Geskiedenis Podcasts

Wat het ou lande hulself genoem?

Wat het ou lande hulself genoem?

Veral nie-Europese nasies-ek is onder die indruk dat die name wat aan hierdie lande gegee word, bv. 'die Maurya -dinastie', 'die Qin -dinastie', 'die Akkadiese ryk', 'die ou koninkryk van Egipte', ens., is moderne uitvindings, nie die name wat die lande self gegee het nie.

Dit lyk asof daar 'n redelike duidelike verskuiwing in die benaming is sodra u die Middeleeue binnegaan - Frankryk word Frankryk genoem, Travancore as Travancore, ens.

Ek ken die antwoord vir sommige van hulle, soos byvoorbeeld die Griekse stadstate, of die ryke wat deur hulle geskep is, soos Masedonië. En dan is daar China, wat oor die algemeen in eenwording geglo het, sodat koninkryke net as kandidate beskou is om die nasie te regeer. Maar op plekke waar fragmentasie die norm is, maar ook territoriale veranderinge, soos Indië, die Nabye Ooste en die Weste, is dit nie so duidelik nie.


Vir baie van die beskawings wat stelsels gehad het om die naam wat hulle vir hul eie land gebruik het, te skryf, word dit in die ou tekste self bewaar.

Die antieke Egiptenare het byvoorbeeld gedink dat hul land uit twee dele bestaan: kmt of "Khemet" (wat "Die Swart Land" beteken - 'n verwysing na die vrugbare strook langs die Nyl) en dšrt of "Deshret" (wat beteken " The Red Land " - met verwysing na die woestyne buite die vrugbare strook). Hulle het na hulself verwys as Kmtyw of "The people of the Black Land" uit ten minste die ou koninkryk, en moontlik baie vroeër.

Ons weet ook dat kmt uit twee dele bestaan ​​het - die koninkryke van Bo- en Neder -Egipte, moontlik eers verenig deur koning Narmer, en herdenk op die Narmer -palet. Later is konings beskryf as 'nsw-bity' of 'koning van Bo- en Neder-Egipte'.

[kmt / dšrt / Kmtyw ens. is transliterasies van die hiërogliewe. Soos met sommige ander tale in die oudheid, het die geskrewe vorme van die ou Egiptiese taal nie klinkers ingesluit nie, dus word transliterasies dikwels met bygevoegde letters (dikwels die letter "e") geskryf om uitspraak te bevorder]

As 'n ander voorbeeld (een wat u in die vraag noem), het die Akkadiese Ryk blykbaar in die Akkadiese taal na hulself verwys as 'akkadattu'.


Wat het ander lande die Tweede Wêreldoorlog genoem?

Ek sou dink dat dit baie onwaarskynlik is dat enige ander land dit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sou noem, tensy ELKE land na die Groot Oorlog verwys as die Eerste Wêreldoorlog wat ek net aangeneem het 'n Amerikaanse benaming was. Of het die geallieerde lande besluit oor 'n amptelike naam, sodat almal dieselfde terminologie gebruik?

In Ierland is dit The Emergency genoem. Ons was nie in 'n oorlog met iemand nie, maar ons moes nog steeds voedsel en krag rantsoen.

Ek dink Rusland het daarna verwys as die Groot Patriotiese oorlog.

Nee, die deel van die tyd wat die Duitse inval in die Sowjetunie dek, staan ​​bekend as die 'Groot Patriotiese Oorlog'. Die werklike konflik is nog steeds die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

In China,。。 Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Alhoewel ek seker is dat daar spesiale name is vir die verkragting van Nanjing, die Mantsjoeriese veldtog, ens.

Dit word gewoonlik anti-Japannese oorlog genoem, en Chinese gee nie veel om vir ander teaters van die oorlog nie.

Waarom neem u aan dat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog slegs 'n Amerikaanse benaming is?

Hmm. Goeie vraag. Ek weet nie hoekom ek dit aanvaar het nie. Ek dink as ek weer daaraan dink, het ek waarskynlik geraai dat dit net 'n versamelterm was onder Engelssprekende lande. Ek was altyd aangenaam verras/gefassineer oor die verskillende terminologie vir dinge regoor die wêreld en was nuuskierig dat almal die ww1/ww2 -benamings gebruik

Ek is bly jy het dit gevra. Die Amerikaanse sentriese aanname irriteer my.

Die terme ww1 en ww2 is geskep deur Britse koerante iirc. Hulle het 1/4 van die wêreld besit, sodat die naam vasgesteek het.

Japan het dit nie regtig as die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (第二 次 世界 大 call) genoem totdat alles verby was nie. Toe hulle van 1937-1941 in China veg, noem hulle dit amptelik die Sino-Incident (支那 事 変). Nie-amptelik noem hulle dit die Chinese-Japannese Oorlog (日中 戦 争). Hierdie naam steek vas en verwys in die algemeen na valaksies in China van 1937-1945. Ons ken dit in Engels as die 2de Sino-Japannese Oorlog.

Nadat hulle met die bondgenote oorlog gemaak het, het hulle alles tot 'n nuwe term, die Groot -Oos -Asië -oorlog (大 東 亜 戦 争), verhef. Hierdie term is eintlik deur die VSA verbied toe die besetting begin het, sodat Japannese vandag spesifiek verwys na die oorlog met die VSA onder 'n ander naam, die Stille Oseaan -oorlog (太平洋 戦 争).

AFAIK, hulle het nie 'n enkele term vir wat destyds in Europa aan die gang was nie. Hulle gebruik woorde soos die Poolse oorlog (ポ ー ラ ン ド 戦), die Franse oorlog (フ ラ ン ス 戦), die Duits-Sowjet-oorlog (独 ソ 戦).


Bibliografie

Bernier, Fran çois. Voyages de F. Bernier (Angevin) contenant la description des Estats du Grand Mogol, de l 'Indoustan, du royaume de Kachemire. Amsterdam: D. P. Marret, 1699.

Courtright, Paul B. " Sati, Offer en huwelik: Die moderniteit van tradisie. " In Lindsey Harlan en Paul B. Courtright eds., Uit die marges van die Hindoe -huwelik: opstelle oor geslag, godsdiens en kultuur. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Durkheim, Émyl. Selfmoord: 'n studie in sosiologie, vertaal deur John A. Spaulding en George Simpson. Glencoe, NY: Free Press, 1951.

Hawley, John Stratton. Sati, die seën en die vloek: die brand van vroue in Indië. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Nandy, Ashis. "Sati As Profit versus Sati As a Spectacle: The Public Debate on Roop Kanwar 's Death. " In J. S. Hawley ed., Sati: Die seën en die vloek. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Narasimhan, Sakuntala. Sati: 'n Studie van weduweebrand in Indië. Nieu -Delhi: Viking, 1990.

Referate oor sake in Oos -Indië, nl. Hindoe -weduwees en vrywillige afsterwe. Londen: House of Commons, 1821 �.

Sharma, Arvind. Sati: Historiese en fenomenologiese opstelle. Nieu -Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1988.

