Geskiedenis Podcasts

'N Tydlyn van gebeure in 1959-1960 - Geskiedenis

'N Tydlyn van gebeure in 1959-1960 - Geskiedenis

Wêreldgeskiedenis 1959-1960

EFTA gestig, Onafhanklike Singapoer, Opstand in Tibet, stem Degaulle vir Algerië, St. Lawrence Seaway, Alaska toegelaat tot die Unie, Hawaii toegelaat tot die unie, kombuisdebat, Castro neem mag in Kuba, X-15 maak eerste vlug, mislukte beraad in Parys, Sino-Sowjets split, Syngman Rhee bedank, nuut onafhanklike lande, U-2 neer, Polaris-missiel, USS Enterprise gelanseer, Vliegtuie bots, Chroesjtsjof

1959 Gestig deur EFTA Groot -Brittanje, Swede, Noorweë, Denemarke, Switserland, Oostenryk en Portugal het die "European Free Trade Association" gestig as 'n eweknie van die gemeenskaplike mark.
1959 Singapoer Onafhanklike Singapoer word op 3 Junie 1959 'n onafhanklike staat.
1959 Opstand in Tibet Daar ontstaan ​​gevegte tussen Kommunistiese Chinese troepe en die plaaslike bevolking, wat in opstand gekom het teen die kommunistiese bewind. Die Kommuniste het die rebellie neergelê, die Tibetaanse plaaslike regering ontbind en die Dalai Lama in ballingskap gedwing.
1959 stem Degaulle saam om te stem oor Algerynse onafhanklikheid Franse slagoffers het steeds in Algerië toegeneem. Frankryk se standpunt dat Algerië deel uitmaak van hul land, is deur die hele wêreld aangeval. Die Franse president DeGaulle buig dus voor wat onafwendbaar lyk en stem in tot 'n referendum in Algerië oor onafhanklikheid.
1959 St. Lawrence Seaway Die St. Lawrence Seaway is op 26 Junie geopen. Die Seaway, wat 'n gesamentlike Kanadese-Amerikaanse projek was, het skepe in staat gestel om na die Great Lakes te reis, waardeur Amerikaanse en Kanadese meerhavens vir seevaart oopgemaak is.
1959 Alaska toegelaat tot die Unie Op 3 Januarie 1959 word Alaska die 49ste staat wat tot die Unie toegelaat word.
1959 Hawaii Toelating tot die Unie Op 21 Augustus het Hawaii, die "Aloha -staat", by die Unie aangesluit.
1959 Kombuisdebat Tydens 'n besoek aan die Sowjetunie deur die Amerikaanse vise -president Nixon, was hy en Sowjet -premier Chroesjtsjof betrokke by 'n sogenaamde 'kombuisdebat' oor die meriete van kommunisme en kapitalisme. Die debat het plaasgevind by die opening van die American National Exposition in Moskou.
1959 Castro neem mag in Kuba Op 1 Januarie het Fidel Castro in Havana opgeruk nadat die Cubaanse diktator Batista gevlug het. Castro, wat die suksesvolle revolusie teen Batista gelei het, is baie verwelkom- selfs deur die VSA het Castro spoedig 'n vriendskapsverdrag met die Sowjetunie onderteken. Hy het ook beslag gelê op groot landboubesit. Wat die Verenigde State betref, het hierdie twee aksies Castro van 'n vryheidsvegter in 'n kommunis verander.
1959 X- 15 maak eerste vlug Die "X-15 Rocket" -vliegtuig het sy eerste vlug vanaf 'n B-52 bomwerper gemaak in 1959. Die vliegtuig het baie spoedrekords opgestel en 'n topsnelheid van Mach 6. Die X-15 is gebruik om toets baie konsepte wat later in die ruimteprogram gebruik is.

1960

1960 Mislukte beraad in Parys Die beraad in Parys het plaasgevind in die skaduwee van die Russiese neerslag van 'n Amerikaanse U-2-vegter oor die Sowjetunie. Die Sowjette, onder leiding van Chroesjtsjov, gebruik die beraad as 'n manier om 'n propoganda -oorwinning oor die VSA te behaal. Die beraad bereik dus niks anders as om die vlak van retoriek aan beide kante te verhoog nie.
1960 Sino Sowjets Split 'n Ideologiese skeuring ontwikkel tussen die kommunistiese Chinese en die kommunistiese regering van die Sowjetunie. Die ideologiese wortels van die geskil lê in die meer pragramatiese benadering tot wêreldsake wat premier Chroesjtsjov volg. Boonop het die langdurige grensgeskille tussen die partye hul verhoudings begin bewerkstellig.
1960 Syngman Rhee bedank Syngman Rhee word herkies vir 'n vierde termyn as president van Suid-Korea in Maart 1960. Demonstrasies het uitgebreek om te protesteer dat die verkiesings ingerig is. Op 19 April het die polisie op betogers geskiet en 127 mense is dood. Op 27 April bedank Rhee.
1960 Niger, Mauritanië, Mali, Frans -Kongo, Tsjaad en Madagaskar word almal onafhanklik.
1960 Nigerië word onafhanklik Op 1 Oktober word Nigerië onafhanklik. Die eerste goewerneur -generaal was Nnamdi Azikiwe. 'N Jaar later het Noord -Kameroen vir unie met Nigerië gestem.
1960 Onafhanklike Belgiese Kongo Op 30 Junie word 'n onafhanklike Republiek van die Kongo gestig, met Joseph Kasavubu as president en Patrice Lumumba as premier. 'N Burgeroorlog het uitgebreek toe Moise Tshombe die provinsie Kantaga onafhanklik verklaar het. Die Kongo -regering het 'n beroep op die VN gedoen om hulp, en troepe is gestuur. Kasavubu het probeer om Lumumba, wat hulp van die Sowjetblok gevra het, te ontslaan. Toe Lumumba weier om verlig te word, het kolonel Joseph Mobutu, bevelvoerder van die Kongo se weermag, die regering oorgeneem. Lumumba is gevang en vermoor. Die afstigting in Kantaga het uiteindelik tot 'n einde gekom in 1964, toe regeringsmagte Albertville ingeneem het.
1960 U-2 neergesak 'n U-2 spioenasievliegtuig, bestuur deur Francis Gary Powers, is deur die Sowjetunie neergeskiet. Die verlaging het daartoe gelei dat die vierdelige beraadvergadering wat op 17 Mei in Parys gehou is, heeltemal misluk het toe president Eisenhower Khruschev se eis om verskoning vir vorige aggressie teen die USSR geweier het.
1960 Polaris-missiel afgevuur Die Amerikaanse vloot het 'n Polaris-missiel uit 'n duikboot getoets. Die suksesvolle afvuur van die Polaris het die Verenigde State in staat gestel om 'n aansienlike deel van sy kern -afskrikmagte op duikbote te baseer, waar hulle veilig was vir 'n suksesvolle eerste aanval deur Sowjet -magte.
1960 USS Enterprise van stapel gestuur Die USS Enterprise was die eerste vliegdekskip wat deur kernreaktors aangedryf is. Die kernreaktors het die onderneming bevry van die behoefte aan brandstof.
1960 Vliegtuie bots Op 16 Desember het twee vliegtuie oor die lug van Brooklyn, NY, gebots. Die twee betrokke vliegtuie was 'n United DC-8 en 'n TWA Super Constellation. Daar was net een oorlewende. Die DC-8 sou op Idlewild land, terwyl die Super Constellation by La Guardia sou land. Hierdie ongeluk, en 'n vorige ongeluk oor die Grand Canyon, het die regering aangespoor om die nasionale lugverkeerbeheerstelsel op te knap.


'N Span van verskeie rekenaarvervaardigers en die Pentagon ontwikkel COBOL-'n afkorting van Common Business-Oriented Language. Baie van die spesifikasies daarvan lei baie by die vroeëre FLOW-MATIC-taal. Vroeë COBOL -pogings wat ontwerp is vir sakegebruik, is gemik op die leesbaarheid van rekenaarprogramme en soveel as moontlik masjienonafhanklikheid. Ontwerpers het gehoop dat 'n COBOL -program op enige rekenaar kan werk waarvoor 'n samesteller bestaan ​​met slegs minimale aanpassings.

Howard Bromberg, 'n ongeduldige lid van die komitee wat verantwoordelik was vir die oprigting van COBOL, het hierdie grafsteen laat maak uit vrees dat die taal geen toekoms het nie. COBOL oorleef egter tot vandag toe. 'N Studie in 1997 het beraam dat meer as 200 biljoen reëls COBOL -kode nog bestaan, wat 80% van alle besigheidsagteware -kode uitmaak.


1950 s

1950 - 10 Mei: Na nog drie jaar se debat, gaan die kongres goed en president Harry S. Truman onderteken die publiekreg 81-507 en stig die National Science Foundation. Die wet maak voorsiening vir 'n National Science Board (NSB) van 24 deeltydse lede en 'n direkteur as uitvoerende hoof, almal deur die president aangestel. Die eerste NSB -vergadering word op 12 Desember gehou.

