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Rush, Benjamin - Geskiedenis

Rush, Benjamin - Geskiedenis

Rush, Benjamin (1745-1813) Geneesheer en sosiale hervormer: Benjamin Rush is gebore in Byberry Township, Pennsylvania, op 24 Desember 1745. Sy pa is dood toe die jong Rush ses jaar oud was. Nadat hy afgestudeer het aan die College of New Jersey (later Princeton genoem), het Rush na die Universiteit van Edinburgh in Skotland gegaan om sy mediese studies voort te sit. Die bywoning van mediese lesings in Engeland, sowel as in Frankryk, waar hy Benjamin Franklin ontmoet en hom bevriend het, wat hom gehelp het om vir sy uitgawes te betaal. Rush keer in 1769 terug na die Verenigde State, vestig hom in Philadelphia en verwerf 'n pos om chemie aan Philadelphia's Medical College te gee. Toe die beweging na rewolusie begin, het Rush 'n sterk patriot geword. Boonop publiseer hy essays oor slawerny, matigheid en gesondheid in 1771. As ondertekenaar van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring, word hy aangestel as geneesheer-generaal, wat die gewondes help versorg in die gevegte van Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine en ander gevegte. Tydens die oorlog het Rush openbare briewe teen die Statute van die Konfederasie geskryf. In 1778 bedank Rush uit sy militêre kantoor vanweë die onregverdigheid van die manier waarop hospitaalwinkels vir soldate gebruik word, asook die slegte gevoel wat tussen hom en generaal George Washington ontstaan ​​het. Terugkeer na Philadelphia, het Rush 'n mediese praktyk opgestel en sy pligte as professor hervat. Vir 29 jaar lank was hy 'n chirurg in die Pennsylvania -hospitaal en was hy van 1790 tot 1793 die portarts van Philadelphia. Hy was 'n groot voorstander van openbare onderwys waaroor hy grootliks geskryf het, stigter van Dickinson College en die Philadelphia Dispensary. In 1787 dien hy in die Pennsylvania -konvensie wat die Amerikaanse grondwet bekragtig het, en was hy ook betrokke by die totstandkoming van die Pennsylvania -grondwet. In 1793 is Philadelphia deur 'n ernstige geelkoors -epidemie getref. Rush was een van die min dokters wat gekies het om in die stad te bly om die siekes te help versorg. Weens sy versoek het baie Afro -Amerikaners ook in die stad gebly om siekes te help, sommige ten koste van hul lewens. Van 1799 tot aan die einde van sy lewe was Rush die tesourier van die Amerikaanse munt. Daarbenewens dien hy as president van die Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery; president van die Philadelphia Medical Society; ondervoorsitter en medestigter van die Philadelphia Bible Society; en vise-president van die American Philosophical Society. Rush, 'n bekende dosent in geneeskunde, het Philadelphia 'n sentrum gemaak vir mediese studies in die Verenigde State. Benewens sy vele geskrifte oor filosofie, opvoeding, politiek en ander sosiale kwessies; hy het uitgebrei oor mediese onderwerpe geskryf. Rush is op 19 April 1813 in Philadelphia oorlede.


RUSH, BENJAMIN

Rush is gebore as die vierde kind van sewe. Hy het sy pa, John, verloor toe hy vyf was, maar was gelukkig met 'n stewige, emosioneel en godsdienstig vaste ma (Susanna Hall Harvey), wat 'n kruidenierswinkel geopen het om haar kinders te onderhou. Op agtjarige ouderdom is Rush gestuur na die skool onder leiding van sy oom, eerwaarde Samuel Finley, en die "Groot Ontwaking" het die kolonies onder die loep geneem. Sy godsdienstige sienings is uitgebrei en gepoleer onder president Samuel Davies aan die Presbyterian College van New Jersey (later Princeton), waar hy in 1760 die baccalaureusgraad behaal het. 'n welwillende God dat alles verstaanbaar, betekenisvol en vir 'n doel bestaan ​​het.

Onder Davies se invloed beskou Rush die wet as 'n loopbaan, maar besluit eerder ten gunste van medisyne. Hy het homself vir die volgende vyf jaar by Dr. Hy is blootgestel aan 'n mate van chemie in die lesings oor materia medica deur John Morgan, wat hom aangemoedig het om sy mediese opleiding in Edinburgh voort te sit, met die vooruitsig om 'n afspraak te maak met die voorsitter van chemie by sy terugkeer.

Rush, wat laat in 1766 ingeskryf het vir die mediese program aan die Universiteit van Edinburgh, bevorder sy chemiese loopbaan deur twee jaar agtereenvolgens die lesings van Joseph Black by te woon. By die voorbereiding van sy doktorale proefskrif het Rush sy chemiese middel toegepas op 'n studie van die verteringsprosesse in die menslike maag. Na 'n sterk self-eksperimentering wat veroorsaak het dat spesiale maaltye veroorsaak word, het hy besluit dat die suurheid van die maaginhoud deur fermentasie veroorsaak word. Rush het 'n fout gemaak in sy gevolgtrekking en besef dit eers in 1804, toe hy gekonfronteer word met die nuwe eksperimentele bewyse wat sy student John R. Young gelewer het.

Na sy afstudering het Rush na fabrieke in Engeland getoer om die gebruik van chemiese reaksies te ondersoek en besoekende Franse aptekers: Baumé, Macquer en Augustin Roux. Met sy terugkeer na Amerika word hy op 1 Augustus 1769 aangestel as professor in chemie aan die College of Philadelphia (vandag die University of Pennsylvania Medical College). Die volgende jaar het hy die nuuskier uitgereik Sillabus van 'n kursus van chemie. Met die lesings wat in 'n mediese konteks aangebied word, is dit nie verbasend dat hy 'n kwart van hierdie skraal volume bestee het aan farmaseutiese chemie nie.

Die aanstelling van Rush het die formele begin van chemie in Amerika ingelui. Rush was bly om hierdie verantwoordelikheid te aanvaar, nie net vir die toename in die professionele gestalte nie, maar ook vir die tevredenheid wat hy put uit die voetspore van twee leiers van die agtiende-eeuse geneeskunde, wat ook professor in chemie was: Herman Boerhaave van Leiden en William Cullen. Hy was vasbeslote dat chemie vir die groter gemeenskap nuttig sou wees, en daarom het hy in 1775 'n kursus aangebied vir die opgevoede publiek en vir die studente van die Young Ladies Academy van Philadelphia in 1787. In sy onderrig het Rush die buitelyne van Joseph Black se kursus noukeurig gevolg. maar het ongelukkig nie sy leraar se voorliefde vir eksperimentele demonstrasies gevolg nie.

Eksperimentering was in die algemeen nie die voorpunt van Rush nie; hy het sy chemiese opleiding slegs gebruik om die ware aard van 'n kwakkanker te onthul en om die chemiese samestelling en terapeutiese doeltreffendheid van verskillende plaaslike minerale waters te bestudeer. Hy het sy kennis ten goede gebruik tydens die Revolusie, toe hy in 'n regeringskomitee gedien het wat destyds die plaaslike vervaardiging van kruit bevorder het, en sy instruksies vir die vervaardiging van soutpeter wyd herdruk is.

Rush se onderrig in chemie eindig in Oktober 1789, toe sy vroeë mentor, John Morgan, sterf en Rush sy pos as professor in die teorie en praktyk van medisyne oorneem. Rush het nooit belangstelling in die keuse van sy opvolgers verloor nie, almal was sy studente: Caspar Wistar (1789–1791), James Hutchinson (1791–1793), James Woodhouse (1795–1809) en John Redman Coxe (1809–1818) ). 'N Ander student wat Rush aangemoedig het, was John Penington, wat in 1789 die eerste chemiese samelewing in die Verenigde State georganiseer het.

