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8 Bekende seerowers uit die 'goue era van seerowery'

8 Bekende seerowers uit die 'goue era van seerowery'

Die tydperk in Amerika van 1689 tot 1718 word algemeen beskou as die 'Goue era van seerowery'. Namate die skeepvaart oor die Atlantiese Oseaan en in die Karibiese Eilande toegeneem het, kon suksesvolle seerowers, van wie baie hul loopbane as privaatpersoneel begin het, op handelsvaartuie prooi om 'n bestaan ​​te maak.

Namate hul fortuin floreer en hul aptyt vir skatte toeneem, was plunderingstekens spoedig nie meer eksklusief vir klein handelskepe nie. Seerowers het groot konvooie aangeval, hulle kon teen groot vlootskepe afveg en 'n algemene mag geword om mee rekening te hou.

Hieronder is 'n lys van enkele van die berugste en berugste van hierdie seerowers wat vandag nog steeds die verbeelding van die publiek vang.

1. Edward Teach (“Blackbeard”)

Edward Teach, oftewel "Blackbeard". Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Edward Teach (ook bekend as "Thatch") is gebore in die Engelse hawestad Bristol omstreeks 1680. Alhoewel dit onduidelik is wanneer Teach presies in die Karibiese Eilande aangekom het, is dit waarskynlik dat hy as 'n matroos op privaat skepe vertrek het tydens die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog by die draai van die 18de eeu.

Aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu het baie privaat skepe 'n lisensie van die Britse monargie ontvang, onder leiding van die oorlog, wat die plundering van vaartuie van 'n mededingende nasie moontlik maak.

Teach het moontlik 'n privaat persoon gebly tydens die oorlog, maar dit was nie voordat die matroos hom op die sloep van die seerower Benjamin Hornigold bevind het nie, wat ook aanvalle op Jamaika geloods het. Die belangrikste verskil was dat Teach sy ou werkgewers, die Britte, gesteel en vermoor het.

Rebecca Simon sluit aan by Dan op die podcast om te praat oor die Goue Eeu van Piraterij in die Brits-Atlantiese wêreld.

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Teach het duidelik naam gemaak. Sy meedoënlose aard en ongeëwenaarde moed het daartoe gelei dat hy vinnig in die geledere gestyg het totdat hy gelyk was aan die bekendheidsvlak van Hornigold. Terwyl sy mentor 'n aanbod van amnestie van die Britse regering aanvaar het, het Blackbeard in die Karibiese Eilande gebly en kaptein was van 'n skip wat hy gevang en herdoop het Queen Anne's Revenge.

Blackbeard het die berugste en gevreesde seerower van die Karibiese Eilande geword. Volgens die legendes was hy 'n reuse -man met 'n donker skemer baard wat die helfte van sy gesig bedek het, met 'n groot rooi jas om hom nog groter te laat lyk. Hy het twee swaarde om sy middel gedra en bandoleers vol pistole en messe oor sy bors.

Sommige berigte sê selfs dat hy tydens 'n geveg stukkies buskruit in sy lang hare gesteek het om hom nog meer skrikwekkend te laat lyk.

Ons sal waarskynlik nooit presies weet hoe hy gelyk het nie, maar daar is geen twyfel dat hy suksesvol was nie, aangesien onlangse navorsing ontdek het dat hy meer as 45 vaartuie gevang het, ondanks sy relatiewe kort loopbaan as seerower.

Blackbeard se laaste stand. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Op 22 November 1718, met 'n enorme oorvloed op sy kop, is Blackbeard uiteindelik dood in 'n swaardgeveg met Royal Marines op die dek van sy skip. As 'n kragtige simbool vir almal wat dit in sy voetspore wou volg, is Blackbeard se afgesnyde kop na die goewerneur van Virginia teruggebring.

2. Benjamin Hornigold

Kaptein Benjamin Hornigold (gebore 1680), miskien die bekendste vir die mentorskap van Edward Teach, was 'n berugte seerowerkaptein wat gedurende die vroeë 18de eeu in die Bahamas opereer het. As een van die invloedrykste seerowers op die eiland New Providence, het hy beheer oor Fort Nassau gehad en die baai en die ingang van die hawe beskerm.

Hy was een van die stigterslede van die Konsortium, die los koalisie van seerowers en handelaars wat die semi-onafhanklike Pirates Republic in die Bahamas wou behou.

Die Pirate Republic of Nassau. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Toe hy 33 jaar oud was, het Hornigold sy seerowerloopbaan in 1713 begin deur handelskepe in die Bahamas aan te val. Teen die jaar 1717 was Hornigold die kaptein van die Ranger, een van die swaarste gewapende skepe in die streek. Dit was in daardie tyd toe hy Edward Teach as sy tweede in bevel aangestel het.

Hornigold is deur ander beskryf as 'n vriendelike en bekwame kaptein wat gevangenes beter behandel het as ander seerowers. As oud-privaat sou Hornigold uiteindelik die besluit neem om sy voormalige metgeselle sy rug te keer.

In Desember 1718 aanvaar hy 'n King's Pardon vir sy misdade en word 'n seerowerjagter, wat sy voormalige bondgenote namens die goewerneur van die Bahamas, Woodes Rogers, agtervolg.

3. Charles Vane

Charles Vane. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Soos met baie van die beroemde seerowers op hierdie lys, word geglo dat Charles Vane in 1680 in Engeland gebore is. Vane se onverskrokke aard en indrukwekkende gevegsvaardighede, wat beskryf word as 'n onseker en grillige seerowerkaptein, het van hom 'n ongelooflike suksesvolle seerower gemaak, maar sy wisselvallige verhouding met sy seerowerbemanning sou uiteindelik tot sy afsterwe lei.

Net soos Blackbeard, het Vane sy loopbaan as privaatman begin op 'n skip van Lord Archibald Hamilton tydens die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog. Hy was betrokke by Henry Jennings en Benjamin Hornigold tydens 'n beroemde aanval op die bergingskamp vir die vernielde Spaanse skatvloot uit 1715. Hier het hy 'n buit bymekaargemaak ter waarde van 87 000 pond goud en silwer.

Vane het in 1717 besluit om 'n onafhanklike seerower te word, wat in Nassau werk. Sy merkwaardige navigasievaardighede, behendigheid en vegvaardigheid het hom tot 'n vlak van ongeëwenaarde bekendheid in die Karibiese Eilande gedryf.

Toe die pirate die boodskap bereik dat koning George I van Groot -Brittanje 'n aanbod van vergifnis aan alle seerowers wat wou oorgee, gerig het, het Vane die seerowers gelei wat gekant was teen die kwytskelding. Hy is in Nassau deur die Britse vlootmagte gevange geneem, maar op advies van die voormalige privaat Benjamin Hornigold is Vane vrygelaat as 'n teken van goeie trou.

Jamie L.H. Goodall het saam met Dan op die pod gekom om seerowers van die Chesapeakebaai te bespreek.

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Dit was nie lank nie, voordat Vane weer tot seerowery oorgegaan het. Hy en sy bemanning, wat die beroemde seerower Jack Rackham ingesluit het, het in die Karibiese Eilande weer verwoesting aangerig en talle vaartuie in Jamaika gevang.

Probleme het vir Vane begin toe die goewerneur Woodes Rogers in Nassau aankom waar hy as goewerneur aangestel is. Rogers het Vane en sy klein vloot in die hawe vasgekeer en Vane gedwing om sy groot vaartuig in 'n vuurskip te verander en dit na Rogers se blokkade te lei. Dit het gewerk, en Vane het daarin geslaag om op 'n klein skoenertjie te ontsnap.

Ondanks die feit dat hy vir die tweede keer gevangenskap vermy het, sou Vane se geluk binnekort opraak. Nadat sy bemanning 'n vaartuig aangeval het wat 'n kragtige Franse oorlogskip was, besluit Vane om te vlug vir veiligheid. Sy kwartiermeester, "Calico Jack" Rackham, het hom daarvan beskuldig dat hy 'n lafaard was voor die bemanning van Vane en het die beheer van Vane se skip oorgeneem en Vane agtergelaat in 'n klein, gevange sloep met net 'n paar van sy getroue seerowerbemanning.