Lede van die National Science Board, Julie 1951 (van links na regs):
Eerste ry: Dr. John W. Davis, dr. Sophie B. Aberle, dr. Detlev W. Bronk, dr. James B. Conant, dr. Alan T. Waterman, dr. Gerty T. Cori, eerwaarde Patrick H. Yancey
Staande ry: Dr. Marston Morse, dr. E.C. Stakman, dr. Chester I. Barnard, dr. Paul M. Gross, dr. Frederick A. Middlebush, dr. Joseph C. Morris, dr. James A. Reyniers, dr. O.W. Hyman, dr. Lee A. DuBridge, dr. Robert F. Loeb, dr. Robert P. Barnes, dr. George D. Humphrey, dr. A.A. Potter, meneer Charles Dollard.

Krediet: NSF -versameling. Laai die JPG-weergawe van die beeld met 'n hoë resolusie af. (1,38 MB)

1951 - Maart: Alan T. Waterman, hoofwetenskaplike by die Office of Naval Research, word deur president Truman genomineer om die eerste direkteur van die NSF te word. (Waterman Biografie) Hy word voorsien van 'n aanvanklike krediet van $ 225,000.

1952 - 1 Februarie: Die National Science Board keur die eerste 28 navorsingsbeurse goed wat deur NSF toegeken word. Die eerste toekenning, vir $ 10,300, gaan aan die Institute for Cancer Research. 'N Totaal van 97 navorsingsbeurse word in die eerste jaar toegeken. Onder die ontvangers is Max Delbruck (Nobelprys, 1969).

1952 - April: Die eerste predoktorale en postdoktorale genootskappe word toegeken. Onder die ontvangers is die sosiobioloog Edward O. Wilson (Pulitzer -prys, 1979 en 1991) en fisikus Burton Richter (Nobelprys, 1976). (Die National Science Foundation -klas van 1952)

1953 - Mei: NSF borg mede 'n konferensie oor die versterking van kollege-fisika-onderrig op voorgraadse vlak. NSF word aangemoedig om navorsingsgeleenthede vir kollege -fakulteite uit te brei en voorgraadse navorsing aan te moedig, wat dit in die daaropvolgende jare sal doen.

1954 - Julie -Augustus: 'N Eksperimentele somerprogram vir wiskunde -onderwysers op hoërskool word in Seattle, Washington, gehou. Dit is die begin van NSF se voortgesette ondersteuning van opvoedkundige aktiwiteite wat op die kleuterskool gerig is deur middel van hoërskoolonderriggemeenskappe.

1955: NSF ontvang sy eerste krediet ter ondersteuning van die Internasionale Geofisiese Jaar (IGY). Op versoek van die National Research Council is NSF verantwoordelik vir die verkryging en administrasie van staatsfinansiering vir Amerikaanse deelname aan die wêreldwye wetenskaplike navorsingsprogram. (Wetenskap in die Koue Oorlog: Die nalatenskap van die internasionale geofisiese jaar - nie aanlyn beskikbaar nie)

Die eerste beplanningstoelaes word gegee vir die oprigting van nasionale radio- en optiese sterrekundige sterrewagte.

1956: Bouwerk begin aan die National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va. Die sterrewag sal in 1962 voltooi wees.

Die 300-voet transito-radioteleskoop by die National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va. Voltooi in September 1962, was dit op daardie stadium die grootste beweegbare radioteleskoop ter wêreld.

Krediet: NSF -versameling. Laai die JPG-weergawe van die beeld met 'n hoë resolusie af. (188 KB)

Die eerste NSF -toekennings word toegeken om rekenaarsentrums en navorsing in numeriese analise te ondersteun. Drie jaar later word 'n aparte begroting opgestel vir toelaes om akademiese instellings in staat te stel om groot rekenaartoerusting aan te skaf.

1957 - 22 Januarie: Die Suidpool -stasie is amptelik ingewy. Die Verenigde State het ses wetenskaplike stasies in Antarktika gevestig, met befondsing verskaf deur NSF.

1957 - 1 Julie: Die IGY begin amptelik.

1957 - 1 Augustus: Die navorsingsprogram vir sosiale wetenskap word gestig. NSF ondersteun antropologie, ekonomie, sosiologie, en geskiedenis en filosofie van die wetenskap.

1957 - 4 Oktober: Die Sowjetunie lanseer Spoetnik I, die eerste mensgemaakte satelliet, in 'n wentelbaan. Dit veroorsaak 'n nasionale selfbeoordeling van wetenskaplike navorsing en opvoeding in die Verenigde State. Die kongres reageer deur die NSF -krediet meer as te verdubbel tot $ 134 miljoen vir die twaalf maande wat begin op 1 Julie 1958. Finansiering vir onderwys is meer as verdriedubbel.

1958 - 11 Julie: NSF kry die verantwoordelikheid om 'n navorsingsprogram vir weermodifikasie op te stel.

1958 - 4 Augustus: Die Verenigde State se Antarktiese Navorsingsprogram (USAP) is gestig by NSF, met die verantwoordelikheid vir die koördinering en bestuur van die Amerikaanse wetenskaplike program in Antarktika.

1958 - 31 Desember: Die IGY eindig amptelik.

1959 - 13 Maart: President Dwight D. Eisenhower onderteken uitvoerende bevel 10807, wat aan NSF die aansienlik groter verantwoordelikheid gee om wetenskaplike inligting makliker vir wetenskaplikes beskikbaar te stel. Die NSF se kantoor vir wetenskaplike inligting word ingestel om die nuwe pligte uit te voer.

1959 - 25 Augustus: President Eisenhower onderteken die publiekreg 86-209 en vestig die National Medal of Science.


Historiese gebeure in 1959

    Rohan Kanhai voltooi 256 teen Indië by Calcutta 45ste Rose Bowl: #2 Iowa klop #16 Kalifornië, 38-12 25th Sugar Bowl: #1 LSU klop #12 Clemson, 7-0 25ste Orange Bowl: #5 Oklahoma klop #9 Syracuse, 21-6 USSR loods Mechta (Luna 1) vir die eerste maanvlieg, die eerste sonbaan Alaska word toegelaat as die 49ste Amerikaanse deelstaat Luna 1 (Mechta) word die eerste vaartuig om die aarde se swaartekrag te verlaat & quot; Bozo the Clown & quot; lewendige kinderprogram op televisie

Gebeurtenis van Rente

5 Januarie stel Buddy Holly sy laaste rekord vry & quotIt Doesn't Matter & quot hy is dood in 'n vliegtuigongeluk 29 dae later

Gebeurtenis van Rente

7 Januarie VSA erken Fidel Castro se Kubaanse regering

Gebeurtenis van Rente

7 Januarie Amerikaanse gangster Meyer Lansky vlug uit Kuba na die Bahamas weens die Kubaanse rewolusie en opkoms van Fidel Castro

Gebeurtenis van Rente

8 Januarie Charles de Gaulle ingehuldig as president van Frankryk se 5de Republiek

Televisie Première

9 Januarie "Rawhide" met Clint Eastwood het première op CBS TV

Gebeurtenis van Rente

12 Januarie Die Amerikaanse platemaatskappy Motown word gestig deur Berry Gordy Jr. as Tamla Records

    Franse president Charles de Gaulle verleen amnestie aan 130 Algeriërs wat ter dood veroordeel is King Boudouin belowe onafhanklikheid van die Belgiese Kongo & quotSê, Darling & sluit in ANTA Theatre NYC na 332 optredes

Gebeurtenis van Rente

20 Jan. Dmitri Sjostakowitsj se Moskou-Tsjerjomoesjki het première in Moskou

NBA All-Star Spel

23 Januarie 9de NBA All-Star Game, Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Mi: West klop Oos, 124-108 MVP's: Elgin Baylor, Minneapolis Lakers, F Bob Pettit, St. Louis Hawks, C eerste medewenners van MVP-toekenning

    "Party with Comden & amp Green" sluit by John Golden NYC na 38 optredes Dmitri Shostakovich se komedie & quotCheryomushk & quot; première in Moskou WHCT TV -kanaal 18 in Hartford, CT (IND) begin met die uitsending van die eerste transkontinentale kommersiële straalvlug (Amerikaans) (LA na NY vir $ 301)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

25 Januarie Pous Johannes XXIII roep die 2de Vatikaanraad uit

    Die Italiaanse regering van Fanfani bedank KOKH TV -kanaal 25 in Oklahoma City, OK (IND/PBS) begin uitsaai

Musiek Première

Verdrag van Rente

31 Jan. Joe Cronin teken 'n 7 -jaar -ooreenkoms om hoof van AL te word

    Switserse mans stem teen stemreg vir vroue Texas Instruments versoek patent van IC (Integrated Circuit) Heiss-susters gaan 1-2 in Amerikaanse vroue se skaatsryke C se verdedigende kampioen Carol wen van Nancy David Jenkins wen sy derde opeenvolgende manstitel WVUE TV-kanaal 8 in New Orleans, LA (ABC), begin die uitsaai van die buiteveldspeler Zack Wheat, 'n Brooklyn Robins-gunsteling uit die 1910's en 1920's, tot die Baseball Hall of Fame Wheat-treffer, 317, in 'n 19-jarige loopbaan, en 'n slag van 300 of beter 14 keer

