van vroulike vlieëniers. Clara Trenckman, wat in die Women's Department van die Curtiss Flying Service by Valley Stream, Long Island gewerk het, het twee bestuurders van Curtiss oortuig om gelisensieerde vroue uit te nooi om in Valley Stream te vergader om so 'n organisasie te stig. In reaksie op die uitnodiging, het 26 gelisensieerde vroulike vlieëniers op 2 November 1929 in 'n hangar by Curtiss Field vergader om formeel The 99s Club te stig. Later, na baie verwerpte name, het die organisasie sy naam "The Ninety-Nines" gekies omdat 99 van die 117 gelisensieerde Amerikaanse vrouevlieëniers in die Verenigde State destyds as charterlede aangemeld het.

Willa Brown was die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse kommersiële vlieënier en eerste Afro-Amerikaanse vrouebeampte in die Civil Air Patrol. In haar tuisdorp Chicago, IL, het sy lugvaartkursusse in hoërskole aangebied en 'n vliegskool op die Harlem -lughawe gestig. In 1939 het Willa gehelp om die National Airmen's Association of America te stig, wie se doel was om Afro-Amerikaners as lugvaartkadette in die Amerikaanse weermag te kry. Willa was ook die koördineerder van oorlogsopleidingsdiens vir die Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA), en nog belangriker, was die direkteur van die Coffey School of Aeronautics. Die weermag en BLO het die skool gekies om 'die eksperimente' uit te voer wat gelei het tot die toelating van Afro-Amerikaners tot die weermag se lugmag. Later word Coffey 'n voederskool vir die Army Air Forces-program vir Afro-Amerikaanse vlieëniers by die Tuskegee Institute.

Teen 1930 was daar 200 vrouevlieëniers, teen 1935 was daar tussen 700 en 800 gelisensieerde vrouevlieëniers. 'N Belangrike deurbraak in die lugvaart was om vroue toe te laat om teen mans te jaag. In 1936 wen Louise Thaden en Blanche Noyes die gesogte Bendix Trophy Race. Vroue het sedertdien teen mans meegeding.

Die meeste vroue wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog leer vlieg het, het onderrig ontvang deur die CAA se Civil Pilot Training Program. Meer as 935 vroue het in 1941 hul lisensies verwerf, met 43 wat as CAA-gekwalifiseerde instrukteurs gedien het. Mills College in Oakland, CA, was een van die deelnemende opleidingskolleges vir vroue.

Namate die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vorder, kon vroue in baie aspekte van die lugvaartwêreld inbreek. Hulle het gedien as veerboot- en toetsvlieëniers, werktuigkundiges, vlugbeheerders, instrukteurs en werkers by die produksie van vliegtuie. Aan die begin van 1943 was 31,3 persent van die lugmagwerkers vroue. Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was baie voordelig vir die beweging van vroue na lugvaartvelde. Die geskiedenis van lugvaart gedurende hierdie jare is geweldig.

Die Women's Auxiliary Ferry Squadron (WAFS), gestig deur Nancy Harkness Love, en die Women's Flying Training Detachment (WFTD), gestig deur Jacqueline Cochran, is deur president Roosevelt saamgesmelt om die Women's Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) te word. Die nuwe organisasie was 'n belangrike deel van die geskiedenis van vroue in militêre lugvaart. Alhoewel hierdie vroue burgerlikes was en minder as vroue in die gewone militêre diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was, bied hul ervarings 'n paradigma vir die diens van militêre vroue van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Ongelukkig is die WASP's eers as militêre personeel erken totdat die senaat in November 1977 'n besluit geneem het en dit deur president Carter onderteken is.

Die jare sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het baie meer hindernisse vir vrouevlieëniers laat daal en rekords word steeds gebreek. Jackie Cochran was op 20 Mei 1953 die eerste vrouevlieënier wat die klankgrens gebreek het, met Chuck Yeager as haar jaagvlieënier. In 1954 vlieg Marion Hart op die ouderdom van 62 jaar oor die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Vroue het hul eerste tree nader aan die ruimte in 1959, toe Geraldine Cobb, 'n talentvolle jong vlieënier, die eerste vrou geword het wat die Mercury -ruimtevaarder fisiologiese toetse ondergaan het. "Jerrie" was 28 jaar oud, het 7000 uur vliegtyd gehad en drie wêreldrekords gehou. Sy was 'n vlieënier en bestuurder van Aero Design and Engineering Company, wat die Aero Commander -vliegtuig gemaak het, en was een van die min vroulike bestuurders in die lugvaart. Cobb het al drie fases van die fisiese en sielkundige toetse wat gebruik is om die oorspronklike sewe Mercury -ruimtevaarders te kies, suksesvol voltooi. Alhoewel dertien vroue hierdie eerste toetsronde voltooi het, het NASA geweier om die toetse af te handel uit vrees dat sulke stappe gedoen kan word as goedkeuring van vroulike ruimtevaarders.