Govenor Woodes Rogers. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Nadat hy skipbreuk gely het op 'n afgeleë eiland na die heropbou van 'n klein vloot en daarna erken is deur 'n Britse vlootbeampte wat tot sy redding gekom het, is Vane uiteindelik verhoor in 'n hof waar hy skuldig bevind is aan seerowery, en daarna in November 1720 opgehang.

4. Jack Rackham (“Calico Jack”)

Jack Rackham, of “Calico Jack”. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

John "Jack" Rackham, meer algemeen bekend as Calico Jack, gebore in 1682, was 'n gebore Britse seerower wat in die vroeë 18de eeu in Wes-Indië gewerk het. Alhoewel hy in sy kort loopbaan nie daarin geslaag het om ongelooflike rykdom of respek te versamel nie, het sy omgang met ander seerowers, waaronder twee vroulike bemanningslede, hom tot een van die bekendste seerowers van alle tye gemaak.

Rackham is miskien die bekendste vir sy verhouding met die vroulike seerower Anne Bonny (wat ons later sal ontmoet). Rackham het 'n verhouding begin met Anne, wat destyds die vrou was van 'n matroos wat in diens was van goewerneur Rogers. Anne se man James het van die verhouding te wete gekom en Anne na goewerneur Rogers gebring, wat haar beveel het dat hy op egbreuk gepleeg word.

Toe Rackham se aanbod om Anne in 'n 'egskeiding te koop' streng koop geweier word, het die paar uit Nassau gevlug. Hulle ontsnap saam na die see en vaar twee maande lank oor die Karibiese Eilande en neem ander seerowerskepe oor. Anne het gou swanger geword en is na Kuba om die kind te kry.

Graham Faiella gesels met Dan oor legendes en ware verhale uit die Age of Sail. Kannibalisme, seerowers en muitery.

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In September 1720 het die goewerneur van die Bahamas, Woodes Rogers, 'n proklamasie uitgereik waarin verklaar word dat Rackham en sy bemanning seerowers soek. Nadat die lasbrief gepubliseer is, het die seerower en bounty -jagter Jonathan Barnet en Jean Bonadvis begin jaag na Rackham.

In Oktober 1720 val Barnet se sloep Rackham se skip aan en vang dit na 'n geveg vermoedelik onder leiding van Mary Read en Anne Bonny. Rackham en sy bemanning is in November 1720 na Spanish Town, Jamaika, gebring, waar hulle verhoor en skuldig bevind is aan seerowery en gevonnis is om opgehang te word.

Rackham is op 18 November 1720 in Port Royal tereggestel, en sy lyk is op 'n baie klein eilandjie by 'n hoofingang van Port Royal, nou bekend as Rackham's Cay, vertoon.

5. Anne Bonny

Anne Bonnie. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Gebore in County Cork in 1697, het die vroulike buccaneer Anne Bonny 'n ikoon geword van die Golden Age of Piracy. In 'n era waarin vroue min regte gehad het, moes Bonny enorme moed toon om 'n gelyke bemanningslid en gerespekteerde seerower te word.

Bonnie, die buite -egtelike dogter van haar pa en 'n bediende, is as 'n jong kind na die nuwe wêreld geneem nadat haar pa se ontrouheid in Ierland bekend gemaak is. Daar is sy op 'n plantasie grootgemaak tot op die ouderdom van 16, toe sy verlief geraak het op 'n privaat genaamd James Bonny.

Nadat sy met James getrou het, tot groot afkeuring van haar vader, vestig Bonny haar in die seerower -skuilplek van New Providence. Die uitgebreide netwerk wat sy met talle seerowers opgebou het, het haar huwelik binnekort in die gedrang gebring, aangesien James Bonny 'n seerower -informant geword het. Haar gevoelens teenoor die berugte seerower Jack Rackham het ook niks gehelp nie, en die twee het saam in 1719 weggehardloop.

Aan boord van Rackham se vaartuig Wraak, Het Bonny 'n intieme persoonlike verhouding ontwikkel met Mary Read, 'n ander seerower wat haar as 'n man vermom het. Volgens die legende het Bonny verlief geraak op Read only om bitter teleurgesteld te wees toe sy haar ware geslag onthul het. Daar word ook geglo dat Rackham uiters jaloers geraak het op die intimiteit van die twee.

Die twee seerowers, Anne Bonny en Mary Read. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Nadat sy swanger geraak het met Rackham se kind en dit in Kuba afgelewer het, keer Bonny terug na haar geliefde. In Oktober 1720, Wraak is aangeval deur 'n Royal Navy -skip terwyl die meeste van Rackham se bemanning dronk was. Bonny en Read was die enigste bemanning wat hulle teëgestaan ​​het.

Die bemanning van Revenge is na Port Royal geneem om verhoor te word. Tydens die verhoor is die ware geslag van die vroulike gevangenes onthul. Anne en Mary het dit egter reggekry om teregstelling te vermy deur voor te gee dat hulle swanger was. Read sou in die tronk aan koors sterf, terwyl die lot van Bonny tot op hede nog onbekend is. Ons weet net dat sy nooit tereggestel is nie.

6. Mary Read

Mary Read. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Die tweede van die beroemde en legendariese vroulike seerower -duo was Mary Read. Read, gebore in Devon in 1685, is grootgemaak as 'n seuntjie, en het voorgegee dat sy haar ouer broer is. Van kleins af besef sy dat om haar as 'n man te vermom, die enigste manier is waarop sy werk kan kry en haarself kan onderhou.

Read het in verskillende rolle en vir verskillende instansies gewerk, en word dikwels baie vinnig verveeld. Uiteindelik het sy as 'n ouer tiener by die weermag aangesluit, waar sy haar toekomstige man ontmoet het. Nadat hulle haar geslag aan hom bekend gemaak het, hardloop die twee saam en trou in Nederland.

Deur haar hele lewe lank deur ongeluk belas, het Read se man kort na die huwelik siek geword en is hy dood. In 'n toestand van wanhoop wou Read van alles ontsnap en het weer by die weermag aangesluit. Hierdie keer het sy aan boord gegaan van 'n Nederlandse skip wat na die Karibiese Eilande gevaar het. Byna by die bereiking van sy bestemming, is Mary se skip aangeval en gevange geneem deur die seerower, Calico Rackham Jack, wat alle Engelse gevange matrose as deel van sy bemanning geneem het.

Eerste episode van 'n dubbelrekening oor Queen Elizabeth's Pirates.

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Onwillekeurig het sy 'n seerower geword, maar dit was nie lank nie of Read het begin om die seerower -leefstyl te geniet. Toe sy die kans kry om die skip van Rackham te verlaat, besluit Mary om te bly. Dit was op die skip van Rackham dat Mary Anne Bonny (wat ook as 'n man aangetrek was) ontmoet het, en die twee het 'n hegte en intieme verhouding gevorm.

Na maande se seevaart aan boord van Revenge saam met Anne, sou hulle uiteindelik gevange geneem en tereggestel word, net om tereggestel te word deur 'die maag te pleit'. Alhoewel die lot van Anne nog nooit ontdek is nie, sterf Mary in die tronk nadat sy 'n geweldige koors opgedoen het. Sy is op 28 April 1721 in Jamaika begrawe.

7. William Kidd (“Captain Kidd”)

William Kidd, of "Captain Kidd". Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

William Kidd, of "Captain Kidd", soos hy gereeld onthou word, was net voor die aanbreek van die Goue Eeu een van die bekendste privaat en seerowers van die laat 17de eeu.

Soos soveel seerowers voor en na hom, het Kidd oorspronklik sy loopbaan as privaatman begin, in opdrag van die Britte tydens die negejarige oorlog om sy handelsroetes tussen Amerika en Wes -Indië te verdedig. Hy was later werksaam op 'n seerowerjagekspedisie in die Indiese Oseaan.

Soos die geval was met baie ander seerowerjagters, was die versoekings van plundering en buit te groot om te ignoreer. Die bemanning van Kidd het meermale met muitery gedreig as hy hom nie tot seerowery verbind het nie, wat hy in 1698 toegegee het.