Thapar, Romila. Interpretasie van vroeë Indië. Nieu -Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Thompson, Edward. Suttee: 'n Historiese en filosofiese ondersoek na die Hindoe-ritus van weduweebrand. Londen: Allen en Unwin, 1928.

Vuurproef: 'n Verslag oor die dood van Roop Kanwar en#x0027s. Bombay: Women and Media Committee, Bombay Union of Journalists, 1987.

Wadley, Susan. "Geen langer vrou nie: weduwees in die platteland van Noord -Indië. " In Lindsey Harlan en Paul B. Courtright eds., Uit die marges van die Hindoe -huwelik: opstelle oor geslag, godsdiens en kultuur. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine. As of Immortality: Widow-Burning in India, vertaal deur Jeffrey Mehlman en David Gordon White. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine. " Cendres d 'immortalit é. La cr émation des veuves en Inde. " Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 67, nee. 1 (1989): 9 �.


Waarom word Duitsland die vaderland genoem?

Vaderland herinner aan die wet, die regering en die orde, en Duitsland is 'n land wat ten gunste van hierdie dinge is, en dit word dikwels die vaderland genoem. Vaderland is die algemeenste gedurende die tyd van Nazi -Duitsland gebruik as gevolg van die groot hoeveelheid regeringsmag in die land op daardie tydstip. Na die val van die Nazi's het die term Vaderland vasgesteek.

Moederland word dikwels gebruik om Rusland te beskryf, soos in Moeder Rusland, omdat die mense wat daarvandaan kom, lief is vir die omgewing van die land. Die Russiese volk sorg vir en voed hul onderdane op en handel op dieselfde manier as wat 'n ma teenoor haar kinders sou optree.

Sommige lande, soos Duitsland, gebruik die manlike manier van praat wanneer hulle praat oor hul voorouers of die plek waar hulle vandaan kom. Dit dui op respek, waardigheid en wette. Voorvaders is 'n voorbeeld van manlikheid wat gebruik word om mense uit die verlede te beskryf.

Voorouers word nie gereeld voormoeders genoem nie. Moederland is 'n term wat eers voor vaderland in gebruik geneem is, maar vaderland is 'n meer gewilde opsie vir die meeste lande, insluitend Duitsland, as die vaderland. Rusland is een van die enigste lande wat na hul eie land eerder as 'n vaderland verwys as 'n vaderland.


Wat het ou lande hulself genoem? - Geskiedenis

Antieke reënbakke
Antieke maniere en gewoontes, daaglikse lewe, kulture, Bybellande


Antieke stortbak wat gebruik word vir die opberging van reënwater

In die vroegste tye van die Bybel is dit gebruik om water op te gaar. Hulle was gewoonlik peervormig en 15 tot 20 voet diep, en die werklike opening was slegs 2 tot 3 voet. Daar was gewoonlik 'n klipbedekking. Reënbakke was óf groot óf klein, groot genoeg om water vir die gemeenskap op te slaan, óf klein in private besit. Reënbakke was soos waterputte wat met toue en 'n emmer opgehys kon word. Die prent hierbo is afkomstig van Umm al-biyara (die moeder van alle reënbakke), die ou plek van Edom, wat die stad Nabateeër Petra geword het.

In eertydse Israel was die somermaande uiters droog, en gedurende hierdie tyd het mense vir hulle reënbakke uit die vaste rots gegrawe en uitgekap. Hierdie reënbakke was soos mensgemaakte reservoirs wat groot hoeveelhede water uit die reënval sou bevat. Hierdie reënbakke is baie keer op 'n manier bedek om puin weg te hou en om ongelukke te voorkom. Aangesien die grootste deel van Jerusalem 'n sagte kalksteenlaag aan die oppervlak gehad het, was dit vir die Israeliete in Jerusalem gerieflik om baie reënbakke te sny, veral omdat daar min water in Jerusalem was. Jerusalem het trouens baie water gehad, selfs tydens hul lang beleëringe vanweë die oorvloed water. Die bergland het 'n baie moeiliker kalksteenafsetting gehad, wat hul waterbronne betroubaarder gemaak het sonder waterdigting.

Antieke werkers het klewerige kalkpleister ontwikkel wat hulle sou gebruik om die oppervlak van die gesteentes te bedek om te voorkom dat die water uitloop. Maar soms sou 'n reënbak 'n skeur ontwikkel en al die water sou uitsypel.

Jeremia verkondig 'n skerp aanklag teen Israel en hulle afgodediens, en beskuldig hulle daarvan dat hulle valse gode aanbid wat vergelyk word met reënbakke wat geen water kan hou nie. Slegs hulle Heer was die ware God en die "fontein van lewende waters":

Jeremia 2:13 - Want my volk het twee euwels begaan; hulle het my verlaat, die fontein van lewende waters;

Doeleindes vir reënbakke

Gedurende Bybeltye is die reënbakke nie net gebruik om water op te slaan nie, maar ook as ondergrondse kamers, wegkruipplekke vir vlugtelinge, begraafplase en selfs as gevangenis selle, soos in die geval van die profeet Jeremia, wat as gevangene in 'n modderige put wat behoort aan Malchaja, die seun van koning Sedekia (Jeremia 38: 6), waar hy uiteindelik met toue opgetrek is:

Jeremia 38
6 Toe neem hulle Jeremia en gooi hom in die kerker van Malkia, die seun van Hammelek, wat in die voorhof van die gevangenis was; en hulle laat Jeremia met toue neerslaan. En in die kerker was daar geen water nie, maar modder; daarom sak Jeremia in die modder.
7 Toe Ebedmeleg, die Etiopiër, een van die hofdienaars wat in die huis van die koning was, hoor dat hulle Jeremia in die kerker gesit het, het die koning in die poort van Benjamin gesit
8Ebedmelek het uit die koning se huis gegaan en met die koning gespreek en gesê:
9 - Meneer die koning, hierdie manne het kwaad gedoen in alles wat hulle aan die profeet Jeremia gedoen het, wat hulle in die kerker gegooi het, en hy sterf soos honger op die plek waar hy is: want daar is nie meer brood in die stad nie.
10 Toe beveel die koning Ebedmeleg, die Etiopiër, en sê: Neem van hier af dertig man saam en haal die profeet Jeremia uit die kerker voordat hy sterf.
11 En Ebedmeleg het die manne saamgeneem en in die huis van die koning gegaan, onder die skatkis, en het daarvandaan ou kloue en ou vrot lappe geneem en hulle met toue in die kerker na Jeremia laat sak.
12 En Ebed -Meleg, die Etiopiër, sê vir Jeremia: Sit nou hierdie ou kloue en vrot lappe onder jou armgate onder die toue. En Jeremia het dit gedoen.
13 En hulle het Jeremia met toue opgetrek en hom uit die kerker gehaal; en Jeremia het in die voorhof van die gevangenis gebly.