Selfs nie eers deur die Sowjetunie wat Valentina Tereshkova in 1963 in die ruimte gelanseer is nie, en ook nie die Wet op Burgerregte van 1964 vir vroue in die ruimte nie. Sally Kristen Ride, NASA-ruimtevaarder en 'n South Central Section 99, het eers op 17 Junie 1983 geskiedenis gemaak as die eerste Amerikaanse vrou in die ruimte, en was 'n spesialis vir STS-7 op die ses dae lange vlug van die orbiter Challenger.

Teen die 1960's was daar 12 400 gelisensieerde vrouevlieëniers in die Verenigde State (3,6 persent van alle vlieëniers.) Hierdie getal het teen die einde van die dekade verdubbel tot byna 30 000 vroue, maar was nog steeds slegs 4,3 persent van die totale vlieëniers. Tans bestaan ​​vroue uit ongeveer 6 persent van die vlieëniers in die Verenigde State.

Geraldine Mock het die eerste vrou geword wat in 1964 die wêreld vol gevlieg het in 'n enkelmotorige Cessna 180 genaamd die "Spirit of Columbus", wat meer belangstelling in vrouelugwedlope gewek het. Die "Angel Derby", dan die "All Women's International Air Derby, wat danksy Will Rogers gou bekend geword het as die" Powder Puff Derby. "Dit staan ​​vandag bekend as die" All Women's Transcontinental Air Race ", of AWTAR. Ander wedrenne waarin The Ninety-Nines ontstaan ​​het, ontwikkel en gevlieg het, is Formule 1, die Kachina Doll Air Race in Arizona, die Indiana Fairladies Air Races, die immer gewilde Palms to Pines Air Race, en waarskynlik die grootste en oudste vaardigheidswedren , die Michigan Small Race. Tientalle ander, soos die New England Air Race, het mededingers uit baie state en uit Kanada gehaal.

En die eerstes het voortgegaan - In 1974 word Mary Barr die eerste vrouevlieënier by die Forest Service -vaandel, Mary Crawford word in Junie 1981 die eerste vroulike vlootbeampte van die Amerikaanse vloot, Charlotte Larson word in 1983 die eerste kaptein van die rokvliegtuig en Deanne Schulman Kaptein Beverly Burns, die eerste gekwalifiseerde vroulike rookspringer in 1984, was kaptein Beverly Burns, die eerste vrou wat 'n 747-landloop aangevoer het en kaptein Lynn Rippelmeyer was die eerste vrou wat 'n 747 op 'n transatlantiese vlug aangeval het. In 1995 was luitenant -kolonel Eileen Marie Collins die eerste vrouevlieënier in die Amerikaanse Space Shuttle -program.

Mense word om dieselfde redes vlieëniers. Eerstens hou hulle van vlieg, en hulle hou daarvan om hul talente te gebruik en daarvoor respekteer te word. En meestal hou hulle van die gevoel dat hulle deel uitmaak van hierdie sterk gesin genaamd lugvaart.


1947: 'n vlieënde danssaal

'Dit het soos 'n groot danssaal gelyk', het Alfred Eliasson gesê, na sy eerste kyk na 'n Douglas DC4 Skymaster, die vliegtuig wat Loftleidir in 1947 gekoop het. dit is gereeld gebruik op internasionale roetes vir die volgende dekade.

Die eerste Skymaster is Hekla genoem. Loftleidir, nou in die buiteland bekend as Loftleidir Icelandic, het in 1948 'n tweede vliegtuig gekoop en dit Geysir genoem. In dieselfde jaar het Flugfélag Íslands, oftewel Icelandair, die eerste in sy "Gullfaxi" -reeks gekoop, ook 'n Skymaster. Hierdie hoogs gerespekteerde vliegtuie het 46 passasiers vervoer. Dit was Ysland se eerste ernstige langafstandvliegtuie.


Die grootste bedrogspul in die geskiedenis?

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

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Niemand in Freiburg kon 'n partytjie soos dit onthou nie. Die datum was 22 September 2007, en Wolfgang en Helene Beltracchi, gegoede nuwelinge in hierdie lewendige universiteitsdorp naby die Swartwoud van Duitsland, het vriende en bure genooi om 'n mylpaal te vier. Werkers het pas die laaste hand aan hul villa van $ 7 miljoen gemaak, na 19 maande van uitgebreide opknappings. Lanterns verlig die geplaveide gang na die huis op die heuwel, 'n minimalistiese struktuur van vyf verdiepings met 'n glas- en Siberiese-larikshout-fasade, staalbalke, pastelkleurige teëlvloere en kontemporêre skilderye en beelde wat elke kamer vul. Die personeel van Freiburg se luukse Colombi-hotel-waar die Beltracchis in 'n penthouse-suite van $ 700 per nag gebly het toe hulle in die stad was tydens die verbouing-het genoeg kos en drank, insluitend magnum fyn sjampanje, voorberei. Die Beltracchis het selfs in 'n gevierde flamencoband met vier lede uit Granada gevlieg om vir hul 100 gaste te dans en sing.