Kidd se relatief kort loopbaan as seerower was baie suksesvol. Kidd en sy bemanning het 'n aantal skepe gevang, waaronder 'n vaartuig genaamd die Queda wat hulle gevind het aan boord van 'n vrag ter waarde van 70,000 pond - een van die grootste sleepwaens in die geskiedenis van seerowery.

Ongelukkig vir Kidd was dit nou twee jaar sedert hy met sy oorspronklike reis begin het, en hoewel sy houding teenoor seerowery klaarblyklik versag het, het die houding in Engeland baie strenger geword. Piratery sou uit die weg geruim word en word nou as 'n kriminele daad verklaar.

Wat gevolg het, was een van die berugste seerowerjagte in die geskiedenis. Kidd het uiteindelik in April 1699 in die Wes -Indiese Eilande aangekom net om te sien dat die Amerikaanse kolonies deur seerowerkoors gryp. Op en af ​​langs die kus was almal op soek na seerowers, en sy naam was boaan die lys.

Kaptein Kidd in die hawe van New York. Beeldkrediet: Publieke domein

Die jag op kaptein Kidd was die eerste wat regstreeks in koerante regoor die Atlantiese wêreld gedokumenteer is. Die Skotse seerower het daarin geslaag om 'n kwytskelding van die Engelse owerhede te onderhandel vir sy dade, maar hy het geweet sy tyd is verby. Kidd vaar na Boston en stop langs die pad om buit op Gardiners Island en Block Island te begrawe.

Die goewerneur van New England, lord Richard Bellomont, self 'n belegger in die reis van Kidd, het hom op 7 Julie 1699 in Boston laat arresteer. Hy is in Februarie 1700 aan boord van die fregat Advice na Engeland gestuur.

Kaptein William Kidd is opgehang op 23 Mei 1701. Die eerste tou wat om hierdie nek gesit is, het gebreek, sodat hy 'n tweede keer gespan moes word. Sy lyk is in 'n gibbet by die monding van die Teemsrivier geplaas en laat vrot, as 'n voorbeeld vir ander toekomstige seerowers.

8. Bartholomew Roberts (“Black Bart”)

Bartholomew Roberts, of 'Black Bart' Beeldkrediet: Public Domain

Drie eeue gelede het 'n Walliese seeman (gebore in 1682 in Pembrokeshire) hom tot seerowery gewend. Hy wou nooit eers 'n seerower word nie, maar binne 'n jaar was hy die suksesvolste van sy era. Tydens sy kort, maar skouspelagtige loopbaan het hy meer as 200 skepe verower - meer as al sy seerower -tydgenote saam.

Tans word seerowers soos Blackbeard beter onthou as hierdie jong Wallieser, want óf hul bekendheid óf hul wilde voorkoms het die openbare verbeelding aangegryp. Tog was Bartholomew Roberts, of 'Black Bart' soos hy bekend was, waarskynlik die suksesvolste seerower van hulle almal.

Omskryf as 'n lang, aantreklike man, wat dol was oor duur klere en juweliersware, het Roberts vinnig as 'n seerower onder die Walliese kaptein Howell Davies gestyg en gou sy eie vaartuig in 1721 gevang, wat hy herdoop het Royal Fortune. Hierdie skip was naby aan ondeurdringbaar, so goed bewapen en beskerm dat slegs 'n formidabele vlootvaartuig kon hoop om teen haar te staan.

Dr Ben Fuggle stel ons bekend aan die lewe aan die Mosquito Coast in die 18de eeu. Ben praat van alle dinge oor Pirates and Smugglers, en ondersoek hoe die gebied ontwikkel het en hoe die Britte uiteindelik vertrek het.

Kyk nou

Roberts was deels so suksesvol omdat hy gewoonlik 'n vloot van twee tot vier seerowerskepe beveel het wat slagoffers kon omring en vang. In groot getalle kan hierdie seerowerkonvooi sy perke hoog stel. Black Bart was ook genadeloos en daarom het sy bemanning en vyande hom gevrees.

Sy skrikbewind eindig egter uiteindelik aan die Wes -Afrikaanse kus in Februarie 1722, toe hy in 'n seestryd met 'n Britse oorlogskip dood is. Sy heengaan, en die massaverhoor en ophanging van sy bemanning wat daarop gevolg het, was die ware einde van die 'Goue Eeu'.


Top 9 seerowerskepe uit die goue era van seerowery

The Queen Anne ’s Revenge was die vlagskip van die legendariese seerower Blackbeard. Dit was oorspronklik 'n fregat genaamd Concord en is in 1710 in Engeland gebou. In 1711 word dit 'n Franse slaweskip met die naam La Concorde. Op 28 November 1717 het seerowers dit gevang en kort daarna het Edward Teach, ook bekend as Blackbeard, die kaptein geword en dit herdoop tot Queen Anne ’s Revenge. Hy het gedurende hierdie tyd slegs 'n paar maande op hierdie skip gevaar, en hy kon baie skat en die reputasie opdoen as die skrikwekkendste seerowers. Queen Anne's ’s Revenge was 'n vinnige skip, maklik om te bestuur en het 'n groot bemanning van tot 250 seerowers. Blackbeard het hierdie skip om die oostelike kus van Noord -Amerikaanse kolonies en die Wes -Indiese Eilande, van die weskus van Afrika tot by die Karibiese Eilande, aangeval en Britse, Nederlandse en Portugese handelskepe aangeval wat hy onderweg ontmoet het. Hy stig 'n unie van seerowers en belemmer die hawe van Charleston, Suid -Carolina, in Mei 1718. Na 'n kort krisis loop hy Queen Anne ’s Revenge op 'n sandstaaf naby Beaufort, Noord -Carolina.


Pirates of the Caribbean

Die ontdekkingsreisiger Christopher Columbus het kontak gemaak tussen Europa en die lande wat later aan die einde van die 15de eeu Amerika genoem is. Terwyl hy vir die Spaanse monargie gewerk het, word die 'nuwe lande' beweer deur die Spanjaarde, wat hulle gou ontdek het dat dit 'n ryk bron van silwer, goud en edelstene is.

Vanaf die 16de eeu het groot Spaanse skepe, galjoene, na Europa begin vaar, gelaai met kosbare vragte wat seerowers onmoontlik kon weerstaan. Soveel seeroweraanvalle is uitgevoer dat galjoene noodgedwonge saam in vloot met gewapende vaartuie moes vaar ter beskerming. Aangesien Spaanse koloniste nuwe dorpe op die Karibiese eilande en die Amerikaanse vasteland opgerig het, het ook hulle onder seeroweraanval gekom.


Anne Bonnie

Anne is gebore as Anne Cormac in 1702 in Cork, Ierland, en was die dogter van 'n bediende vrou met die naam Mary Brennan en 'n welgestelde advokaat met die naam William Cormac. In 'n poging om sy verhouding weg te steek, sou Cormac Anne laat aantrek as 'n seuntjie en hom as sy advokaat voordoen. Toe sy verhouding ontdek word, het Cormac sy vrou verlaat en saam met Anne en haar ma na Londen verhuis waar Cormac handelaar geword het.

Anne se ma is dood toe Anne twaalf was. Omtrent dieselfde tyd het die humeur van Anne net so rooi begin word soos haar hare. Op dertienjarige ouderdom het Anne 'n bediende meisie met 'n tafelmes gesteek. Kort daarna trou sy met 'n klein seerowernaam James Bonny. Cormac het sy dogter hiervoor verloën en in weerwraak het Anne Cormac se plantasie afgebrand. Anne en Bonny verhuis na New Providence Island in die Bahamas, wat bekend was as 'n heiligdom vir seerowers. Hier ontmoet Anne John �lico Jack ” Rackham, die kaptein van die seerowerskip Wraak. Anne het verlief geraak op die suksesvolle seerower en het Bonny verlaat om meesteres van Rackham te word.