Rush het in 1769 met sy mediese praktyk begin. Dit het aanvanklik grootliks onder die armes gegroei en het geleidelik 'n wye spektrum van die samelewing ingesluit. Rush is deur Redman opgelei om die kliniese waarnemings en insigte van Sydenham te eerbiedig en Boerhaave se teoretiese stelsel te aanvaar, maar in Edinburgh verskuif hy sy entoesiasme na Cullen se teorie. Met sy professoraat in 1789 het hy weer begin om sy teoretiese fokus te verander, en 'n kollegiale herorganisasie wat hom laat in 1791 tot professor in die geneeskundige institute (fisiologie) en kliniese praktyk laat dwing het, om sy siening van basiese fisiologiese prosesse te heroorweeg. Ontwikkel in sy onderrig gedurende hierdie akademiese jare en in sy mediese ervarings met die geelkoors -epidemie van 1793, is sy idees teen 1795 vasgestel. sy fokus op die reaksie van die arteriële stelsel. Deur koors as sy paradigma te gebruik, het hy gesê dat 'n bewegingstoestand (of wat hy die konvulsiewe of onreëlmatige werking genoem het) in die are die enigste oorsaak van die siekte was. Aangesien die meeste siektes hom as gevolg van verhoogde spanning voorgekom het, het hy bloeding en ander uitputtende middels logies, maar te veel entoesiasties op sy pasiënte toegedien. Die geskiedenis het hom rond, maar dikwels buitensporig veroordeel vir die krag van hierdie behandeling.

As dokter moet Rush ook beskou word as 'n suksesvolle en gewilde onderwyser van ongeveer 3000 studente gedurende die vier-en-veertig jaar van sy loopbaan. Baie het sy teorieë nie aanvaar nie, en die doktorale proefskrifte wat in die latere jare onder Rush geskryf is, laat 'n duidelike indruk dat sy leerlinge hom oortref het in hul vermoë om die groeiende eksperimentering in die mediese wetenskappe te waardeer. Belangriker nog, hy het hulle geïnspireer, bly hul mediese konsultant lewenslank en het hulle geleer om oplettend te wees, toegewyd aan hul pasiënte en bewus van die nuanses van die dokter-pasiënt-verhouding.

Rush se rustelose verstand het baie sfere ondersoek: teorie en praktyk, mediese regspraak, die fisiologie van ballonbestygings, transkulturele en veral Indiese medisyne, geriatrie, tandheelkunde, veeartsenykunde. Alhoewel hy op baie gebiede aktief was, was hy hoofsaaklik besig met medisyne en word hy algemeen erken as die toonaangewende dokter in die Verenigde State.

In 1787 is Rush in die Pennsylvania -hospitaal in beheer van die kranksinnige geplaas. Psigiatriese hervorming versnel in die Westerse wêreld en Rush was in pas met leiers soos Vincenzo Chiarugi van Italië, Philippe Pinel van Frankryk en die Tuke -familie van Groot -Brittanje. Rush, wat die behoefte erken het om die mens as 'n geheel te sien, met liggaam en gees 'intiem verenig', was doelbewus onortodoks en het 'n groot deel van sy fisiologiese lesings gewy aan 'n bespreking van die werking en funksies van die gees. Toe hy van sy fisiese teorieë na die sielkunde oorgaan, ontwikkel hy 'n komplekse teorie wat gebaseer is op 'n mengsel van assosiasie en fakulteitsielkunde. Rush se praktyk en onderrig in psigiatrie het uitgeloop op die publikasie van Mediese navrae en waarnemings oor die siektes van die gees (1812), die eerste boek oor psigiatrie deur 'n inheemse Amerikaner. In hierdie werk bespreek hy onder baie ander onderwerpe 'morele afwykings', 'n konsep wat hom al in 1786 aangeraak het toe hy publiseer 'N Ondersoek na die invloede van fisiese oorsake op die morele fakulteit. Hy het besef dat nie net intellek nie, maar ook gedrag en emosies versteur kan word, en sy pogings om hierdie verskynsels te verstaan, verteenwoordig sy kreatiefste bydrae tot psigiatriese denke.

Rush, 'n man van die Verligting, toon die beste eienskappe van die eeu - humanisme, optimisme en 'n vurige geloof in die vordering van kennis. Hierdie eienskappe was sigbaar in sy politieke hervormingsaktiwiteite: hy onderteken die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring en veg vir die federale grondwet. Hy het gehelp om die Dickinson -kollege te stig, het groter onderwys vir vroue ondersteun en 'n netwerk van kolleges opgeroep wat uitloop op 'n nasionale universiteit. Hy het slawerny en doodstraf gekant, steun vir matigheid en strafhervorming. As voorganger en inspirerende onderwyser het Rush 'n groot impak op die Amerikaanse wetenskaplike toneel gehad. Maar vir al sy vertroue in die duidelikheid van sy waarnemings, was Rush se gewone manier om sy hipoteses te bekragtig, analogies en hy het nooit die eksperimentele metode vir die werklike waarde daarvan waardeer nie. As mediese teoretikus behoort hy baie meer aan die stelselbouers van die agtiende-eeuse eeu. Vir die veld van wetenskap lê sy belangrikheid, soos Lyman Butterfield so treffend gesê het, in sy rol as "'n evangelis van die wetenskap."


'Rush': die ander stigtervader uit Philadelphia met die naam Benjamin

Benjamin Rush, die mediese dokter en stigtervader, het die Renaissance-burgerlike deelname van sy mentor, Benjamin Franklin, geneem.

Charles Willson Peale/Met vergunning van Crown

Hy is die minder bekende stigter uit Philadelphia met die naam Benjamin-die een wie se gesig nie die rekening van $ 100 betaal nie.

Benjamin Rush was 'n ondertekenaar van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring. Hy was ook 'n dokter - waarskynlik die bekendste dokter in Amerika - wat bekend geword het as die Amerikaanse Hippokrates. Tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog was Rush saam met genl George Washington toe hy die Delaware kruis, hy slagoffers agter die vyand behandel en later 'n pionier op die gebied van geestesgesondheid word.

Hy was ook 'n gewaagde afskaffer, 'n voorstander van openbare onderwys - veral vir vroue -opvoeding - en 'n produktiewe skrywer.

Stephen Fried vertel die verhaal van die man wat in 'n nuwe biografie '' 'n voetnoot-stigter, 'n tweede ondertekenaar 'geword het Rush: Revolusie, waansin en die visioenêre dokter wat 'n stigtervader geword het.

Onderhoud Hoogtepunte

Oor hoe Rush se mediese opleiding sy latere politieke sienings gevorm het

Revolusie, waansin en die visioenêre dokter wat 'n stigtervader geword het

Koop uitgelese boek

U aankoop help om NPR -programmering te ondersteun. Hoe?

Rush was 'n smid se seun, hy het nie baie geld gehad nie. Hy was dus die jong ster van daardie era en het probeer om 'n bestaan ​​te maak as dokter, wat moeilik was. Die goeie ding dat hy as dokter probeer bestaan, is dat hy arm pasiënte moes behandel - hy moes pasiënte van alle rasse behandel. Dit is dus nie verbasend dat hy die stigterspersoon geword het wat die meeste geïnteresseerd was in diversiteitskwessies nie, omdat hy verbaas was oor rassevooroordeel, maar dat hy verbaas was oor godsdienstige vooroordeel. En daarom het hy baie vroeg al aandag aan hierdie dinge gegee en 'n artikel geskryf wat nie net teen slawerny was nie, maar spesifiek gepraat het oor die vooroordeel.

Oor hoe Rush se werk in die Pennsylvania -hospitaal, die eerste hospitaal in die land, sy siening oor geestesongesteldheid gevorm het

Dit was een van die eerste plekke waar mense met geestesongesteldhede uit hul huise behandel is, en ongelukkig het hulle geen idee gehad hoe om mense te behandel nie - hulle het hulle opgegaar, hulle gesluit, hulle aan die vloer vasgeketting, hulle het op strooi geslaap . Daar is toe geglo dat mense met 'n geestesongesteldheid nie blootgestel is aan koue of hitte nie, en eintlik na die Revolusie - toe hy eintlik beheer begin neem het oor wat hier aangaan, het 'n universiteitsprofessor sowel as 'n personeellid hier by die hospitaal - ons kan sien hoe hy geld vir beter sorg probeer kry, en mense probeer laat verstaan ​​dat beide geestesongesteldheid en verslawing, wat destyds meestal alkoholisme was, mediese probleme was. Dit was 'n redelik nuwe idee. En het hulle probeer destigmatiseer en probeer om mense hier in te haal vir behandeling. En ek sou aanvoer dat die geskiedenis van moderne geestesgesondheidsorg hier in hierdie gebou met Rush begin.