Gholf Toernooi

1 Februarie Senior PGA -kampioenskap vir mans se gholf, PGA National GC: Willie Goggin, met 'n leen stel bos, wen met 1 hou voor Leland Gibson, Paul Runyan en Denny Shute

Kontrak van Rente

2 Februarie teken Vince Lombardi 'n kontrak van 5 jaar om die NFL Green Bay Packers af te rig

    American Airlines Electra stort neer in die East River in NY, en 65 sterf in 'n vliegtuigongeluk op die dag toe die musiek sterf en musikante Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, JP Richardson en vlieënier naby Clear Lake, Iowa, begin met die uitvoer van kopererts

Gebeurtenis van Rente

7 Februarie verkoop Dorothy Rigney White Sox aan Bill Veeck vir 'n berig van $ 27 miljoen

    Nederlandse prinses Wilhelmina publiseer 'Eenzaam, maar nie alleen nie' Tornado in St Louis maak 19 dood en beseer 265 Vinoo Mankad beëindig sy laaste toetskrieket (v WI in Delhi) Die Lincoln Memorial -ontwerp op die Amerikaanse sent gaan in omloop. Miro Cardon, premier van Kuba, bedank die heroïenbeslag van $ 3,6 miljoen in NYC

Gebeurtenis van Rente

    Fidel Castro word die 16de premier van Kuba nadat hy Fulgencio Batista Leonard Spigelgass se 'Majority of' première in NYC se eerste weersatelliet omvergewerp het, Vanguard 2, 9,8 kg Brittanje, Turkye en Griekeland onderteken 'n ooreenkoms wat onafhanklikheid van Ciprus verleen Gabon neem sy grondwet aan

Gebeurtenis van Rente

20 Februarie speel Jimi Hendrix (16), rock and roll kitaarspeler, sy eerste optrede in die Temple De Hirsch -sinagoge -kelder, Seattle. Hy word afgedank uit die orkes ná die 1ste stel weens & quotwild & quot speel

Gebeurtenis van Rente

20 Februarie Die Avro Arrow -program vir die ontwerp en vervaardiging van supersoniese straaljagters in Kanada word te midde van baie politieke debat deur die Diefenbaker -regering gekanselleer.

    Eerste Daytona 500: Lee Petty en Johnny Beauchamp kruis die eindstreep langs mekaar Beauchamp verklaar dat die nie-amptelike wennerbesluit omgedraai word na 3 dae deur die stigter van NASCAR Bill France Sr KVIE TV-kanaal 6 in Sacramento-Stockton, CA (PBS) begin die uitruil van die handel in Chicago Cards Ollie Matson na LA Rams vir 9 spelers

NBA Rekord

27 Februarie Boston Celtic Bob Cousy stel NBA -rekord met 28 assists Boston Celtics behaal 173 punte teen Minneapolis Lakers

    "Goldilocks" sluit in Lunt Fontanne Theatre NYC na 161 optredes Ice Dance Championship in Colorado Springs USA gewen deur Denny & amp; Jones van Great Britain Ice Pairs Championship in Colorado Springs gewen deur Barbara Wagner en Robert Paul van Kanada, hul derde titel Ladies Figure Skating Championship in Colorado Springs gewen deur Carol Heiss VSA Bekendstelling van Discoverer 1 (WTR) -1ste polêre wentelbaan Wêreldskaats-kampioenskap vir mans in Colorado Springs gewen deur David Jenkins VSA NFL-handel, Chicago Cards verhandel Ollie Matson na LA Rams vir 9 spelers Aartsbiskop Makarios keer terug na Ciprus 3 jaar seremonie ter aanvang van die bou van die operahuis in Sydney in Bennelong Point, Pioneer 4, die eerste Amerikaanse sonde van die Amerikaanse son om 'n wentelbaan te betree, het die Britse regering se arrestasies Hastings Banda van Nyasaland geloods en die noodkrisis word beëindig. San Francisco Giants hernoem hul stadion Candlestick Park US Pioneer IV mis Moon & amp word die 2de (US 1ste) kunsmatige planeet

Golden Globes

Emmy Toekennings

6 Maart 11de Emmy -toekennings: Playhouse 90, Jack Benny Show, Raymond Burr wen

    Verste radiosignaal gehoor (Pioneer IV, 400 000 myl) & quotBells Are Ringing & quot sluit in Shubert Theatre NYC na 925 optredes 1ste vlieënier om 1,61 miljoen km in 'n straalvliegtuig (MC Garlow) in Wes -Indië te vlieg in 76 teen Pakistan by Dacca , Fazal Mahmood 6-34 6de ACC-mansbaltoernooi vir mans: NC State klop Noord-Carolina, 80-56 Groucho, Chico en Harpo Marx se laaste TV-voorkoms saam KUAT TV-kanaal 6 in Tucson, AZ (PBS) begin uitsending van pro-Egiptiese staatsgreep in Mosul Iraq The Coasters se enkelsnit & quot; Charlie Brown & quot; piek op nommer 2 op die Billboard Top 100 & quot; Juno & quot; open by Winter Garden Theatre NYC vir 16 optredes. Meer as 'n miljard is sedertdien wêreldwyd verkoop. Dorothy Comiskey Rigney, verkoop 54% van White Sox aan Bill Veeck

Gebeurtenis van Rente

10 Maart Tennessee Williams se & quot; Sweet Bird of Youth & quot; première in NYC

    Tibetaanse opstand teen Chinese besettingsmag in Lhasa, Tibet & quotRaisin in the Sun & quot; eerste Broadway -stuk deur 'n swart vrou, open vierde Eurovision Song Contest: Teddy Scholten vir Nederland wen sang & quotEen bietjie & quot in Cannes

NBA Rekord

18 Maart Boston Celtic se Bill Sharman begin rekord van 56 reguit vryskoppe

Gebeurtenis van Rente

18 Maart onderteken die Amerikaanse president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 'n wetsontwerp op die staatskaping van Hawaii

    & quot

Gebeurtenis van Rente

21 Maart 21ste NCAA-basketbalkampioenskap vir mans: Kalifornië klop West Virginia, 71-70 WV toekomstige Hall of Fame puntwagter Jerry West word aangewys as MOP

    113de Grand National: Michael Scudamore wen aan boord 8/1 tweede gunsteling Oxo, slegs 4 van 32 beginners begin die wedloop Irak onttrek aan die Bagdad -verdrag Die Party van die Afrikaanse Federasie (PFA) word geloods deur Léopold Sédar Senghor en Modibo Keita. Bill White verruil na St Louis vir kruikers Sam Jones en Don Choate Franse president De Gaulle erken Oder-Neisse se grensdebuut vir die Pakistaanse krieketspeler Mushtaq Mohammad teen Wes-Indië, 15 jaar oud 11 dae na die opstand in Tibet, ontbind China die regering van Tibet en installeer Panchen Lama

Film Vrylating

Som Like It Hot, geregisseer deur Billy Wilder, met Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis en Jack Lemmon in die hoofrol

Gebeurtenis van Rente

30 Maart Dalai Lama vlug uit China en kry politieke asiel in Indië

    Mali Federasie gestig, bestaande uit Senegal en Frans-Soedan (ontbind 1960) Frankryk klop Wallis, 11-3 op Stade Colombes om die Five Nations Rugby Championship vir die eerste keer 23ste Amerikaanse Meesterstoernooi te wen, Augusta National GC: Art Wall Jr. wen met 1 slag van Cary Middlecoff vir sy enigste PGA Tour-oorwinning, 31ste Oscar-toekennings: & quot; Gigi & quot; Susan Hayward & David Niven wen Oklahoma eindig die verbod, nadat 51 jaar Radar 1st van Sun afgespring het, het Stanford Calif Baltimore Orioles hul tweede driedrukkerspel (3-6) -3 vs Washington Senators) Bill Sharman slaan 'n NBA -rekord 56 agtereenvolgende foutskote NASA noem 1ste 7 ruimtevaarders vir Project Mercury 13de NBA -kampioenskap: Boston Celtics vee Minnesota Lakers in 4 wedstryde, eerste van Boston Celtics rekord 8 opeenvolgende titels Chicago White Sox tweede baseman Nellie Fox kry 'n MLB Opening Day-rekord wat 5 treffers in 7 kolfbeurte behaal in 'n oorwinning van 14 beurte, 9–7 in Detroit Yip Harburg, Fred Saidy en Harold Arlen se musiekblyspel & quotJamaica & quot, starr ing Lena Horne, sluit by Imperial Theatre NYC na 558 optredes Dodger pitcher Don Drysdale tref sy 2de openingsdag HR Nederlandse Prins Bernhard besoek Lockheed -fabriek 13de Tony Awards: J B & amp; Redhead wen Frankryk Observator berig marteling van Franse leër in Algerië