Aan boord Wraak, Het Anne gevind dat sy 'n natuurlike seerower was. Vinnig met 'n pistool, 'n skoot rum en met haar humeur, het Anne 'n reputasie vir haarself gekry en het sy die eerste stuurman van Rackham geword. In Oktober 1720 is die skip van Anne aangeval deur 'n King ’s skip. Die meeste van die bemanning was te dronk om te veg, slegs Anne en mede -seerower Mary Read het probeer om van die King's#vloot af te veg. Ondanks hul pogings is die skip gevang. Anne blameer Rackham vir die vaslegging. Haar laaste woorde aan hom is in die gevangenis opgeteken, jammer om jou daar te sien, maar as jy soos 'n man baklei het, sou jy nie soos 'n hond gehang gewees het nie. ”

Rackham en sy geselskap is as seerowers gehang, maar Anne en Read het 'n uitstel tereggestel toe bevind is dat hulle albei swanger is. Die einde van Anne se lewe is 'n raaisel. Daar is geen rekord van haar teregstelling nie, en ook nie van kwytskelding nie. Daar word gerugte dat die pa van Anne vir haar losprys betaal het, dat sy na haar man Bonny teruggekeer het, of dat sy ontsnap het en teruggekeer het na 'n seerowery onder 'n nuwe identiteit.

Terwyl moderne kunstenaars Grace met lang, rooi hare uitbeeld, het Grace eintlik haar hare kortgeknip. Toe sy 12 was, het haar pa geweier om haar te laat vaar omdat haar lang hare in die mas vasgekeer sou word. Dus, Grace sny haar hare kort en hou dit so.


8 Bekende seerowers uit die 'goue era van seerowery' - geskiedenis

Cindy Vallar, redakteur en resensent
P. O. Box 425, Keller, TX 76244-0425

Tuis Pirate -artikels Pirate Links Boekresensies Distels en seerowers

Die goue era van seerowery
Deur Cindy Vallar

Toe die einde van die sewentiende eeu nader kom, het vrede in die grootste deel van Europa gekom. Privateers was sonder werk, net soos baie seemanne. Hierdie 'goue era' was die grootste opswaai in seerowery ooit. Anders as hul voorgangers, die buccaneers, het hierdie seerowers op handelskepe gejag eerder as Spaanse galjoene belaai met goud en silwer. Die meeste het die Karibiese en Atlantiese kus van Noord -Amerika besoek, maar sommige het hul handel aan die Weskus van Afrika en in die Indiese Oseaan gedoen.

Die hoogte van die plundering duur ongeveer 'n dekade van 1715-1725. Die meeste seerowers was Engels (35%), maar ander nasionaliteite was ook verteenwoordig: kolonialiste uit Amerika-25%, kolonialiste uit Wes-Indië-20%, Skotte-10%, Wallies-8%en Sweeds/Nederlands/Frans/Spaans -2%. 'N Redelike aantal swartes het ook by die seerowers aangesluit. Toe Bartholomew Roberts vaar, het 48 swartes tussen sy bemanning van 228 mans gedien. Teen die tyd dat hulle gevang is, het dit tot 75 toegeneem.

Alhoewel seerowers vóór hierdie tyd vlae gewaai het, behoort die Jolly Roger wat ons ken aan die seerowers van hierdie tydperk. Hulle was lus vir sloepe en ketches om hul prooi te jag. Terwyl New Providence in die Bahamas hulle 'n tyd lank 'n veilige hawe gebied het, het Woodes Rogers dit verander na sy aanstelling as goewerneur. Hy het die seerowers vergifnis gebied, en dan diegene wat dit aanvaar het, in diens geneem om ander seerowers te jag. Die gevangenes het gehang.

Die seerowers van die Goue Eeu het algemene eienskappe gehad. Hulle slagoffers het gewoonlik oorgegee. Die seerowers het hul identiteit vrymoedig verklaar eerder as om met taktieke soos die ruse de guerre besig te wees. Hulle val skepe van die land af aan en neem die tyd om hul buit bymekaar te maak. Die meerderheid van die buit wat geneem is, was nie goud en silwer nie, maar benodigdhede om hul skepe en alle daaglikse items (soos kos en drank) te onderhou. Die suksesvolste ondernemings het plaasgevind toe twee of meer seerowerskepe hul prooi konfronteer.

Miskien was die bekendste seerower 'n meester in intimidasie. Swartbaard het drie stutte pistole gedra, 'n rokende hennepkoord in sy baard gesit, rum gedrink met kruit gedrink en met wilde, starende oë na mense gekyk. Om sy naam te noem was genoeg om enige seevaarder uit die agtiende eeu bang te maak.

Soos baie seerowers uit die Goue Eeu, was Blackbeard 'n privaat persoon voordat hy seerower geword het. Toe vrede uiteindelik in Europa kom, het hy seerowery omhels en in sy eie tyd 'n charismatiese legende geword. Aanvanklik het hy met Benjamin Hornigold geteken, 'n seerower wat Blackbeard gekweek het en hom 'n sterk reputasie geleer het, sou hom beter in staat stel as marteling om sy doel te bereik. Hulle het hul bedrywighede in Nassau gevestig en die kuswaters van die Amerikaanse kolonies gebruik. Op pad huis toe vang hulle 'n Franse vaartuig met die naam Concorde. Dit sou die laaste prooi wees wat Hornigold geneem het, want hy het besluit om die vergifnis van die koning te vra. Uiteindelik het hierdie begenadigde seerower 'n seerowerjagter geword.

Blackbeard het die Concorde in 'n seerowerskip beman deur driehonderd man en met veertig gewere. Hy het haar naam verander na die Queen Anne's Revenge (QAR) en het haar gekies vir sy vlagskip. Op advies van Hornigold het hy 'n bloeddorstige en goddelose reputasie opgebou. Sy suksesvolle aanvalle op skepe van die Britse Royal Navy het die beeld verder versterk. Hy het nie opsetlike moord en chaos gepleeg nie, tensy sy slagoffers daarteen verset was.

Gedurende die eerste drie maande van 1718 het Blackbeard verdwyn. Daar bestaan ​​geen rekords om te vertel waarheen hy gegaan het of wat hy gedoen het nie. Toe hy weer opdaag, lei hy sy vloot van agt vaartuie na die hawe van Charleston, blokkeer die hawe en hou 'n paar van die voorste burgers van die stad vir losprys. In plaas daarvan om juwele en geld te eis, het hy 'n kis medisyne ter waarde van 300 gevra. Toe vier dae verloop en die goewerneur van Suid -Carolina nog steeds nie aan sy vereistes voldoen nie, het Blackbeard al sy gewere op die stad gerig en sou dit geweer het as die seerowers wat die losprysbrief afgelewer het, nie saam met die medisyne teruggestuur is nie.

Uiteindelik vaar Blackbeard na Ocracoke Island aan die buitekant van Noord -Carolina met die doel om die koning se vergifnis te soek. Hy het egter geweet dat te veel seerowers hom vergesel, en daarom het hy 'n plan uitgemaak om van sommige ontslae te raak. Hy het doelbewus die QAR en 'n ander skip, en stuur 'n paar manne aan wal met bevele om vergifnis vir almal te soek. Nadat hulle vertrek het, vaar hy en die oorblywende seerowers na Bath Towne, kry vergifnis van die goewerneur en tree terug by seerowery.

Blackbeard is getroud met 'n jong vrou, het in 'n huis ingetrek en 'n plaaslike bekendheid geword. Hy was betrokke by 'n smokkeloperasie, wat hy op Ocracoke Island gebaseer het. Onrustigheid het hom spoedig geteister, en weer keer hy terug na seerowery. Met sy terugkeer na Ocracoke het 'n seerower hom besoek en hulle het aan wal gegaan. Kort voor lank het ander seerowers by die feeste aangesluit en vreesbevange koloniste het gevra dat iemand Blackbeard en sy vriende stop voordat hulle 'n seerowervesting vestig.

Op 21 November 1718 het luitenant Maynard en agt-en-vyftig mans teen Blackbeard en twintig ander seerowers op die dek van Maynard se sloep geveg. Hy het Blackbeard geskiet, maar Blackbeard het Maynard se swaard gebreek. 'N Highlander het die lewe van Maynard gered deur Blackbeard dood te maak voordat hy die noodlottige slag toegedien het. Met sy terugkeer na Williamsburg het Maynard Blackbeard se onthoofde kop aan die boegspriet van sy skip gehang. Hy het die lyk oorboord gegooi.

