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Wanneer het die Amerikaanse oorlog van 1812 werklik geëindig?

Wanneer het die Amerikaanse oorlog van 1812 werklik geëindig?


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My dogter studeer dit onlangs op hoërskool, en op een of ander manier het ek altyd aanvaar dat dit net 'n jaar geduur het. Blykbaar het dit minstens 'n paar jaar aangegaan, maar haar handboek het slegs belangrike punte aangeraak. Dit het eintlik nie die finale datum waarop vyandelikhede opgehou het, geïdentifiseer nie. Weet iemand die datum en voorwaardes waarop beide partye ooreengekom het?


Daar was eintlik TWEE eindes aan die oorlog van 1812.

Die eerste en 'amptelike' einde was die ondertekening van die vredesverdrag van Gent, 24 Desember 1814, wat 'n goeie kersgeskenk sou wees. Dit vra vir 'n staking van vyandelikhede, die uitruil van lande en gevangenes en die aanstelling van 'n gesamentlike kommissie om Amerikaanse grenskwessies te ondersoek.

Die WERKLIKE einde van die oorlog was die Slag van New Orleans, 8 Januarie 1815 (nuus het in daardie dae stadig gegaan, sodat geen van die partye geweet het dat die oorlog geëindig het nie). Dit was 'n volledige, skewe oorwinning vir die verdedigende Amerikaanse magte, onder generaal Andrew Jackson, wat hom gehelp het om na die presidensie te katapulteer. Die Britte het ongeveer 2000 slagoffers gely (een vierde van hul totaal), waaronder die bevelvoerende generaal Edward Pakenham.

Hierdie geveg is beskou as 'die verseëling van die vrede'. Selfs die "Iron Duke" van Wellington wou hierna nie teen die Amerikaners veg nie.


Die oorlog van 1812 het ses amptelike eindes gehad: een op die land en vyf op die see. Die Verdrag van Gent lui: "Alle vyandelikhede op see en land sal ophou sodra hierdie verdrag deur beide partye bekragtig is, soos hierna genoem." Die Amerikaanse senaat bekragtig die verdrag op 16 Februarie 1815, wat dit die vroegste verdedigbare datum vir die einde van die oorlog maak.

Gevolglike gevegte op land duur tot met bekragtiging, verby die Slag van New Orleans. Andrew Jackson en die Britse invalsmag het geweet dat die oorlog nie geëindig het met die Slag van New Orleans nie. Jackson het geweier om sy bevel vir krygswet in New Orleans te herroep totdat hy 'n aanduiding gekry het dat vrede deur onderhandelaars in Europa bereik is (Brands bl. 287).

Die Britte, wat die kwesbaarheid van die Golfkus besef, seil van New Orleans af na die Amerikaanse besette Mobile Bay in Spaans. Die Tweede Slag van Fort Bowyer (7-12 Februarie 1815) was die laaste landgeveg tussen die Britte en Amerikaners.* Dit was die begin van 'n Britse veldtog om Mobile van die Amerikaners te neem. Ondanks Jackson se roem dat "tienduisend man dit nie kan nie", het die fort oorgegee aan die Britte na 'n beleg van vyf dae.

Toe Fort Bowyer gevange geneem is, het die Britte voorberei om self op Mars te marsjeer. Hulle het hul aanval uitgestel nadat hulle nuus ontvang het van die Verdrag van Gent, en hulle het hulle heeltemal teruggetrek toe hulle verneem dat die Amerikaanse senaat die verdrag op 16 Februarie bekragtig het.

Hoe belangrik was die Tweede Slag van Fort Bowyer? Die Mobile-gebied was die enigste gebied wat eienaarskap verander het as gevolg van die oorlog van 1812. Omdat dit in Spaanse besit was, was Mobile nie onder die Verdrag van Gent gedek nie. Dit is moontlik dat as die Britse mag Mobile kon neem voordat nuus uit Gent aankom, die Amerikaners Mobile eers later in hul geskiedenis sou bekom het. Mobile sou die tweede grootste katoen-uitvoerhawe in die Verenigde State word, dus 'n langtermyn gevolg van die verkryging van Mobile was die verskerping van slawe-landbou in die diep Suide.

Vyf eindes vir die oorlog op see: Die Verdrag van Gent het vyf spesifieke datums gespesifiseer waarna pryse op see ongeldig gemaak sou word. Skepe verder van die Noord -Amerikaanse kus kan pryse tot 120 dae na bekragtiging bewaar. Vir meer inligting oor die vyf einddatums vir die verskillende vlooteaters, sien "Artikel die tweede":

Onmiddellik na die bekragtiging van hierdie verdrag deur beide partye, soos hierna genoem, sal bevele aan die leërs, eskaders, offisiere, onderdane en burgers van die twee magte gestuur word om van alle vyandighede op te hou: en om alle oorsake van klagte wat voorkom, te voorkom as gevolg van die pryse wat na die genoemde bekragtigings van hierdie verdrag op see geneem kan word, word daar wederkerig ooreengekom dat alle vaartuie en effekte wat na die tydperk van twaalf dae vanaf die genoemde bekragtiging op alle dele van die kus van Noord geneem kan word, Amerika vanaf die breedtegraad van drie-en-twintig grade noord na die breedtegraad van vyftig grade noord, en so ver ooswaarts in die Atlantiese Oseaan as die ses-en-dertigste graad van westelike lengtegraad vanaf die Meridiaan van Greenwich, sal aan elke kant herstel word: -dat die tyd sal dertig dae duur in alle ander dele van die Atlantiese Oseaan noord van die Equinoctial Line of Equator: -en dieselfde tyd vir die Britse en Ierse kanale, vir die Golf van Mexiko, en almal deel s van Wes-Indië:-veertig dae vir die Noordsee vir die Baltiese See en vir alle dele van die Middellandse See-sestig dae vir die Atlantiese Oseaan suid van die ewenaar tot by die breedtegraad van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop.-negentig dae vir elke ander deel van die wêreld suid van die ewenaar, en honderd en twintig dae vir alle ander dele van die wêreld sonder uitsondering.


* Daar was 'n paar geïsoleerde skermutselinge tussen Amerikaanse magte en Brits-geallieerde inheemse Amerikaners nadat vrede verklaar is, maar dit was van minder betekenis.


Die deurmekaar waarheid oor die oorlog van 1812

As daar 'n hoofstuk uit die Amerikaanse geskiedenis is wat slegter verstaan ​​word as die oorlog van 1812, is ons nie seker wat dit moontlik kan wees nie. As iemand u op straat gekeer het en u 'n pop -vasvra oor die onderwerp gegee het, hoe goed dink u sou u dit doen? U kan moontlik daarop wys dat daar tussen die VSA en die Britte geveg is, dat dit in 1812 begin het (baie geluk daardie deduktiewe krag), en dit. George Washington het daarin geveg, miskien? Was hy al dood? Wie was weer president in 1812? Was dit die een met Gettysburg? Op hierdie stadium voel u miskien 'n bietjie verleë, maar dit is eerlikwaar nie u skuld nie.

Die oorlog word skaars in die klaskamers bespreek en word gewoonlik beskou as 'n soort van 'n vreemde epiloog van die Revolusionêre Oorlog wat nie eintlik 'n historiese impak gehad het nie, of as 'n 'Tweede Vryheidsoorlog' waartydens Amerikaners hul eer van goddelose teruggekry het Britse keiserlikes en het ook 'The Star Spangled Banner' geskryf om die punt regtig huis toe te jaag. Die waarheid is egter baie ingewikkelder, meer as 'n bietjie dom, en baie, baie opgemors. Kom ons maak kennis met die oorlog van 1812. (En nee, nie George Washington of Gettysburg was betrokke nie.)


Oorlog van 1812 Feite

Sir Amédée Forestier, Die ondertekening van die Verdrag van Gent, Oukersaand, 1814, 1914, olie op doek, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of the Sulgrave Institution van die VSA en Groot -Brittanje. Ondertekening van die Verdrag van Gent

Die Oorlog van 1812 is een van die minste bestudeerde oorloë in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis. Soms word die 'Tweede Vryheidsoorlog' genoem, die oorlog van 1812 was die eerste grootskaalse toets van die Amerikaanse republiek op die wêreldverhoog. Terwyl die Britse vloot Amerikaanse matrose beïndruk het, en die Britse regering die inheemse Amerikaanse stamme gehelp het in hul aanvalle op Amerikaanse burgers op die grens, het die Kongres vir die eerste keer in die geskiedenis van ons land oorlog verklaar teen 'n vreemde land: Groot -Brittanje. Die oorlog van 1812 het die Verenigde State op die verhoog van die wêreld gebring en gevolg deur 'n half-dekade wat nou die "era van goeie gevoelens" genoem word.