Gebeurtenis van Rente

15 April John Foster Dulles, Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake, bedank

    'Party with Comden & amp Green' open in John Golden NYC vir 44 optredes Datu Abdul Rozak ingehuldig as premier van die Maleisiese federasie, Phils 'Dave Philley kry 'n groot liga -rekord, die nege agtereenvolgende Stanley Cup -eindstryd, Montreal Forum, Montreal, Quebec: Montreal Canadiens se 4de reguit titel klop Toronto Maple Leafs, 5-3 vir 'n oorwinning in die reeks van 4-1, Opstand in La Paz Bolivia, misluk die 63ste Boston-marathon wat Eino Oksanen van Finland in 2:22:42 gewen het, Alf Dean met 'n staaf en 'n haspel van 2,664 pond , 16 '10 & quot grootwithaai by die kus van Ceduna, Australië

Bofbal Rekord

22 April Yankee Whitey Ford slaan 15 uit en wen Senators met 1-0 in 14 beurte

    Chicago White Sox klop KC Athletics met 20-6, in 1 beurt behaal Sox 11 lopies op 1 treffer, 10 staptogte en 3 foute & quotDestry Rides Again & quot open by Imperial Theatre NYC vir 472 optredes 1ste heliport in Brittanje open in Londen. Rudi van Dantzig & Cut Flier) WICD TV -kanaal 15 in Champaign, IL (NBC/ABC) begin uitsaai

Gebeurtenis van Rente

27 Apr. Mao Zedong bedank as voorsitter van die Volksrepubliek China na die rampspoedige mislukking van die groot sprong vorentoe

    Die laaste Kanadese sendeling verlaat die Volksrepubliek China. KLOE TV -kanaal 10 in Goodland, KS (CBS) begin met die uitsaai van KPLR TV -kanaal 11 in Saint Louis, MO (IND) begin om die 6de National Film Awards (Indië) uit te saai: & quotSagar Sangamey & quot wen die Golden Lotus

Bokstitel Veg

1 Mei behaal Floyd Patterson die 11de ronde KO van die Engelsman Brian London in Indianapolis, sy vierde Wêreld -swaargewig -bokstitelverdediging

    Wes -Duitsland stel 5 dae werksweek 85ste Kentucky Derby bekend: Bill Shoemaker aan boord van Tomy Lee wen in 2: 02.2 Tiger's Charlie Maxwell slaan 4 agtereenvolgende HR's in 'n dubbelslag

Grammy Toekennings

4 Mei Eerste Grammy -toekennings: Perry Como en Ella Fitzgerald wen

    Pulitzer-prys toegeken aan Archibald Macleish (JB) & quotThe 400 Blows & quot; Franse film onder regie van François Truffaut, met Jean-Pierre Léaud in die hoofrol, word vrygestel deur Ysland se kanonne op Britse vissersvaartuie

Gebeurtenis van Rente

7 Mei & quot; Roy Campanella Night & quot; Grootste bofbalskare op 93,103 by die LA Coliseum sien Yankees klop Dodgers met 6-2 in uitstallingswedstryd

    'N Nile-uitstapperstoomboot met 3 dekke laat 'n lek ontstaan ​​deur passasiers wat die skip omgeslaan het. 200 verdrink net 'n paar meter van die kus af

Gebeurtenis van Rente

9 Mei Dorothy Rigney, eggenoot John en Hank Greenberg bedank uit White Sox

    Sowjet -magte arriveer in Afganistan Reuse Jim Hearn laat 2 lopies teen Pirates toe, spel word opgeskort, Hearn word vrygelaat en aangekla van verlies 2 maande na sy uittrede & quotKookie, Kookie Lend Me Your Comb & quot deur Byrnes en Connie Stevens tref #4

Musiek Première

11 Mei Mary Rodgers en Marshall Barer se musiekspel "Once Upon A Mattress", met Carol Burnett in die hoofrol en geregisseer deur George Abbott, open in Phoenix Theatre, NYC speel vir 244 optredes

Gebeurtenis van Rente

11 Mei New York Yankees -vanger Yogi Berra se foutlose reeks van 148 wedstryde eindig

Gebeurtenis van Rente

12 Mei "Nervous Set" open in Henry Miller's Theatre NYC vir 23 optredes


KOS GESKIEDENIS TYDLYN1956 tot 1960

1956 Die eerste volledig omheinde winkelsentrum, Southdale Shopping Center, word in Edina, Minnesota, geopen.

1956 Fritz Hofmann sterf (gebore 1866). Duitse chemikus wat die eerste keer rubber vervaardig het (Duitse patent nr. 250690, 12 September 1909).

1956 Chen Kenichi is gebore. Chinese sjef (gebore in Japan), veral bekend vir sy rol in die TV -reeks ' Ysterskok '. Hy is die enigste Iron Chef wat sy posisie gedurende die hele reeks van die program beklee het.

1956 Louis Bromfield sterf. Amerikaanse natuurbewaarder en skrywer. 'The Green Bay Tree ' (1924), 'Vroeg herfs ' (1926), 'The Farm ' (1933), 39 Die reën het gekom (1937). Sy Malabar -boerdery in Ohio is nou 'n staatspark. Verkies in die Ohio Agricultural Hall of Fame. Sy innoverende werk beïnvloed steeds landboumetodes oor die hele wêreld.

1956 Anthony Bourdain is gebore. Amerikaanse bekende sjef, skrywer en kookreisiger. Gasheer van 'Anthony Bourdain: Geen besprekings ' op die Travel Channel.

1956 Alain Ducasse is in Frankryk gebore. Een van die suksesvolste en mees gerespekteerde sjefs en restaurante ter wêreld, met 24 restaurante (drie met 3 Michilin -sterre) en 3 hotelle.

1956 Caesar Cardini sterf. Sjef en restaurateur in die VSA en Mexiko, hy word erken dat hy die Caesar Salad in die 1920's by sy restaurant in Tijuana, Mexiko, geskep het.

1956 'Heartbreak Hotel ' deur Elvis Presley is nommer 1 op die musiekkaarte.

1956 Elvis Presley sing 'Heartbreak Hotel ' op die 'Milton Berle Show. ' Na raming het 25% van die Amerikaanse bevolking ingeskakel om na hom te luister.

1956 Op die 'Ek is lief vir Lucy ' show, het Lucy druiwe in Rome gestamp en geworstel met 'n ander druiwetrap. 'N Inspirasie vir toekomstige voedselstoei ' -entrepreneurs. Dit is eintlik een van die snaakste sitkomepisodes wat nog ooit gemaak is.

1956 Mierplase. Tydens 'n gesinspiekniek van die vierde Julie het Milton Levine die idee gekry vir die Ant Farm. Ek wonder of hy drome gehad het om hulle te omhein sodat hulle hom nie by pieknieks sou pla nie?

1956 Curnonsky (Maurice Edmond Sailland) is oorlede. Op 84 -jarige ouderdom leun hy te ver by sy venster uit en val dood. Franse skrywer, romanskrywer, biograaf en gastronoom. Hy was bekend as die 'Prins van Gastronomes', 'n titel wat hy in 1927 tydens 'n openbare referendum toegeken is, en 'n titel wat niemand anders ooit gekry het nie.

1956 Marion sleepbessie het die belangrikste swartbessie kultivar ter wêreld bekendgestel.

1956 'My vriend Flicka ' première op CBS TV. Die reeks oor 'n seun en sy perd speel af op die Goose Bar Ranch in Montana.

1956 Die sanger Parry Donahue van The Waitresses ('n New Wave -orkes) is gebore.

1956 Die Grondbankprogram is gemagtig

1956 Bela Lugosi (Béla Ferenc Dezso Blaskó) is oorlede. Hy is veral bekend vir sy rol as die bloeddrinkende vampier in die film van 1931 'Dracula '

1956 Del Monte Pineapple Grapefruit Drink is bekendgestel.

1956 Clarence Birdseye is in New York oorlede. In 1924 het Clarence Birdseye, met die finansiële steun van Wetmore Hodges, William Gamage, Basset Jones, I.L. Rice en J.J. Barry, het die General Seafood Corporation georganiseer. Die geboorte van die bevrore voedselbedryf.

1956 Ysblokkies, iemand? Die Amerikaanse vloot -ysbreker, USS Glacier, het die grootste ysberg gesien wat nog ooit aangeteken is. Op 208 myl lank en 60 myl breed was dit ongeveer die grootte van België! Die ysberg het van die Ross -ysrak in die Antarktika gebreek.

1956 80% van die Amerikaanse huishoudings het 'n yskas, maar slegs 8% van die Britse huishoudings het dit.

1956 Budweiser Brewery stel Busch -bier bekend.

1956 Vier Amerikaanse sjefs wen die Culinary Olympics in Frankfurt, Duitsland Paul Laesecke, Otto Spielbachler, Paul Leuppe en Paul Debes.

1956 Die grootste mossel wat ooit aangeteken is, is in 1956 in Okinawa gevind, dit weeg 750 pond.

1956 Die eerste verwysing in druk na die drankie Bloody Mary verskyn in 'Pons '

1957 Burger King het die Whopper -burger bekend gestel.

1957 Die Frisbee is uitgevind (gepatenteer in 1958). Die tertblikke van die Frisbee Pie Company of Connecticut was die inspirasie vir die skepping van die Frisbee. 'N Werknemer van Wham-O het vermoedelik bestuurders van die tertbedryf gesien wat Yale-studente wys hoe om die tertblikke te gooi.