Vandag is dit moeilik om mite van die werklikheid te skei wat Blackbeard betref. Sommige verhale sê dat hy veertien vroue gehad het, waarvan sommige met ander gedeel het. Hy is bekend onder verskeie name - waaronder Drummond, Thatch en Tash - maar Edward Teach word as sy amptelike naam beskou. Daar is min besonderhede van sy vroeë lewe bekend, maar hy is moontlik in Bristol, Engeland, gebore. Dertien maande lank terroriseer hy mense langs die kus van Noord -Amerika en in die Karibiese Eilande. Aan die einde van die negentigerjare het argeoloë 'n onderwaterwrak ontdek wat volgens hulle die QAR. Hul opgrawings is aan die gang.

Ander opvallende seerowers van die Goue Eeu

In November 1720 het Calico Jack Rackham en sy bemanning in die beskuldigdebank van die Admiraliteitshof op Jamaika gestaan. Wat het die verhoor sensasioneel gemaak? Twee van die beskuldigdes was vroue. Alhoewel die geskiedenis gevalle van vroulike seerowers aanteken, is Anne Bonny en Mary Read die bekendste. Rackham arriveer twee jaar voor sy gevangenskap in New Providence en dien as kwartiermeester aan boord van die seerowerskip van Charles Vane. Die bemanning het met Vane gestry en 'n nuwe kaptein gekies - Jack Rackham - toe sit hulle Vane aan wal. In 1719 verleen Woodes Rogers Rackham 'n kwytskelding. Kort daarna ontmoet hy Anne Bonny, die buite -egtelike dogter van 'n Ierse prokureur wat in Suid -Carolina gewoon het.

Anne het na New Providence gekom nadat sy met 'n behoeftige seeman met die naam James Bonny getrou het en met hom weggehardloop het. Uiteindelik het sy die meesteres van Calico Jack geword, haar in mansklere vermom en by sy bemanning aangesluit. Op 'n dag het hulle 'n skip gevang en haar bemanning genooi om by hul geledere aan te sluit. Ten minste een het. Volgens die legende het Anne die nuutste seerower gekies, maar toe sy hom nader, onthul die man dat hy eintlik 'n vrou was met die naam Mary Read.

Mary, wat as kind grootgemaak is, het 'n tyd lank by die vloot aangesluit voordat sy by die Britse leër aangesluit het. Tydens haar diens het sy verlief geraak op 'n ander soldaat, met wie sy getrou het. Hulle het afgetree en 'n taverne oopgemaak. Toe haar man sterf, keer Mary terug na die see.

Toe die gewapende vloot in 1720 'n verrassingsaanval op die skip van Rackham begin, het Anne en Mary baklei terwyl Calico Jack en die ander dronk was of onder die dek geslaap het. By hul verhoor het die slagoffer Dorothy Thomas gesweer: "Twee vroue, gevangenes by die kroeg, was toe aan boord van die genoemde Sloop, en het 'n mensbaadjie gedra, en lang truzers en sakdoeke om hul koppe vasgemaak en dat elkeen 'n masjien gehad het en Pistool in hul hande, en vervloek en gesweer by die manne om haar verder te vermoor. Twee addisionele getuies het getuig dat Anne en Mary baie aktief was aan boord en bereid was om alles te doen wat Ann Bonny geweerpoeier aan die manne oorhandig het, dat wanneer hulle 'n vaartuig sien, Chase gee of aanval, hulle mans gedra het Kleredrag dat hulle blykbaar nie deur geweld gehou of aangehou is nie, maar uit hul eie vrye wil en toestemming.

Die hele bemanning is skuldig bevind en gevonnis om op te hang, maar Anne en Mary pleit hul maag (wat beteken dat hulle swanger was). Aangesien Engelse howe 'n onskuldige kind nie sou doodmaak nie, het die vroue berou gekry. Die mans is op 27 November tereggestel. Mary sterf vyf maande later in die tronk. Anne se lot is onbekend.

'N Ander seerower wat nie heeltemal by die stereotipe van 'n gewone seerower pas nie, was die Walliese seerower, Bartholomew Roberts. Hierdie heerlike seerower geniet musiek en geniet tee bo alkohol, terwyl sy neiging om flambojante klere te dra, hom bekend maak. Een verslag beskryf hom as 'aangetrek in 'n ryk, karmosynrooi damestrok en broek, 'n rooi veer in sy hoed, 'n goue ketting om sy nek, met 'n diamantkruis daaraan.' 'N Ander een het gesê dat hierdie lang donker seerower' van goeie natuurlike aard 'was dele en persoonlike dapperheid .

Hy is gebore as John Roberts en het in 1719 'n seerower geword toe Howell Davis die slaaf waarop John gewerk het, gevange geneem het. Hy het gou die respek van sy mede -seerowers gewen en by die dood van Davis tydens 'n hinderlaag, het hulle John as hul nuwe kaptein verkies. He changed his name to Bartholomew, and eventually earned the nickname Black Bart.

In spite of his gentlemanly ways, he tortured or murdered others when necessary to gain what he wanted. Speed and savagery characterized his attacks. Considered one of the most successful pirates who ever lived, he captured over four hundred ships. His adventures took him to Africa, the Caribbean, and Newfoundland. He died in 1722 when the HMS Swallow fired a broadside of grapeshot at close range into his ship. His crew threw Roberts body overboard so the English couldn t capture and display it as an example to others. His men fought for three hours before they surrendered. Fifty-four were hanged while thirty-seven were sentenced to prison or transportation to the colonies. Those who remained were acquitted, except for seventy Africans. They were sold into slavery.

Stede Bonnet was an educated plantation owner on Barbados. His reasons for becoming a pirate are unknown, but he purchased rather than acquired his ten-gun pirate ship, the Revenge, and hired a crew of seventy pirates. They set sail in the spring of 1717 and plundered ships sailing near Long Island, Virginia, and South Carolina. On learning Britain again warred with Spain, he sought a pardon from the governor of North Carolina and became a privateer. In time, though, he resumed his pirating ways. To escape detection he renamed his ship the Royal James and assumed an alias, Captain Thomas. He captured nine prizes, then put in at Cape Fear to make repairs. While there, Colonel William Rhett and his men attacked the pirates, who battled for five hours before surrendering. Bonnet managed to escape, but was soon recaptured. Most of his crew were hanged in November 1718 on White Point near Charleston. He danced the hempen jig on 10 December 1718.

Listen to segment 2 of The History Czar's Women Pirates, which features Anne Bonny and Mary Read

For additional information, I recommend the following resources:

Cordingly, David. Under the Black Flag: the Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates . Random House, 1995.

Defoe, Daniel. A General History of the Pyrates edited by Manuel Schonhorn. Dover, 1999.

Konstam, Angus. History of Pirates . Lyons Press, 1999.
Konstam, Angus. Pirates 1660-1730 . Osprey, 1998.

Marx, Jenifer. Pirates and Privateers of the Caribbean . Krieger, 1992.


The Beginning

The Legacy of Henry Avery

Piracy’s Golden Age is thought by many to have begun with Henry Avery, a famous pirate who looted close to $100,000 in riches after seizing many ships in the Indian Ocean. So bloody were the battles between merchant ships and Avery’s boat The Fancy that he was at the top of arrest lists across the globe. He sought refuge in Nassau in 1696 but caught word that the East India Trading Company had tracked him down in The Bahamas. Once warned, Henry Avery fled and was never seen or heard from again. Tales of Avery's success and his evasion of capture inspired a generation of pirates and ushered in the heyday of piracy in The Bahamas—what would become known as Piracy's Golden Age.