On Rush onderteken die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring in die sogenaamde Independence Hall

As jong dokter het hy hier entings gegee. En 'n paar jaar daarna was hy in die kontinentale kongres en onderteken die onafhanklikheidsverklaring. Hy beskou dit as 'n baie plegtige oomblik, 'n baie eng oomblik. Hulle was baie bewus daarvan, ten minste hy, dat hulle iets onderteken wat verraadlik was en dat hulle hul lewe in hul hande kon neem. Rush het regtig in gelykheid geglo, so ek dink dat dit sy besluit om ten gunste van onafhanklikheid te wees, ingelig het. Hy was baie vroeg in lyn met onafhanklikheid, al was dit gevaarlik vir sy loopbaan hier in Philadelphia. Philadelphia het die grootste persentasie lojaliste, want hulle het die meeste om te verloor as daar werklik onafhanklikheid was.

Oor die feit dat Benjamin Rush, wat slawerny 'n misdaad genoem het, 'n slaaf met die naam William Grubber besit het

Ons weet nie hoekom hy 'n slaaf gekoop het nie. Dit was in die latere jare van die oorlog, en hy het 'n aantal jare 'n slaaf gehad. En hy het hom bevry voordat die [Pennsylvania] Abolition Society weer aktief geword het nadat Franklin [uit Europa] huis toe gekom het. Hy het nie daaroor geskryf nie, behalwe om oor sy vryheid te skryf. En toe William Grubber sterf, het Rush hom in die Pennsylvania -hospitaal laat behandel en betaal vir sy begrafnis wat hy oor hul verhouding geskryf het. Elke verhaal is dus nie 'n reguit verhaal nie. Dit is nie my plek om verskoning te vra vir alles wat hy gedoen het nie, maar net om te wys dat dit 'n baie ingewikkelde man was wat 'n enorme bydrae tot Amerika gelewer het.

By die dood van Benjamin Rush in 1813, op 67 -jarige ouderdom

Die begrafnis van Benjamin Rush is iets waarna byna elke burgerlike groep mense gestuur het. Dit word in die koerante beskryf as die tweede net na [George] Washington se begrafnis en [Benjamin] Franklin se begrafnis. Rush was dus nie net een van die laaste ondertekenaars van die verklaring wat nog gelewe het nie, maar hy was ook die belangrikste dokter in Amerika. Dit was dus 'n baie groot ding.

Franklin se [graf] is die een wat waarskynlik die meeste besoek is, maar ek dink dat die graf van Rush die een is wat die meeste gedink het. Ek dink wel dat u hierheen [Christ Church Burial Ground, in Philadelphia] kan kom en kan nadink oor voorspraak vir geestesgesondheid en voorspraak vir verslawing. U kan hier kom praat oor openbare onderwys, want Rush was regtig een van die eerste mense wat daaroor gepraat het. U kan praat oor godsdiensvryheid. Daar is dus baie om oor na te dink as u hier sit en dink aan Benjamin Rush.

Oor John Adams se beoordeling van sy goeie vriend Benjamin Rush na Rush se dood, toe hy geskryf het:

Dr Rush was 'n groter en beter man as dr Franklin: Tog was Rush altyd vervolg en Franklin het altyd aanbid. . Rush het Amerika oneindig meer goed gedoen as Franklin. Albei verdien 'n hoë posisie onder weldoeners in hul land en die mensdom, maar Rush is verreweg die hoogste.

Ek stem natuurlik saam met John Adams. John Adams was ontsteld dat Rush nie sy reg gekry het nie. En Adams kyk hoe hy in 'n patriot groei, tot 'n ongelooflike belangrike wetenskaplike en dokter. Hy was baie naby aan Rush en baie hartseer dat Rush, volgens hom, nie sy reg sou kry nie.

Maar dit is nie 'n telkaart hier nie. Al wat ek ooit sou vra, is dat die twee Benjamins in hul eie belangrikheid gesien word. Ek dink dat Benjamin Franklin beskou word as die belangrikste figuur in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis. Hy is ongelooflik belangrik. As Benjamin Rush hier was, sou hy sê: 'U gaan die vraag afvra of Benjamin Franklin belangrik was?' Rush was die beskermheer van Franklin, hy het Franklin aanbid, en in die latere jare van Franklin het Rush gesorg dat mense aandag aan Franklin gee as hy te oud en siek lyk. Hy was nie van plan om 'n ondertekenaar van die Constitution te wees nie Rush het daarop aangedring dat die Pennsylvania -afvaardiging hom byvoeg. Hy was dus eerbiedig vir Franklin, maar Franklin is in 1790 oorlede, en ek wou baie graag hê dat Rush die volgende Benjamin sou wees, en die persoon wees wat die tradisies van Franklin tot in die volgende eeu voortgesit het. En ek dink hy het as wetenskaplike, as onderwyser, as skrywer. En ek dink Franklin sou dit erken.

Denise Guerra en Evie Stone het hierdie onderhoud vir uitsending vervaardig en geredigeer.


Feite oor Benjamin Rush 9: goeie opvoeding

Dit lyk asof sy ouers baie besorg was oor goeie opvoeding. Daarom moes die jong Benjamin by sy oom en tante woon om goeie opvoeding te kry. Hy was toe 8 jaar oud. Kry feite oor Benito Juarez hier.

Feite oor Benjamin Rush 10: die opvoedkundige agtergrond

Rush het 'n Bachelor of Art -graad aan die College of New Jersey verwerf. Daarna het hy 'n M.D. -graad aan die Universiteit van Edinburgh in Skotland behaal nadat hy daar in 1766 tot 1768 gestudeer het.

Feite oor Benjamin Rush

Hou jy van lees feite oor Benjamin Rush?


Rush, Benjamin

(4 Januarie 1746 en ndash 19 April 1813) was 'n stigtervader van die Verenigde State en staan ​​ook bekend as die & ldquoVader van Amerikaanse geneeskunde. as die stigter van Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, en het gehelp om 4 ander te vind. Rush onderteken die onafhanklikheidsverklaring en woon die kontinentale kongres by. Hy was 'n stigterslid van die eerste Bybelgenootskap van America & rsquos, en word erken dat hy gehelp het met die beweging van die American Sunday School, gehelp het om Amerika se eerste anti-slawerny-samelewing te organiseer en was 'n leier in die nasionale afskaffingsbeweging. Hy beklee verskeie professorate aan die universiteit, en is behoorlik getiteld & ldquoDie vader van openbare skole onder die grondwet, en rdquo 'n voorstander van gratis openbare skole vir alle jeugdiges. Hy publiseer die eerste Amerikaanse handboek oor chemie en was aktief in die Sons of Liberty in Philadelphia.

In 1791 het dr. Rush 'n lang stuk geskryf, wat 'n dosyn redes verskaf het waarom Amerika sou voortgaan om die Bybel in ons openbare skole te onderrig. (Besoek die webwerf van Wallbuilder & rsquos om 'n gedeelte van die brief te sien soos dit in 1830 deur die American Tract Society gedruk is.) Ten tyde van sy dood was dr Benjamin Rush & mdash saam met George Washington en Benjamin Franklin & mdash waarskynlik een van Amerika en rsquos drie mees opvallende mans. Hy het persoonlik meer as 3 000 mediese studente opgelei.

In Junie 1776 is hy verkies om die provinsiale konferensie by te woon om afgevaardigdes na die kontinentale kongres te stuur en is aangestel om Philadelphia te verteenwoordig. In 1777 word hy dokter-generaal in die Kontinentale Weermag, maar word kritiek op die administrasie van die mediese diens van die weermag en dr. William Shippen, wat daarvoor verantwoordelik was. Hy het direk by generaal George Washington gekla wat tot die kongres uitgestel is. Die kongres ondersteun dr. Shippen en dr. Rush bedank. Terwyl die oorlog voortduur, het hy herhaaldelik probeer om Washington as opperbevelhebber te verwyder. Hy het selfs so ver gegaan as om 'n anonieme brief aan die goewerneur van Virginia, rsquos, Patrick Henry te skryf. Hy is deur generaal Washington gekonfronteer, en die konfrontasie het veroorsaak dat hy homself van alle oorlogsaktiwiteite verwyder het.