1957 Drie B-52's het die eerste non-stopvliegtuig, regoor die wêreld, met 'n straalvliegtuig gemaak, vanaf die Castle Air Force Base in Kalifornië. Die rit het 45 uur en 19 minute geduur. Ek is nuuskierig oor wat hulle tydens hierdie vlug geëet het. As iemand inligting het, stuur 'n e -pos aan my.

1957 Die lied 'Tequila ' deur die Champs aangeteken is.

1957 Die piepschuimkoeler is uitgevind.

1957 The Banana Boat Song (Day-O) deur Harry Belafonte is nommer een op die kaarte.

1957 William Cadbury, chocolatier, is op 89 -jarige ouderdom oorlede.

1957 Die aktrise Kelly McGillis is gebore. McGillis het 'n restaurant in Key West, Florida, genaamd Kelly's Place.

1957 Laaste wedstryd van die grootste bofbalspan in die geskiedenis. Op 4 September word die laaste wedstryd op Ebbets Field in Brooklyn gespeel terwyl die Dodgers voorberei om na LA te verhuis. Op 23 Februarie 1960 breek hulle die stadion af. Dae wat in berugte sal lewe! Ek dink jy kan sien ek is in Brooklyn gebore.

1957 Velcro is gepatenteer deur George de Mestral van Switserland.

1957 Wet op Humane Slagting aangeneem om veehanteringsprosedures in vleisverpakkingsaanlegte te beheer.

1957 Beter huise en tuine druk sy eerste mikrogolf-kookartikel uit.

1957 Die verkope van margarien oorskry die eerste keer botterverkope.

1957 General Foods Corp. stel TANG ontbyt drank kristalle bekend.

1957 Dairy Queen Hamburgers en Hot Dogs word eers by die Dairy Queen -spyskaart by sommige winkels in Georgië gevoeg.

1957 Die ruimtetydperk begin. Die Sowjetunie het Spoetnik I in 'n wentelbaan gelanseer - die eerste kunsmatige satelliet, wat om die 96 minute om die aarde wentel. Dit brand toe dit op 'n wentelbaan op 4 Januarie 1958 val.

1957 William C. Coleman is dood (gebore 21 Mei 1870). Uitvinder en stigter van die Coleman Company, vervaardiger van kamptoerusting.

1957 Craig Claiborne is aangewys as voedselredakteur van The New York Times.

1957 Idaho het die grootste aartappelprodusent geword en Maine ingehaal.

1957 Wet op die inspeksie van pluimvee het verpligte federale inspeksie van pluimvee wat in die interstaatlike handel verkoop word, gemagtig.

1957 Kentucky Fried Chicken begin hoender in emmers verkoop.

1957 Ainsley Harriott is gebore. Britse sjef. TV -kookprogramme sluit in ‘Ready Steady Cook ’, ‘Can 't Cook Won 't Cook ’, ‘Ainsley 's Barbecue Bible ’, ‘Gourmet Express ’.

1958 Die Boston Herald het 'n brief van Olga Owens Huckins gedruk waarin die plaagdoder DDT as gevaarlik aangeval is. Sy het ook aan haar vriendin Rachel Carson geskryf, wat Carson aangespoor het om te skryf 'Silente lente. ' Die openbare oproer wat gevolg het op die boek se publikasie het die verbod op DDT genoodsaak.

1958 Samuel Hopkins Adams is dood. Amerikaanse skrywer en joernalis. Sy reeks artikels in 1905 oor patentmedisyne (Die Groot Amerikaanse Bedrog ') vir Collier 's Weekly, het gelei tot die aanvaarding van die Pure Food and Drug Act van 1906.

1958 'The Chipmunk Song ' deur The Chipmunks, Alvin, Simon en Theodore (David Seville) was nommer 1 op die musiekkaarte.

1958 James Drummond Dole sterf (gebore 27 September 1877). Hy het in 1901 die Hawaiian Pineapple Company gestig, herdoop tot Dole Pineapple Co., later Dole Food Co.

1958 Die eerste IHOP (International House of Pancakes) het op 7 Julie in Riverside Drive 4301 in Toluca Lake, Los Angeles, Kalifornië, geopen.

1958 Sputnik I val op die aarde neer (sien ook 1957).

1958 Die ooreenkomste tot stigting van die Europese Ekonomiese Gemeenskap (EEG of gemeenskaplike mark) het in werking getree.

1958 Die CBS TV -program 'General Electric Theatre ' het 'n episode met die titel uitgesaai 'A Turkye vir die president. ' It starred Nancy Davis (Reagan) with husband Ronald Reagan, future 40th president of the U.S. (1981-1989).

1958 Ant Farms go on sale. Milton Levine had the idea at a July 4th picnic. I wonder if he had dreams of fencing them in so they would not bother him at picnics?

1958 'Sugartime' by the McGuire Sister topped the charts.
1958 'Tequila' by The Champs is #1 on the charts
1958 Shep Wooley recorded "The Purple Eater", it reaches #1 on the charts.
1958 'The Chipmunk Song' becomes the only Christmas song in U.S. in history to be Number #1 on Christmas Day.

1958 Continuous method of making jelly with fruit-juice concentrates developed, instead of using single-strength juice.

1958 Velcro was trademarked.

1958 The first parking meters are installed in England.

1958 The first potato flake manufacturing plant opened in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

1958 The Frisbee was patented. The pie tins of the Frisbee Pie Company of Connecticut were the inspiration for the creation of the Frisbee. A Wham-O employee supposedly saw drivers for the pie company showing Yale students how to throw the pie tins.

1958 A National Airlines Boeing 707 with 111 passengers flew from New York to Miami. It was the first domestic passenger jet flight. ** I am trying to locate information on what food was served on this flight. If anyone has information, please email me [email protected]

1958 Friskees introduced the first dry cat food

1958 Rice-A-Roni goes on sale. Produced by Vince DeDomenico from an Armenian family recipe.

1958 Cocoa Puffs cereal is introduced by General Mills it contains 43% sugar.

1958 Cocoa Krispies is introduced by Kellogg’s - it's 45.9% sugar.

1958 There are 4,063 drive in movie screens nationwide.

1958 The Jolly Green Giant appears on TV with less than stellar results! In his first incarnation he looks like a monster which scares kids. So they lightened him up and added 'Ho, ho, ho' and the lilting 'Good things from the garden' song.

1958 Sweet n' Low was introduced as an artificial sweetener (granulated saccharin, dextrose, cream of tartar and calcium silicate). It received U.S. trademark patent no. 1,000,000.

1958 Frank Carney, 18 years old, reads about the pizza fad with college students. He borrows $600 from his mother and opens the first Pizza Hut in Wichita, Kansas.

1958 McDonald's sold its 100 millionth hamburger.

1958 Jif peanut butter was introduced (creamy).

1958 Royal Crown Cola begins test marketing Diet Rite Cola, the first diet cola. It goes national in 1962.

1959 Duncan Hines died on March 15 (born March 26, 1880). A traveling salesman, he published a list of his favorite restaurants and dishes 'Adventures in Good Eating' in 1935. The book was a big hit and in 1938 he wrote 'Lodging for a Night' and also wrote a newspaper column and became a favorite American restaurant and lodging critic. In the 1950s he licensed the Duncan Hines name for ice cream, cake mixes and other products.

1959 Charles Lavelle Broley died on May 4 (born Dec 7, 1879). A Canadian banker and ornithologist, he was one of the first to implicate DDT in the declining hatching success of bald eagles, and the environmental dangers of pesticides.

1959 The Barbie doll debuted at the American International Toy Fair in New York City.

1959 The last Edsel rolled off the assembly line at Ford Motor Company.

1959 U.S. agricultural exports were about $3.53 billion a year during the 1950s (22% of total exports).

1959 The Aluminum Specialty Company of Manitowoc, Wisconsin introduced the aluminum Christmas Tree.

1959 Average commercial fertilizer use on U.S. farms during the 1950s was about 22.3 million tons per year.

1959 Danny's Coffee Shops are renamed Denny’s.

1959 In 1959 there were about 15,000 'delis' in New York City.

1959 Maxwell House inaugurates the 'Good to the last drop' ad campaign.

1959 Bic Pens are introduced in the U.S. Europe has had them since 1952.

1959 At the first Grammy Awards, 'Tequila' by the Champs won best Best Rhythm & Blues Performance for 1958.

1959 Oklahoma repeals its 51 year old Prohibition law leaving Mississippi the only 'dry' state in America.

1959 Food for Peace Program inaugurated.

1959 The heavy, fudge-like Chocolate Velvet Cake was created by pastry chef Albert Kumin of the Four Seasons restaurant.

1959 There are 32,000 supermarkets in the U.S. and account for 69 percent of all food store sales.

1959 The 7 oz. seamless, recyclable aluminum beer can is introduced by Coors of Golden, Colorado.

1959 The one billionth can of Spam was sold.

1959 Mechanical tomato harvester developed.

1959 McDonald's opens its 100th restaurant in Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin.

1959 New York's Four Seasons restaurant and The Brasserie open in the new Seagram Building.

1959 The day the music died. February 3, 1959. Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.P. Richardson (The Big Bopper) are killed in a plane crash near Mason City, Iowa.