6 despicable pirates from history

As world trade burgeoned in the age of colonial expansion, valuable cargoes were transported across the world's oceans, providing vast opportunity for piracy on the seas. Writing for History Extra, Eric Jay Dolin presents six of history's most despicable buccaneers who plundered the seas, from the ports of the American colonies to the Indian Ocean…

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Published: January 11, 2019 at 11:16 am

The Golden Age of piracy (c1680s–1726) was the most dramatic era of maritime marauding the world has ever known, a period which at its peak saw as many as 4,000 pirates a year wreaking havoc across the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The age of colonial expansion meant that huge quantities of valuable cargoes were being shipped over vast ocean areas and, as European navies were reduced, many experienced sailors who were out of work turned to piracy.

Pirates had an enormous impact on the American colonies. In the early years of the period, there was a warm and financially lucrative acceptance of pirates. When the so-called Red Sea Men plundered Mughal ships in the Indian Ocean in the late 1600s, for instance, they were welcomed in the colonies because the wealth they brought back significantly bolstered local economies.

However, by the 1710–20s, when pirates began focusing their attacks on colonial shipping to the Americas, they were viewed not as commercial angels but as dangerous raiders who posed a grave threat to trade. One early 18th-century chronicler claimed that the merchants of Great Britain “suffered more by” the “depredations” of pirates between 1716 to 1726 than they suffered at the hands of France and Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The pirates’ relationship with the colonies eventually ended in a bloody war against the seafaring criminals, punctuated by hundreds of pirate hangings throughout the Atlantic world.

Pirates made their way into popular literature in the late 17th century where they were transformed into mythical figures. One account that sparked public imagination was A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates, published in 1724 under the pseudonym Captain Charles Johnson. For many years it was thought that Daniel Defoe (of Robinson Crusoe fame) was the actual author of A General History, and that Charles Johnson was just a pen name but subsequent scholarship strongly points to the mysterious Johnson as being the true scribe.

It was Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island, first published in 1883, that gave us our modern-day image of a pirate, an image which has been replicated in countless films and books since its publication. Most have heard of Blackbeard and Captain William Kidd, two of the most famous pirates of the Golden Age of piracy. But there were many other pirates, whose names are less familiar but whose despicable deeds are often just as riveting. Here are six of the lesser-known, yet still fascinating pirates from that storied era…

Dixie Bull

In the summer of 1632, fur trader Dixie Bull was traveling along the coast of Maine, USA when disaster struck: a small group of Frenchmen had stolen his shallop [a light sailing boat]. Enraged, Bull hastily commandeered another vessel and gathered a force of 15 armed men to exact revenge on the French. Having no luck in that pursuit, and short on supplies, Bull resorted to piracy. He and his men ransacked two English vessels and attacked a settlement called Pemaquid on the coast of Maine, gaining fame under the name ‘the dread pirate’.

Over the next couple of months there were periodic sightings of Bull and his men, who apparently had renounced piracy in fear of the fatal punishment that awaited them if they were caught. To make it clear that they wanted no more trouble, the pirates sent a letter to the governors of all the English colonies and plantations “signifying their intent not to do harm to any more of their countrymen, but to go to the southward, and to advise them not to send against them for they were resolved to sink themselves rather than be taken”.

Bull and his men were never heard from again, and what happened to them remains a mystery. One contemporary account claimed that Bull’s crew “fled eastward”, most likely to French settlements in Canada, and “Bull himself got into England but God destroyed this wretched man”. Others believe Bull joined the French, or that Indians killed him.

Thomas Tew

During the North American conflict known as King William’s War (1688–1697), in which New England colonists launched attacks on French colonies, many colonial governors gave letters of marque [letters authorising privately owned ships, or ‘privateers’, to capture enemy merchant ships] to men who had no intention of fighting the enemy French. Instead, these crews planned to attack Mughal ships in the Indian Ocean. Since England was not at war with the Mughal Empire, however, attacks on Mughal shipping were, by definition, pure piracy. This fact didn’t bother colonial governors in the least. They not only lined their pockets when issuing fake letters of marque, but they (as well as any investors in the ‘privateering’ cruise) also expected the pirates to return to the colony from which they departed to share the treasure and pay off debts.

In 1691, Thomas Tew (a Rhode Islander by birth) accepted a commission from Bermuda’s governor for a privateering venture to Africa, to take a French fort located on the Gambia River at Gorée. He found backers to provide him with a vessel – the 70-ton sloop Amity – and set off. Yet instead of attacking the French, he and his men sailed to the Indian Ocean, plundered a Mughal ship, and returned to Newport, Rhode Island. They returned with enough treasure so that each of his men walked away with from £1,200 to £3,000 – while Tew collected two to three times that amount.

Tew wanted to retire, but his men convinced him to return to the Indian Ocean for another round of piracy, and this time Tew purchased a fake privateering license from New York governor Benjamin Fletcher for £300. Commission in hand, Tew returned to Newport in early November, where the Amity was being readied for the voyage. Word of Tew’s plans had spread far and wide, in no small measure because of his boasting, and a great array of men flocked to the wharf to sign on as crewmembers, brilliant images of treasure no doubt firing their imaginations.

Tew should have quit while he was ahead. When he attacked a Mughal ship quite capable of defending itself near the mouth of the Red Sea the following year, the Amity – and Tew – got the worst of it. According to one account, a cannon ball ripped into Tew’s midsection, disemboweling him. After he was killed, his men gave up the chase and sailed to Madagascar. Met die Amity in bad shape, and a slow sailer even under the best of conditions, the crew set off down the coast, where they found another vessel and commandeered it. These remnants of the Amity’s crew continued their pirating, never again returning to New York.

Thomas Pound

On August 10 1689, Thomas Pound and 12 armed associates launched their piratical career by capturing a fishing vessel out of Salem, Massachusetts, called the Mary. In subsequent months, the pirates plundered a number of ships in Massachusetts’s waters, and traded the Mary for a bigger and more powerful ship, the Goodspeed.

In late September, Massachusetts’s governor ordered a vessel, manned by 20 soldiers, to bring Pound and his men to Boston to face justice, using deadly force to “subdue” them if necessary. A captain named Samuel Pease was put in charge.

Pease found his quarry in Tarpaulin Cove, off Naushon Island, and he demanded that the pirates “strike to [the] King of England”, but Pound was not cowed. Standing on his quarterdeck, he flourished his sword, and barked across the water: “Come aboard you dogs, and I will strike you presently.”

No sooner had Pound issued this bellicose invitation than the shooting began. Pound took a musket ball to the arm, and one just under the ribs, while Pease was struck in the arm, the side, and the thigh. An hour after the first shots were fired, the soldiers swarmed onto the Goodspeed, getting off one good volley, and then using the butts of their muskets to mercilessly beat the pirates into bloodied submission. When the smoke cleared, four pirates were dead, and most of the rest were wounded, while five of the soldiers were injured. Pease would later die of his wounds.

The men of the Goodspeed were brought to trial in 1690 on charges of piracy and murder, and although 14 of them were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, for reasons that are not clear, only one was executed.

Lewis Guittar

At the end of April 1700, the French pirate Lewis Guittar sailed into Chesapeake Bay, between Maryland and Virginia, on the La Paix (Peace), capturing several merchant vessels. Then, the HMS Shoreham captained by William Passenger appeared on the horizon. Pandemonium broke out on the pirate ship: 50 prisoners were hustled down into the hold and La Paix was readied for battle. Passenger was relishing the coming engagement, boasting that “this is but a small fellow, we shall have him presently.”

For hours, the two ships pummeled each other with broadsides [cannons on the sides of the ships] – and firing muskets and pistols when within range – but the La Paix was ultimately outgunned. Guittar surrendered – but he had one more trick up his sleeve: using the 50 prisoners as bargaining chips. He ordered his men to lay a trail of gunpowder leading to the ship’s magazine, and then forced one of the prisoners to swim to the Shoreham to deliver the following ultimatum: “Tell the commander in chief if he will not give me and my men quarter and pardon I will blow up the ship and we will all die together.”

Virginia governor Francis Nicholson, who was on board the Shoreham, agreed to grant the pirates quarter [the right to be taken prisoner instead of instant death] and refer them to the mercy of the king. In the end, 26 pirates were killed during the battle, and about half that number was injured, eight of whom would later die of their injuries. Four lay dead on the Shoreham, with many more injured.