Hierdie bladsy bied antwoorde op algemene vrae oor hierdie formatiewe en dramatiese konflik.

Wanneer het die oorlog van 1812 begin?

Die Oorlog van 1812 het op 18 Junie 1812 begin met die Verenigde State wat die Verenigde Koninkryk formeel oorlog verklaar het. Die oorlog duur van Junie 1812 tot Februarie 1815, 'n tydperk van twee jaar en agt maande.

Wanneer het die oorlog van 1812 geëindig?

Vredesonderhandelinge het einde 1814 begin, maar stadige kommunikasie oor die Atlantiese Oseaan (en inderdaad oor die Verenigde State) het die oorlog verleng en ook tot talle taktiese foute vir beide kante gelei. Die Verdrag van Gent is op 24 Desember 1814 deur afgevaardigdes van die Verenigde Koninkryk en die Verenigde State onderteken om opgestel te word wanneer elke party die verdrag formeel bekragtig het. Die Britte kon die verdrag op 27 Desember bekragtig, maar dit het 'n paar weke geneem voordat die verdrag die Verenigde State bereik het. Dit is op 17 Februarie 1815 deur die Amerikaanse senaat bekragtig. Die oorlog duur altesaam twee jaar en agt maande.

Wat was die oorsake van die oorlog van 1812?

Die oorlog van 1812 was deel van 'n groter, wêreldwye konflik. Die ryke van Engeland en Frankryk spandeer 1789-1815 in 'n byna konstante oorlog om wêreldwye superioriteit. Die oorlog strek van Europa tot Noord -Afrika en tot Asië, en toe die Amerikaners oorlog teen Engeland verklaar, het die oorlog ook Noord -Amerika verswelg.

Die Verenigde State het verskillende griewe teen Brittanje gehad. Baie het gevoel dat die Britte nog nie die Verenigde State as 'n wettige land respekteer nie. Die Britte het indruk gemaak, of Amerikaanse matrose op see, sowel as om die Amerikaanse handel met Frankryk te blokkeer - albei was ook 'n oorspoelbeleid van die Britse vervolging van die oorlog met Frankryk. Die Britte ondersteun ook inheemse Amerikaanse groepe wat in konflik was met Amerikaanse setlaars langs die grens.

Onder indruk was 'n praktyk waarin 'n nasie mans onder leiding van militêre of vlootmagte sou opneem sonder om daarvan kennis te gee. Indruk word dikwels in die 19de eeu deur verskeie nasies gebruik as 'persbende' genoem. Die term word meestal met die Verenigde Koninkryk geassosieer, aangesien dit 'n algemene gebruik was dat die Royal Navy indruk tydens oorlogstyd gebruik. Die indruk was 'n grief wat die oorsaak van die Amerikaanse rewolusie was, maar word meestal geassosieer met die oorlog van 1812. Die praktyk het na 1814 in die Royal Navy opgehou.

Waar is die oorlog van 1812 gevoer?

Die oorlog van 1812 is uitgevoer in die Verenigde State, Kanada en op die oop see. Daar is in die ou suidweste (Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia en Mississippi) in die ou suidweste, in die ou noordweste (omhels Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin) Kanada, Coastal Maine en die Chesapeake.

Baie gevegte was betrokke by riviere, mere en die oseane. Die Britte het 'n blokkade van Amerikaanse hawens toegepas, veral in die suide, langs die Atlantiese kus. Vlootverbintenisse het opgevlam, veral rondom die Chesapeakebaai, aangesien hierdie blokkade uitgedaag is. Aangesien die oorlog 'n duidelike kommersiële karakter gehad het, is daar ook aanvalle op seerowerstyl uitgevoer op handelskepe in die hele Atlantiese Oseaan. Die Erie -meer en die Ontariomeer het 'n groot rol gespeel in die oorlog van 1812. Terwyl hulle te midde van die belangrikste operasieteater in die noorde sit, het hulle die bewegings van die strydende leërs gevorm. Groot skepe is gebou en op die Mere gelê, waar hulle op groot skaal geveg het om oppergesag om troepe te verskuif en mededingende dorpe te bombardeer.

Wie was die Amerikaanse president tydens die oorlog van 1812?

James Madison, "die Vader van die Grondwet", was die president gedurende die hele oorlog. Toe die nasie eers gestig is, was Madison nou verbonde aan Thomas Jefferson om 'n gedesentraliseerde agrariese demokrasie te soek. Met verloop van tyd het die man egter verander. Gedurende die oorlog van 1812 het hy gesukkel om noordoostelike state te motiveer om mans en geld by te dra tot die oorlogspoging. Teen die tyd dat die oorlog verby was, was Madison 'n voorstander van gesentraliseerde mag en 'n sterk vervaardigingsekonomie.

Wie was 'n paar van die belangrike militêre figure uit die oorlog van 1812?

Baie van die belangrike militêre figure uit die oorlog van 1812 het hul loopbane begin, hetsy tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog of tydens die voortslepende oorloë tussen Brittanje en Frankryk, veral die Napoleontiese oorloë (1803-1815).

Belangrike Amerikaanse syfers ingesluit Oliver Hazard Perry, die "Held van die Erie -meer", Jacob Brown wat Fort Erie suksesvol verdedig het ondanks 'n beleg van sewe weke, en later bevorder is tot bevelvoerder-generaal van die Amerikaanse weermag, en Winfield Scott was 'n dapper vegter wat ook 'n opleidingstelsel geïmplementeer het wat die prestasie van die Amerikaanse weermag aansienlik verbeter het. Hy sou later die 'Anaconda -plan' bedink wat die noordelike strategie in die burgeroorlog gevorm het. Boonop het twee bekende toekomstige presidente hul stempel tydens die oorlog afgedruk William Henry Harrison wat verantwoordelik was vir die militêre vernietiging van Tecumseh se konfederasie van inheemse Amerikaanse stamme, en Andrew Jackson, wat die Creek Indiane in Alabama verslaan het en 'n dramatiese oorwinning behaal het teen die Britte in New Orleans.

Belangrike Britse syfers ingesluit Isaac Brock, 'n gewilde keiserlike administrateur in Kanada wat postuum 'n held geword het vir sy heroïese maar noodlottige verdediging van Queenston Heights, Robert Ross wat die veteraan -ekspedisiemag gelei het wat Washington, DC verbrand het en buite Baltimore tydens die Slag van North Point vermoor is, en Edward Pakenham, 'n gerespekteerde veteraan uit die Napoleontiese Oorlog wat die Britse kolom gelei het wat die Golfkus aangeval het, wat tydens die Slag van New Orleans vermoor is.

Belangrike Kanadese syfers ingesluit Gordon Drummond, 'n Kanadese gebore offisier in die Britse leër wat 'n belangrike rol speel in die Slag van Lundy's Lane en die daaropvolgende beleg van Fort Erie, Robert Livingston 'n militêre koerier wat gehelp het om die beleg van Fort Mackinac op te hef deur vars voorrade met gekamoefleerde bote in te smokkel, en Richard Pierpont, 'n voormalige slaaf wat vryheid gewen het deur te veg vir die Britte in die Revolusionêre Oorlog wat "The Colored Corps" georganiseer het, wat hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit slawe wat na Kanada ontsnap het, wat in die gevegte van Queenston Heights en Fort George geveg het.

Watter rol het die inheemse Amerikaners in die oorlog van 1812 gespeel?

Oorlogshoof van Shawnee, Tecumseh

Inheemse Amerikaners het 'n groot rol gespeel in die Oorlog van 1812. Stamme was in lyn met beide kante van die konflik, hoewel stamme hoofsaaklik met die Britte teen die Verenigde State verbonde was. Die stamme het langs die grens geveg en langs die Golfkus het stamoorloë plaasgevind langs die gevegte van die oorlog van 1812. Bekende inheemse Amerikaners het ingesluit Tecumseh, 'n Shawnee -leier wat 'n konfederasie van inheemse Amerikaanse stamme, bekend as Tecumseh's Confederacy, georganiseer het om deurlopende inbreuk op hul lande deur Europese setlaars te weerstaan. Tecumseh is tydens die Slag van die Teems dood en sy konfederasie val uitmekaar. Swart Valk was 'n Sauk -hoof wat teen Amerikaanse grensmanne geveg het. Na die oorlog van 1812 het Black Hawk 'n nuwe konfederasie georganiseer, wat gelei het tot die Black Hawk -oorlog van 1832.

Watter rolle het Afro-Amerikaners in die oorlog van 1812 gespeel?

Afro -Amerikaners is tydens die oorlog van 1812 nie amptelik toegelaat om by die Amerikaanse weermag aan te sluit nie, hoewel hulle baie in die Amerikaanse vloot gedien het. Ongeveer 'n kwart van die Amerikaanse matrose in die Slag van Lake Erie was Afro-Amerikaners. Ongeveer 350 man van die "Bataljon van vrye manne van kleur" het tydens die Slag van New Orleans geveg.