1959 Rap singer 'Ice T' was born (Tracy Morrow).

1959 The Coasters song 'Charlie Brown' is banned by the BBC because it refers to 'throwin' spitballs.' The ban only lasted 2 weeks.

1959 The St. Lawrence Seaway opened. It connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. Its completion opened the heart of Americas industrial and agricultural areas to ocean going vessels for shipping.

1959 Icelandic gunboats fired on British trawlers during their 'Cod War' over fishing rights.

1959 Mary Leakey, wife of Louis Leakey, discovered a human skull in Tanganyika (Tanzania). It is about 1.8 million years old.

1959 Kitchen Debate. Then vice president Richard M. Nixon argued with Soviet Leader Nikita Khruschev while Khruschev was touring the United States. They were touring a kitchen at the time, and the discussion became known as the Kitchen Debate.

1959 Congress passes legislation authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to run a Food Stamp program through 1962. However the Eisenhower Administration never uses the authority.

1959 The TV show 'Bonanza' premiers. The frontier adventures of the Cartwright family, father and 3 sons and Chinese cook Hop Sing, on the 'Ponderosa' ranch near Lake Tahoe, Nevada.

1959 Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev is told he cannot visit Disneyland. Krushchev was indignant. The reason given was security concerns. Can you picture Krushchev cavorting with Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse?

1959 Emeril Lagasse was born in Fall River, Massachusetts. American celebrity chef, restaurateur (13 restaurants), cookbook author and cooking show host ('Emeril Live', 'Essence of Emeril', etc).

1959 Polish born New York businessman Reuben Mattus created a premium ice cream. He gave it the Danish sounding name, Haagan Dazs, and put a map of Scandinavia on the carton.

1959 Mike Ilitch opened the first 'Little Caesars Pizza'

1959 Hawaii officially became the 50th state of the U.S.. (Voters in the Hawaii Territory had ratified a state constitution in 1950).

1959 Charles 'Charlie' Trotter was born. Famed American chef and restaurateur. His eponymous Chicago restaurant (opened in 1987) was recognized as one of the finest in the world. He was also host of the PBS cooking show 'Kitchen Sessions with Charlie Trotter' and the author of 14 cookbooks.

1960 Wilbur Hardee opened the first Hardee's restaurant in Greenville, North Carolina on Sept 3. It had no tables, and only a few items on the menu, but the drive-thru restaurant was an immediate success. The main attraction was a 15-cent fresh-ground, lean beef burger made to order on a custom-built charcoal broiler.

1960 Mario Batali was born. American chef, author, restaurateur.

1960 OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, was formed.

1960 Alfred Hitchcock's classic thriller 'Psycho' premiered on June 16. It was the first film to show a toilet flushing. (Janet Leigh's character flushed a torn up piece of paper).

1960 The population of the U.S. is now 179,323,175. Farmers are 8.3% of the labor force. There are about 3,711,000 farms, averaging about 303 acres.

1960 There are about 45 million television sets in the U.S. About 90% of homes had at least one TV set.

1960 More than 95% of U.S. corn acreage is planted with hybrid seed.

1960 Dr. Asselbergs developed the process for making instant mashed potato flakes, the basic process that is still used today.

1960 Die 'I Hate to Cook Book' by Ruth Eleanor 'Peg' Bracken was published.

1960 Walter D. Teague died on Dec 5 (born Dec 18, 1883). A pioneering industrial designer, he designed Steuben glassware, cameras for Kodak and Polaroid and Texaco gas stations.

1960 Frozen bagels were introduced.

1960 Instant sweet potatoes developed.

1960 Four 'colored' students from the Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro, North Carolina sat down at the lunch counter in Woolworth's and ordered coffee. They were refused service, but made history.

1960 The first Playboy Club opened in Chicago at 116 E. Walton Street, in downtown Chicago.

1960 Agnes Arber died. Arber was a British botanist, who wrote 'Herbals: Their Origin and Evolution' (1912) and 'The Gramineae: A Study of Cereal, Bamboo and Grass' (1934).

1960 Tiros I, the first weather observation satellite was launched from Cape Kennedy.

1960 Little Debbie Oatmeal Cream Pies were introduced for 49 cents.

1960 'How America Eats' by Clementine Paddleford was published.

1960 Georges Claude died. A French engineer, he invented the neon light, commonly used for signs.

1960 Chubby Checker's 'The Twist' was released. It reached #1 on the charts.

1960 The National Agricultural Center & Hall of Fame established.

1960 The last episode of 'The Howdy Doody Show' airs on NBC. Remember the ‘Peanut Gallery’?

1960 Dr. Irving Cooper received a wine bottle opener for Christmas. It injected carbon dioxide gas into the bottle to force the cork out. He noticed the gas was extremely cold coming out from the needle-like device. This gave him the idea to develop a brain surgery technique using liquid nitrogen to freeze tiny areas of brain cells or tumors.

1960 Ray Charles recorded 'One Mint Julep.'

1960 Chicago's last packing house closed.

1960 'A Taste of Honey' opened at the Lyceum Theatre in New York City.

1960 The Hawaiian Pineapple Company was renamed Dole Corp.

1960 The non-dairy coffee creamer, 'Coffee Rich' was introduced.

1960 Aluminum cans were first used commercially for food and beverages.

1960 The Four Seasons hotel chain was founded.

1960 Domino's Pizza was founded.

1960 Granny Smith apples were first imported from New Zealand and sold in the U.S.

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Women and African American History: 1492-1699

• Columbus discovered America, from the perspective of Europeans. Queen Isabella of Spain declared all indigenous peoples her subjects, in the lands claimed by Columbus for Spain, preventing the Spanish conquerors from enslaving the Native Americans. The Spanish thus looked elsewhere for the labor they needed to take advantage of the New World's economic opportunities.

• Spain permitted enslaved African to be sent to the Americas

• first enslaved African arrived in Hispaniola

• Isabel de Olvero, part of the Juan Guerra de Pesa Expedition, helped to colonize what has since become New Mexico

• (August 20) 20 captive men and women from Africa arrived on a ship and were sold in the first North American auction of enslaved people -- by British and international custom, Africans could be held in servitude for life, though White Christian indentured servants could only be held for a limited term

• Anthony Johnson, son of an African mother, arrived in Virginia. He lived with his wife, Mary Johnson, in Accomack on Virginia's Eastern Shore, the first free Negroes in Virginia (Anthony taking his last name from his original enslaver). Anthony and Mary Johnson eventually founded the first free Black community in North America, and themselves held servants "for life."

• Virginia census lists 23 "Negroes" including some women ten have no names listed and the rest only first names, likely indicating lifetime servitude -- none of the women are listed as married

• Virginia census lists twelve Black men and eleven Black women most have no names and do not have the dates of arrival that most White servants in the census have listed -- only one of the Black men and women has a full name listed

• Massachusetts legalized enslavement, specifying that a child inherited its status from the mother, rather than the father, reversing English common law


Rep. John Lewis: Tydlyn van gebeure in 'n merkwaardige lewe

Die burgerregte -ikoon John Lewis sterf op 80 -jarige ouderdom

In 2019 het die jarelange Demokratiese kongreslid en ikoon vir burgerregte aangekondig dat hy behandeling vir gevorderde pankreaskanker ondergaan.

Rep. John Lewis, gebore in die landelike Alabama tydens die donker dae van Jim Crow -segregasie, het uit armoede opgestaan ​​om 'n leier van die burgerregtebeweging te word en is later tot die kongres verkies. Hier is 'n tydlyn van 'n paar belangrike gebeurtenisse in Lewis se lewe.

21 Februarie 1940: Gebore as die seun van Black sharecroppers naby Troy, Alabama.

Herfs 1959: Lank geïnteresseerd in burgerregte en geïnspireer deur die werk van eerwaarde Martin Luther King Jr., neem Lewis deel aan 'n reeks werkswinkels oor gewelddadige konfrontasie terwyl hy aan die kollege in Nashville, Tennessee, studeer. Hy neem verder deel aan sit-ins, massabyeenkomste en die kenmerkende "Freedom Rides" van 1961 wat rasseskeiding in die Suide getoets het.

January 1963: Lewis dien as voorsitter van die koördinerende komitee vir studente en arriveer in Selma, Alabama, om swart mense te help registreer om te stem. Agt maande later en enkele dae nadat hy Martin Luther King Jr. gehelp het om die optog in Washington te organiseer, word Lewis vir die eerste van meer as 40 keer gearresteer vir burgerregte -aktiwiteite in Selma.

7 Maart 1965: Lewis word deur 'n staatstroeper in Alabama geslaan terwyl hy 'n beraamde 600 stemregsoptogers uit Selma op pad na Montgomery wou lei in 'n gewelddadige konfrontasie wat nou bekend staan ​​as Bloody Sunday. Hy spandeer twee dae in die hospitaal.