Guittar and the rest of his men were shipped to England, where the king, feeling unmerciful, put them on trial. Ultimately, Guittar and more than 50 of his crew were found guilty and executed.

Edward Low

Edward Low started his piratical career in 1721 in the Caribbean. Over the next few years, Low blazed a path of destruction, becoming, according to one contemporary account, “the most noted pirate in America” – and certainly the most vicious. He seemed to relish torturing and killing his victims. When the captain of one boarded ship had the temerity to cut the rope holding a bag of gold coins, so that it fell into the ocean rather into the pirates’ hands, Low killed the man – after cutting off his lips and roasting them in front of his eyes. Then, Low killed the captain’s entire crew of 32 people.

On another occasion, when Low seized casks of wine and brandy from a captured vessel, its captain asked if Low would be so kind as to write a sentence or two stating that he had taken the liquor, so that the owners wouldn’t think that the captain had dishonestly sold it and pocketed the profits. Low cheerily agreed, and said that he would be right back with what the man requested. A few minutes later, Low returned with two loaded pistols, and “presenting one at [the captain’s] bowels”, he told the petrified man that this “was for his wine, and discharged it”, and then he pointed the other pistol at the captain’s head, saying this one is “for your brandy” and fired.

Although one of Low’s ships was captured by a British naval ship, and 26 of the pirates on board were hanged in Newport, Rhode Island, Low continued to plunder ships until the spring of 1724, when he suddenly disappeared from the historical record.

John Phillips

John Phillips and four other men became pirates during the summer of 1723, stealing a schooner off Newfoundland and christening it the Revenge. They proceeded to plunder more than 30 vessels up and down the American coast. In late March 1724, Phillips overpowered a Virginia ship, whose captain, John Mortimer, refused to hand over his valuable geese and hogs. This infuriated Phillips, leading to a yelling match between the two, which quickly escalated when Mortimer, apparently a brave but reckless man, grabbed a handspike and struck Phillips, who drew his sword and ran Mortimer through, killing him.

Phillips forced many men to become pirates against their will, and that was his ultimate undoing. A few of the forced men – including John Fillmore (the great-grandfather of Millard Fillmore, the 13th president of the United States), Edward Cheesman, Isaac Lassen, and Andrew Harradine – began to quietly conspire to rise up when the time was right. That time finally came on April 18, 1724, about 40 miles southeast of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia.

The prisoners were doing some repairs on the ship, when one of them gave the signal. Cheesman jumped up and grabbed the nearest pirate, pitching him overboard. A split second later, Lassen grabbed Phillips’s arm, while Harradine reached for an adze [a cutting tool similar to an axe] and brought it down on the captain’s head, instantly killing him. In the meantime, Fillmore dispatched another pirate with a broadax, while the coconspirators lunged at the gunner and flung him over the rails. The remaining pirates, seeing the force arrayed against them, gave up.

Harradine piloted the pirate’s ship and remaining crew to Boston, carrying the severed heads of Phillips and his boatswain in a barrel full of salt. The subsequent trials of Phillips’s remaining men resulted in four being found guilty. Two were given a reprieve and the other two were hanged on 2 June 1724.

Eric Jay Dolin lives in Marblehead, Massachusetts. This article is based on his recent book, Black Flags, Blue Waters: The Epic History of America’s Most Notorious Pirates (WW Norton, £21).


Battle of Cape Lopez

By the 1720's the Royal Navy and pirate hunter had begun chasing and catching pirates in earnest. However Bartholomew Roberts had started his career after the Kings Pardon (1718) and therefore had no intentions of surrendering or stopping.

On February 5th, 1722, the HMS Swallow which was commanded by pirate hunter named Captain Chaloner Ogle found Roberts and his three pirate ships, the Royal Fortune, die Ranger en die Little Ranger anchored at Cape Lopez. Soos die Swallow turned to avoid a shoal, the pirates thought it was a merchant ship and the Ranger captained by James Skyrme gave chase.

Chaloner Ogle Portrait (1745-47)

As soon as the Royal Navy was out of sight of the other pirates they opened fire and gave the Ranger a devastating broadside attack which killed ten pirates and took Skyrme's leg off. Eventually the pirates surrendered and were captured.

On February 10th, the Swallow returned to Cape Lopez to surprisingly find the Royal Fortune still anchored. The day before Roberts and his crew had captured the Neptune and most of the crew was still celebrating and drunk when the Swallow approached. At first the crew thought it was the Ranger returning, however a deserter from the Royal Navy recognized the ship and informed Roberts who was having breakfast with Captain Hill of the Neptune. As Roberts usually did, he prepared himself for battle.

"Roberts himself made a gallant figure, at the time of the engagement, being dressed in a rich crimson damask waistcoat and breeches, a red feather in his hat, a gold chain round his neck, with a diamond cross hanging to it, a sword in his hand, and two pairs of pistols slung over his shoulders"

— A General History of the Pyrates (1724), p. 212

Death in Battle

Roberts plan was to sail directly past the enemy ship, take one broadside but eventually escape to open ocean. However Roberts' helmsman failed to keep the ship on the right course and the Swallow was able to get off two successful broadsides. Roberts was killed by grapeshot which ripped open his neck and killed him instantly. The pirates threw his body overboard as he requested so they could not put his body on display. They wrapped him in one of the ships sails, weighted it down and tossed it off the side. His body has never been recovered.

Bartholomew Roberts Death - The Sea, Its Stirring Story of Adventure (1877)

Roberts death shocked the entire world and most modern historians consider his death the end of the Golden Age of Piracy. However, despite the death of Bartholomew Roberts the battle continued for several more hours until the mainmast of the Royal Fortune was destroyed. The pirates then surrendered and asked for quarter. When the smoke had cleared and the weapons laid down, it was found only three pirates including Roberts were killed and the rest were taken into custody. One crew member named John Philips tried to explode a gunpowder magazine intending to blow up the ship but was restrained by other crew members.

The Royal Navy ended up capturing 272 pirates, 65 of them being freed black slaves. The black pirates were sold back into slavery and the rest were taken to Cape Coast Castle. Of the remainder who did not die in custody, 54 were sentenced to hang. 52 were actually hung and twenty of Roberts crew was allowed to become indentured servants for the Royal African Company. Over one third of Robert's crew were acquitted and released. Captain Chaloner Ogle was rewarded with a knighthood for his slaying of Roberts, and he also profited financially by stealing gold dust from his cabin. Ogle went on to become Admiral of the Fleet for the British Royal Navy.


What was the golden age of piracy

Nowadays, pirates still pose a great threat to merchant ships and civilians on the ocean. But it is as nothing compared to the time when the pirates were most rampant. Even the notorious Somalian pirates known to the world a few years ago, are just some nobodies in the history of piracy. The Age of Piracy is a real history time when the piracy was most rampant.

The period between 1691 and 1723 is called the Age of Piracy. In just about thirty years, pirates rampantly swept the world. By hijacking and looting ships, they snatched up a great amount of wealth and terribly affected the global trade at that time.

Why the pirates were so rampant in the Age of Piracy?

Privateering commission and the Age of Piracy

At that time, the vast ocean was the unconquered terriority to human. Whom does the ocean belong to? Should human follow some rules on the ocean? And what are the rules to be followed? These questions are worth thinking, but no more than thinking. On the vast ocean, pirates are outside the constraints of human civilization.

In 1492, with the support of Spanish royals, the great Italian explorer Columbus discovered the Americas. Later, after 200 years of development, Spain became the maritime overlord of the world at that time. The wealth all over the world was continuously transfered to Spain. The other European countries were envious about that but only to find they were not unable to compete with Spain. What should they do then?

One after another, the other European countries established the systems of privateering commission and enlisted many private armies (mostly pirates) to fight against hostile countries and other pirates. From then on, privateer captains who had such commissions could justifiably plunder ships of pirates and hostile countries. The only condition was that they turned in a fraction of their “gains” to the government.
Under this system, most of the captains who had privateering commissions held two identities, pirate and military. Most representatively, Henry Morgan.