'N Geselskap van meestal ontsnapte slawe het saam met die Britte in Kanada gedien en deelgeneem aan die Slag van Queenston Heights en die beleg van Fort Erie.

Tydens die blokkade van die Royal Navy van die Atlantiese kus het ongeveer 4000 slawe op Britse skepe ontsnap, waar hulle verwelkom en bevry is. Baie van hulle het by die Britse weermag aangesluit en deelgeneem aan die Slag van Bladensburg en die verbranding van Washington, DC

Hoeveel mense het in die oorlog van 1812 geveg?

Slegs 7 000 mans het in die Amerikaanse weermag gedien toe die oorlog uitbreek. Teen die einde van die oorlog het meer as 35 000 Amerikaanse stamgemeentes en 458 000 militieë - hoewel baie hiervan slegs vir plaaslike verdediging ingesamel was - op land en see gedien.

Die wêreldwye Britse gereelde weermag het in 1812 uit 243.885 soldate bestaan. Teen die einde van die oorlog sou meer as 58.000 gereelde, 4.000 milities en 10.000 inheemse Amerikaners by die stryd om Noord -Amerika aansluit.

Hoeveel mense sterf in die oorlog van 1812?

Ongeveer 15 000 Amerikaners sterf as gevolg van die oorlog van 1812. Ongeveer 8 600 Britse en Kanadese soldate sterf aan 'n geveg of siekte. Die verliese onder inheemse Amerikaanse stamme is nie bekend nie.

Wat was die belangrikste gevegte van die oorlog van 1812?

Die oorlog van 1812 is gevorm deur gevegte op land en see.

Die verowering van Detroit (16 Augustus 1812) - Slegs weke nadat die oorlog begin het, het die Amerikaanse generaal William Hull, saam met 'n aansienlike leër, Detroit oorgegee sonder weerstand teen 'n kleiner Britse mag.

Die vaslegging van die HMS Java, HMS Guerriere, en HMS Masedonies (Augustus-Desember 1812) - Die nuwe Amerikaanse fregatte Grondwet en Verenigde State het die oorlog met 'n knal begin, goed presteer in 'n reeks Atlantiese verbintenisse wat die Amerikaanse moraal 'n hupstoot gegee het na 'n teleurstellende begin op land.

Die Slag van Queenston Heights (13 Oktober 1812) - In 'n dramatiese geveg het Britse en Kanadese troepe 'n Amerikaanse inval in Kanada teruggedraai. Die Britse generaal Isaac Brock is dood.

Die Slag van York (27 April 1813) -Amerikaanse magte het York, die hoofstad van Bo-Kanada, verbrand nadat hulle 'n harde veldslag gewen het.

Die Slag van Lake Erie (10 September 1813) - Oliver Hazard Perry het bekendheid verwerf vir sy heldedade in hierdie oorwinning, wat Lake Erie vir die res van die oorlog verseker het en die weg gebaan het vir die bevryding van Detroit.

The Battle of the Thames, Ontario (5 Oktober 1813) - William Henry Harrison het 'n gesamentlike mag van Britse en inheemse Amerikaners in hierdie geveg verpletter en die Shawnee -leier Tecumseh vermoor en sodoende die gevaarlikste bedreiging vir Amerikaanse setlaars in die noordweste verwyder.

Die Slag van Horseshoe Bend (27 Maart 1814) - Andrew Jackson verslaan die Red Stick Creeks en dwing die stam dan om hul eis af te staan ​​op 23 miljoen hektaar van die huidige Alabama en Georgia.

Die Slag van Bladensburg (24 Augustus 1814) - Britse gereelde mense het die Maryland -burgermag in hierdie geveg gelei en die pad na Washington, DC, oopgemaak wat hulle verbrand het.

Die Slag van Plattsburgh (11 September 1814) - Die Britte het 'n swak gekoördineerde gesamentlike operasie teen die skeepswerf in Plattsburgh geloods, maar is beslis in een van die oorlog se grootste vlootooreenkomste afgeweer.

Die Slag van North Point en die verdediging van Fort McHenry (12-13 September 1814) - Nadat hulle Washington, DC verbrand het, het Britse magte op Baltimore gevorder. Hardnekkige verset by North Point en Fort McHenry het die stad gered, die Britte gedwing om hul veldtog op te skort en die Amerikaanse volkslied geïnspireer.

The Battles of Stoney Creek and Beaver Dams (6-24 Junie 1813) - 'n Ander inval in Kanada is in hierdie gevegte afgeweer.

The Battle of Lundy's Lane (25 Julie 1814) -In een van die bloedigste gevegte van die oorlog, wat gekenmerk is deur uitgebreide hand-tot-hand-gevegte, is die Amerikaners vir altyd uit Kanada gedwing.

Die Slag van New Orleans (8 Januarie 1815) - Andrew Jackson het meer as 2 000 ongevalle aan die aanval op Britse troepe toegedien terwyl hy 333 in die hele veldtog gely het. Die geveg het 'n toetssteen van Amerikaanse trots geword, ondanks die feit dat dit plaasgevind het nadat die oorlog tegnies geëindig het.

Watter soort wapens is in die oorlog van 1812 gebruik?

Die wapen wat die meeste in die oorlog van 1812 gebruik is, was die gladde muskiet wat deur die meeste infanteriste in die veld gedra is. Dit het 'n effektiewe reeks slagveld van 50-100 meter gehad, wat noodsaaklike aanvalle en bajonet-taktiek vereis. Daar was ook 'n paar eenhede wat met gewere toegerus was, wat hoofsaaklik as ligte of gespesialiseerde infanterie gebruik is.

Kanonne was ook glad, alhoewel hulle ongeveer 400 meter akkuraat kon skiet. Hulle is gebruik met 'n dodelike, beslissende uitwerking op die slagveld.

Kavaleriste het oor die algemeen pistole en sabel gedra en is gebruik om vyandformasies uit te oefen of aan te laai.

Hoe gevorderd was medisyne tydens die oorlog van 1812?

Siekte was die primêre oorsaak van dood tydens die oorlog van 1812, nie slagveldwonde nie. Toe mans gewond is, het hulle in die hospitaal min gehad om na uit te sien. Alhoewel sanitasie medies belangrik was, was vooruitgang soos narkose en ambulante sorg nog dekades ver. 'N Britse chirurg (wat saam met een assistent in die algemeen vir 1000 mans verantwoordelik sou wees) onthou dit:

'Op die aarde is daar skaars 'n minder benydenswaardige situasie as die van 'n weermagchirurg na 'n geveg wat uitgeput en vermoeid is in liggaam en gees, omring deur lyding, pyn en ellende, waarvan hy baie weet dat dit nie die geval is nie in sy krag om te genees ... Ek het nooit so moeg geword soos die eerste week in Butler's Barracks nie. Die weer was intens warm, die vlieë in talle, en die wonde het hul eiers neergesit, sodat maaiers binne 'n paar uur geteel word. ” - Tiger Dunlop, 89ste voetregiment

Die gemiddelde Britse en Amerikaanse soldaat tydens die oorlog van 1812.

Was daar beduidende tegnologiese vooruitgang tydens die oorlog van 1812?

Die Oorlog van 1812 is te midde van die Industriële Revolusie, waarin 'n verskeidenheid tegnologiese vooruitgang bymekaar gekom het om die manier waarop mense geleef en gewerk het, vir ewig te verander.

Stoomskepe en stoom aangedrewe spoorwegmotors het gedurende die oorlogsjare vir die eerste keer winsgewend gebruik geword. Alhoewel dit min invloed op die Noord -Amerikaanse konflik gehad het, sou hierdie stoommasjiene in die komende dekades die tegnologiese standaard word.

Masjiene wat met verwisselbare onderdele vervaardig is, het gedurende die oorlog van 1812 meer algemeen geword, hoewel die praktyk nog nie toegepas is op militêre vervaardiging nie. Vir die gewone soldaat is die verbetering van die stoor van voedsel moontlik deur middel van lugdigte verpakking.

Wat was die politieke gevolge van die oorlog van 1812?

Internasionaal het die oorlog gehelp om 'n billike posisie tussen die Verenigde State, Brittanje en Kanada te identifiseer. Dit het gelei tot 'n era van wedersyds voordelige handel en diplomatieke vennootskap.