Sisterne en argeologie

Argeoloë het baie ou reservate in Jerusalem en die hele Israel ontdek. Op die plek wat deur sommige geglo word dat dit die ou Ai van die Bybel was (Khirbet et-Tell), is 'n groot reënbak uit ongeveer 2500 vC ontdek wat byna 60 000 kubieke voet water kon bevat. Dit is uit soliede rots gekap, met groot klippe uitgevoer en met klei verseël om te voorkom dat dit lek. Sommige webwerwe bevat meer as 50 reënbakke (Tell en-Nasbeh).

Bakke en waterdigting

Gedurende die tydperk van die konings in die Ou Testament het die waterdigting van 'n waterbak met kalkpleister baie gewild geword. Dit het baie gehelp met boerdery, veral in die heuwellande waar daar nie soveel riviere en fonteine ​​was nie. Tog sou selfs die met gips bedekte waterputte uiteindelik krake ontwikkel.

Reservoirs en droogtes

As die reën val, kon die Hebreërs afhanklik wees van hul reënbakke, maar selfs hul reënbakke kon hulle in die droogte na die somer in die steek laat. Jeremia het ons 'n beskrywing van 'n droogte gegee:

Jeremia 14
1 - Die woord van die HERE wat tot Jeremia gekom het oor die gebrek.
2 - Juda treur, en die poorte daarvan verdwyn; hulle is swart tot op die grond, en die geroep van Jerusalem gaan op.
3 - En hulle edeles het hulle kleintjies na die waters gestuur: hulle het by die kuile ​​gekom en geen water gekry nie;
4 - Omdat die grond kapot is, want daar was geen reën op die aarde nie, was die ploegers beskaamd, hulle het hul koppe bedek.
5 - Ja, die agterhoenders het ook in die veld gekalf en dit verlaat, omdat daar geen gras was nie.
6 - En die wilde -esels het op die hoogtes gestaan; hulle het die wind opgejaag soos jakkalse, hulle oë het gesak, want daar was geen gras nie.
7 - HERE, alhoewel ons ongeregtighede teen ons getuig, doen dit ter wille van u Naam; want ons afvallighede is baie;
8 - O hoop van Israel, sy verlosser in tyd van benoudheid, waarom sou u wees soos 'n vreemdeling in die land en as 'n reisiger wat afwyk om 'n nag te vertoef?

Die Bybel noem Reservoirs Dikwels

Spreuke 5:15 - Drink water uit u eie stortbaken lopende waters uit u eie put.

Prediker 12: 6 - Of die silwer koord losgemaak word, of die goue bak gebreek word, of die kruik by die fontein gebreek kan word, of die wiel by die stortbak.

2 Konings 18:31 - Luister nie na Hiskía nie, want so sê die koning van Assirië: Maak 'n ooreenkoms met my en gaan uit na my, en eet dan elkeen van sy eie wingerdstok en elkeen van sy vye boom, en drink elkeen sy water stortbak:

Jesaja 36:16 - Luister nie na Hiskía nie, want so sê die koning van Assirië: Maak 'n ooreenkoms met my en gaan na my uit; en eet elkeen van sy wingerdstok en elkeen van sy vyeboom, en drink elkeen sy eie water stortbak

Jeremia 2:13 - Want my volk het twee euwels gepleeg; hulle het my verlaat, die fontein van lewende waters, en hulle uitgekap reënbakke, stukkend reënbakke, wat geen water kan hou nie.

Sommige kenners meen dat Josef, wat deur sy broers in 'n put gegooi is, eintlik in 'n put geval het:

Genesis 37:22 - En Ruben sê vir hulle: Moenie bloed vergiet nie, maar gooi hom in hierdie put wat in die woestyn is, en gee geen hand op hom om hom uit hulle hande te red om hom te verlos nie weer na sy pa toe.

Hulle het as tafel gedien om die offerande op te lê en ook om die bloed van die offeroffer te vang. In eertydse Israel was daar altare van klip, en later is 'n bronsaltaar in die tabernakel van Moses geplaas. Toe Salomo koning word, bou hy 'n tempel vir die Here in Jerusalem, en hy maak uitgebreide altare van brons en goud. Die diere is as geheel of in dele op die bronsaltaar geplaas, daar is ook brood geplaas, en daar word ook maaltyd, wierook en selfs wyn aangebied. Die Bybel beskryf die heiligste deel van die altaar, dit was die vier horings op die hoeke wat God se krag en mag simboliseer wat na die vier hoeke van die aarde dui (Exodus 27: 2. God was duidelik dat sy redding vir almal is, Die offer was 'n plaasvervangende versoening, die onskuldige slagoffer sou die volle gewig van God se oordeel ontvang, terwyl die skuldige persoon vergifnis en regverdiging en versoening van God sou ontvang. Die offer het letterlik sonde geword en daarom die altaar was die middelpunt van die Israelitiese aanbidding, en die eenheid van die altaar is as 'n ideaal beskou (II Kronieke 32:12). Toe Christus weer opstaan, was sy offer eens en vir altyd, en die altaar en die seremoniële wet is weggedoen, omdat Christus 'eenmaal aangebied is' (Hebreërs 9:28). Die Bybel sê ook in Hebreërs 13:10 dat & quotChristus ons altaar is & quot. Dit vergader die byeenkoms van die heiliges, of gelowiges, wat toegang tot die Here het en hom te eniger tyd kan nader as gevolg van die gestorte bloed van Christus.

Illustrasie van 'n stortbak


Illustrasie van 'n put wat onder die Tempelberg ontdek is 43 voet diep met 'n bergingskapasiteit van 2 miljoen liter

Cistern in Smith's Bible Dictionary
'N Houer vir water, wat óf vanuit 'n eksterne fontein gelei word, óf as gevolg van reënval. Die droogte van die somermaande en die skaarsheid van bronne in Judea het reënbakke 'n noodsaaklikheid gemaak, en dit kom gereeld in die hele Sirië en Palestina voor. Op die lang vergete pad van Jerigo na Bet-el word gereeld gebreekte reënbakke en hoë antieke tye aangetref. Jerusalem is hoofsaaklik afhanklik van water op sy bakke, waarvan byna elke privaat huis een of meer besit, opgegrawe in die rots waarop die stad gebou is. Die reënbakke het gewoonlik 'n ronde opening aan die bokant, soms opgebou met klipwerk daarbo en met 'n randsteen en 'n wiel vir 'n emmer. Ec 12: 6 Leë reënbakke is soms gebruik as gevangenisse en opsluitingsplekke. Josef is in 'n & quotpit gegooi, & quot; Ge 37:22, net soos Jeremia. Jer 38: 6. Lees die volledige artikel