Henry Morgan

Henry Morgan was a Welsh pirate, and one of the most notorious bandits in the Caribbean.
In 1635, he was born in the manor of a wealthy Welsh family.
He served in the English military in 1655 when the English navy seized Jamaica from Spanish.
In 1663, Morgan led some raids in the Central America, attacked Spanish settlements and looted a lot of treasure. At that time, Morgan was a pirate leader.
He became a vice admiral of English navy in 1668, commanded a fleet of 15 ships and more than 900 sailors. Meanwhile, he was elected the head of all the pirates in Jamaica. Morgan’s dual identities made him the “king of pirates”.
Later in 1674, Charles II of England knighted him and appointed him as vice governor of Jamaica. There he lived as a rich man and a respected plantation owner.
However, the “king of pirates” died tragically in 1688. Four years after his death, the crazy Age of Piracy came.

A pirate boat

The punishment of God——the capital of pirates destroyed by earthquake
In 1670, in accordance with the Treaty of Madrid between England and Spain, Jamaica was ceded to England. The English government designated Port Royal as the base of pirates. Since then, Port Royal had been the biggest staging area of pirates in the history, and was also called the capital of pirates.

Port Royal

The wealth robbed by pirates was piled up here like mountains, sometimes the pirate ships full of spoils could not even get their turns to unload and had to wait in the harbor. All the businessmen here knew an unwritten rule: never asking the origin of merchandises, nor taking about their former owners. They knew these merchandises were filthy lucre but never turned them down.
This was the most evil and depraved city in the human history. All sorts of people came here with the same intention of make a killing. There were Dutch, English, French, German, Scandinavian, Spanish, Portuguese, Irish, African and mulatto, you name it. Silks from China, spices from Indonesia, industrial products from England, you could find almost everything here. Of course, what you could see most frequently was gold, silver and jewelries.

Port Royal

June 7 of 1692, a bustling day in Port Royal as usual. But this Sin City was doomed to be punished by God.
At 11:47 am, suddenly the earth trembled, followed by increasingly violent shakings. Huge cracks appeared on the ground and buildings collapsed one after another. The earth rose and fell like waves. Just liked being boiled, the ocean raised billows and smashed all the ships in harbor. After the most violent tremor, two thirds of the city submerged under water. Together with countless treasure, Port Royal sank into the ocean.
However, the pirates did not take God’s warning, instead, they reassembled, re-established the fleet, and started next round of plundering.

A pirate of manners——Bartholomew Roberts the Black Bart


Greedy and unruly pirates lacked cohesion and were doomed to be disunited. Pirates should have manners. Bartholomew Roberts was the first to realize this.
Roberts was also born in Wales and served on a privateer in the early years. He talked culturedly, liked to wear gorgeous black gowns and various jewelries, and was fond of tea instead of alcohol. That’s the reason why people call him the Black Bart.
In the June of 1720, privateer Royal Rover intruded into harbor of Trepassey and looted over 150 ships the best one among those ships was picked out and renamed Royal Fortune as Roberts’ new flagship.
Roberts was one of the pirate overlords who first developed and extended the Pirate Code.

The famous Roberts’ Articles of the Twelve Commandments of Pirates include:
Every man has a vote in affairs of moment.
Every man to be called fairly in turn, by list, on board of prizes.
No person to game at cards or dice for money.
The lights and candles to be put out at eight o’clock at night.
To keep their piece, pistols, and cutlass clean and fit for service.
No boy or woman to be allowed on board.
To desert the ship or their quarters in battle, to steal properties of fellow pirates, to conceal secrets or properties, was punished with death or marooning.
No striking one another on board.
No man to talk of breaking up their way of living, till each had shared one thousand pounds.
Any man wounded or injuried was to be provided for.
The Captain and quartermaster to receive two shares of a prize the gunner, cook, doctor and boatswain, one share and a half other officers one and quarter sailor, one share.
The musicians to have rest on Sunday, but the other six days and nights, none without special favour. Any one who breaks any of these commandments should receive harsh punishment.
Despite of strict disciplines, Roberts had no intent to rule the world. Instead, his motto was “life is too short to enjoy”.

Pirates

In the morning of February 10, 1722, he was killed in a fierce battle on Guinean coast, when a grapeshot struck him in the throat. He died instantly. Bartholomew Roberts, the last great pirate captain in the history of piracy, ended his “happy but short” life. After the last protagonist left, the thirty-year “Age of Piracy” came to its end in history.

The last battle in the Age of Piracy
A piece of history always has its gorgeous debut as well as a final end. The last battle in the Age of Piracy was a complicated and confusing story.
Many people believe, the Age of Piracy came to an end following the death of Bartholomew Roberts. But there are always new discoveries that bring people surprises.

On March 14 of 2006, on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, divers discovered a sunk galleon. There lay a storage box between rotten deck and the canons covered by barnacles. In this box, people found a logbook which recorded the circumnavigation of Captain William Lubber’s ship Seacat from September 13 of 1723 to June 1 of 1726.
The purpose of this circumnavigation was to catch female pirate Arabella Drummond. Judging from the damage of sunken Seacat and Captain William Lubber’s note, Arabella Drummond made a well-planned escape. But surprisingly, Drummond’s treasure is still hidden on some secret island and has not yet been found.
A part of the treasure map was missing, but in Captain William Lubber’s note, it wrote “I have found the missing part of the treasure map, and hide it in this logbook”. ”

Pirate Treasure Map

The conclusion of related research indicates, the naval battle where Captain William Lubber lost his life can be taken as the end of the Age of Piracy and written into history. Because of this discovery, the Age of Piracy might be extended for long and thrilling three years.

Thrilling and unpredictable voyages
An imprecise map, a compass unusable in rough weather, a pair of crude divider calipers, a portable sundial device, a galleon which sets many sails. No matter a privateer captain or a pirate, those were the best devices they could get.

Facing the infinite unknown, what the captains and sailors could rely on at that time? Maybe just firm faith, strong body, and God’s blessing. With all these, time and time again the people who sailed in the unknown world discovered mysterious islands, new continents or the destinations they sought long at the horizon.

That was the extraordinary experience in the Age of Piracy. With courage, faith and perseverance, everyone could make a unknown place part of the known world, and the tracks on chart would be his or her highlight of life and epitaph.
Today, huge ships, satellite navigation, weather forecast and detailed charts have made the rough ocean no more perilous. But the legends about Age of Piracy still attract those who yearn for freedom and advanture.

Forever captain, forever pirate

Human will never be confined to places where they were born. They keep exploring, and have discovered and conquered mountains, rivers, islands, continents and oceans. They never stop, even when their footprints have been all over the blue planet. In 1969, representing the human, an young American left his footprints on the moon for the first time.
One of human’s dreams is just like what the astronaut Mark Watney says in the film The Martian, “Mark Watney, Space Pirate”. ”


An Excellent Succinct Summary

Pirates dominate movie box-office profits, they are theme park entertainment, and they occupy a place in popular culture that has outlasted the era when they originally ruled the seas. Contemporary audiences who are safe from the pistols and cutlasses of the men who sailed the Caribbean, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans to prey upon ships and claim their cargo may find it hard to reconcile the perceived glamour of Captain Jack Sparrow with the authentic bloodlust and greed of the real pirates who killed without conscience, kidnapped innocent victims for ransom, and ravaged, bribed, and robbed their way into legend. Tragut Rais, Grace O’Malley, William Kidd, Blackbeard, and their colleagues were dangerous adventurers who lived at a time when piracy was an economic enterprise that yielded both wealth and a hangman’s noose.

This audiobook will teach you about:

  • When pirates owned the seas
  • The roots of piracy
  • The original pirates of the Caribbean
  • The pirate round
  • Piracy after the Spanish War of Succession
  • The pirates of the Barbary Coast
  • The modern-day pirates

Most pirates had a short life before they were captured and executed. A few lucky ones did die of natural causes, but they were rare. Nonetheless, those tales of swashbuckling adventure under the Jolly Roger continue to mesmerize us. Listen to more about the reality of the golden age of piracy to find out whether or not Hollywood’s version can possibly compare with the truth.


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