Binnelands het die oorlog die spanning tussen noordelike nyweraars en suidelike planters vererger. Nyweraars was huiwerig om oorlog te voer met Brittanje, wat toe die wêreldwye model van die Industriële Revolusie was. Suidlanders, aan die ander kant, was vinnig besig om die Franse hulp te onthou wat gehelp het om die suidelike veldtogte van die Amerikaanse Revolusie te wen, asook die ideologiese ooreenkomste tussen die twee revolusionêre nasies. Die Amerikaanse publiek beskou die uitkoms van die oorlog oor die algemeen gunstig, wat veroorsaak dat die Federale Party teen die oorlog van nasionale aansien verdwyn.

Wat was die ekonomiese gevolge van die oorlog van 1812?

In die vroeë jare van die 19de eeu was die Verenigde State 'n vinnig groeiende kommersiële mag. Baie historici noem hierdie groei as 'n belangrike faktor in die begeerte van Brittanje om Amerikaanse uitbreiding te beperk. Die oorlog het gehelp om Amerika se onbelemmerde toegang tot die see te verseker, wat 'n groot rol gespeel het in 'n na-oorlogse ekonomiese oplewing.

Die vervolging van die oorlog het die Amerikaanse regering 105 miljoen dollar gekos, wat neerkom op ongeveer 1,5 miljard dollar in 2014. Die druk om hierdie geld in te samel, het wetgewers gedryf om die Tweede Nasionale Bank te bekragtig, en nog 'n stap geneem na sentralisering.

Die vredesvoorwaardes wat die oorlog beëindig het, was dié van status quo ante bellum, "Die toestand van die dinge soos dit was voor die oorlog." Alhoewel die oorlog van 1812 wettiglik gelyk was aan territoriale verkrygings, kyk historici nou na die gevolge daarvan op die lang termyn om te oordeel wie gewen het.

Die Amerikaners het oorlog verklaar (vir die eerste keer in die geskiedenis van hul land) om die Britse indruk te stop, die handelsbane met Frankryk te heropen, Britse steun van inheemse Amerikaanse stamme te verwyder en hul territoriale eer en integriteit te beveilig in die lig van hul ou heersers. Al vier hierdie doelwitte is bereik teen die tyd dat vrede uitbreek, hoewel sommige Britse maatreëls sou opgehef word voordat die oorlog eers begin het. Deur 'n gerespekteerde voet met Brittanje en Kanada te vestig, het die Verenigde State in die jare na die oorlog ook 'n kommersiële oplewing beleef. Die algehele gevolg van die oorlog was waarskynlik positief vir die hele land.

Die Britte het min of niks uit die oorlog verdien nie, behalwe vir 'n eerbare vriendskap met die Verenigde State. Waardevolle hulpbronne is vir die oorlog van 1812 van die slagvelde van Europa afgelei, wat geen land of skat aan die kroon gebring het nie. Die Britte verloor ook hul inheemse Amerikaner teen die uitbreiding van die Verenigde State, wat die groei van 'n groot wêreldhandelsmededinger verder ontketen het. Die Britte het Frankryk egter uiteindelik in hul lang oorlog verslaan terwyl hulle 'n fiasko in Noord -Amerika vermy het, wat 'n aansienlike oorwinning is in die konteks van die wêreldwye konflik wat hulle gevoer het.

Baie inheemse Amerikaanse stamme het in die noordweste teen die Verenigde State geveg, verenig as 'n konfederasie onder leiding van 'n Shawnee -man met die naam Tecumseh. Baie van hierdie stamme het ook tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog met die Britte saamgesmelt. Die Creek -stam in die suidweste het dwarsdeur die oorlog van 1812 teen setlaars en soldate geveg, wat uiteindelik 'n kolom Britse stamgemeenskappe verbind het. Om vrede deur die status quo antebellum te bereik, het die inheemse Amerikaners egter almal hul hoofversoek van 'n erkende nasie in Noord -Amerika verloor. Britse steun het ook verdamp in die jare na die oorlog, wat die verlies aan inheemse lande verder versnel het.

Skildery van die ondertekening van die Verdrag van Gent, 1814. Sir Amédée Forestier, Die ondertekening van die Verdrag van Gent, Oukersaand, 1814, 1914, olie op doek,

Wat is 'n paar van die beste inligtingsbronne oor die oorlog van 1812?

Die Smithsonian National Museum of American History is 'n skatkis met inligting en artefakte, insluitend die oorspronklike Star-Spangled Banner.

Daar is baie boekbronne vir inligting oor die oorlog van 1812, insluitend:

Word enige slagvelde van die oorlog van 1812 bewaar?

Baie slagvelde uit die oorlog van 1812 word gedeeltelik of ten volle bewaar, maar baie nie. Die federale regering van die Verenigde State het in 2007 'n studie saamgestel wat ontwikkelingsbedreigings op baie slagvelde geïdentifiseer het en meer as die helfte beskryf as reeds 'vernietig of gefragmenteerd'.


Waarom Amerika die oorlog van 1812 vergeet?

Skrywer Don Hickey bespreek die redes vir die konflik en hoe dit deur ons noordelike bure onthou word.

Vasvra tyd! Onthou u die beroemde film oor die oorlog van 1812? Weet jy, die een met daardie een groot ster en die ander groot ster?

Jy doen nie. Niemand doen dit nie, aangesien daar nog nie een was nie. Die konflik het eintlik net twee of drie films geïnspireer, en dit word grootliks vergeet. (Dit het waarskynlik nie gehelp dat die 1958 -een met 12 000 ekstras en Charlton Heston as Andrew Jackson as 'n musiekblyspel beskou word nie.)

Die oorlog van 1812 het nie drama gehad nie. Die hoofstad van ons land is eintlik binnegedring, en die Slag van New Orleans het eintlik plaasgevind nadat 'n vredesverdrag onderteken is danksy die gebrek aan vinnige kommunikasie.

Tog het die oorlog-wat eintlik van 1812-1815 geduur het-net nie ons verbeelding aangewakker nie.

Wat gee? Toe die oorlog hierdie maand sy tweehonderdste jaar bereik, het ek Don Hickey, professor in geskiedenis aan die Wayne State College in Nebraska, gebel om hom die vraag te stel.

Erfenis, regverdigheid en die miljardêrklas

Hy is die skrywer van 1989 se epiese "War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict", wat hierdie jaar bygewerk en hersien is vir 'n heruitgawe. Hickey het gepraat oor die redes vir die oorlog, die manier waarop ons bure in die noorde daarna kyk (hulle is binnegedring) en die redes waarom ons hierdie konflik heeltemal kon vermy het.

V: Waarom onthou ons nie die oorlog van 1812 baie goed nie?

A: Dit word vergeet omdat die oorsake vandag nie veel aanklank vind nie.

Ons het oorlog toe gegaan om die Britte te dwing om afstand te doen van die verwydering van seemanne van ons skepe en beperkings op ons handel met Europa.

Tans gaan niemand oorlog toe om maritieme regte te handhaaf nie.

En om die oorsake te verwar, het ons Kanada binnegeval.

Ons kon Brittanje nie op die oop see uitdaag nie, daarom het ons gedink ons ​​sou Kanada verower en toegewings op die maritieme front afdwing. Dit het dit soos 'n landgryp laat lyk, en so het dit noord van die grens gekyk.

V: Dink u dat ons die oorlog van 1812 verloor het, wat dit een van baie min nederlae vir die Verenigde State in groot konflikte maak?

A: Volgens my telling het ons die oorlog van 1812 verloor en Viëtnam verloor.

Dit is nie 'n algemene mening in die Verenigde State oor die oorlog van 1812 nie. Die algemene opvatting is dat die oorlog gelykop geëindig het.

Maar ons het Kanada binnegeval in 1812 en in 1813, en in die weste in 1814, en al drie die invalle het amper misluk. Dit lyk nie asof ons ons oorlogsdoelwitte bereik het nie.

V: Destyds was Brittanje besig met 'n reuse -konflik van sy eie, 'n oorlog met Frankryk wat die skeepsvaart in die wiele gery het. Maar die oorlog het beslis die gedagtes in Kanada, wat binnegeval het, gekonsentreer. Hoe word die oorlog in Brittanje en Kanada onthou?

A: Laat ek u 'n ou saag gee, 'n losse parafrase van wat 'n Kanadese historikus eens gesê het: Almal is tevrede met die uitkoms van die oorlog. Amerikaners is gelukkig omdat hulle dink dat hulle gewen het, die Kanadese is gelukkig omdat hulle weet dat hulle gewen het en vermy het om deur die Verenigde State ingesluk te word, en die Britte is die gelukkigste omdat hulle alles daarvan vergeet het.

Hy het nie die grootste verloorders, die Indiërs, genoem nie.

V: Wat het met die Indiane gebeur?

A: Ek skat die Amerikaanse sterftes was 20 000, die Britte op 10 000 en Indiërs op miskien 7 500, maar dit was 'n baie groter deel van hul bevolking.