Cistern in die ISBE Bible Encyclopedia
Die pogings wat aangewend is om die natuurlike watervoorsiening aan te vul, sowel in landbou- as in bevolkte gebiede, voor sowel as na die verowering, word duidelik gesien in die ontelbare putte, putte en poele wat oorvloedig is in die hele Palestina Die reënseisoen waarop die verskillende bergings stelsels afhanklik, begin einde Oktober en eindig begin Mei. In Jerusalem was die gemiddelde reënval in 41 jaar tot 1901 25,81 duim, wat in 'n gemiddelde aantal dae van 56 dae geval het. Teen die einde van die somer neem fonteine ​​en putte, waar dit eintlik nie opgedroog het nie, aansienlik af, en word reënbakke en oop reservoirs soms die enigste bron van toevoer. Reënbakke word gevoer uit oppervlak- en dakdreinering. Behalwe in die seldsame gevalle waar fonteine ​​voorkom, is putte afhanklik van perkolasie. Die 'groot oop reservoirs of poele word gevoed uit dreinering van die oppervlak en, in sommige gevalle, deur akwadukte uit fonteine ​​of uit meer opvangswembaddens. In die geval van private reënbakke, is dit vandag die gewoonte van die land om die inhamme toe te maak gedurende die vroeë reëndae, sodat 'n algemene afspoeling van versameloppervlaktes moontlik is voordat die water toegelaat word. Reservoirs, wat aan die gewone inboorlinge behoort, word selde skoongemaak, en die onvermydelike skuim wat versamel word, word versprei deur die kruik verskeie kere te dompel voordat hulle water trek. As die water as sleg beskou word, word 'n ietwat primitiewe genesing toegepas deur die aarde in die put te gooi om alle onsuiwerhede daarmee te laat sak. Die opeenhoping wat gereeld in ou reservate voorkom, het waarskynlik 'n deel van die teenwoordigheid van hierdie gewoonte te danke. Lees die volledige artikel

Cistern in Easton's Bible Dictionary
Die weergawe van 'n Hebreeuse woord verveeld, wat 'n houer vir water wat daarheen vervoer word, beteken, onderskei van bier, wat 'n plek aandui waar water ter sprake kom (Jer. 2:13 Spr. 5:15 Jes. 36:16), 'n fontein. Reënbakke word gereeld in die Skrif genoem. Die gebrek aan fonteine ​​in Palestina het dit nodig gemaak om reënwater in reservoirs en waterputte op te vang (Num. 21:22). Leë reënbakke is soms as tronke gebruik (Jer. 38: 6 Lam. 3:53 Ps. 40: 2 69:15). Die & quotpit & quot waarin Josef gegooi is (Gen. 37:24) was 'n bier of droog goed. Daar is talle oorblyfsels van antieke reënbakke in alle dele van Palestina. Lees die volledige artikel

Cistern in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Bor, 'n gegrawe put vir die ontvangs van water wat uit 'n fontein of die reënval gelei word. (Sien CONDUIT.) Die droogte tussen Mei en September in Palestina maak reservoirs nodig, waarvan die groter 'waterpotte' genoem word, 'die kleiner', 'rotse'. Die rotsagtige grond vergemaklik die bou daarvan. Die bokant, met klipwerk en 'n ronde opening, het dikwels 'n wiel vir die emmer, 'n beeld van die aorta of die groot slagaar wat die bloed uit die ventrikel van die hart sirkuleer, of die wiel druk lewe in sy vinnige beweging uit (Jakobus 3: 6 Prediker 12: 6). Die reën word vanaf die dakke van die huise na hulle toe gelei, waarvan die meeste saamgevoeg is, waaruit die metafoor, Spreuke 5:15, & quot; drinkwater uit u eie waterbak kom, & quot; put u genot slegs uit die bronne wat is regmatig joune. Hiskia het die watertoevoer buite Jerusalem gestop tydens die inval van Sanherib, terwyl daar baie water was (2 Kronieke 32: 3-4). So was dit in al die groot beleërings van Jerusalem, skaarste aan water buite, oorvloed binne. Leë reënbakke is as gevangenisse gebruik. Daarom word Josef in 'n & quotpit & quot (Genesis 37:22) gegooi in 'n miry aan die onderkant, en so diep dat hy deur toue in die steek gelaat is (Jeremia 38: 6), na bewering naby die poort van Herod. & Quot beperkte toevoer van water, nie 'n ewig vloeiende fontein wat wesens se gemak voorstel nie, en daarom nooit die moeite werd om die nooit verswakende, ooit vars voorrade van God te laat vaar nie. vir (Jeremia 2:13). Die klipwerk van tenks raak dikwels stukkend, en die water lek in die aarde en op sy beste is die water nie lank nie. Vergelyk Jesaja 55: 1-2 Lukas 12:33. Lees die volledige artikel

Cistern in Naves Topical Bible

-Algemene skrifte aangaande
Jes 36:16

-FIGURATIEF
2Kn 18:31 Pr 5:15 Ec 12: 6
Sien WELLS


Die Bybel noem die Swembad Dikwels

Nehemia 3:15 Maar die poort van die fontein het Sallun, die seun van Colhozeh, die owerste oor 'n deel van Mispa, herstel; swembad van Siloag by die tuin van die koning en tot by die trappe wat uit die stad van Dawid afgaan.

2 Konings 18:17 - En die koning van Assirië stuur Tartan en Rabsaris en Rabsake uit Lagis na koning Hiskía met 'n groot leër teen Jerusalem. En hulle het opgetrek en in Jerusalem gekom. En toe hulle opkom, kom hulle en gaan staan ​​by die kanaal van die boonste swembad, [wat] op die snelweg van die voller veld is.

Jesaja 36: 2 - En die koning van Assirië stuur Rabshake van Lagis na Jerusalem na koning Hiskía met 'n groot leër. En hy staan ​​by die kanaal van die boonste swembad op die snelweg van die voller veld.

2 Samuel 4:12 - En Dawid het sy jongmanne bevel gegee, en hulle het hulle doodgemaak en hul hande en voete afgesny en hulle opgehang oor die swembad in Hebron. Maar hulle neem die hoof van Isboset en begrawe dit in die graf van Abner in Hebron.

Jesaja 41:18 - Ek sal riviere op hoogtes oopmaak en fonteine ​​in die valleie; ek maak die wildernis 'n swembad water, en die droë land fonteine ​​water.

1 Konings 22:38 - En [een] was die wa in die swembad uit Samaria en die honde het sy bloed gelek en sy wapens gewas volgens die woord van die HERE wat hy gespreek het.

Johannes 5: 4 - Want 'n engel het op 'n sekere seisoen in die swembaden het die water verontrus: elkeen wat die eerste keer na die ingewande van die water ingekom het, is heeltemal gesond gemaak van watter siekte ook al.

Nahum 2: 8 - Maar Nineve [is] van ouds soos 'n swembad water: maar hulle sal wegvlug. Staan, staan, [sal hulle huil], maar niemand sal terugkyk nie.

2 Konings 20:20 - En die res van die werke van Hiskia en al sy krag, en hoe hy 'n swembaden 'n kanaal en water in die stad gebring, is dit nie beskrywe in die Kroniekboek van die konings van Juda nie?

Nehemia 3:16 - Na hom herstel Nehemia, die seun van Asbuk, die owerste van die helfte van Betsur, teenoor die graf van Dawid en die graf swembad wat gemaak is, en na die huis van die magtiges.