Spaanse ballades dryf oor tuine en binnehowe na die glashuis. Binne-in het die partytjiegangers 'n groot skildery deur die Franse Kubis Fernand Léger afgewerk. Ander bewonder kunsinstallasies regdeur die villa, insluitend Bagdad -tafel, 'n ingewikkelde gestileerde aluminiummodel van die Irakse hoofstad deur die Israeliese industriële ontwerper Ezri Tarazi. Van die terrasse het hulle die ligte van die middeleeuse stad ver onder ingeneem. Wolfgang, a long-haired, 56-year-old Albrecht Dürer look-alike, and Helene, an ingénue-like woman of 49 with waist-length brown hair cut into girlish bangs, had spared no expense to announce their arrival on Freiburg’s scene. “Everybody was blown away,” remembers Michel Torres, who had hired the flamenco dancers on the Beltracchis’ behalf and who had befriended the couple during the years that they lived in southern France. “It was unforgettable.”

Yet mingling with admiration for the Beltracchis’ style and taste was a feeling of unease. None of the architects, lawyers, university professors, and other Freiburg residents knew the first thing about where their hosts had come from, nor how they had amassed their wealth. “One [German] woman asked me, ‘Who is this guy? Is he a rock star?’” recalls Magali Richard-Malbos, another of the Beltracchis’ French friends. “And I said, ‘No, no. He’s an artist, a collector.’”

Strictly speaking, that was true. It would be another three years before the truth about what kind of artist Beltracchi is came out.

‘The big question every reader will want to know is, how and why does a person become an art forger?” Wolfgang Beltracchi tells me. His question is just a tad modest: Beltracchi, in fact, masterminded one of the most audacious and lucrative art frauds in postwar European history. For decades, this self-taught painter, who had once scratched out a living in Amsterdam, Morocco, and other spots along the hippie trail, had passed off his own paintings as newly discovered masterpieces by Max Ernst, André Derain, Max Pechstein, Georges Braque, and other Expressionists and Surrealists from the early 20th century. Helene Beltracchi, along with two accomplices—including her sister—had sold the paintings for six and seven figures through auction houses in Germany and France, including Sotheby’s and Christie’s. One phony Max Ernst had hung for months in a retrospective at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Steve Martin purchased a fake Heinrich Campendonk through the Paris gallery Cazeau-Béraudière for $860,000 in 2004 the French magazine-publishing mogul Daniel Filipacchi paid $7 million for a phony Max Ernst, titled The Forest (2), in 2006. For the 14 fakes that the Beltracchis were eventually charged with selling, their estimated take was around €16 million, or $22 million. Their total haul over the years must have been far more.

Beltracchi working on a fake Max Ernst earlier this year in the German town of Bergisch Gladbasch., By Joshua Hammer.

I was meeting with the couple last winter in the dining room of their lawyer’s house in Sürth, an affluent suburb of Cologne. Large windows looked over a snow-dappled garden and, just beyond, the Rhine River, clogged on this bright and frigid February morning with chunks of ice. After complicated negotiations, they had agreed to tell me their story.

Beltracchi, who was wearing jeans and a pale-blue fleece, still appeared every bit the hippie rogue. His shoulder-length blond hair, thinning on top, along with his blond mustache and graying goatee, made him look something like a swashbuckler out of The Three Musketeers, with a touch of Mephistopheles. For 61, he seemed surprisingly youthful, an appearance enhanced by the upper- and lower-eyelid lifts he had received in a clinic in southern France six years ago. Helene, clad in a blue knit turtleneck sweater, her thick tresses cascading to her waist, had clearly done her best to retain her girlish appeal. She looked at her husband adoringly, as he began to explain what drew him into a life of crime.

“Obviously one has to invest a lot of time to achieve success by painting one’s own works,” he told me, displaying a healthy amount of what the Germans call Selbstgefälligkeit, or self-satisfaction. “I was always a guy who wanted to be out and about . . . For me, life is on the outside, not the inside.”

Beltracchi, whose original name was Wolfgang Fischer, was born in 1951 in Höxter, a village in Westphalia, in west-central Germany. His father was a house painter and a restorer of churches who supplemented his income by producing cheap copies of Rembrandts, Picassos, and Cézannes. Beltracchi inherited his dad’s skill with a brush, and took it to a new level: at 14 he astonished his father, he says, by painting a passable Picasso in a single day—“a mother and child from the Blue Period”—and adding original flourishes. Three years later, he enrolled in an art academy in Aachen, but ended up skipping most of his classes. It was the late 1960s, “the hippie time,” Beltracchi says. He grew his hair long, purchased a Harley-Davidson, and smoked hashish and dropped L.S.D. with U.S. soldiers stationed at a nearby NATO base on their way home from Vietnam. “Many of them had gone a little bit crazy from the war,” Beltracchi recalls. “Some of them became my friends.”