Hulle het twee beslissende oorloë verloor, een in die ou Noordwes (die gebied rondom Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan en Wisconsin) en een in die ou Suidwes (meestal Alabama, Georgia en Mississippi). Dit het werklik die deur oopgemaak vir Amerikaanse uitbreiding, en hulle het geen bondgenote gehad waarmee hulle teen die VSA kon aansluit nie

V: Ander Amerikaanse oorloë in die 19de eeu het grootliks gegaan oor die gryp van gebiede. Was dit die geval hier?

A: As u dit as 'n landgryp beskou, pas dit in 'n groter geskiedenis van Amerikaanse uitbreiding. Maar dit is nie wat hierdie oorlog veroorsaak het nie.

Kanada was nie die einde nie. Dit was die middel. Die uiteinde was om Brittanje te dwing om hul maritieme aktiwiteite prys te gee.

V: Wat kan ons vandag uit hierdie oorlog leer?

A: Die belangrikheid van militêre paraatheid.

Ons was baie onvoorbereid op hierdie oorlog. Die Republikeine het verwag wat 'n anti-oorlogse Republikein verwag sou word 'n vakansie veldtog-dat Kanada haarself moet oorwin deur die beginsels van broederskap.

V: Dit klink soos iets wat ons van visepresident Dick Cheney gehoor het oor die oorlog in Irak, dat ons as 'bevryders' begroet sou word, nie waar nie?

A: Dit was die siening. Ons het ook 'n groot bevolkingsvoordeel van 15-1 gehad.

A: Ons militêre instelling was jammerlik onvoorbereid en daar was baie onbevoegde offisiere. Soldate was onlangse kandidate wat swak opgelei was en sonder gevegservaring.

Ons het te kampe gehad met 'n formidabele vyand - 'n taai leër in Kanada, bygestaan ​​deur Indiese bondgenote wat 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die verdediging van Kanada - en die logistieke uitdagings om oorlog teen 'n verre grens te voer.

V: Buite die Revolusionêre Oorlog is dit die enigste oorlog waarin die VSA deur 'n buitelandse mag binnegeval is. Baie mense weet van die brand van die Withuis in 1814, en die presidentsvrou, Dolley Madison, word gereeld erken dat hy die portret van George Washington gered het. Is daar iets omtrent die inval wat ons vandag verkeerd verstaan?

A: The popular view is that Washington D.C. was burned, but they only burned the White House, the Capitol, and the state and treasury department. We burned the Naval Yard to keep it out of their hands during our withdrawal.

That was undoubtedly the low point of the war. But it was followed a month later by one of the high points, when the British threatened Baltimore but the Royal Navy couldn't subdue Fort McHenry. That inspired the writing of "The Star Spangled Banner."

And then, in the last great campaign, the British were decisively defeated at New Orleans, and that was a game changer in how we remember the war.

Q: Why does this war fascinate you?

A: I was intrigued because as a graduate student, it seemed to me that it was an ill-advised war. But people in academia thought it was just ducky even though they were dead set against the war in Vietnam.

The Federalists made the anti-war argument in the 1812 era, and these modern academics regarded them as a bunch of throwbacks and elitists. That's not true. They had a pretty coherent program of military and financial preparedness and avoiding war with Great Britain.

Q: What alternative was there to war in 1812?

A: Peace is the alternative. You don't have to go to war.

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You live with the consequences of the world war in Europe. We're making money, we're doing OK, and our rights are going to be encroached on by both sides. That's life in the big city. Nobody really threatened our independence. You just wait for the war in Europe to end, and the problems go away.


War of 1812 Overview

The War of 1812 pitted the young United States in a war against Great Britain, from whom the American colonies had won their independence in 1783. The conflict was a byproduct of the broader conflict between Great Britain and France over who would dominate Europe and the wider world.

In Britain’s effort to control the world’s oceans, the British Royal Navy encroached upon American maritime rights and cut into American trade during the Napoleonic Wars. In response, the young republic declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812. The two leading causes of the war were the British Orders-in-Council, which limited American trade with Europe, and impressment, the Royal Navy’s practice of taking seamen from American merchant vessels to fill out the crews of its own chronically undermanned warships. Under the authority of the Orders in Council, the British seized some 400 American merchant ships and their cargoes between 1807 and 1812. Press gangs, though ostensibly targeting British subjects for naval service, also swept up 6,000 to 9,000 Americans into the crews of British ships between 1803 and 1812. Some of the impressed sailors were born in British possessions but had migrated to the United States, while many others had attained citizenship that was either in question or simply could not be documented.

With only 16 warships, the United States could not directly challenge the Royal Navy, which had 500 ships in service in 1812. Instead, the new nation targeted Canada, hoping to use the conquest of British territory as a bargaining chip to win concessions on the maritime issues. Most Americans assumed that the conquest of Canada would be, in the words of former president Thomas Jefferson, “a mere matter of marching.” The United States enjoyed a huge population advantage over Canada—7.7 million to 500,000—and it was widely believed in America that U.S. troops would be welcomed as liberators. But events did not play out as Americans expected. Waging war at the end of extended supply lines over the vast distances of the North American wilderness was no easy task. The British and their allies from indigenous nations in North America proved a formidable foe.

American armies invaded Canada in 1812 at three points, but all three campaigns ended in failure. One army surrendered at Detroit at the western end of Lake Erie, a second army surrendered at Queenston Heights at the other end of the lake, and a third army withdrew after little more than a skirmish north of New York. A similar multi-pronged invasion went better in 1813, but only in the West, where an American victory on Lake Erie paved the way for a land victory at the Thames in Upper Canada, which restored U.S. ascendancy throughout the region. But further east, American forces made little headway.

In 1814, the United States was thrown on the defensive because the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in Europe enabled the British to shift additional resources to the war in America. The U.S. continued to remain on the offensive on the Niagara front, but the bloody fighting there was inconclusive. Elsewhere the British took the offensive, although their forces encountered the same problems waging wilderness warfare across vast distances that had plagued the United States earlier in the war. The British occupied Washington, DC, burning the public buildings there, and successfully occupied a hundred miles of the Maine coast. Elsewhere however, the British were rebuffed. British forces withdrew from New York when they lost another inland naval battle, this time on Lake Champlain. They had to give up an assault on Baltimore when they were unable to compel Fort McHenry to submit, and they were decisively defeated at New Orleans.

If the war went worse than Americans expected on land, it went surprisingly well at sea, at least initially. Early in the war, the new nation won a series of single-ship duels between American and British warships. Especially noteworthy were the four successful cruises made by USS Grondwet in the war. The frigate outran a large British squadron in 1812 and subsequently defeated four Royal Navy ships in combat. Grondwet also earned her nickname, “Old Ironsides,” when round shot in the duel with HMS Guerriere appeared to bounce off the ship’s 22-inch-thick hull. An American seaman exclaimed, “Huzza! Her sides are made of iron!” Soon after, Grondwet was known as “Ironsides,” which in time became “Old Ironsides.” American privateers also took a toll on British shipping early in the war.

In the end, however, British naval power held. The British used their navy to ship troops to Canada, to keep them supplied, and to blockade and raid the American coast. The blockade had a devastating impact on the U.S. economy and public finance, and also kept most American warships in port. The British convoy system—in which warships escorted merchant vessels—cut down on the success of American privateers. Furthermore, the British evened the score in single ship duels by defeating USS Chesapeake, USS Essex, en USS President.

Ultimately, the War of 1812 ended in a draw on the battlefield, and the peace treaty reflected this. The Treaty of Ghent was signed in modern-day Belgium on December 24, 1814, and went into effect on February 17, 1815, after both sides had ratified it. This agreement provided for returning to the status quo ante bellum, which meant that the antagonists agreed to return to the state that had existed before the war and restore all conquered territory.

Both sides could claim victory, the British because they held on to Canada and their maritime rights, and the United States because just fighting the “Conqueror of Napoleon” and the “Mistress of the Seas” to a draw vindicated its sovereignty and earned the respect of Europe. As British diplomat Augustus J. Foster acknowledged at war’s end, “The Americans . . . have brought us to speak of them with respect.”

The only real losers in the war were the indigenous nations of North America, who were defeated in two wars connected to the War of 1812: Tecumseh’s War in the Old Northwest and the Creek War in the Old Southwest. American success in these wars opened the door for westward expansion and threatened the indigenous peoples and their ways of life east of the Mississippi River.

The war was fraught with a host of other consequences. It laid the foundations for the emergence of Canada as an independent nation and induced the British to seek peaceful relations with the United States for the remainder of the 19th century and beyond. It also helped forge the United States into a nation. Americans could celebrate their victories on the high seas and on Lake Erie and Lake Champlain, as well as at Fort McHenry and New Orleans. These victories introduced new American heroes (including Oliver H. Perry and Dolley Madison) and future United States presidents (William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson), developed new expressions (including “We have met the enemy and they are ours” and “Don’t give up the ship!”), established American symbols (USS Grondwet, the Fort McHenry flag, and Uncle Sam), and inspired a patriotic song that eventually became the national anthem (“The Star-Spangled Banner”).