Johannes 9:11 - Hy antwoord en sê: 'n Man wat Jesus genoem word, het klei gemaak en my oë gesalf en vir my gesê: Gaan na die swembad van Siloam en was; en ek het gegaan en gewas, en ek het sig gesien.

Jesaja 7: 3 - Toe sê die HERE vir Jesaja: Gaan nou tegemoet met Agas, jy en jou seun Shearjashub, aan die einde van die leiding van die boonste swembad op die snelweg van die voller veld

Jesaja 35: 7 - En die uitgedroogde grond sal 'n word swembaden die dorstige land fonteine ​​water: in die bewoning van jakkalse, waar elkeen lê, is gras met riete en biesies.

Jesaja 22:11 - Julle het ook 'n sloot tussen die twee mure gemaak vir die water van die ou swembad: maar julle het nie na die vervaardiger gekyk nie, en julle het geen agting gehad op die een wat dit lank gelede gemaak het nie.

Johannes 5: 2 - Nou is daar by Jerusalem by die skape [mark] a swembad, wat in die Hebreeuse taal Bethesda genoem word, met vyf stoepe.

Nehemia 2:14 - Toe gaan ek na die poort van die fontein en na die koning toe swembad: maar daar was geen plek waar die dier onder my kon verbygaan nie.

Jesaja 22: 9 - Julle het ook gesien dat die stad Dawid se breuke groot is; en julle het die waters van die laer versamel swembad.

Johannes 5: 7 - Die kragtige man antwoord hom: Meneer, ek het niemand om my in die water te steek as die water onrustig is nie swembad: maar terwyl ek kom, tree 'n ander een voor my neer.

Johannes 9: 7 En hy sê vir hom: Gaan was jou in die swembad van Siloam, (dit is by vertolking, gestuur.) Hy het sy gang gegaan en gewas en kom sien.

2 Samuel 2:13 - En Joab, die seun van Serúja, en die dienaars van Dawid, het uitgegaan en bymekaargekom by die swembad van Gibeon: en hulle gaan sit, die een aan die een kant van die swembad, en die ander aan die ander kant van die swembad.

Bybelstudie en geloof

Die Bybel is die kosbaarste besitting van die mensdom. " - Henry H. Halley

& quot Hierdie handboek is toegewy aan die stelling dat elke Christen 'n konstante en toegewyde leser van die Bybel moet wees, en dat die belangrikste taak van die kerk en bediening is om hul mense in die gewoonte te lei, te bevorder en aan te moedig. & quot

& quot

& quot Groot was die seën van opeenvolgende, ywerige, daaglikse studie. Ek beskou dit as 'n verlore dag as ek nie lekker gebly het oor die woord van God nie. & Quot - George Muller

Ek het vir geloof gebid en gedink dat die geloof eendag sou neersak en my soos 'n bliksem sou tref. Maar dit het gelyk asof geloof nie gekom het nie. Op 'n dag lees ek in die 10de hoofstuk van Romeine: 'Nou kom geloof deur te hoor en te hoor deur die woord van God.' Ek het my Bybel toegemaak en vir geloof gebid. Ek het nou my Bybel oopgemaak en begin studeer, en sedertdien het geloof gegroei. & Quot - D. L. Moody

-H. H. Halley & quotHalley's Bible Handbook & quot (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1960) p. 4, 6

Argeologiese studie van die Bybel

'n Groot bewys vir die akkuraatheid van die Ou -Testamentiese teks kom uit die argeologie. Talle ontdekkings het die historiese akkuraatheid van die Bybelse dokumente bevestig, selfs tot die verouderde name van vreemde konings. In plaas van 'n manifestasie van algehele onkunde oor die feite van sy tyd, weerspieël die Bybelse verslag dus 'n groot kennis van die skrywer van sy tyd, sowel as akkuraatheid in die versending van tekste. & Quot

-Norman L. Geisler, William Nix & quotA General Introduction to the Bible & quot 5th Edition (Chicago: Moody Press 1983) p. 253


Ariërs

c. 1600, as 'n term in die klassieke geskiedenis, uit Latyn Arianus, Ariana, uit Griekse Aria, Areia, name wat in die klassieke tye toegepas is op die oostelike deel van antieke Persië en op sy inwoners. Ou Perse het die naam met verwysing na hulself (Ou Persies ariya-) gebruik, vandaar Iran. Uiteindelik uit Sanskrit arya- & quotcompatriot & quot in later language & quotnoble, of good family. & Quot

Ook die naam Sanskrit-sprekende indringers van Indië het hulself in die ou tekste gegee. Dit was dus die woord vroeg 19c. Europese filoloë (Friedrich Schlegel, 1819, wat dit met die Duitse Ehre & quothonor & quot verbind het) het aansoek gedoen vir die ou mense wat ons nou Indo-Europeërs noem, met die vermoede dat dit hulself is. Hierdie gebruik word in 1851 in Engels getuig. In Duits vanaf 1845 was dit spesifiek teenoor Semities (Lassen).

Die Duitse filoloog Max Müller (1823-1900) het Ariër gewild gemaak in sy geskrifte oor vergelykende linguistiek, en dit aanbeveel as die naam (vervang Indo-Europees, Indo-Germaans, Kaukasies, Japheties) vir die groep verwante, verbuigde tale wat met hierdie mense verband hou, kom meestal in Europa voor, maar bevat ook Sanskrit en Persies. Die spelling Arian is vanaf 1839 in hierdie sin gebruik (en is meer filologies korrek), maar dit het verwarring veroorsaak met Arian, die term in die kerklike geskiedenis.

Aries is geleidelik vervang in vergelykende taalkunde c. 1900 deur Indo-Europees, behalwe as dit gebruik word om Indo-Europese tale van Indië te onderskei van nie-Indo-Europese tale. Vanaf die 1920's het die Ariër in die Nazi-ideologie begin gebruik om 'n lid van 'n Kaukasiese nie-Joodse ras van Nordiese tipe te bedoel. algemene akademiese gebruik sedert die Nazi's dit aangeneem het.


Waarom is daar verskillende name vir dieselfde land?

Vir Amerikaners, die Europese land wat die wêreld Volkswagens, die Skerpioene en die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gegee het, is Duitsland. Maar in Duitsland, noem hulle die plek Deutschland. Die Spaanse noem Duitsland Alemania, noem die Pole dit Niemcy en die Thaise noem dit. Elkeen van hierdie ander lande het ook 'n naam binne sy eie grense - 'n endoniem - dit is anders as wat ons dit in die VSA noem en van wat ander lande dit noem - an eksoniem. Waarom al die verskillende name as ons oor dieselfde plekke praat?

Ondanks die feit dat ons hulle spesiale behandeling in Engels gee en dit met groot letters gebruik - wat nie alle tale doen nie - is plekname nie so spesiaal nie. Sonder een wêreldwye taal gaan sprekers van 'n gegewe taal hul eie woord vir 'n sekere deel van die wêreld hê. These names are just words, and like any other words, they’ve got histories and baggage and are subject to the vagaries of linguistic evolution and even sometimes the mean-spiritedness of the people who use them.