During the 1970s and early 80s, young Wolfgang Fischer led a nomadic life—like Peter Fonda in Easy Rider, Helene says. He spent a year and a half on a beach in Morocco, and lived in a commune in Spain. He drifted around Barcelona, London, and Paris, buying and selling paintings at antique markets. He lived on a houseboat in Amsterdam, where he put on psychedelic light shows at the Paradiso nightclub. He enjoyed some early success as a painter in his own right, contributing three works to a prestigious art exhibition in Munich in 1978. But, by his own admission, he was more drawn to the outlaw life. One day during his wanderings, he bought a pair of winter landscapes by an unknown 18th-century Dutch painter for $250 apiece. Fischer had noticed that tableaus from the period which depicted ice skaters sold for five times the price of those without ice skaters. In his atelier, he carefully painted a pair of skaters into the scenes and resold the canvases for a considerable profit. Thirty years ago, fakes were even harder to detect than they are now, he tells me. “They weren’t the first ones I made, but they were an important step.” Soon he was purchasing old wooden frames and painting ice-skating scenes from scratch, passing them off as the works of old masters.

In 1981, Fischer made a stab at holding a conventional job. With a Düsseldorf real-estate salesman, he formed an art-dealing firm, Kürten & Fischer Fine Arts GmbH. “I had to sit around in an office, and I realized very quickly that I hated it,” Beltracchi says. He was soon squeezed out of the business on the grounds of negligence by his partner and, faced with money problems, he ratcheted up the pace of his forgeries.

He had moved from old masters to early-20th-century French and German artists, partly because it was easier to find pigments and frames from that period. The forgeries came in “waves,” he says, depending on his need for cash. “Sometimes I’d paint 10 works in a month, and then go for six months without doing any.” Among his specialties were paintings by the German Expressionist Johannes Molzahn, who had fled the Nazis and taken refuge in the U.S. in 1938 Fischer sold as many as a dozen purported Molzahns, which fetched up to $45,000. (One was even bought by the artist’s widow.) He says he insinuated three fake paintings, by three different artists, into a single auction held by art dealer Jean-Louis Picard in Paris in 1991.

In the mid-1980s, Fischer also began painting phony works supposedly by Heinrich Campendonk, another German Expressionist from the Lower Rhine. Condemned by the Nazis as a “degenerate artist,” he had fled into exile in the Netherlands shortly after their rise to power. During this period, Andrea Firmenich, a young German art scholar in Bonn, was assembling a comprehensive catalogue of Campendonk’s art with the assistance of Campendonk’s son Beltracchi says “five or six” of his own forgeries ended up in Firmenich’s catalogue raisonné. “This was really brilliant,” says Ralph Jentsch, a modern-art expert who would later play a critical role in exposing the Beltracchis’ fraud. “It shows the criminal potential of this guy. . . . It also shows how careless [Firmenich] was.” For her part, Firmenich counters that Campendonk’s output was unusually vast (more than 1,200 works), that two other authorities consulted on the catalogue, and that “no expert is immune from mistakes.” She declines to go into further detail. “The damage to my person is so big that I am not able to say anything ‘official,’” she wrote to me in an e-mail. “The damage for the experts of art is so enormous, and the public understanding of Beltracchi as a hero so absurd, that I hope you can understand my opinion.”

It was also during this time, hanging out in an artists’ café, that Fischer made the acquaintance of Otto Schulte-Kellinghaus, whom he liked to introduce as Count Otto. Lacking expertise in art, says Beltracchi, but eager to be involved in the art world, Schulte-Kellinghaus would soon be enlisted as a front man in the painter’s escalating scheme.

Helene Beltracchi was not impressed by Wolfgang Fischer the first time they met. It was in February 1992, and Helene—a sometime antique dealer who had grown up in Bergisch-Gladbach, near Cologne—was living with her longtime boyfriend and working for a Cologne film-production company. Fischer, at the time, was sharing a large house he’d purchased and restored in nearby Viersen with his ex-girlfriend and their four-year-old son. The bottom had dropped out of the art market during the Gulf War of 1990–91, and Fischer had put his art-forgery career on hold. He was then writing and shooting a self-financed documentary about pirates, which he had hoped to sell to European television. With money earned from his forgeries, Fischer had purchased an 80-foot sailboat and hired a five-man crew. He was preparing to sail around the world, from Majorca to Madagascar to South America, following the careers of historical and contemporary buccaneers, from Sir Francis Drake to the pirates of the South China Sea.