In 1789 skryf hy in koerante van Philadelphia dat die federale grondwet aangeneem word. Hy is verkies tot die Pennsylvania -konvensie en het 'n hand by die aanvaarding daarvan gehad. Van 1797 tot 1813 was hy tesourier van die Amerikaanse munt.

Op 28 Maart 1787 skryf hy 'n ope brief & ldquo Aan die burgers van Philadelphia: A Plan for Free Schools & rdquo.

& ldquo Laat die kinders en hellipbe noukeurig onderrig word in die beginsels en verpligtinge van die Christelike godsdiens. Dit is die belangrikste deel van die onderwys. Die groot vyand van die redding van die mens het myns insiens nooit 'n meer effektiewe manier uitgevind om die Christendom uit die wêreld te verwyder as om die mensdom te oortuig dat dit onbehoorlik was om die Bybel by skole te lees nie. & Rdquo

Hy vervolg in dieselfde brief:

Die enigste grondslag vir 'n nuttige opvoeding in 'n republiek is om in godsdiens gelê te word. Sonder hierdie kan daar geen deug wees nie, en sonder deug kan daar geen vryheid wees nie. & Rdquo


Benjamin Rush

Min Amerikaners sou vandag twyfel aan die grootheid van George Washington. Die eerste president van die Verenigde State, Washington, is genoem die eerste van die mans, en#8221 en die vader van sy land. Maar in 1778 het iemand 'n beroep op die verwydering van Washington gedoen as bevelvoerder hoof van die kontinentale weermag ten gunste van Thomas Conway. Opvallend soos dit vandag mag lyk, dit is presies wat Benjamin Rush aanbeveel het. Benjamin Rush, gehaat deur sy vyande en geliefd onder sy bewonderaars en studente, was die bekendste Amerikaanse dokter van sy generasie en 'n toegewyde Patriot. Hy het die idealisme van die Revolusie voortdurend op elke gebied van sy lewe toegepas, hetsy polities, medies of sosiaal, maar Benjamin Rush het ook 'n onafhanklikheid van denke en daad getoon wat hom dikwels in die moeilikheid beland het.

Benjamin is op Oukersaand van 1745 gebore aan John en Susanna Hall Harvey Rush in Byberry, Pennsylvania. John Rush, 'n wapensmid en 'n boer, is dood toe Benjamin net vyf jaar oud was. Toe Benjamin agt was, het hy skoolgegaan onder die sorg van sy oom, Samuel Finley. Benjamin het uiteindelik die College of New Jersey [nou Princeton University] binnegegaan en 'n BA -graad behaal. [Bachelor of Arts] in 1760. Aanvanklik wou Benjamin regte studeer, maar het spoedig in medisyne belanggestel. Van 1761 tot 1766 studeer hy medisyne in Philadelphia as vakleerling onder dr John Redman. Benjamin het sy opleiding uitgebrei deur lesings in die stad by te woon, veral dié van dr. William Shippen en dr. John Morgan aan die College of Philadelphia. Benjamin het tydens die Stamp Act -krisis belanggestel in die politiek, maar die vordering in sy gekose beroep het die meeste van sy energie beset. Op aanbeveling van dr. Redman het Benjamin in 1766 na Skotland gevaar en sy opleiding aan die Universiteit van Edinburgh voortgesit.

In Skotland het Benjamin die meeste van sy tyd aan sy studies gewy, hoewel hy ook met sy medestudente oor die groeiende krisis in Amerika gedebatteer het. Hy het sy doktorsgraad in 1768 ontvang en is na Londen om sy opleiding in die St. Thomas ’s -hospitaal te voltooi. Terwyl hy in Londen was, het hy 'n vriend geword van Benjamin Franklin, wat gehelp het om die jong dokter 'n afspraak te maak by die College of Philadelphia as professor in chemie. Na 'n kort besoek aan Parys keer die jong dokter terug na Philadelphia in 1769. Binne 'n jaar publiseer Benjamin sy eerste boek, A Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on Chemistry, dit was die eerste Amerikaanse teks wat daaroor gepubliseer is. Hy beoefen ook medisyne in die stad en konsentreer eers op die versorging van armes. Teen 1775 verdien hy 'n eerbare inkomste as dokter.

Die republikeinse beginsels van Benjamin het in die vroeë 1770's weer opgeduik, en sy hernieude belangstelling in politiek het hom tot ander professionele strewes gelei. Hy het lid van die American Philosophical Society geword en gehelp om die Pennsylvania Society te organiseer vir die bevordering van die afskaffing van slawerny. Sy boeke weerspieël hierdie uitgebreide belange wat hy in 1772 gepreek het aan die here vir die here op gemoedelikheid en oefening, en 'n toespraak tot die inwoners van die Britse nedersettings in Amerika, oor die slawe-bewaring in 1773. afskaffer vir die res van sy lewe. Hy het artikels in plaaslike koerante geskryf oor die groeiende krisis met Groot -Brittanje en gereeld korrespondensie onderhou met Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson en John Adams.

Effekte van Spirtous Liquors deur Benjamin Rush

Benjamin het ook tyd gevind vir 'n persoonlike lewe te midde van sy politieke aktiwiteite. Hy trou op 11 Januarie 1776 met Julia Stockton van Princeton, New Jersey. Die egpaar het dertien kinders grootgemaak. In Junie 1776 word Benjamin lid van die Provinsiale Kongres en 'n toonaangewende voorstander van onafhanklikheid. 'N Maand later sluit hy aan by die Pennsylvania -afvaardiging na die Kontinentale Kongres en onderteken hy die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring.

In April 1777 stel die kongres Benjamin aan as sy chirurg-generaal vir die middelste departement [middelstate]. Hy het die mediese diens in 'n ellendige toestand gevind en dr. Shippen, direkteur-generaal, op 'n onpolitieke manier van wanadministrasie beskuldig. Hy het 'n klagbrief aan George Washington geskryf, wat die brief aan die kongres oorgedra het. Die kongres het bevind dat Shippen bekwaam was, en Benjamin bedank sy kommissie uit protes. Dit was 'n gepaste optrede om die brief aan die kongres oor te dra, maar Benjamin het gevoel dat hy deur sy opperbevelhebber verlate was. Toe Washington in 1777 tydens die Slag van Brandywine verslaan is, het Benjamin se wrok oorgegaan tot 'n aktiewe bevraagtekening van die bevel van Washington.

Op 12 Januarie 1778 skryf Benjamin 'n anonieme brief aan goewerneur Patrick Henry van Virginia, wat daarop dui dat Washington vervang moet word deur óf generaal Thomas Conway óf generaal Horatio Gates. Sedert Washington in 1776 die leër aangeneem het, het ontevrede New Englanders probeer om hom deur 'n generaal van New England te vervang. Aangesien Thomas Conway dikwels as 'n gunsteling -kandidaat verskyn het, het die sameswering bekend gestaan ​​as die “Conway Cabal. ” . Ongelukkig vir Benjamin was Patrick Henry toegewy aan Washington en het die brief aan die opperbevelhebber oorgedra. Washington herken dadelik die handskrif van die chirurg-generaal en beskuldig hom van ontrouheid. Hierdie openbaarmaking versterk die steun vir Washington in die kongres, en die saak het die militêre loopbaan van Benjamin beëindig. In 1778 keer Benjamin terug na sy privaat mediese praktyk in Philadelphia.

In 1780 begin Benjamin lesings lewer aan die nuutgeboude Universiteit van die staat Pennsylvania, wat in 1791 met die College of Philadelphia sou saamsmelt [Die verenigde instelling is hernoem tot die Universiteit van Pennsylvania]. In 1783 word hy lid van die personeel in die Pennsylvania -hospitaal en dien hy die res van sy lewe daar. Sy ervarings in die hospitaal het sy belangstelling in sosiale hervorming en sorg vir die armes hernu. Hy het Amerika se eerste gratis apteek in 1786 geopen, en toe hy tot die bekragtigingskonvensie van Pennsylvania verkies is, het hy en James Wilson die beweging in Pennsylvania gelei om die federale grondwet in 1787 aan te neem. In 1789 werk Benjamin weer saam met James Wilson om 'n meer liberale staatsgrondwet vir Pennsylvania.