The War of 1812 may have been a small war, but it left a profound and lasting legacy that reverberated through history and continues to be felt even today.


The 10 Things You Didn’t Know About the War of 1812

1. The War Needs Re-Branding

“The War of 1812” is an easy handle for students who struggle with dates. But the name is a misnomer that makes the conflict sound like a mere wisp of a war that began and ended the same year.

In reality, it lasted 32 months following the U.S. declaration of war on Britain in June 1812. That’s longer than the Mexican-American War, Spanish-American War, and U.S. involvement in World War I.

Also confusing is the Battle of New Orleans, the largest of the war and a resounding U.S. victory. The battle occurred in January, 1815—two weeks daarna U.S. and British envoys signed a peace treaty in Ghent, Belgium. News traveled slowly then. Even so, it’s technically incorrect to say that the Battle of New Orleans was fought after the war, which didn’t officially end until February 16, 1815, when the Senate and President James Madison ratified the peace treaty.

For roughly a century, the conflict didn’t merit so much as a capital W in its name and was often called “the war of 1812.” The British were even more dismissive. They termed it “the American War of 1812,” to distinguish the conflict from the much great Napoleonic War in progress at the same time.

The War of 1812 may never merit a Tchaikovsky overture, but perhaps a new name would help rescue it from obscurity.

2. Impressment May Have Been a Trumped-Up Charge

One of the strongest impetuses for declaring war against Great Britain was the impressment of American seamen into the Royal Navy, a not uncommon act among navies at the time but one that incensed Americans nonetheless. President James Madison’s State Department reported that 6,257 Americans were pressed into service from 1807 through 1812. But how big a threat was impressment, really?

 “The number of cases which are alleged to have occurred, is both extremely erroneous and exaggerated,” wrote Massachusetts Sen. James Lloyd, a Federalist and political rival of Madison’s. Lloyd argued that the president’s allies used impressment as “a theme of party clamour [sic], and party odium,” and that those citing as a casus belli were “those who have the least knowledge and the smallest interest in the subject.”

Other New England leaders, especially those with ties to the shipping industry, also doubted the severity of the problem. Timothy Pickering, the Bay State’s other senator, commissioned a study that counted the total number of impressed seamen from Massachusetts at slightly more than 100 and the total number of Americans at just a few hundred.

Yet the Britons’ support for Native Americans in conflicts with the United States, as well as their own designs on the North American frontier, pushed Southern and Western senators toward war, and they needed more support to declare it. An issue that could place the young nation as the aggrieved party could help of the 19 senators who passed the declaration of war, only three were from New England and none of them were Federalists.

3. The Rockets Really Did Have Red Glare

Francis Scott Key famously saw the American flag flying over Fort McHenry amid the “rockets’ red glare” and “bombs bursting in air.” He wasn’t being metaphoric. The rockets were British missiles called Congreves and looked a bit like giant bottle rockets. Imagine a long stick that spins around in the air, attached to a cylindrical canister filled with gunpowder, tar and shrapnel. Congreves were inaccurate but intimidating, an 1814 version of “shock and awe.” The “bombs bursting in air” were 200 pound cannonballs, designed to explode above their target. The British fired about 1500 bombs and rockets at Fort McHenry from ships in Baltimore Harbor and only succeeded in killing four of the fort’s defenders.

Cartoon by William Charles, satirizing Thomas Pickering and the radical secessionist movement discussed at the Hartford Convention, a series of secret meetings held by New England Federalists in 1814. (The Granger Collection, NYC) Washingtonians fleeing the city during the burning of the White House and the Capitol by the British on August 24, 1814. (The Granger Collection, NYC) Equestrian portrait of Major General Harrison surrounded by vignettes illustrating his military career during the War of 1812. (The Granger Collection, NYC) Bound American seamen forced to leave their ship and board a British vessel prior to the War of 1812. (The Granger Collection, NYC)

4. Uncle Sam Came From the War Effort

The Star-Spangled Banner isn’t the only patriotic icon that dates to the War of 1812. It’s believed that “Uncle Sam” does, too. In Troy, New York, a military supplier named Sam Wilson packed meat rations in barrels labeled U.S. According to local lore, a soldier was told the initials stood for “Uncle Sam” Wilson, who was feeding the army. The name endured as shorthand for the U.S. government. However, the image of Uncle Sam as a white-bearded recruiter didn’t appear for another century, during World War I.

5. The Burning of Washington was Capital Payback

To Americans, the burning of Washington by British troops was a shocking act by barbaric invaders. But the burning was payback for a similar torching by American forces the year before. After defeating British troops at York (today’s Toronto), then the capital of Upper Canada, U.S. soldiers plundered the town and burned its parliament. The British exacted revenge in Aug. 1814 when they burned the White House, Congress, and other buildings.

Long-term, this may have been a blessing for the U.S. capital. The combustible “President’s House” (as it was then known) was rebuilt in sturdier form, with elegant furnishings and white paint replacing the earlier whitewash. The books burned at Congress’s library were replaced by Thomas Jefferson, whose wide-ranging collection became the foundation for today’s comprehensive Library of Congress.

6. Native Americans Were the War’s Biggest Losers

The United States declared war over what it saw as British violations of American sovereignty at sea. But the war resulted in a tremendous loss of Native American sovereignty, on land. Much of the combat occurred along the frontier, where Andrew Jackson battled Creeks in the South and William Henry Harrison fought Indians allied with the British in the “Old Northwest.” This culminated in the killing of the Shawnee warrior, Tecumseh, who had led pan-Indian resistance to American expansion. His death, other losses during the war, and Britain’s abandonment of their native allies after it, destroyed Indians’ defense of their lands east of the Mississippi, opening the way for waves of American settlers and “Indian Removal” to the west.

7. The Ill-Fated General Custer Had His Start in the War

In 1813, by the River Raisin in Michigan, the British and their Native American allies dealt the U.S. its most stinging defeat in the War of 1812, and the battle was followed by an Indian attack on wounded prisoners. This incident sparked an American battle cry, “Remember the Raisin!” 

William Henry Harrison, who later led the U.S. to victory in battle against the British and Indians, is remembered on his tomb as “Avenger of the Massacre of the River Raisin.”

George Armstrong Custer remembered the Raisin, too. He spent much of his youth in Monroe, the city that grew up along the Raisin, and in 1871, he was photographed with War of 1812 veterans beside a monument to Americans slaughtered during and after the battle. Five years later, Custer also died fighting Indians, in one of the most lopsided defeats for U.S. forces since the River Raisin battle 63 years before.

8. There Was Almost a United States of New England

The political tension persisted as the war progressed, culminating with the Hartford Convention, a meeting of New England dissidents who seriously flirted with the idea of seceding from the United States. They rarely used the terms “secession” or “disunion,” however, as they viewed it as merely a separation of two sovereign states.

For much of the preceding 15 years, Federalist plans for disunion ebbed and flowed with their party’s political fortunes. After their rival Thomas Jefferson won the presidency in 1800, they grumbled sporadically about seceding, but mostly when Jefferson took actions they didn’t appreciate (and, worse, when the electorate agreed with him). The Louisiana Purchase, they protested, was unconstitutional the Embargo Act of 1807, they said, devastated the New England shipping industry. Electoral victories in 1808 silenced chatter of disunion, but the War of 1812 reignited those passions.

Led by Senator Thomas Pickering, disaffected politicians sent delegates to Hartford in 1814 as the first step in a series to sever ties with the United States. “I do not believe in the practicality of a long-continual union,” wrote Pickering to convention chairman George Cabot. The North and South’s “mutual wants would render a friendly and commercial intercourse inevitable.”

Cabot and other moderates in the party, however, quashed the secessionist sentiment. Their dissatisfaction with “Mr. Madison’s War,” they believed, was merely a consequence of belonging to a federation of states. Cabot wrote back to Pickering: “I greatly fear that a separation would be no remedy because the source of them is in the political theories of our country and in ourselves. I hold democracy in its natural operation to be the government of the worst.”

9. Canadians Know More About the War Than You Do

Few Americans celebrate the War of 1812, or recall the fact that the U.S. invaded its northern neighbor three times in the course of the conflict. But the same isn’t true in Canada, where memory of the war and pride in its outcome runs deep.

In 1812, American “War Hawks” believed the conquest of what is today Ontario would be easy, and that settlers in the British-held territory would gladly become part of the U.S. But each of the American invasions was repelled. Canadians regard the war as a heroic defense against their much larger neighbor, and a formative moment in their country’s emergence as an independent nation.  While the War of 1812 bicentennial is a muted affair in the U.S., Canada is reveling in the anniversary and celebrating heroes such as Isaac Brock and Laura Secord, little known south of the border.