Helene’s boss was a backer of the project, and one day Wolfgang showed up at the production house to cut some initial footage. Helene first met him in an editing trailer. “I thought the guy was a real bigmouth, a lunatic,” she says. But during a weeklong seminar on 16-millimeter film production organized by Fischer, “I saw that he was an absolute perfectionist, intelligent, educated, and a totally open, social human being,” she says. Fischer was smitten by the attractive, girlish 34-year-old: “The first time I saw Helene, I said to myself, I’m going to marry this woman and have children with her,” he tells me. At the end of the seminar, she broke up with her partner and moved in with Fischer. Around the same time, the pirate documentary collapsed in rancor, leaving both the boat and crew stranded in Majorca. (Helene says Fischer gave away the boat, at a loss of at least $100,000, and paid off the crew.) In February 1993 they married, and Wolfgang took Helene Beltracchi’s last name. Their daughter, Franziska, was born nine months later.

Helene Beltracchi tells me that she discovered the truth about Wolfgang’s secret career “the first or second day” of their relationship. They were at his home in Viersen, and she noticed the paintings of a number of famous 20th-century artists hanging on the walls. “I asked him, ‘Are these all actually real?’ . . . . And he said, ‘They’re all mine . . . I made them.’ I said, ‘So you’re an art counterfeiter?’ And he said, ‘Exactly. That’s my work. That’s my métier.’”

Shortly after the revelation, Wolfgang asked Helene to become his accomplice. It was 1992, and after three years of art-market stagnation, prices were rising again, fueled by an influx of money from Japan. Wolfgang had decided to sell some fakes, and—having fallen out “over business matters” with his former partner Schulte-Kellinghaus—he needed a new go-between. “My husband said to me, ‘Do you want to do something?’” Helene recalls. “I thought, Sjoe. Let me think about it. I knew what it was, that it was illegal.” But she said yes. Soon afterward, she notified Lempertz, a high-end auction house in Cologne, that she had a painting for sale by the early-20th-century French Cubist Georges Valmier. “It was hanging on the wall [in Viersen], and they sent their expert,” Helene remembers. “She looked for a few minutes, said it was wonderful, and then asked ‘How much do you want for it?’” They settled on 20,000 deutsch marks. It was a modest amount, but as the art market heated up, the Beltracchis watched the pseudo-Valmier’s value soar a few years later it sold at auction in New York for $1 million.

Helene found her foray to the dark side exciting, and craved more. “The first time, it was like being in a movie,” she says. “It was like it had nothing to do with me. It was another person—an art dealer, whom I was playing.” She couldn’t believe how easy it had been to dupe the auction house. “Normally, a person would think that these experts would study the painting and look for proof of its provenance. [The authenticator] asked two or three questions. She was gone in 10 minutes.” (An attorney for Lempertz disputes Helene’s version of events, but confirms that the auction house did indeed sell the painting.

Three years later, Helene introduced the art world to the “collection” she claimed to have inherited from her recently deceased industrialist grandfather, Werner Jägers, who had been born in Belgium but made his fortune in Cologne. Jägers was indeed Helene’s maternal grandfather he had abandoned her grandmother after World War II, Helene says, and she had only a single brief encounter with him, shortly before his death in 1992 at age 80. The story she told gallery owners and collectors was that one of Jägers’s friends in the 1920s and 30s had been a well-known Jewish art dealer and collector named Alfred Flechtheim. In 1933, months after Adolf Hitler came to power, Flechtheim fled into exile in Paris, and the Nazis seized his galleries in Düsseldorf and Berlin. But just before this, according to Helene, Flechtheim sold many works at bargain-basement prices to Jägers, who hid them in his country home in the Eifel mountains, near Cologne, safe from Nazi plundering.


The High-Flying Fraudster of Early Aviation - HISTORY


aircraft engine history

Piston Engine development

Picture a tube or cylinder that holds a snugly fitting plug. The plug is free to move back and forth within this tube, pushed by pressure from hot gases. A rod is mounted to the moving plug it connects to a crankshaft, causing this shaft to rotate rapidly. A propeller sits at the end of this shaft, spinning within the air. Here, in outline, is the piston engine, which powered all airplanes until the advent of jet engines.

Pistons in cylinders first saw use in steam engines. Scotland's James Watt crafted the first good ones during the 1770s. A century later, the German inventors Nicolaus Otto and Gottlieb Daimler introduced gasoline as the fuel, burned directly within the cylinders. Such motors powered the earliest automobiles. They were lighter and more mobile than steam engines, more reliable, and easier to start.

Some single-piston gasoline engines entered service, but for use with airplanes, most such engines had a number of pistons, each shuttling back and forth within its own cylinder. Each piston also had a connecting rod, which pushed on a crank that was part of a crankshaft. This crankshaft drove the propeller.