Toe die administrasie van Washington in 1797 geëindig het, het Benjamin weer die federale diens aangeneem as tesourier van die Amerikaanse munte. In 1803 word hy verkies tot president van die Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, maar sy lewe bly hoofsaaklik toegewy aan die mediese professie. In sy mediese navrae en waarnemings uit 1789, beweer Benjamin dat alle siektes die gevolg is van 'n oormatige opgewondenheid van die bloed. Hy het bloeding en suiwering aanbeveel as 'n geneesmiddel vir elke kwaal, 'n praktyk bekend as “heroic ” medisyne. Hierdie teorie het 'n groot toets ondergaan tydens die Yellow Fever -epidemie van 1793. Benjamin beweer dat sy metodes werk as dit behoorlik gebruik word, maar hy het nagelaat om gedetailleerde rekords van sy eie gevalle by te hou. 'N Kritikus, William Cobbett, wys op 'n verband tussen die toename in bloeding en die toename in sterftes, en die heroïese medisyne verloor vinnig guns in die Amerikaanse mediese gemeenskap. Benjamin het die epidemie egter oorleef met sy reputasie ongedeerd, en hy het aangehou om heroïese tegnieke te gebruik lank nadat ander die benadering laat vaar het. In sy laaste jare het Benjamin egter sy aandag gevestig op geestesongesteldheid. Sy boek uit 1812, Mediese ondersoeke en waarnemings oor die siektes van die gees, toon medelye met geestesongesteldes en verwag aspekte van psigoanalise. Benjamin sterf op 19 April 1813, op die ouderdom van sewe en sestig jaar.

Mediese kis van die Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation

Primêre brondokumente: Benjamin Rush

Die volgende gedeeltes is geneem uit Carl Binger, Revolusionêre dokter: Benjamin Rush, 1746-1813 , (New York: W.W. Norton, 1966).

Benjamin Rush se kommentaar op 'n besoek aan die Engelse Lagerhuis uit 'n brief van 1768 aan Ebenezer Hazard.

I went a few days ago in company with a Danish physician to visit the House of Lords and the House of Commons. When I went into the first, I felt as if I walked on sacred ground. I gazed for some time at the Throne with emotions that I cannot describe. I asked our guide if it was common for strangers to set down upon it. He told me no, but upon my importuning him a good deal I prevailed upon him to allow me the liberty. I accordingly advanced towards it and sat in it for a considerable time. . .

From this I went into the House of Commons. I cannot say I felt as if I walked on ‘sacred ground’ here. usurping Commons first endeavored to rob the King of his supremacy over the colonies and to divide it among themselves. O! cursed haunt of venality, bribery, and corruption! In the midst of these reflections I asked where Mr. Pitt (alas ! now Lord Chatham) stood when he spoke in favor of repealing the Stamp Act. ‘Here,’ said our guide, ‘on this very spot.’ I then went up to it, sat down upon it for some time, and fancying myself surrounded with a crowded House, rose up from my seat and began to repeat part of his speech. . .

Benjamin Rush delivered his lecture on “The Practice of Physic” many times during the early 1770s. It contained the following lines, which proclaimed his basic view on the causes of disease.

I have formerly said that there was but one fever in the world. Be not startled, Gentlemen, follow me and I will say there is but one disease in the world. The proximate cause of disease is irregular convulsive or wrong action in the system affected. This, Gentlemen, is a concise view of my theory of disease . . . I call upon you, Gentlemen, at this early period either to approve or disapprove of it now . . .

In a letter to the Pennsylvania Journal for October 20, 1773, Benjamin Rush spoke out against the tea tax. He warned that the tea then bound for America aboard English ships, was cover for a British plot against the colonies.

The baneful chests [of tea] contain in them a slow poison in a political as well as a physical sense. They contain something worse than death–the seeds of SLAVERY. Remember, my countrymen, the present era–perhaps the present struggle–will fix the Constitution of America forever.

Letter of October 10, 1777 from Benjamin Rush to John Adams, complaining about Dr. Shippen’s administration as Director General and the sickly condition of the army.

Our hospital affairs grow worse and worse. There are several hundred wounded soldiers in this place who would have perished had they not been supported by the voluntary and benevolent contributions of some pious whigs. The fault is both in the establishment and in the Director General [Dr. William Shippen]. He is both ignorant and negligent in his duty.

Letter of January 12 1778 from Benjamin Rush to Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia. Rush called for replacing George Washington with either Horatio Gates, Charles Lee or Thomas Conway as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. Rush sent the letter unsigned to conceal his identity. Patrick Henry, despite Rush’s declared wishes, forwarded the letter to Washington.

The common danger of our country first brought you and me together. I recollect with pleasure the influence of your conversation and eloquence upon the opinions of this country in the beginning of the present controversy. You first taught us to shake off our idolatrous attachment to royalty, and to oppose its encroachments upon our liberties with our very lives. By these means you saved us from ruin . . .

But, sir, we have only passed the Red Sea. A dreary wilderness is still before us, and unless a Moses or a Joshua are raised up in our behalf, we must perish before we reach the promised land. We have nothing to fear from our enemies on the way. General Howe, it is true, has taken Philadelphia but he has only changed his prison. His dominions are bounded on all sides by his outsentries. America can only be undone by herself. She looks up to her councils and arms for protection, but alas! . . . Her army–what is it? A major general belonging to it called it a few days ago in my hearing a mob. Discipline unknown, or wholly neglected. The quartermaster’s and commissaries’ departments filled with idleness and ignorance and peculation. Our hospitals crowded with 6,000 sick but half provided with necessaries or accommodations, and more dying in them in one month than perished in the field during the whole of the last campaign . . .

But is our case desperate? Geensins. We have wisdom, virtue, and strength enough to save us if they could be called into action. The northern army has shown us what Americans are capable of doing with a GENERAL at their head . . . A Gates, a Lee, or a Conway would in a few weeks render them an irresistible body of men . . . You may rest assured of each fact related in this letter. The author of it is one of your Philadelphia friends. A hint of his name, if found out by the handwriting, must not be mentioned to your most intimate friend [Washington]. Even the letter must be thrown into the fire. But some of its contents ought to be made public in order to awaken, enlighten, and alarm our country. I rely upon your prudence . . .

Letter from Benjamin Rush to his wife, Julia Stockton Rush, January 15, 1778. Rush relates his feelings about appearing before Congress to accuse Dr. William Shippen of negligence.

“. . . It will be a disagreeable task to accuse him [Shippen] publicly of ignorance and negligence of his duty. But the obligations I owe my country preclude all other ties. I shall act strictly agreeable to the dictates of my conscience, and if the system is altered and Dr. Shippen can be restrained by proper checks from plundering the sick, I shall not resign my commission but shall serve another campaign. This resolution is taken not only from a sense of duty and a love of country, but in consequence of the advice of some very worthy members of Congress, who assure me that a contrary step will be ascribed to want of perseverance or to downright disaffection . . . ”

Letter from George Washington to Patrick Henry, March 27, 1778, in reply to Rush’s anonymous letter to Henry of January 12, 1778.

“. . . Being intimately acquainted with the man I conceive to be the author of the letter . . . and having always received from him the strongest professions of attachment and regard, I am constrained to consider him as not possessing, at least, a great degree of candor and sincerity, though his views in addressing you should have been the result of conviction and founded in motives of public good. This is not the only secret, insidious attempt that has been made to wound my reputation.”

Letter from George Washington to Patrick Henry. March 28, 1778, continuing his reply to Rush’s letter to Henry of January 12. 1778.