Some place names simply come from the people who inhabit the land. Germany, for example, was Germany to some folks long before the country united and called itself Deutschland. Germany’s central position in western Europe means that it has historically shared borders with many different groups, and many languages use the name of the first Germanic tribe its speakers came in contact with as a name for the whole region. The Romans named a chunk of land east of the Rhine River and north of the Danube River Germania after the first Germanic tribe they heard about from the nearby Gauls. The root of the name is from the Gauls, who called the tribe across the river the Germani, which might have meant “neighbor” or maybe “men of the forest.” English borrowed the name in turn and anglicized the ending to get Germany.

Meanwhile, the Alemanni, a southern Germanic tribe that lived around modern-day Switzerland and Alsace prompted the French and Spanish to name the land Allemagne en Alemanía, onderskeidelik. Similarly, the Turkish name for Greece, Yunanistan, derives from the Ionians, the Greek tribe that established settlements in Asia Minor and had early contact with the Turks.

Global "Telephone"

For other place names, you can blame the global game of cultural “telephone” that we’ve been playing for thousands of years. As explorers traipsed around the globe and discovered new places, they often had no idea what to call them, so they asked the locals. The names got passed along on trade routes or through diplomacy, spoken and heard by people who didn’t share the same language. Somewhere along the way, a name got garbled or misunderstood or even purposefully changed to accommodate the sounds of one language or another.

That's how Nipon became Japan. When Marco Polo was in China, he learned about an island that was called Cipangu in one of the Chinese dialects. He took the name home to Italy, where it got corrupted into Giappone. Portuguese traders in Asia learned of the same island from the Malay, who called it Japang of Jepang. They brought the word back to Europe and turned it into Japao. Eventually, one or both of these made their way into English as Japan.

Still other place names are a matter of perception. Almost every country that speaks a Slavic language derives its name for Germany from the Slavic nemtsi of nemetes. Etymologists think this comes from the word nemy, or “mute,” and that the ancient Slavs called the neighboring Germanic tribes mutes because they couldn’t understand their language. Macedonia, which can refer to the former Yugoslavian republic or a number of other things, is derived from the ancient Greek Makedones, which the southern Greeks used to refer to the northern part of the region. Rooted in makednos (“long, tall”), it refers either to the area’s mountains or the tallness of its inhabitants.

These are just some of the more common methods by which exonyms are born. Exploring the origins of every place name would keep us here all day, so if there are specific ones you want to learn about, the Online Etymology Dictionary is a good place to start for a quick and simple explanation.


Inhoud

At the British Museum, it was Sir Frederic Madden, Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, who persuaded the trustees to purchase for 80 guineas (£84) the eighty-two pieces which he had been misled into believing was the entire hoard. Madden was a palaeographer, a scholar of early vernacular literature, but he was especially intrigued by these artifacts because he was a chess enthusiast. [6] [7] Madden immediately set about writing a monumental research paper about the collection, titled "Historical remarks on the introduction of the game of chess into Europe and on the ancient chessmen discovered in the Isle of Lewis", published in Archaeologia XXIV (1832), one that remains informative and impressive today. [8]

The British Museum claims the chessmen were probably made in Trondheim, the medieval capital of Norway, in the 12th century, [9] although some scholars have suggested other Nordic countries. [10] During that period, the Outer Hebrides, along with other major groups of Scottish islands, were ruled by Norway. [9]

According to Alex Woolf, director of the University of St Andrews Institute for Medieval Studies, there are reasons for believing the pieces came from Trondheim:

  • A broken queen piece in a similar style was found in an excavation of the archbishop's palace – it appeared the piece was broken as it was being made.
  • The presence of wealthy people in Trondheim able to pay craftsmen for high-quality chess pieces.
  • Similar carving in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim.
  • The excavation in Trondheim of a kite-shaped shield similar to shields on some of the pieces and a king piece of similar design found on Hitra Island, near the mouth of Trondheim Fjord. Woolf has said that the armour worn by the chess figures includes "perfect" reproductions of armour worn at the time in Norway. [11]

Icelanders Gudmundur Thorarinsson and Einar Einarsson have proposed that the chessmen originated in Iceland, since only in Iceland were the bishops called that at that time, while in other countries they used a name unassociated with the church, [12] they claimed. However, this was disputed by Woolf, who stated that the use of bishops originated in England, [11] and by Norwegian chess historian and member of Chess History & Literature Society, Morten Lilleøren. [13] The text that the Icelanders refer to [14] dates to the early 14th century, while two 13th-century Latin texts from other countries call the chess piece bishop, [15] [16] and the Lewis chessmen probably date to the 12th century. Moreover, there are many medieval chess bishops of various origins in different museums in Europe and USA. [17] [18] [19] A bishop that probably predates the Lewis chessmen was in the collection of Jean-Joseph Marquet de Vasselot and was sold at Christie's in Paris in 2011 with a radiocarbon dating report stating that there is a 95% probability that the ivory dates between AD 790 and AD 990. [20] It is thought to be English or German and carved in the 12th century. Stylistically it predates the Lewis chessmen, as its mitre is worn sideways. [21] [22] According to the lot essay with references, the presence of the bishop among the chess pieces was a twelfth-century European invention. The bishop's inclusion reflects his status in the social system of the period, especially in Scandinavia and in England where clerics played significant roles in battlefield conflicts.

The Icelanders further claim that the pieces were carved by an artist known as Margret the Adroit. [23] [24] [25]

Some historians believe that the Lewis chessmen were hidden (or lost) after some mishap occurred during their carriage from Norway to wealthy Norse towns on the east coast of Ireland, such as Dublin. The large number of pieces and their lack of wear may suggest that they were the stock of a trader or dealer. [9] Along with the chess pieces, there were 14 plain round tablemen for the game of tables and one belt buckle, all made of ivory, making a total of 93 artifacts. [26]

Almost all of the pieces in the collection are carved from walrus ivory, with a few made instead from whale teeth. The 79 [27] chess pieces consist of eight kings, eight queens, 16 bishops, 15 knights, 13 rooks (after the 2019 discovery) and 19 pawns. The heights of the pawns range from 3.5 to 5.8 cm, while the other pieces are between 7 and 10.2 cm. Although there are 19 pawns (a complete set requires 16), they have the greatest range of sizes of all the pieces, which has suggested that the 79 chess pieces might belong to at least five sets. [28] All the pieces are sculptures of human figures, with the exception of the pawns, which are smaller, geometric shapes. The knights are mounted on rather diminutive horses and are shown holding spears and shields. The rooks are standing soldiers or "warders" holding shields and swords four of the rooks are shown as wild-eyed berserkers biting their shields with battle fury. [29] Some pieces bore traces of red stain when found, possibly indicating that red and white were used to distinguish the two sides, rather than the black and white used in modern chess. [11]

Scholars have observed that to the modern eye the figural pieces, with their bulging eyes and glum expressions, have a distinct comical character. [30] [31] This is especially true of the single rook with a worried, sideways glance and the berserkers biting their shields, which have been called "irresistibly comic to a modern audience." [32] It is believed, however, that the comic or sad expressions were not intended or perceived as such by the makers, who instead saw strength, ferocity or, in the case of the queens who hold their heads with a hand and seemingly pensive expression, "contemplation, repose and possibly wisdom." [30]

The chessmen were discovered in early 1831 in a sand bank at the head of Camas Uig on the west coast of the Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. There are various local stories concerning their arrival and modern discovery on Lewis.