Cutaway view of a piston engine built by Germany's Gottlieb Daimler. Though dating to the 19th century, the main features of this motor appear in modern engines.

Engines built for airplanes had to produce plenty of power while remaining light in weight. The first American planebuilders Wilbur and Orville Wright, Glenn Curtiss used motors that resembled those of automobiles. They were heavy and complex because they used water-filled plumbing to stay cool.

A French engine of 1908, the "Gnome," introduced air cooling as a way to eliminate the plumbing and lighten the weight. It was known as a rotary engine. The Wright and Curtiss motors had been mounted firmly in supports, with the shaft and propeller spinning. Rotary engines reversed that, with the shaft being held tightly and the engine spinning! The propeller was mounted to the rotating engine, which stayed cool by having its cylinders whirl within the open air.


Numerous types of Gnome engines were designed and built, one of the most famous being the 165-hp 9-N "Monosoupape" (one valve). It was used during WWI primarily in the Nieuport 28. The engine had one valve per cylinder. Having no intake valves, its fuel mixture entered the cylinders through circular holes or "ports" cut in the cylinder walls. The propeller was bolted firmly to the engine and it, along with the cylinders, turned as a single unit around a stationary crankshaft rigidly mounted to the fuselage of the airplane. The rotary engine used castor oil for lubrication.

During World War I, rotaries attained tremendous popularity. They were less complex and easier to make than the water-cooled type. They powered such outstanding fighter planes as German's Fokker DR-1 and Britain's Sopwith Camel. They used castor oil for lubrication because it did not dissolve in gasoline. However, they tended to spray this oil all over, making a smelly mess. Worse, they were limited in power. The best of them reached 260 to 280 horsepower (190 to 210 kilowatts).


America's greatest technological contribution during WWI was the Liberty 12-cylinder water-cooled engine. Rated at 410 hp. ,
it weighed only two pounds per horsepower, far surpassing similar types of engines mass-produced by England, France, Italy, and Germany at that time.

Thus, in 1917 a group of American engine builders returned to water cooling as they sought a 400-horsepower (300-kilowatt) engine. The engine that resulted, the Liberty, was the most powerful aircraft engine of its day, with the U.S. auto industry building more than 20,000 of them. Water-cooled engines built in Europe also outperformed the air-cooled rotaries, and lasted longer. With the war continuing until late in 1918, the rotaries lost favor.

In this fashion, designers returned to water-cooled motors that again were fixed in position. They stayed cool by having water or antifreeze flow in channels through the engine to carry away the heat. A radiator cooled the heated water. In addition to offering plenty of power, such motors could be completely enclosed within a streamlined housing, to reduce drag and thus produce higher speeds in flight. Rolls Royce, Great Britain's leading engine-builder, built only water-cooled motors.

Air-cooled rotaries were largely out of the picture after 1920. Even so, air-cooled engines offered tempting advantages. They dispensed with radiators that leaked, hoses that burst, cooling jackets that corroded, and water pumps that failed.

Thus, the air-cooled "radial engine" emerged. This type of air-cooled engine arranged its cylinders to extend radially outward from its hub, like spokes of a wheel. The U.S. Navy became an early supporter of radials, which offered reliability along with light weight. This was an important feature if planes were to take off successfully from an aircraft carrier's flight deck.

With financial support from the Navy, two American firms, Wright Aeronautical and Pratt & Whitney, began building air-cooled radials. The Wright Whirlwind, in 1924, delivered 220 horsepower (164 kilowatts). A year later, the Pratt & Whitney Wasp was tested at 410 horsepower (306 kilowatts).

Aircraft designers wanted to build planes that could fly at high altitudes. High-flying planes could swoop down on their enemies and also were harder to shoot down. Bombers and passenger aircraft flying at high altitudes could fly faster because air is thin at high altitudes and there is less drag in the thinner air. These planes also could fly farther on a tank of fuel.


The supercharger, spinning within a closely fitted housing (not shown), pumped additional air into aircraft piston engines.

But because the air was thinner, aircraft engines produced much less power. They needed air to operate, and they couldn't produce power unless they had more air. Designers responded by fitting the engine with a "supercharger." This was a pump that took in air and compressed it. The extra air, fed into an engine, enabled it to continue to put out full power even at high altitude.


A supercharger needed power to operate. This power came from the engine itself. The supercharger, also called a centrifugal compressor,
drew air through an inlet. It compressed this air and sent it into the engine. Similar compressors later found use in early jet engines.

Early superchargers underwent tests before the end of World War I, but they were heavy and offered little advantage. The development of superchargers proved to be technically demanding, but by 1930, the best British and American engines installed such units routinely. In the United States, the Army funded work on superchargers at another engine-builder, General Electric. After 1935, engines fitted with GE's superchargers gave full power at heights above 30,000 feet (9,000 meters).