21-25 Maart 1965: Lewis sluit by duisende ander aan tydens die Selma-na-Montgomery-stemregoptog.

John Lewis, heel regs, word gesien saam met dr. Martin Luther King Jr., vierde van links, en 'n skare van etlike duisende ander, wat na die hof in Montgomery, Ala., 17 Maart 1965 marsjeer. Van links is 'n ongeïdentifiseerde vrou, eerwaarde Ralph Abernathy, James Foreman, koning , Jesse Douglas Sr., en Lewis. (Associated Press)

1971: Lewis neem oor as uitvoerende direkteur van die Voter Education Project, 'n program van die Suidelike Streekraad.

5 April 1977: Lewis, wat sy eerste bod vir die kongres in die metro Atlanta maak, verloor teen 'n gewilde blanke politikus in 'n afloop. Later dieselfde jaar word hy deur president Jimmy Carter aangestel om ACTION, 'n federale vrywilligersagentskap, te lei.

6 Oktober 1981: Lewis wen sy eerste politieke amp met sy verkiesing as lid van die stadsraad van Atlanta, waar hy tot 1986 dien.

4 November 1986: Lewis word verkies tot die kongres wat die 5de distrik van Georgië verteenwoordig, wat 'n groot deel van Atlanta insluit. Hy is 16 keer herkies, mees onlangs sonder opposisie in 2018. Slegs een keer het hy minder as 70% van die stemme gekry.

2001: Lewis ontvang die John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award for Lifetime Achievement, een van 'n menigte eerbewyse, waaronder die Presidential Medal of Freedom, die hoogste burgerlike eer van die land, wat deur president Barack Obama in 2011 oorhandig is.

President Barack Obama oorhandig 'n 2010 presidensiële medalje van vryheid aan die Amerikaanse rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., Tydens 'n seremonie in die East Room van die Withuis in Washington, 15 Februarie 2011. (Associated Press)

27 April 2009: Lewis en vier ander word in Washington gearresteer tydens 'n betoging by die ambassade van Soedan, waar hulle protesteer teen die uitsetting van hulpverleners te midde van 'n humanitêre krisis.

8 Maart 2015: Lewis sluit by Obama, voormalige president George W. Bush en duisende ander in Selma aan by die herdenking van die 50ste herdenking van Bloody Sunday.

22 Junie 2016: Lewis lei 'n Demokratiese sit-in op die vloer van die huis om te protesteer teen die traagheid teen wapenbeheermaatreëls.

29 Desember 2019: Lewis kondig aan dat hy gediagnoseer is met gevorderde pankreaskanker.


Womenswear

F ashion is rarely contained neatly in one decade, and the popular look that dominated womenswear in the 1950s actually emerged in the late 1940s. When Christian Dior’s “New Look” appeared in February 1947, it became an instant success and the nipped-in waist and full-skirted silhouette remained the leading style until the mid-1950s. As the decade progressed, the dominant silhouette became progressively straighter and slimmer, and as fashion began to look to the new “teenager” for inspiration, the elegance and formality of the early part of the decade began to lessen.

As the 1950s began, the initial resistance to the extravagance of the New Look had died down and the silhouette was entrenched in both women’s daywear and eveningwear. Dior himself continued to produce designs that followed the feminine line even while incorporating new elements, like the structural collar seen in figure 1. While this shape remained popular until at least 1954, in his Fashion Sourcebooks: The 1950s, John Peacock describes how this figure evolved throughout the decade:

“from the comparatively early days of the ‘New Look,’ when the square shoulders and masculine details of the 1940s still lingered, through the ultra-feminine and luxurious styles of the mid-1950s – clothes with gently softened shoulderlines, tiny corseted waists, roundly padded hips and long, swirling skirts only eleven inches above the ground” (7).

Even as the silhouette evolved, its core style was seen in evening gowns, day dresses, and separates. A Givenchy dress from 1953 shows how the shape was restyled throughout the decade while remaining true to the nipped-in waist and full skirt (Fig. 3). The pea motif, along with the bright patterned dresses in Better Living magazine (Fig. 2), demonstrates a playfulness that emerged in pattern while the Charles James “Clover Leaf” dress (Fig. 4) and Balenciaga evening dress (Fig. 5) show the experimentation in construction that took place in the fifties.

Fig. 1 - Christian Dior (French, 1905–1957). New-York, 1950-51. Wool. New York: Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.299. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009 Gift of Jeanne Eddy, 1961. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 2 - Better Living. There's News in Print, 1952. Classic Film. Bron: Flickr

Fig. 3 - Hubert de Givenchy (French, 1927–2018). Aantrek, 1953. Linen. New York: Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.913a, b. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009 Gift of Lauren Bacall, 1967. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 4 - Charles James (American, 1906–1978). Clover Leaf, 1953. Silk, silk/rayon. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.53.73. Gift of Elizabeth Fairall, 1953. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 5 - Cristobal Balenciaga (Spanish, 1895–1972). Evening dress, 1951. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993.393.1. Gift of Gina Gerardo, 1993. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

However, while the look was ubiquitous, it was not the only look that rose to prominence in the fifties. In fact, fashion curator Daniel Milford-Cottam writes in Fashion in the 1950s:

“One particularly striking aspect of the decade was the emergence of stylish options. Two ladies could walk down the street in different outfits, yet appear equally modish, be their skirts full and narrow, or one in a form-fitting sheath and the other in a loose sack dress.” (13)

He continues to explain that the idea of choice rather than following one specific style was relatively new in the 1950s. As the decade continued, these choices became varied as new designers such as Cristobal Balenciaga, Charles James, and Hubert de Givenchy introduced different silhouettes. In Costume and Fashion: A Concise History, James Laver writes, “As the decade progressed, clothing became less structured and straighter in cut” (258). Introduced by Chanel, Dior, and Balenciaga around the same time, the straight-cut suit, in contrast to the New Look, emphasized a woman’s natural shape with the jacket hanging at the widest point of the hips, as seen in figure 6. In the latter half of the decade, sheaths – like the Givenchy suit in figure 8 – and high-waisted chemise dresses, introduced by Balenciaga in 1957, became popular. The Balenciaga suit worn by model Suzy Parker (Fig. 7) shows the swing outline that he favored.

While designers such as Dior, Balenciaga, and Charles James created beautiful couture pieces, the craze for sportswear continued. Claire McCardell, the American designer who rose to prominence in the 1940s, continued to produce her popular wrap-over dresses and also introduced pedal-pushers with matching tops (Laver 258). While overall, fashion in the 1950s prided elegance, young women turned to McCardell and other sportswear and less formal designs, like the sundress and swimsuit in figure 10. Perhaps one of the most enduring images of everyday fashion in the fifties is the “poodle skirt.” Credited to Juli Lynne Charlot from California, these simple felt skirts were cut in a circle and could have any sort of embellishment, not just a poodle (Milford-Cottam 20). They were paired with tight-knitted twinsets and while much more casual than the haute couture coming out of Paris, these skirts still followed the line of the New Look with a defined waist and full skirt as seen in figure 9.

Fig. 6 - Gabrielle Chanel (French, 1883–1971). Pak, ca. 1957. Wool. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976.370.2a–c. Gift of Mrs. Stephane Groueff, 1976. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 7 - Louise Dahl-Wolfe (American, 1895-1989). Suzy Parker in Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1953. Kristine. Bron: Flickr

Fig. 8 - Hubert de Givenchy (French, 1927–2018). Ensemble, 1958. Wool. New York: Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.842a, b. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009 Gift of Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Jr., 1960. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 9 - Photographer unknown. Ladies of Vinyl, ca. 1950's. Bron: Pinterest

Fig. 10 - Carolyn Schnurer (American, 1908–1998). The Hakama dress, 1952. Cotton. New York: Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009.300.3141. Gift of the Brooklyn Museum, 2009 Gift of Carolyn Schnurer, 1952. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 11 - Cristobal Balenciaga (Spanish, 1895–1972). Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1957. Kristine. Bron: Flickr

Fig. 12 - Gabrielle Chanel (French, 1883–1971). Skoene, ca. 1959. Leather, metal. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004.333.23a, b. Gift of Bradford Dillman, 2004. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Though it became increasingly acceptable for women to wear slacks for some occasions, overall the fashion mood in the fifties leaned towards femininity and formality. This was especially true in eveningwear as the cocktail dress was introduced to the public. Worn to the new cocktail party, these dresses lay in-between daywear and evening gowns, falling at the length of a day dress but embellished like eveningwear (Fig. 11). For formal eveningwear, even as sheaths and form-fitting dresses became popular, the full-skirted dress remained the mode throughout the decade, like the highly embellished evening gown by Dior in figure 13. The relatively new strapless bodice was especially popular as the pared-down bodice balanced out the wide skirts.