“ . . . The anonymous letter, with which you were pleased to favor me, was written by Dr. Rush, so far as I can judge from a similitude of hands. This man has been elaborate and studied in his professions of regard for me . . . I cannot precisely mark the extent of their views, but it appeared in general, that General Gates was to be exalted on the ruin of my reputation and influence . . . General Mifflin, it is commonly supposed, bore the second part in the cabal and General Conway I know, was a very active and malignant partisan but I have good reason to believe, that their machinations have recoiled . . . ”


Benjamin Rush

Benjamin Rush was born on January 4, 1746, in Byberry, Pennsylvania, and was raised by his mother in Philadelphia. He was an excellent student and graduated with an A.B. from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) at age 14. He then studied medicine with a practicing physician in Philadelphia, but in 1766 left for Scotland, then the medical capital of the world. Rush remained there two years and was awarded a M.D. degree. Rush traveled to London and later Paris, and found the opportunity to meet such prominent personalities as Franklin, Diderot and Samuel Johnson. In 1769, Rush received an appointment to the faculty of the College of Philadelphia and became America's first professor of chemistry. He built a highly successful medical practice, but became involved in other endeavors, most notably in founding an anti-slavery organization. Rush also became politically active, working with John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. It was Rush who urged Thomas Paine to write a justification for American independence and he who suggested the title "Common Sense." In 1776, he attended the Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence. During the War for Independence, Rush served as the surgeon general of the Continental Army he complained unsuccessfully about army hospital conditions to his superior, Dr. William Shippen. In December, 1777, he later took his concerns to George Washington, who passed the matter on to Congress. After investigating the matter, Congress found in favor of Shippen and Rush resigned. He harbored a grudge against Washington for his lack of support, and wrote an anonymous letter to Patrick Henry, suggesting that the Southern branch of the Continental Army should be placed under the command of a Southerner. Although he clearly told Henry to burn the letter, lest somebody figure out who wrote it, Henry instead passed it along to Washington who recognized Rush as the author. Rush retreated to private medical practice in Philadelphia and became a participant in the nebulous Conway Cabal. He would later express his regret and become an ardent supporter of Washington in the 1790s. Rush attended the Pennsylvania state convention in 1789 and worked on behalf of the ratification of the new constitution. Returning to the College of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania), Rush combined teaching with a new cause, providing assistance to the poor. He encountered professional criticism from his colleagues for the continued use of bloodletting and mercury purging, especially during the severe yellow fever outbreak of 1793. Benjamin Rush was particularly concerned with the development of Public Education in the new republic. What he wrote in 1798 regarding the role of education in the "melting pot" of America foreshadowed arguments that would be made a century and more in the future:


The Dickinson Story

This portrait of Dr. Benjamin Rush by Thomas Sully, known as the greatest American portrait artist of his era, was donated to the college's Trout Gallery.

The Birth of a New College

Revolution was in the air when Benjamin Rush, a prominent Philadelphia physician, prepared the charter for Dickinson College in 1783. A grammar school founded in Carlisle in 1773 served as the foundation of the new college. In the decade prior to laying the groundwork for Dickinson, Rush had marched alongside the American army, signed the Declaration of Independence, served as a physician to the Philadelphia community and maintained his eminent position among the progressive political and intellectual minds of the budding nation. He was a revolutionary in the midst of a revolution.

At his core, Rush believed in freedom&mdashfreedom of thought and freedom of action. And he believed fully in America's potential for unprecedented achievement. But Rush also believed that the American Revolution did not end when the muskets stopped sounding that, he felt, was only the beginning. Now that America had fought for its liberties, Americans needed to maintain a nation worthy of those liberties. Rush knew that America could only live up to its own expectations if it was a country built of an educated citizenry. So seven years after he met with other members of the Continental Congress to add his signature to the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Rush signed the charter of a new college on what was then the American frontier. On September 9, 1783, a struggling grammar school in Carlisle was transformed into Dickinson College. Less than a week earlier, the Treaty of Paris had officially ended the Revolution and guaranteed international recognition of the United States of America. Dickinson was the first college charted in these new United States.

Tuta libertas. Those were the words that John Dickinson used to describe the new college. Tuta libertas: "A bulwark of liberty." To further his educational enterprise, Rush asked that Dickinson&mdashknown widely as the "Penman of the Revolution" and the governor of Pennsylvania&mdashlend his support and his name to the college that was being established in the western frontier of his state. Dickinson was easily convinced, and together he and Rush set about the task of devising a seal for the college. The image they created&mdashfeaturing a liberty cap, a telescope and an open Bible&mdashremains the official college seal today. It represents a mission that has been ingrained in Dickinson College for more than two centuries: to offer students a useful en progressive education in the arts and sciences&mdashan education grounded in a strong sense of civic duty to become citizen-leaders.

In many ways, Benjamin Rush&mdashthe man who set this enduring mission in place&mdashwas a man before his time. He was an outspoken opponent of slavery, a vocal proponent of equal education for women, a supporter of the rights of the mentally challenged and a generous provider of health care to the indigent in Philadelphia. His voice was strong and distinctive, and he believed that the students at Dickinson College could, like him, develop their own voices and positions on issues of the day. They could be leaders and shapers in the new nation.

The Shape of the Story

As the site for this endeavor, Rush chose Carlisle, a town founded in 1751 as the seat of Pennsylvania's Cumberland County. Though a center of government, Carlisle was also a frontier town, located about 25 miles west of the Susquehanna River&mdashat the time, an outpost of westward expansion (unlike today, when Carlisle sits at a central transportation crossroad, with Washington, D.C. Baltimore and Philadelphia just two hours away). It's safe to assume that this combination of activity and uncertainty would have attracted a man with Rush's educational sensibilities.

From the first, Carlisle was seen as a sort of laboratory for learning&mdasha place, for instance, where Dickinson students could venture from campus to the nearby county courthouse to watch the new American judicial system in action. But it was also a place where, a few decades later, science students could study ecology by actually examining the wilderness of the surrounding Appalachian Mountains. (Dickinson was the first college to introduce field studies into its science curriculum.) These sorts of firsthand experiences, Rush believed, would foster the minds that would lead the next generations of Americans. Time has not diminished Rush's ambitions. Today, this engagement with the wider world continues to guide Dickinson&mdashthrough internships, field studies, workshop science and one of the most extensive global education programs in the nation.

In 1784, at the first official meeting of the college's trustees in Carlisle, a Scottish minister and educator named Charles Nisbet was elected the first principal, or president, of Dickinson College. Nisbet had been a supporter of the American Revolution and was well known among America's intellectual circles as an impressive man of learning. Sometimes called a "walking library," Nisbet established high standards of education and scholarship for Dickinson students. Because of these unbending expectations, the college can list among its earliest graduates a U.S. president, a pair of college presidents, two justices of the Supreme Court, a governor, a founding father of the Smithsonian Institution and at least two abolitionists.

Old West was designed by Benjamin Latrobe, architect of the United States Capitol.

The Dawn of a New Century

Old West was designed by Benjamin Latrobe, architect of the United States Capitol. As the college grew in population and prominence, Nisbet and the other college leaders decided to construct a new "edifice" to serve as the center of campus&mdashand to allow Dickinson to move out of the old grammar school that had been its home since its founding. Called "New College," the building was constructed slowly, over a period of four years. In 1803, as the college prepared to settle into New College, a blustery snowstorm pushed through the Cumberland Valley, stirring some smoldering ashes in the building's basement. The ashes began to flame, and before long the building had burned to the ground.

Despite the initial despair (Col. John Montgomery, a U.S. Congressman and longtime Dickinson trustee, wrote to inform Rush of the fire, lamenting that all of their hopes "were Blasted in a few minutes"), hints of good fortune soon began to ameliorate the situation. For instance, Benjamin Latrobe, architect of the U.S. Capitol, offered to draw up plans for a new college hall. And private donations from individuals such as Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ensured the reconstruction of Dickinson College in swift fashion. Though Charles Nisbet would not live to see its completion, West College&mdashor Old West, as it's commonly called&mdashhosted its first classes in November 1805.

After his death, Nisbet was remembered as one of the most successful college presidents of his day. It's not surprising, then, that his standards of excellence held strong after his passing. His sensibilities remained integral in the life of the college. In 1812, for example, the college trustees authorized the purchase of Joseph Priestley's scientific equipment, which gave Dickinson state-of-the-art research capabilities in the sciences. (One of the pieces, a lens, is believed to have been used by Priestley in the discovery of oxygen.) It was this dedication to excellence and innovation in education that enticed the world-renowned chemist and social reformer Thomas Cooper to join the faculty as Dickinson's first chemistry professor. Thomas Jefferson, a contemporary, remarked that Cooper was "the greatest man in America in the powers of the mind and in acquired information, and that without exception."

Academic prowess, however, was not necessarily aligned with economic and political prosperity. A combination of financial straits and faculty dissention led to a college closing from 1816 to 1821. Over the period of several years, the trustees managed to overcome both of these hurdles. Barely a decade later, however, strife hit the college again. In the midst of the ongoing financial pressures of the early 19th century, Dickinson's faculty launched into a heated, often bitter, debate about the shape of the college's curriculum. In 1832, when the trustees were unable to resolve the issue, they ordered Dickinson's temporary closure.