Fuels for aviation also demanded attention. When engine designers tried to build motors with greater power, they ran into the problem of "knock." This had to do with the way fuel burned within them. An airplane engine had a carburettor that took in fuel and air, producing a highly flammable mixture of gasoline vapour with air, which went into the cylinders. There, this mix was supposed to burn very rapidly, but in a controlled manner. Unfortunately, the mixture tended to explode, which damaged engines. The motor then was said to knock.

Poor-grade fuels avoided knock but produced little power. Soon after World War I, an American chemist, Thomas Midgely, determined that small quantities of a suitable chemical added to high-grade gasoline might help it burn without knock. He tried a number of additives and found that the best was tetraethyl lead. The U.S. Army began experiments with leaded aviation fuel as early as 1922 the Navy adopted it for its carrier-based aircraft in 1926. Leaded gasoline became standard as a high-test fuel, used widely in automobiles as well as in aircraft.


The Pratt and Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp engine was one of the most efficient and reliable engines of the 1930s.
It was a "twin-row" engine. Twin-row engines powered the warplanes of World War II.

Leaded gas improved an aircraft engine's performance by enabling it to use a supercharger more effectively while using less fuel. The results were spectacular. The best engine of World War I, the Liberty, developed 400 horsepower (300 kilowatts). In World War II, Britain's Merlin engine was about the same size and put out 2,200 horsepower (1,640 kilowatts). Samuel Heron, a long-time leader in the development of aircraft engines and fuels, writes that "it is probably true that about half the gain in power was due to fuel."


The V-1650 liquid-cooled engine was the U.S. version of the famous British Rolls-Royce "Merlin" engine which powered the "Spitfire" and "Hurricane" fighters during the Battle of Britain in 1940.


During World War II, the best piston engines used a turbocharger. This was a supercharger that drew its power from the engine' hot exhaust gases. This exhaust had plenty of power, which otherwise would have gone to waste. A turbine tapped this power and drove the supercharger. Similar turbines later appeared in jet engines.

These advances in supercharging and knock-resistant fuels laid the groundwork for the engines of World War II. In 1939, the German test pilot Fritz Wendel flew a piston-powered fighter to a speed record of 469 miles per hour (755 kilometres per hour). U.S. bombers used superchargers to carry heavy bomb loads at 34,000 feet (10,000 meters). They also achieved long range, the B-29 bomber had the range to fly non-stop from Miami to Seattle. Fighters routinely topped 400 miles per hour (640 kilometers per hour). Airliners, led by the Lockheed Constellation, showed that they could fly non-stop from coast to coast.


The Wasp Major engine was developed during World War II though it only saw service late in the war on some B-29 and B-50 aircraft and after the war. It represented the most technically advanced and complex reciprocating engine produced in large numbers in the United States. Ek
t was a four-row engine, meaning it had four circumferential rows of cylinders.

By 1945, the jet engine was drawing both attention and excitement. Jet fighters came quickly to the forefront. However, while early jet engines gave dramatic increases in speed, they showed poor fuel economy. It took time before engine builders learned to build jets that could sip fuel rather than gulp it. Until that happened, the piston engine retained its advantage for use in bombers and airliners, which needed to be able to fly a great distance without refuelling.


The High Flying Frenchwoman Who Revealed the Thrill and Danger of Ballooning

When Austrian skydiver Felix Baumgartner leaped from a capsule some 24 miles above earth on October 14, 2012, millions watched on television and the internet as he broke the sound barrier in a free fall that lasted ten minutes. But in the anticipation of Baumgartner’s jump (and his safe parachute landing), there was little room to marvel at the massive balloon that took him to the stratosphere.

More than 200 years ago in France, the vision of a human ascending the sky beneath a giant balloon produced what one magazine at the time described as “a spectacle the like of which was never shewn since the world began.” Early manned flights in the late 18th century led to “balloonomania” throughout Europe, as more than 100,000 spectators would gather in fields and city rooftops to witness the pioneers of human flight. And much of the talk turned to the French aeronaut Sophie Blanchard.

Known for being nervous on the ground but fearless in the air, Blanchard is believed to be the first female professional balloonist. She became a favorite of both Napoleon Bonaparte and Louis XVIII, who bestowed upon her official aeronaut appointments. Her solo flights at festivals and celebrations were spectacular but also perilous, and in the summer of 1819, she become the first woman to be killed in an aviation accident.