“Every time Canada beats the Americans in hockey, everybody’s tremendously pleased,” says Canadian historian Allan Greer. “It’s like the big brother, you have to savor your few victories over him and this was one.”

10. The Last Veteran

Amazingly, some Americans living today were born when the last veteran of the War of 1812 was still alive. In 1905, a grand parade was held to celebrate the life of Hiram Silas Cronk, who died on April 29, two weeks after his 105th birthday.

Cronk “cast his first vote for Andrew Jackson and his last for Grover Cleveland,” according to a newspaper account from 1901.

After nearly a century of obscurity as a farmer in New York State, he became something of a celebrity the closer he came to dying. Stories about his life filled newspaper columns, and the New York City Board of Aldermen began planning Cronk’s funeral months before he died.

When he did, they marked the event with due ceremony. “As the funeral cortege moved from the Grand Central Station to the City Hall it afforded an imposing and unusual spectacle,” reported the Evening Press of Grand Rapids, Michigan. “Led by a police escort of mounted officers, a detachment from the United States regular Army, the Society of 1812 and the Old Guard in uniform, came the hearse bearing the old warrior’s body. Around it, in hollow square formation, marched the members of the U.S. Grant Post, G.A.R. Then followed the Washington Continental Guard from Washington, D.C., the Army and Navy Union, and carriages with members of the Cronk family. Carriages with Mayor McClellan and members of the city government brought up the rear.”

About Brian Wolly

Brian Wolly is the digital editor of Smithsonian.com

About Tony Horwitz

Tony Horwitz was a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who worked as a foreign correspondent for the Wall Street Journal and wrote for the Inwoner van New York. Hy is die skrywer van Baghdad without a Map, Midnight Rising and the digital best seller BOOM. His most recent work, Spying on the South, was released in May 2019. Tony Horwitz died in May 2019 at the age of 60.


Interview with HISTORY’s Travis Taylor: The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch

Posted On April 29, 2020 16:11:10

For the first time ever, HISTORY is gaining full, unprecedented access to one of the most infamous and secretive hotspots of paranormal and UFO-related activities on earth, Skinwalker Ranch, in a new one-hour nonfiction series, “The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch” premiering Tuesday, March 31 at 10PM ET/PT . Few have ever gained official access to Skinwalker Ranch, and none have ever been able to bring cameras onto the property for a television series, until now.

I had the opportunity to interview Dr. Travis Taylor, the lead astrophysicist of “The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch” about his journey and his experience investigating the unexplained phenomena in Utah’s Uinta Basin. Scientific research, tribal legends, and the unexplained converge at Skinwalker Ranch that you must see to believe.

Photo by History Copyright 2020

WATM: Why and how were you chosen for this project?

Dr. Travis Taylor: Well, first of all for the why and the how I don’t know what you know about me or how much you’ve read of my bio and that sort of thing. I have a PhD and a dual disciplinary degree in electrical engineering and physics called optical science of engineering – it’s basically quantum physics. I have another PhD in aerospace engineering, building and designing spacecraft and rockets. I have a Master’s degree in astronomy. I have a Master’s degree in physics. I have a Master’s degree in mechanical and aerospace engineering. I have a Bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering. Since I was 17, I’m 51 now, I’ve published about two dozen referee journal articles and well-respected peer review physics, and optics and military defense type journals.

As far as I know, I’m the only person besides my co-author of the book who has taken the idea seriously and written a textbook and a detailed examination on how we would defend the planet if we were actually invaded by aliens. Different types of invasions and what our military approach should and could be. In fact, I’m the only one who teaches from that text on the topic to the Air Force officer’s space school at Maxwell Air Force base. Now, I do that pretty much yearly and have for a while.

My background has been building spacecraft, rockets and high-energy laser weapons and things like that for DOD for a long time. I also am a science fiction writer and have written twenty-something best-selling science fiction novels, mostly military hard science fiction. With that background in mind, I was invited to start doing TV shows in the early 2000s which led to the next TV show and the next TV show and so on. When HISTORY and Prometheus were approached by the new billionaire owner of the Ranch to do an investigation, they said, “Well you need someone who is an experimentalist and who also is experienced with talking on TV and we recommend this guy.”

And that’s how that happened.

The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch: DANGEROUS RADIATION at UFO Hotspot (Season 1) | Geskiedenis

WATM: What was the first thing that stuck out to you about this investigation when you joined the team of researchers?

Travis Taylor: Well, when the invitation came to me to become a part of the investigation team and to lead the experiment portion of the research, at first I was very skeptical of the phenomena on the ranch being real or being some natural phenomena that maybe causes hallucinations, or unnatural phenomena that causes actual phenomena like lights in the sky or maybe there was a classified defense project. At no time did I think that I was going to find strange, unexplainable physical phenomena at least from the start. That was my philosophy or my thought going into it. But I did have an open mind that, hey, what if I find something that is unexplainable?

WATM: How was evidence gathered of the phenomena at the Ranch?

Travis Taylor: The way we approached it is, we had scientific instrumentation and sensors — as many as we could afford based on the budget we had — spread about the ranch that were collecting data continuously, 24/7. We also had security cameras placed in certain locations to give us as much of a full view of the ranch as possible that were running 24/7. Plus we had game cameras placed in locations that we could move if we thought there was a need to move them. We collected all this information and we went through the video and data pretty much on a daily basis. Plus, there was also multiple cameramen, camera crews and camera sites set up continuously throughout the investigation.

Photo by History Copyright 2020

WATM: Based on the evidence that you have gathered, what are your thoughts on why this phenomena specifically happens at Skinwalker Ranch?

Dr. Travis Taylor: That is an excellent question and we ask ourselves this all the time. Now, the first thing that I will say is that when the team and I talk about this, in no way do we believe that our man-made farming fences along the border of the 500 acres is keeping out any super, you know, physics hyper paranormal — whatever you guys want to call it, phenomenon within the borders of the ranch. In fact, people in the local in Fort Duchenne, Roosevelt and the other town that’s nearby, are all the time reporting phenomena occurring outside of the boundaries of the ranch. Now, that being said, if you look at the Uintah Basin on Google Earth, to me it looks like an ancient meteor impact crater. It looks like it came from the east to the west at a low inclination. And that’s what splattered the salt flats to the west of the Uintah Basin.

There’s Gilsonite all around the Uintah Basin which typically is only found in a meteor impact crater, plus all of the petroleum that is underneath the Uintah Basin. There are a lot of geologists and natural physicists now beginning to think that impact craters cause a phenomena that creates petroleum. If you look at this impact crater, the ranch is dead center give or take but it’s pretty much dead center. Perhaps [it has] something to do with the bowl shape of the basin or whatever caused the basin, made this the central or the nexus for whatever the activity might be.

Photo by History Copyright 2020

WATM: Would the government hide the evidence of extraterrestrials? What impact would that have on the population if they did or did not disclose evidence?

Dr. Travis Taylor: I honestly don’t believe the Brookings Report. I don’t think that people are going to go nuts. What does an invasion of something that’s invisible do to society? Well guess what it makes it’s all go hide in our houses and be afraid to touch anybody. That’s exactly what’s happening right now, as an alien invasion, with this COVID-19. Well I’m not saying the virus is from outer space.

What I’m saying is it’s alien to us and we’re having to defend it in the way that we figure out how to defend it. If there were an alien invasion, we’d have to figure out what type of invasion it were and then how to – what type it was and then go from there. It could be a bazillion possibilities on the type of invasion.

I don’t believe in big conspiracies. There’s no way that humans are adept enough and trust each other enough to create conspiracies so large it would take hundreds and hundreds of people to maintain it. Now there is the possibility that things have been classified for national security reasons.

At such time when it could be disclosed and not reveal a national security advantage, then I could see that taking place but what’s it going to do to the general public? Most people, the general public, believe there are aliens anyway. I don’t think it’s going to do anything except assure them — I’ll tell you what it will do to politics: it will improve the funding for programs to do research like the AATIP program, or like advanced spacecraft technology or like advanced spacesuit technology. Why all of our soldiers don’t have Iron Man suits I can’t explain that. We should be – that should be one of the biggest defense projects we have.

But we don’t spend any money on it. So that’s the things that will change is where we’re spending our money based on what we think the threats are. That’s all I think disclosure will do. The everyday person, I think, they’ll just say ‘I knew it all along, I told you so.’

Photo by History Copyright 2020

WATM: Is it possible that the phenomena observed is man-made, such as Top Secret weapons testing?