Spencer Fullerton Baird, class of 1840, was a professor of natural history and science at the college. He became assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institute in 1850 and was later promoted to secretary of that institution.

Shortly after doors closed at Dickinson, the Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Episcopal (now United Methodist) Church approached Dickinson&rsquos trustees about reopening as a Methodist-affiliated college. Seeing the opportunity to continue operations, the existing Board of Trustees agreed to dissolve during its June 1833 meeting and handed over the keys to a newly constituted board. On June 7, 1833, the new board elected John Price Durbin as president of the college and chairman of the Board of Trustees.

In 1835, the Baltimore Conference began making an annual contribution to the college, which continues today and helps support the Center for Service, Spirituality & Social Justice .

Under the leadership of John Price Durbin, chaplain of the U.S. Senate, Dickinson College was revitalized. Teaching innovations, like Spencer Fullerton Baird's natural-science field trips (Baird, an alumnus and professor, later helped establish the Smithsonian Institution) and Charles Francis Himes' use of photography to teach chemistry, continued to enhance and distinguish the college's curriculum. Dickinson's law department, which was established in 1833, became the Dickinson School of Law in 1890 (and since 1917 has been independent of the college).

This track record of innovation has continued into Dickinson's modern history&mdashfor instance, in the 1980s Dickinson physics professor Priscilla Laws worked with colleagues to develop the widely used "workshop science" curriculum, in which hands-on learning and experimentation (rather than a steady diet of lectures) is at the core of classroom activity. And these innovations know no boundaries. In 1965, for example, Dickinson established a college-run study-abroad program in Bologna, Italy. Since then, Dickinson has sculpted one of the nation's most extensive global education programs, currently consisting of 39 programs in 24 countries on six continents.

Since its early years, the college has emphasized the importance of learning&mdashacademically and socially&mdashbeyond the classroom. Nineteenth-century students were involved in athletic clubs, social clubs and Greek letter societies. In fact, the first Pennsylvania chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was started at Dickinson in 1886. The college's first Greek fraternity was chartered in 1852. The college's student newspaper, The Dickinsonian, was founded 1872, placing it among the oldest ongoing newspapers in Pennsylvania. And the college's first intercollegiate football game was played against Gettysburg in 1879.

The Growth of a College

During the first half of the 20th century, Dickinson College weathered&mdashwith firm resolve&mdashthe difficulties posed by World Wars I and II and the Great Depression. Through curricular changes, the faculty found new ways to challenge its students, including one professor who began teaching a course on World War II a year before the United States even entered the conflict&mdasha risky enterprise, considering the national sentiment, led by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, that America would not get involved in the war. In the midst of the cultural maelstrom, the college trustees found the means to help Dickinson grow, more than doubling the size of the campus and increasing the student enrollment fourfold. During these years of international caution and isolationism, Dickinson developed exchange programs to bring foreign students to Carlisle, and likewise the college began to send Dickinsonians abroad.

In the latter part of the 20th century, Dickinson College continued to enhance its liberal arts curriculum, diversifying traditional disciplines to allow a wide variety of interdisciplinary and area studies opportunities. The college is home, for example, to one of the only community studies centers in the nation, where students can perform field research and take oral histories in local communities from different academic perspectives. Also, Dickinson houses the national headquarters of the Oral History Association and is home to the preeminent study-abroad journal Frontiers.

The college's cross-disciplinary approach has led to strengths in international education, the natural and mathematical sciences, the arts and pre-professional preparation. The curriculum has been further enriched by First-Year Seminars, internships/externships and student-faculty research and publishing. Over the past 10 years, 61 percent of all student-faculty research at Dickinson has resulted in published papers in professional journals, and 28 percent of those findings were presented at national and international conferences.

An Eye on the Past, a Foot in the Future

Proud of its heritage and true to the vision of its founders, Dickinson College remains committed to its historic mission: to prepare young people, by means of a useful and progressive education in the liberal arts and sciences, for engaged lives of citizenship and leadership in the service of society. As it looks toward the future, Dickinson is ever mindful of its revolutionary roots: unafraid to take risks, to speak out on important issues, to remain decisive, competitive and committed to its own brand of the liberal arts&mdashacademically rigorous, useful and unapologetically engaged with the world.

Learn more about the history of Dickinson on the Archives & Special Collections website.


Deep roots

Even when Chicago was just a village of 4,000 people, Rush’s founders recognized the need for quality medical care.

In 1837, the Illinois state legislature chartered Rush Medical College, just two days before the city of Chicago was incorporated. The school was founded by Daniel Brainard, MD, a distinguished surgeon and scientific investigator, and was named for Benjamin Rush, MD, a physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Many great names in the history of American medicine — William Heath Byford, Christian Fenger, Nicholas Senn, Ludvig Hektoen, Frank Billings, James Bryan Herrick and Arthur Dean Bevan, to name a few — have served as faculty here, contributing to the understanding of diseases and the development of treatments, as well as raising medical education standards.

In addition, Rush Medical College awarded David Jones Peck, MD, a doctor of medicine degree in 1847, making him the first African-American man to receive this distinction from an American medical school.


Rush, benjamin - History

The fourth of John and Susanna (Hall) Rush's seven children, Benjamin was raised and spent most of his life in the Philadelphia area. His mother, a Presbyterian, at first supervised her young son's religious education at home. After the death in 1751 of her Episcopalian husband, she and Benjamin regularly attended the Second Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. There young Rush was greatly influenced by its minister, Gilbert Tennent, a leader in the Great Awakening then sweeping the northeast. Exposure to Calvinist teachings continued during his student years at West Nottingham Academy in Maryland and at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University). He accepted these doctrines, he later wrote, "without any affection for them."

After earning an A.B. in 1760 from the College of New Jersey, Rush studied medicine, 1761-66, under Dr. John Redman in Philadelphia. On Redman's advice, he continued his studies at the University of Edinburgh, where he received an M.D. degree in 1768. He did further training at St. Thomas's Hospital in London, 1768-69. In Edinburgh he embraced a new explanation of disease, taught by the prominent instructor, Dr. William Cullen. Rejecting the older theory, based upon the balancing of the four humors, Rush believed that the root cause of disease was "irregular convulsive or wrong action," especially of the blood vessels. The therapy he recommended to restore the circulatory system to normal was blood-letting. Although from the vantage point of two hundred years Rush's ideas on the origin and treatment of diseases seem poorly founded, in his time they represented advanced thinking and a scientific challenge to traditional medical wisdom.

Returning to America, he joined the faculty of the College of Philadelphia as professor of chemistry. In 1789 he became professor of the theory and practice of medicine. When the college became part of the University of Pennsylvania he was appointed chair of Institutes of Medicine and Clinical Practice, 1791, and chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine, 1796. He was immensely popular with his students his lectures drew large crowds. His fame drew many students to Philadelphia to study medicine.

In 1776 he married Julia Stockton the couple had 13 children, nine of whom survived him. Their son James (1786-1869) followed his father into medicine and wrote notable studies of the human voice and of psychology.

Rush was a delegate to the Continental Congress convened in 1775 and a signer of the Declaration of Independence the following year. During the Revolutionary War he served briefly as surgeon-general of the armies of the Middle Department. Finding the army hospitals corruptly and incompetently managed and frustrated that his office did not give him power to reform them, Rush wrote letters of complaint to Congress and to General George Washington. He resigned after Washington accused him of personal disloyalty.

In 1787 Rush and James Wilson led the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the federal constitution two years later they led a successful campaign to develop a more liberal and effective state constitution. This was Rush's last involvement in politics, for which he had developed an intense dislike. A decade later President John Adams appointed him Treasurer of the United States Mint, a position he held until his death.

As a physician Rush strove to promote the general health of the citizenry. In 1786 he established the first free dispensary in the country. During the great yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793 Rush worked tirelessly and heroically to care for patients and to curb the spread of the disease, at the same time keeping detailed records. In the face of widespread criticism he persisted in promoting drastic purgation and radical blood-letting as a means of treatment. "The more bleeding, the more deaths," one critic complained, not without cause. Nevertheless Rush was convinced that his treatment was successful and had it applied to himself. His popular and accessible book, An Account of the Bilious Remitting Yellow Fever, as It Appeared in the City of Philadelphia, in the Year 1793, 1794, brought him international fame.