She was born Marie Madeleine-Sophie Armant in Trois-Canons in 1778, not long before the Montgolfier brothers, Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne began experimenting with balloons made from sackcloth and taffeta and lifted by heated air from fires in a box below. As the Montgolfiers’ balloons became larger and larger, the brothers began to consider manned flight. Louis XVI took an interest and proposed sending two criminals into the sky to test the contraption, but the brothers chose instead to place a sheep, a duck and a rooster on board for the first balloon flight to hold living creatures. In a 1783 demonstration before the King and Marie Antoinette and a crowd at the royal palace in Versailles, the Montgolfier brothers saw their craft ascend 1,500 into the air. Less than ten minutes later, the three animals landed safely.

Just months later, when Etienne Montgolfier became the first human rise into the skies, on a tethered balloon, and not long after, Pilatre de Rozier and French marquis Francois Laurent le Vieux d’Arlandes made the first human free flight before Louis XVI, U.S. envoy Benjamin Franklin and more than 100,000 other spectators.

Balloonomania had begun, and the development of gas balloons, made possible by the discovery of hydrogen by British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1766, quickly supplanted hot-air balloons, since they could fly higher and further. More and more pioneers were drawn to new feats in ballooning, but not everyone was thrilled: Terrified peasants in the English countryside tore a descending balloon to pieces.

A child of this pioneering era, Sophie Armant married Jean-Pierre Blanchard, a middle-aged inventor who had made his first balloon flight in Paris when she was just five years old. (The date of their marriage is unclear.) In January 1785, Blanchard and John Jeffries, an American doctor, became the first men to fly over the English Channel in a hydrogen balloon, flying from England to France. (Pilatre de Rozier, trying to cross the channel from France to England later that year, became the first known aviation fatality after his balloon deflated at 1,500 feet.)

Jean-Pierre Blanchard began to tour Europe. At demonstrations where he charged for admission, he showed off his silk balloons, dropped parachute-equipped dogs and launched fireworks from above. “All the World gives their shilling to see it,” one newspaper reported, citing crowds affected with “balloon madness” and “aeriel phrenzy.” Spectators were drawn to launches with unique balloons shaped like Pegasus and Nymp, and they thrilled to see men risk their lives in flights where fires often sent balloons plummeting back to earth.

“It may have been precisely [their] lack of efficiency that made the balloon such an appropriate symbol of human longings and hopes,” historian Stephan Oettermann noted. “Hot-air balloons and the gas balloons that succeeded them soon after belong not so much to the history of aviation as to the still-to-be-written account of middle class dreams.”

Furniture and ceramics at the time were decorated with images of balloons. European women’s clothing featured puffy sleeves and rounded skirts. Jean-Pierre Blanchard’s coiffed hair became all the rage among the fashionable. On a trip to the United States in 1793 he conducted the first balloon flight in North America, ascending over Philadelphia before the likes of George Washington, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.

But not everything Blanchard did succeeded. He escaped a mid-air malfunction by cutting his car from his balloon and using the latter as a parachute. He falsely marketed himself as the inventor of the balloon and the parachute. He established the “Balloon and Parachute Aerostatic Academy” in 1785, but it quickly failed. John Jeffries, Blanchard’s English Channel crossing partner and chief financier, later claimed that Blanchard tried to keep him from boarding the balloon by wearing weighted girdles and claiming the balloon could carry only him.

Facing ruin, Blanchard (who had abandoned his first wife and their four children to pursue his ballooning dreams) persuaded his new wife to ride with him, believing that a flying female might be a novel enough idea to bring back the paying crowds.

Tiny, nervous, and described by one writer as having “sharp bird-like features,” Sophie Blanchard was believed to be terrified of riding in horse-drawn carriages. Yet once in a balloon, she found flight to be a “sensation incomparable,” and not long after she and her husband began ascents together, she made her first solo ascent in 1805, becoming the first woman to pilot her own balloon.

The Blanchards made a go of it until 1809—when Jean-Pierre, standing beside Sophie in a basket tethered to a balloon flying over the Hague, had a heart attack and fell to his death. Crippled by her husband’s debts, she continued to fly, slowly paying off creditors and accentuating her shows with fireworks that she launched from the sky. She became a favorite of Napoleon’s, who chose her the “aeronaut of the official festivals.” She made an ascent to celebrate his 1810 wedding to Marie Louise.

Napoleon also appointed her chief air minster of ballooning, and she worked on plans for an aerial invasion of England by French troops in balloons—something she later deemed impossible.

She had made long-distance trips in Italy, crossed the Alps and generally did everything her husband had hoped to do himself. She paid off his debts and made a reputation for herself. She seemed to accept, even amplify, the risks of her career. She preferred to fly at night and stay out until dawn, sometimes sleeping in her balloon. She once passed out and nearly froze at altitude above Turin after ascending to avoid a hailstorm. She nearly drowned after dropping into a swamp in Naples. Despite warnings of extreme danger, she set off pyrotechnics beneath her hydrogen balloon.


Kyk die video: Schiphol Airport zoals het vroeger was deel 2 (Mei 2022).