Dr. Travis Taylor: So, as a person who does weapons testing for his day job, I can tell you that would be so highly crazy illegal [and] that it’s nonsense. There would be people in jail. What I observed the first day on the ranch, we had a long discussion that if what we were observing was man-made. [What if] someone was violating federal laws and [what we would do] – we needed to alert the authorities if we could prove it was man-made. Then from that point on I realized what we were measuring was impossible even for mankind to make. At that point is when I dropped that line of discussion because I realized just flat out mankind was not doing what we are doing and it’s probably a skeptics coping mechanism because I did it too.

The first conclusion to an odd strange thing is ‘Oh that’s a classified government program’ and ‘Oh they’re doing human testing’ honestly like, you know, there were programs that the CIA did back in the 60s and 70s that I don’t think they’re proud of and where people were involved in those experiments. [So, if] you look at it nowadays, we realize now that you can’t do that and you won’t get away with it forever and somebody will go to jail. I just am thoroughly convinced that this is not some top-secret weapons testing program on people or whatever. Number one: there’s no site nearby that is doing that type of work and number two: they would eventually get caught and go to jail. There is oversight committees on classified programs in Congress and in the Senate. Eventually somebody would say, ‘Wait a minute you all can’t do that.’

Photo by History Copyright 2020

WATM: Okay, so now that we know that there isn’t a government conspiracy or illegal weapons testing — What is happening at Skinwalker Ranch?

Dr. Travis Taylor: So I’m not going to tell you what evidence was observed and what phenomena were observed because and, you know, it would be spoilers for the show. What I will tell you is yes, when you watch the show and you see the evidence we acquired that is scientifically verifiable, you’re going to be blown away because I was. I’m still amazed to this day and still have a hard time believing what I saw.

You can watch the new one-hour nonfiction series “The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch” premiering Vandag, Tuesday, March 31 at 10PM ET/PT.


Since the French Revolution, conscription or the Draft has been how countries have found additional manpower for their armed forces in modern times.

Prior to this Britain practiced a cruel but effective way of combating the manpower shortage in their navy: impressment.

Impressment, or &ldquopress gang&rdquo as it was more commonly known, was recruitment by force. It was a practice that directly affected the U.S. and was even one of the causes of the War of 1812.

The British navy consistently suffered manpower shortages due to the low pay and a lack of qualified seamen. During wartime the navy forced unwilling individuals into service. Residents of seaports lived in fear of the press gangs that patrolled waterfronts and raided taverns, pouncing on deserters and idle mariners. Prints from the time show armed gangs kidnapping men in their beds, or barging into weddings and hauling the groom out much to the distress of the bride.

But generally &ldquopressing&rdquo took place at sea where the armed gangs would board merchant ships. These ships were ransacked of their men and often left without sufficient hands to take them safely into port.

Impressment was first made lawful during Elizabethan times, though it had been a common practice of drafting soldiers dating back to the 13th century. In 1563 Queen Elizabeth passed "an Act touching politick considerations for the maintenance of the Navy" which defined more clearly the liability of sailors who may be forced to serve as mariners.

The legalization was taken further in 1597 when the Vagrancy Act was passed, which now allowed for men of disrepute to be impressed for service in the fleet.

While essential for the strength of the British Navy, the brutal nature of impressment was deeply unpopular. Many viewed it as an inhumane and unconstitutional system.

In the 18th century a raft of legislation was introduced aimed at moderating the practice. A 1740 act declared that all men under 18 and over 55 and foreigners who served on British ships were declared exempt from enforced service.

In reality, however, these laws were ignored and impressment of foreigners was commonplace. In fact, only 40-years later the exemptions from impressment were withdrawn, so desperate was the British Navy for seamen.

American merchant vessels were a common target. Between 1793 and 1812, the British impressed more than 15,000 U.S. sailors to supplement their fleet during their Napoleonic Wars with France. By 1812 the United States Government had had enough. On 18 June, the United States declared war on Great Britain, citing, in part, impressment.

After the Napoleonic Wars impressment was ended in practice, though not officially abandoned as a policy. The last law was passed in 1835, in which the power to impress was reaffirmed. It limited the length of service of a pressed man to five years, and added the provision that a man couldn't be pressed twice.


21f. Claiming Victory from Defeat

The Americans were angry with the British for many reasons.

  • The British didn't withdraw from American territory in the Great Lakes region as they agreed to in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
  • Britain kept aiding Native Americans.
  • Britain would not sign favorable commercial agreements with the U.S.
  • Impressment: Britain claimed the right to take any British sailors serving on American merchant ships. In practice, the British took many American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. This was nothing short of kidnapping.
  • In 1807, The British ship Leopard fired on the American frigate Chesapeake. Other American merchant ships came under harassment from the British navy.
  • War Hawks in Congress pushed for the conflict.

But the United States was not really ready for war. The Americans hoped to get a jump on the British by conquering Canada in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813. Initial plans called for a three-pronged offensive: from Lake Champlain to Montreal across the Niagara frontier and into Upper Canada from Detroit.


The Treaty of Ghent was signed by British and American delegates on December 24, 1814, effectively ending the War of 1812.

The first American attacks were disjointed and failed. Detroit was surrendered to the British in August 1812. The Americans also lost the Battle of Queenston Heights in October. Nothing much happened along Lake Champlain and the American forces withdrew in late November.

In 1813, the Americans tried an intricate attack on Montreal by a combined land and sea operation. That failed.

One bright spot for the Americans was Oliver Hazard Perry 's destruction of the British fleet on Lake Erie in September 1813 that forced the British to flee from Detroit. The British were overtaken in October defeated at the battle of the Thames by Americans led by William Henry Harrison, the future President It was here that the Shawnee chief, and British ally, Tecumseh fell.

Minor victories aside, things looked bleak for the Americans in 1814. The British were able to devote more men and ships to the American arena after having defeated Napoleon.

England conceived of a three-pronged attack focusing on controlling major waterways. Control of the Hudson River in New York would seal off New England seizing New Orleans would seal up the Mississippi River and seriously disrupt the farmers and traders of the Midwest and by attacking the Chesapeake Bay, the British hoped to threaten Washington, D.C. and put an end to the war and pressure the U.S. into ceding territory in a peace treaty.


Die USS Chesapeake engages the HMS Shannon during the War of 1812. The Chesapeake had become famous when the HMS Leopard attacked the ship off Cape Henry in 1807 looking for deserters.

All the while, support for the war waned in America. Associated costs skyrocketed. New England talked of succeeding from the Union. At the Hartford Convention, delegates proposed constitutional amendments that would limit the power of the executive branch of government.

So weak was American military opposition that the British sashayed into Washington D.C. after winning the Battle of Bladensburg and burned most of the public buildings including the White House. President Madison had to flee the city. His wife Dolley gathered invaluable national objects and escaped with them at the last minute. It was the nadir of the war.

But the Americans put up a strong opposition in Baltimore and the British were forced to pull back from that city. In the north, about 10,000 British army veterans advanced into the United States via Montreal: their goal was New York City. With American fortunes looking their bleakest, American Captain Thomas MacDonough won the naval battle of Lake Champlain destroying the British fleet. The British army, fearful of not being supplied by the British navy, retreated into Canada.

The War of 1812 came to an end largely because the British public had grown tired of the sacrifice and expense of their twenty-year war against France. Now that Napoleon was all but finally defeated, the minor war against the United States in North America lost popular support. Negotiations began in August 1814 and on Christmas Eve the Treaty of Ghent was signed in Belgium. The treaty called for the mutual restoration of territory based on pre-war boundaries and with the European war now over, the issue of American neutrality had no significance.

In effect, the treaty didn't change anything and hardly justified three years of war and the deep divide in American politics that it exacerbated.


With their fingers on the triggers, these American infantrymen demonstrate the uniforms and weaponry used in the War of 1812.

Popular memory of the War of 1812 might have been quite so dour had it not been for a major victory won by American forces at New Orleans on January 8, 1815. Although the peace treaty had already been signed, news of it had not yet arrived on the battlefront where General Andrew Jackson led a decisive victory resulting in 700 British casualties versus only 13 American deaths. Of course, the Battle of New Orleans had no military or diplomatic significance, but it did allow Americans to swagger with the claim of a great win.

Furthermore, the victory launched the public career of Andrew Jackson as a new kind of American leader totally different from those who had guided the nation through the Revolution and early republic. The Battle of New Orleans vaunted Jackson to heroic status and he became a symbol of the new American nation emerging in the early 19th century.


5. Set The Stage for Westward Expansion

The losers of the War of 1812 was not the British nor Americans, but the Native Americans.

They were fragmented and America was hungry to expand. Soon the West began to be settled and new states began to be admitted into the Union. This would eventually put them at odds with Mexico which would lead to the Mexican War.

The United States upgraded its military and by the time of the Mexican War had become a superior military force able to execute complicated campaigns against the Mexicans.