No matter what time of day, throughout the decade, it was exceedingly important that a woman be impeccably turned out. This meant perfectly groomed hair, spotless makeup, and sets of matching accessories. This was encouraged through the glamorous fashion photography of the day (Fig. 14). Fashion historian Gerda Buxbaum writes in Icons of Fashion: The 20 th Century, “The long years of deprivation during World War II brought forth a yearning for luxury and fashionable things, and women made a special effort to dress appropriately for every occasion it was considered imperative that one’s accessories matched perfectly” (69). Whether she was wearing a twinset and slacks, a poodle skirt, a sheath dress, or one of Dior’s New Look styles, a woman did her best to ensure that she looked pulled together through her accessories and overall styling. Those infamous black-toed Chanel shoes (Fig.12) appeared at the end of this decade, after all.

Fig. 13 - Christian Dior (French, 1905–1957). Mei, Spring/Summer 1953. Silk. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, C.I.60.21.1a, b. Gift of Mrs. David Kluger, 1960. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Fig. 14 - Irving Penn (American, 1917–2009). Balenciaga Mantle Coat (Lisa Fonssagrives-Penn), Paris, 1950, printed 1988. Platinum-palladium print 66.2 x 55.9 cm (26 1/16 x 22 in). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, L.2018.62.8. Promised Gift of The Irving Penn Foundation. Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art


The History of Pop Music

During the 1950's rock and roll dominated the first half of the decade, with previous influences from the 1940's. Major music labels mirrored the popularity of certain genres increasing the access to them and allowing them to become more popular. Big voiced singers set the tone for the development of the popular music during the 50's. Rock and roll was said to have been born on April 12, 1954, when Bill Haley and the Comets recorded "Rock Around the Clock."

The 1960's

The technology used by the pop music industry developed beyond recognition during this decade.
As pop music developed the television industry embraced the well- known artists of the time and gave them the audience a connection with them. From the 60s British artists became front runners in the popular music industry.
Artists such as The Beatles included the key characteristics of pop during the 1960's:
-harmonies
-main instruments were guitar, drums and vocals.
-prominent drum beat

The 1970's

Soft Rock became a very popular genre, as well as big ballads from artists such as Elton John. Euro pop began to become more popular during this decade. Most importantly this decade saw the rise of disco music, which became one of the biggest genres of the decade. The Bee Gees were the leaders of the disco era with Saturday night fever

The 1980's

Artists such as Madonna and Michael Jackson were by far the most famous singers of this time. Michael Jackson’s thriller was the most widely sold track of the 80's, selling 110 million copies. Both of their music was based around dance. Including certain influences from Motown for Michael Jackson and electronic from Madonna

The 1990's

1990’s pop music was typically categorized by hearty ballads, dance music. The development of teen pop and dance pop bands such as the spice girls broke into the American music industry which then also influenced bigger named artists such as Christina Aguilera and Destiny’s Child. One of the spice girls most famous songs is spice up your life with a Latin and salsa influence

The 2000's

Teen pop continued to be extremely popular into the 2000’s, but soon plummeted due to the rise in popularity of R&B and hip hop. Styles from the 1980’s pop scene have influenced artists’ music more recently in the charts of the noughties. More recently Pop Ballad artists such as Adele have dominated the later noughties.


Timeline: US-Cuba relations

1898: US defeats Spain, which gives up all claims to Cuba and cedes it to the US.

1902: Cuba becomes independent with Tomas Estrada Palma as its president. But the Platt Amendment keeps the island under US protection and gives the US the right to intervene in Cuban affairs.

1906-09: Estrada resigns and the US occupies Cuba following a rebellion led by Jose Miguel Gomez.

1909: Jose Miguel Gomez becomes president following elections supervised by the US, but is soon tarred by corruption.

1912: US forces return to Cuba to help put down black protests against discrimination.

1933: Gerardo Machado is overthrown in a coup led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista.

1934: The US abandons its right to intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, revises Cuba's sugar quota and changes tariffs to favour Cuba.

1953: Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful revolt against the Batista regime.

1956: Castro lands in eastern Cuba from Mexico and takes to the Sierra Maestra mountains where, aided by Ernesto "Che" Guevara, he wages a guerrilla war.

1958: The US withdraws military aid to Batista.

1959: Castro leads a 9,000-strong guerrilla army into Havana, forcing Batista to flee. Castro becomes prime minister.

April 1959: Castro meets US Vice President Richard Nixon on an unofficial visit to Washington. Nixon afterwards wrote that the US had no choice but to try to "orient" the leftist leader in the "right direction".

1960: All US businesses in Cuba are nationalised without compensation US breaks off diplomatic relations with Havana and imposes a trade embargo in response to Castro's reforms.

1961: US backs an abortive invasion by Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs Castro proclaims Cuba a communist state and begins to ally it with the USSR.

1961: The CIA begins to make plans to assassinate Castro as part of Operation Mongoose. At least five plans to kill the Cuban leader were drawn up between 1961 and 1963.

1962: Cuban missile crisis ignites when, fearing a US invasion, Castro agrees to allow the USSR to deploy nuclear missiles on the island. The US released photos of Soviet nuclear missile silos in Cuba - triggering a crisis which took the two superpowers to the brink of nuclear war.

It was subsequently resolved when the USSR agreed to remove the missiles in return for the withdrawal of US nuclear missiles from Turkey.

1980: Around 125,000 Cubans, many of them released convicts, flee to the US, when Castro temporarily lifted restrictions.

1993: The US tightens its embargo on Cuba, which introduces some market reforms in order to stem the deterioration of its economy. These include the legalisation of the US dollar, the transformation of many state farms into semi-autonomous co-operatives, and the legalisation of limited individual private enterprise.

1994: Cuba signs an agreement with the US according to which the US agrees to admit 20,000 Cubans a year in return for Cuba halting the exodus of refugees.

1996: US trade embargo made permanent in response to Cuba's shooting down of two US aircraft operated by Miami-based Cuban exiles.

1998: The US eases restrictions on the sending of money to relatives by Cuban Americans.

Nov 1999: Cuban child Elian Gonzalez is picked up off the Florida coast after the boat in which his mother, stepfather and others had tried to escape to the US capsized. A huge campaign by Miami-based Cuban exiles begins with the aim of preventing Elian from rejoining his father in Cuba and of making him stay with relatives in Miami.

June 2000: Elian allowed to rejoin his father in Cuba after prolonged court battles.

June 2001: Five Cubans convicted in Miami and given long sentences for spying for the Cuban government. The case of the Cuban Five becomes rallying cry for the Havana government.

Nov 2001: US exports food to Cuba for the first time in more than 40 years after a request from the Cuban government to help it cope with the aftermath of Hurricane Michelle.

Jan 2002: Prisoners taken during US-led action in Afghanistan are flown into Guantanamo Bay for interrogation as al-Qaeda suspects.

Mei 2002: US Under Secretary of State John Bolton accuses Cuba of trying to develop biological weapons, adding the country to Washington's list of "axis of evil" countries.

May 2002: Former US President Jimmy Carter makes landmark goodwill visit which includes tour of scientific centres, in response to US allegations about biological weapons. Carter is first former or serving US president to visit Cuba since 1959 revolution.

Oct 2003: US President George Bush announces fresh measures designed to hasten the end of communist rule in Cuba, including tightening a travel embargo to the island, cracking down on illegal cash transfers, and a more robust information campaign aimed at Cuba. A new body, the Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba, is created.

Feb 2006: A propaganda war breaks out in Havana as President Castro unveils a monument which blocks the view of illuminated messages - some of them about human rights - displayed on the US mission building.

Aug 2006: US President George W Bush - in his first comments after President Castro undergoes surgery and hands over power to his brother Raul - urges Cubans to work for democratic change.

Dec 2006: The largest delegation from the US Congress to visit Cuba since the 1959 revolution goes to Havana. Jeff Flake, a Republican congressman heading the 10-member bipartisan delegation, said he wanted to launch a "new era in US-Cuba relations", but the group is denied a meeting with Raul Castro.

July 2007: Acting leader Raul Castro again indicates he may be open to a warming of relations with the US. He offers to engage in talks, but only after the 2008 US presidential election.

Feb 2008: Raul Castro officially takes over as president. Washington calls for free and fair elections, and says its trade embargo will remain.

4 Nov 2008: Barack Obama is elected US president.

Dec 2008: New poll suggests a majority of Cuban-Americans living in Miami want an end to the US embargo against Cuba.

April 2009: President Obama lifts restrictions on family travel and remittances to Cuba.

Dec 2009: US citizen Alan Gross detained in Cuba accused of spying for Washington.

Nov 2010: American Ballet Theater visits Cuba for first time in 50 years, the latest in number of cultural exchanges.

Oct 2011: Convicted Cuban agent Rene Gonzalez is freed as scheduled from a Florida jail. Gonzalez is part of a group known as the Cuban Five, who were given long terms in 2001 in the US after being convicted of spying. Havana has repeatedly called for the men to be freed.

Dec 2011: The US again calls for the release of Alan Gross, an American who is serving 15 years in a Cuban jail for taking internet equipment into the country. Cuba's refusal to free him has frozen relations for months.

Sep 2012: Cuba suggests it is ready to negotiate with Washington on finding a solution to the Gross case.


Kyk die video: Geskiedenis Graad 4: Van Riebeeck se taakvervulling Les 3 (Oktober 2021).