Malcolm "Sprot" MacLeod (Scottish Gaelic: Calum an Sprot) from the nearby township of Pennydonald discovered the trove in a small stone kist in a dune, exhibited them briefly in his byre and sold them on to Captain Roderick Ryrie. [33] One reported detail, that it was a cow that actually unearthed the stash, is generally discounted in Uig as fabrication. After the Isle of Lewis was purchased by Sir James Matheson in 1844, Malcolm Macleod and his family were evicted during the Highland Clearances which transformed the area into sheep farms.

When the chessmen were uncovered in 1831, one knight and four warders were missing from the four sets. [34] In June 2019 a warder piece, which had previously gone unrecognised for at least 55 years, emerged in Edinburgh, [34] and was purchased at a Sotheby's auction for £735,000 the following month, by an undisclosed buyer. [35]

They were exhibited by Ryrie at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, on 11 April 1831. The chessmen were soon after split up, with 10 being purchased by Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe and the others (67 chessmen and 14 tablemen) purchased on behalf of the British Museum in London.

Kirkpatrick Sharpe later found another bishop to take his collection up to eleven, all of which were later sold to Lord Londesborough. In 1888, they were again sold, but this time the purchaser was the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, who donated the pieces to the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh. The eleven are now on display in the National Museum of Scotland.

Of the pieces given to the British Museum, most can be found in Room 40, with the registration numbers M&ME 1831, 11–1.78–159. Others have been lent to Scottish museums and temporary exhibitions. [9] A range of wooden or plastic replicas are popular items in the Museum shops.

The chessmen were number 5 in the list of British archaeological finds selected by experts at the British Museum for the 2003 BBC Television documentary Our Top Ten Treasures, presented by Adam Hart-Davis. They were featured in the 2010 BBC Radio 4 series A History of the World in 100 Objects as number 61, in the "Status Symbols" section.

An exhibition entitled "The Lewis Chessmen: Unmasked" included chess pieces from both the National Museum of Scotland and British Museum collections, along with other relevant objects, touring Scotland in 2010–2011. The exhibition opened in Edinburgh on 21 May 2010 and proceeded to Aberdeen, Shetland, and the Museum nan Eilean in Stornoway, opening there on 15 April 2011. [36]

An exhibition entitled "The Game of Kings: Medieval Ivory Chessmen from the Isle of Lewis" at The Cloisters in New York City included 34 of the chess pieces, all on loan from the British Museum. The exhibit ended on 22 April 2012. [37]

On 3 April 2013, £1.8 million from the European Regional Development Fund was granted to transform Lews Castle, on the Isle of Lewis, into a Museum for the Western Isles. Around £14 million in total is to be spent on restoring and converting the property, which has been shut for almost twenty-five years. When completed the permanent displays will include six of the Lewis Chessmen. [38]

In 2007–08 a dispute arose as to where the main resting place of the pieces should be. This arose [39] in late in 2007 with calls from Scottish National Party (SNP) politicians in the Western Isles (notably Councillor Annie Macdonald, MSP Alasdair Allan and MP Angus MacNeil) for the return of the pieces to the place they were found. Linda Fabiani, Scottish Minister for Europe, External Affairs and Culture, stated that "it is unacceptable that only 11 Lewis Chessmen rest at the National Museum of Scotland while the other 67 (as well as the 14 tablemen) remain in the British Museum in London."

Richard Oram, Professor of Medieval and Environmental History at the University of Stirling, agreed, arguing that there was no reason for there to be more than "a sample" of the collection in London. These views were dismissed by Margaret Hodge, the then UK Minister of State in the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, writing "It's a lot of nonsense, isn't it?", noting the law protects purchases and drawing comparisons to major artworks in Europe housed in major cities, with replicas available often where tourism is sufficient, in situ. [33] The historical society in Uig, Comann Eachdraidh Uig, which operates its museum near the find site features detailed information about the chessmen and Norse occupation in Lewis. It has published that it cannot claim to own the pieces and would allow the normal museums' market to determine if more originals rest in Edinburgh. It welcomes short-term loans. [40]

In October 2009, 24 of the pieces from London and six from Edinburgh began a 16-month tour of Scotland partly funded by the Scottish Government, whose Mike Russell, Minister for Culture and External Affairs, stated that the Government and the British Museum had "agreed to disagree" on their eventual fate. Bonnie Greer, the museum's deputy chairman, said that she "absolutely" believed the main collection should remain in London. [41]


What did ancient countries call themselves? - Geskiedenis

The Edomite Territory

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Map of the Territory of the Edomites

The Edomites were the descendants of Esau (Gen 25:25 36:1) and lived in strong mountain fortresses. They became prosperous through agriculture, cattle, and the tribute they levied on passing caravans.

After the Babylonian captivity the Edomites were driven north by the Nabataeans to the areas around southern Judah and Hebron, which was called Idumea in the Greco-Roman period. The whole area was conquered by John Hyrcanus. Antipater and his son Herod the great were Idumeans. In rabbinical literature Edom was a pseudonym for Rome.

Genesis 36:43 - Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these [be] the dukes of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession: he [is] Esau the father of the Edomites.

The Edomites in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

Edom
2. Character and Features:
The land thus indicated varies greatly in character and features. South of the Dead Sea in the bottom of the valley we have first the stretch of salt marsh land called es-Sebkha then, beyond the line of white cliffs that crosses the valley diagonally from Northwest to Southeast, a broad depression strewn with stones and sandhills, the debris of an old sea bottom, rises gradually, and 60 miles to the South reaches a height of about 700 ft. above the level of the Red Sea, 2,000 ft. above that of the Dead Sea. From this point it sinks until it reaches the shore of the Gulf of `Aqaba, 45 miles farther South. The whole depression is known today as Wady el-`Arabah (compare Hebrew ha-`arabhah, Dt 2:8 the Revised Version (British and American), etc.). On either side the mountains rise steeply from the valley, their edges carved into many fantastic shapes by the deep wadys that break down from the interior (see ARABAH). The northern part of the plateau on the West forms the spacious grazing ground of the `Azdzimeh Arabs. The mountains rise to a height of from about 1,500 ft. to a little over 2,000 ft. This district was traversed by the ancient caravan road to South Palestine and along the eastern side traces of the former civilization are still to be seen. The desert region to the South is higher, reaching to as much as 2,600 ft. The mountain range East of the `Arabah is generally higher in the South than in the North. Jebel Harun beside Petra, is 4,780 ft. above sea-level while East of `Aqaba, Jebel el-Chisma may be as much as 5,900 ft. in height. Limestone, porphyry and Nubian sandstone are the prevailing formation but volcanic rocks are also found. The range consists mainly of rough rocky heights with many almost inaccessible peaks separated by deep gorges. But there are also breadths of fertile land where wheat, grapes, figs, pomegranates and olives are grown to advantage. The northern district is known today by the name el-Jebal, corresponding to the ancient Gebal. Seir is the name applied to the eastern range in Gen 36:8 Dt 2:1,5 2 Ch 20:23. It is also called Edom, and the Mount of Esau (Ob 1:8 f). Seir, however, is used for the western highlands in Dt 33:2. This seems to be its meaning also in Jdg 5:4, where it appears as the equivalent of "the field of Edom." With this same phrase, however, in Gen 32:3 it may more fitly apply to the eastern range.