Rush made many contributions to medicine that have stood the test of time. He advocated the simplification of diagnosis and treatment of disease. "Let us strip our profession of everything that looks like mystery and imposture," he wrote. He was an early advocate of preventive medicine. In particular, he pointed out that decayed teeth were a source of systemic disease. He promoted innoculation and vaccination against smallpox.

A pioneer in the study and treatment of mental illness, Rush insisted that the insane had a right to be treated with respect. He protested the inhuman accommodation and treatment of the insane at Pennsylvania Hospital. When he received an inadequate response to his complaints from the hospital's Board of Managers, Rush took his case to the public at large. In 1792 he was successful in getting state funding for a ward for the insane. He constructed a typology of insanity which is strikingly similar to the modern categorization of mental illness and studied factors—such as heredity, age, marital status, wealth, and climate—that he thought predisposed people to madness. One of many causes of insanity he noted was intense study of "imaginary objects of knowledge" such as "researches into the meaning of certain prophecies in the Old and New Testaments."

Part of Rush's treatment of the mentally ill was based upon his idea of the cause of physical disease. One of his prescriptions for a patient was "bleeding . . . strong purges—low diet—kind treatment, and the cold bath." Anticipating Freudian analysis by a century, Rush also listened to his patients tell him their troubles and was interested in dreams. He recommended occupational therapy for the institutionalized insane. Syne Medical Inquiries and Observations, Upon the Diseases of the Mind, 1812, a standard reference for seventy years, earned him the title of "the father of American psychiatry."

Around 1780 Rush read what he described as "Fletcher's controversy with the Calvinists in favor of the Universality of the atonement." Soon after he heard Elhanan Winchester preach. According to Rush Winchester's theology "embraced and reconciled my ancient calvinistical, and my newly adopted [Arminian] principles. From that time on I have never doubted upon the subject of the salvation of all men." Like Winchester, Rush was what was later termed a Restorationist: "I always admitted . . . future punishment, and of long, long duration."

Rush frequently attended Winchester's Universal Baptist church, and he and Winchester became close friends. After Winchester left Philadelphia in 1787, they corresponded. In 1791 Rush wrote Winchester, then in England, "The Universal doctrine prevails more and more in our country, particularly among persons eminent for their piety, in whom it is not a mere speculation but a principle of action in the heart prompting to practical goodness."

In addition to Winchester, Rush was acquainted with a number of prominent Universalists and Unitarians. When the first general convention of Universalists was held in Philadelphia in 1790, Rush, although not an active participant, played an important part in organizing the convention's report in its final form. It was then that he first met John Murray, the Universalist leader, and his feminist wife, Judith Sargent Murray, who shared Rush's interest in dreams. (Judith told him of a dream in which she saw her first husband, "easy and happy," at the exact reported time of his death in the West Indies, where he had fled to avoid debtor's prison.) Over the next few years Rush and Murray met several times when Murray visited Philadelphia, once "at the President of the U.S."—that is, at the home of their mutual friends, John and Abigail Adams. They also corresponded with each other, their letters dealing chiefly with the hypochondrical Murray's health concerns.

In 1794 when Joseph Priestley came to America, Rush welcomed him at once, and a close friendship developed. Both scientists were interested in religion, believed in universal salvation, and held progressive social views. Later, when Priestley and his wife Mary settled in Northumberland, it was on land purchased with Rush's help.

When Thomas Jefferson came to Philadelphia as the newly-elected Vice President in 1797, he and Rush renewed a friendship that had begun in the days of the Revolution. For several years they carried on private conversation on religious matters, a subject that Jefferson ordinarily refused to discuss. In 1804 this dialogue, but not their friendship, was terminated because of unreconcilable differences over the nature of Jesus: Rush regarded him as a savior, Jefferson as a man. During 1812 Rush, inspired by a dream, initiated an exchange of letters between Jefferson and Adams. The exchange quickly brought about a reconciliation after a long period of mutual hostility and non-communication.

Rush's universalism, though for the most part overlooked by his biographers, has been a source of pride to Universalists down through the years—he was the best known national leader to espouse universal salvation. His connection with organized Universalism, however, was only peripheral. He never joined Winchester's Universal Baptist church, and during the 1790s his interest in all institutional religion waned. With Winchester's death in 1797, his main link to the Universalist movement was severed.

Although at various times a member of Episcopalian and Presbyterian churches, Rush generally eschewed formal denominational connections. In his later years he confided to John Adams: "I have ventured to transfer the spirit of inquiry (from my profession) to religion, in which, if I have no followers in my opinions (for I hold most of them secretly), I enjoy the satisfaction of living in peace with my own conscience, and, what will surprise you not a little, in peace with all denominations of Christians, for while I refuse to be the slave of any sect, I am a friend of them all. . . . [My own religion] is a compound of the orthodoxy and heterodoxy of most of our Christian churches."

Rush's shift from Calvinism to universalism was profoundly influenced by the social changes of the Revolutionary era. He embraced republicanism as an essential part of Christianity. For him a world attuned to God would be one which encouraged people to choose virtue over vice. To create this world it would be necessary to improve the conditions under which all the people lived. At first he envisioned the new American republic as playing the leading role in this transformation. Disillusioned by politics, he concluded that the actualization of the this-worldly millennium was a religious task. Rush's universalism inspired his work as social reformer. "No particle of benevolence, no wish for the liberty of a slave or the reformation of a criminal will be lost," he wrote in 1787, "for they all flow from the Author of goodness, who implants no principles of action in man in vain."

In his time Rush had no peer as a social reformer. Among the many causes he championed—most of them several generations in advance of nearly all other reformers—were prison and judicial reform, abolition of slavery and the death penalty, education of women, conservation of natural resources, proper diet, abstinence from the use of tobacco and strong drink, and the appointment of a "Secretary of Peace" to the federal cabinet.

In 1813 Rush died suddenly after a brief illness. He was buried in the graveyard of Christ's Church in Philadelphia, the same church whose pastor had christened him 67 years earlier. On learning of his death Jefferson wrote Adams: "Another of our friends of seventy-six is gone, my dear Sir, another of the co-signers of the Independence of our country. And a better man than Rush could not have left us, more benevolent, more learned, of finer genius, or more honest." Adams, grief-stricken, wrote in reply, "I know of no Character living or dead, who has done more real good in America."

The papers of Benjamin Rush are stored at the Ridgway Branch of Philadelphia Library Company, the Pennsylvania. Historical Society, the University of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia College of Physicians, the New York Academy of Medicine, the New York Historical Society, and the Library of Congress. His correspondence has been published as Lyman H. Butterfield, ed., Letters of Benjamin Rush, (1951). He was a prolific writer, the author of over 80 published works, including articles and the texts of lectures, addresses, orations, letters, and eulogies. The majority of these were in the field of medicine others dealt with social issues, education, and government. Among the most important are An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, upon Slave-keeping (1773) Medical Inquiries and Observations, 4 volumes (1789-1815) and Essays, Literary, Moral & Philosophical (1798).

Rush's own version of his story is preserved in George W. Corner, ed., The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush: His "Travels through Life," Together with His Commonplace Book for 1789-1813 (1948). Biographies include Nathan G. Goodman, Benjamin Rush: Physician and Citizen (1934) and Carl Binger, Revolutionary Doctor: Benjamin Rush, 1746-1813 (1966). Among many short biographical articles are those by Richard H. Shryock in Dictionary of American Biography (1935), John H. Talbott in A Biographical History of Medicine (1970), and Robert B. Sullivan in American National Biography (1999). Charles A. Howe, "Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Rush: Christian Revolutionaries," Unitarian Universalist Christian (Fall/Winter, 1989) and Robert H. Abzug, Chaos Crumbling (1994) give accounts of Rush's religious views. Russell E. Miller, The Larger Hope, volume 1 (1979) and George Hunston Williams, American Universalism: A Bicentennial Historical Essay (1976) portray Rush in a Universalist context. Also important is Donald J. D'Elia, "Benjamin Rush: Philosopher of the American Revolution," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (1974).

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Kyk die video: Rediscovering Benjamin Rush (Oktober 2021).