5. Idumaea and the Idumeans:
West of the `Arabah the country they occupied came to be known by the Greek name Idumaea, and the people as Idumeans. Hebron, their chief city, was taken by Judas Maccabeus in 165 BC (1 Macc 4:29,61 5:65). In 126 BC the country was subdued by John Hyrcanus, who compelled the people to become Jews and to submit to circumcision. Antipater, governor of Idumaea, was made procurator of Judea, Samaria and Galilee by Julius Caesar. He paved the way to the throne for his son Herod the Great. With the fall of Judah under the Romans, Idumaea disappears from history.
The names of several Edomite deities are known: Hadad, Qaus, Koze, and, possibly, Edom but of the religion of Edom we are without information. The language differed little from Hebrew. Full Article

The Edomites from Smith's Bible Dictionary

Edom, Idumaea or Idumea
(red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom," Ge 32:3 and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838). 2Ki 14:7 Elath and Ezion-geber were the seaports. 2Sa 8:14 1Ki 9:26 History. --Esau's bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land. Nu 20:18-21 For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul, 1Sa 14:47 and some forty years later by David. 2Sa 8:13,14 In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed. 2Ch 20:22 They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets. Isa 34:5-8 63:1-4 Jer 49:17 After this they settled in southern Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters. 2Ch 25:14,15,20 Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata. Full Article

The Bible Mentions "Edomites" in many places:

2 Chronicles 25:19 - Thou sayest, Lo, thou hast smitten the Edomites and thine heart lifteth thee up to boast: abide now at home why shouldest thou meddle to [thine] hurt, that thou shouldest fall, [even] thou, and Judah with thee?

1 Kings 11:1 - But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, [and] Hittites

2 Kings 8:21 - So Joram went over to Zair, and all the chariots with him: and he rose by night, and smote the Edomites which compassed him about, and the captains of the chariots: and the people fled into their tents.

Genesis 36:43 - Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these [be] the dukes of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession: he [is] Esau the father of the Edomites.

2 Chronicles 25:14 - Now it came to pass, after that Amaziah was come from the slaughter of the Edomites, that he brought the gods of the children of Seir, and set them up [to be] his gods, and bowed down himself before them, and burned incense unto them.

2 Chronicles 21:10 - So the Edomites revolted from under the hand of Judah unto this day. The same time [also] did Libnah revolt from under his hand because he had forsaken the LORD God of his fathers.

2 Chronicles 21:9 - Then Jehoram went forth with his princes, and all his chariots with him: and he rose up by night, and smote the Edomites which compassed him in, and the captains of the chariots.

1 Kings 11:17 - That Hadad fled, he and certain Edomites of his father's servants with him, to go into Egypt Hadad [being] yet a little child.

1 Chronicles 18:13 - And he put garrisons in Edom and all the Edomites became David's servants. Thus the LORD preserved David whithersoever he went.

1 Chronicles 18:12 - Moreover Abishai the son of Zeruiah slew of the Edomites in the valley of salt eighteen thousand.

2 Chronicles 21:8 - In his days the Edomites revolted from under the dominion of Judah, and made themselves a king.

Genesis 36:9 - And these [are] the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in mount Seir:

2 Chronicles 28:17 - For again the Edomites had come and smitten Judah, and carried away captives.


Inhoud

Archaeologists, who study objects left by ancient people, have found that people have lived along the Nile for a very long time. The fertile flood plains of the Nile allowed people to begin farming. By the 10th millennium BC, the people in Egypt had begun growing cereal grains like wheat and barley. Because they were farming, they stayed in one place, and because they were settled, their society became more complex. This was an important step in the history of human civilization. [2]

This period in Egyptian history is called predynastic, as it happened before the large dynastic kingdoms were formed. By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures. Each had begun farming crops and animals. Each had their own types of pottery and personal items, such as combs, bracelets, and beads. In Upper Egypt, the south part of the country, the Badarian was one of the earliest cultures. It is known for its high quality pottery, stone tools, and its use of copper. [3] They were followed by the Amratian and Gerzian cultures. [4]

The different periods of ancient Egyptian history are:

  • Predynastic Period (5500 – 3000 BC)
  • Early Dynastic Period (1st & 2nd Dynasties, 3000 – 2700 BC)
  • Old Kingdom (3rd to 6th Dynasties, 2700 – 2180 BC)
  • First Intermediate Period (7th to 11th Dynasties, 2180 – 2050 BC)
  • Middelryk (11th to 14th Dynasties, 2080 – 1640 BC)
  • Tweede intermediêre periode (15th to 17th Dynasties, 1640 – 1560 BC the Hyksos)
  • New Kingdom (18th to 20th Dynasties, 1560 – 1070 BC)
  • Third Intermediate Period (21st to 25th Dynasties, 1070 – 664 BC)
  • Late Period (26th to 31st Dynasties, 664 – 323 BC the Persians)
  • Graeco-Roman Egypt (323 – 30 BC Ptolemaic to Roman)

The Intermediate periods included times when the traditional system broke down, the country was split, or invaded by foreign rulers. Egypt's culture and climate was relatively stable, compared to other parts of the Middle East. Nevertheless, they had some periods when their government was challenged and sometimes overthrown.

3200 BC. Original in Egyptian Museum, Cairo.

Ancient Egypt was split up into many different districts called sepats. The first divisions were created during the Predynastic Period, but then, they were small city-states that ruled themselves. When the first pharaoh came to power, the sepats remained and were much like the counties in many countries today. They stayed basically the same for a long time – there were 42 of them, and each was ruled by a governor chosen by the pharaoh. In later years the districts were called nomes and the governor was called a nomarch.

Ancient Egypt had a lot of different taxes, but there was no real money, so people paid each other with goods or work. The person who watched the tax collection was a scribe, and every tax collector in Egypt had to tell him every day how many taxes they had collected. Each person paid different taxes based on the work that they did: craftsmen paid in goods, hunters and fishermen paid with food, and every single household in the country had to pay a labour tax every year by helping with work for the country like mining or for canals. A lot of rich Egyptians paid poorer people to do this for them.