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Sir Thomas More tydlyn

Sir Thomas More tydlyn


Die opkoms en ondergang van Sir Thomas More

Thomas More is gebore in Londen op 7 Februarie 1478, die seun van 'n prominente advokaat. Hy het na een van die beste skole in Londen gegaan en daarna Grieks aan Oxford gestudeer. Hy is deur sy pa oorreed om sy akademiese strewes na die regte te verander. Hy het in 'n stadium ernstig oorweeg om 'n monnik te word, maar het eerder 'n advokaat geword. In 1504 is hy tot LP verkies.

Hy was 'n vriend van Erasmus, hulle het gereeld gekorrespondeer.

Hy is waarskynlik beïnvloed deur sy lees van die Griekse filosofie en deur sy kontak met humaniste Utopie in 1516.

Hy het die koning baie vroeg in die bewind opgemerk. (Henry het daarvan gehou om te dink dat hy 'n bietjie intellektueel was, en hy omring hom met noemenswaardige digters, skrywers en filosowe.) Meer en meer word gereeld na die hof uitgenooi. Hy word in 1529 tot kanselier bevorder.

Wolsey het deels geval omdat hy nie daarin kon slaag om die koning te skei nie Catherine van Aragon. Henry vervang hom met 'n ander man wat nie ten volle daartoe verbind was om vir hom 'n egskeiding te verseker nie. More het homself toenemend verskeur tussen wat van hom as kanselier gevra is, en sy eie gewete. Hy het in Mei 1532 bedank weens swak gesondheid.

Hy is uitgenooi na die huwelik van Henry en Anne, maar het die uitnodiging van die hand gewys. Henry was kwaad oor hierdie belediging. Diegene wat na aan die koning was en op soek was na 'n verbetering van hul posisies, het hierdie geleentheid aangegryp, en spoedig is More na die hof gedaag op aanklagte van die aanvaarding van omkoopgeld. Die aanklag is laat vaar.

In 1533 aanvaar Henry die Act of Supremacy and the Success of Success, wat hom die Hoof van die Katolieke kerk in Engeland gemaak het, en al die kinders van Anne se troonopvolger. Alle volwassenes moes 'n eed aflê om die veranderinge te aanvaar. In die aanhef tot die Erfregswet was daar 'n ontkenning van die pous as die Hoof van die Katolieke kerk in Engeland. More weerspreek nie die eed nie, maar hy weier om dit te sweer (net soos biskop John Fisher).

Hy is na die Tower of London gestuur, waar hy 14 maande lank as 'n gevangene gebly het.

Op 7 Mei het sy verhoor begin. Sy verweer was dat 'n man skuldig bevind is omdat hy stil was, en dit was nie verraad nie. Na berig word, het hy gesê: "Dit is alleen God wat die geheime van die hart kan oordeel." min kans, en hy het dit waarskynlik geweet. Dit sou heeltemal te gevaarlik gewees het vir Henry, so laat in die wedstryd, dat More se argument sou wen.

Hy is tereggestel in die toring, en sy kop is vir baie weke op die London Bridge geplaas totdat dit deur sy dogter gekoop is.

Die historiese reputasie van meer

Thomas More's reputasie kan hom voorafgaan. Soveel is sedert sy dood oor hom geskryf, gespeel en verfilm, dat dit moeilik is om die man van die mite te skei en uit te vind wie die werklike Thomas More was.

Hy is in 1935 deur die Katolieke kerk heilig verklaar.

Hy het 'n obelisk toegewy aan hom in Rusland.

Hy speel die rol van 'n 'morele paragon' aan die begin van die beskuldiging van president Clinton in Januarie 1999.

William Roper het in 1557 van hom geskryf, met 'n skoon en ongemerk gewete. suiwer en wit as die witste sneeu & quot.

Die gewilde beeld van More is lankal 'n man wat in 'n ideale, liefdevolle en ondersteunende gesin geleef het, wat sy gewete gevolg het in alles wat hy gedoen het teen die tirannie van Henry VIII. Die verhoog hiervoor was met sy eerste paar biografieë, wat in 1557 en 1558 geskryf is. Hierdie datums is belangrik soos tydens die regering van die Katolieke Maria, en More is gebruik as 'n voorbeeld van 'n man wat getrou was aan die geloof .

Tog was dit 'n man wat ketters vervolg het. Hy het ten volle geglo dat dwaalleer 'n vonnis van doodstraf verdien. Guy sê: "As morele en humanitêre waardes na die Verligting aangewend word, was hy 'n inkwisiteerder."

Daar is, wat Guy noem, 'biografiese swart gate', in soveel dat sy dood die fokus van die meeste boeke is, eerder as sy hele lewe. Daar is groot leemtes in bronne, en die briewe wat More in die gevangenis geskryf het, is moontlik nie heeltemal betroubaar nie. Hy het moontlik geweet dat dit na sy dood op een of ander manier vir openbare doeleindes gebruik sou word. & quot Van die begin af was dit duidelik dat die briewe meer as een gehoor het. & quot


Tydlyn van Sir Thomas More:

1505: Hy trou met Jane Colt in die Royden Parish Church.

1506: Thomas More het 'n parlementslid en onder-balju van Londen geword in die bewind van koning Hendrik die Sewende.

1511: Die dood van sy eerste vrou. Hy trou met Alice Middleton in die Parish Church of St Stephen, Walbrook.

1514: More is deur Thomas Wolsey aan koning Henry die agtste voorgestel en word meester van versoeke.

1516: Hy skryf sy bekendste werk, “Utopia ”.

1521: Hy word penningmeester van die staat.

1525: More word kanselier van die hertogdom Lancaster. Hy word ook voorsitter van die Laerhuis en het op verskeie diplomatieke missies na die Franse hof van koning Francis die Eerste gegaan.

1529: More word Lord Chancellor geskep tydens die val van kardinaal Wolsey, ondanks sy begeerte om nie die pos te beklee nie.

1532: Hy bedank die kanselier, aangesien hy nie saamstem met die godsdienstige opvattings wat die koning inneem nie.

1534: Koning Henry is geskep as hoof van die Church of England en Defender of the Faith. Meer sou geen heerser van die kerk anders as die pous herken nie en is verhoor weens hoogverraad. Hy was 'n jaar lank in die Tower of London opgesluit, maar weier steeds om terug te keer.

Waar en wanneer is hy dood?

Op 6 Julie 1535 is hy tereggestel deur onthoofding in Tower Hill, Londen, Engeland.

Ouderdom by dood:

Geskrewe werke:

1512: “Lewe van John Picus, graaf van Mirandula “ (vertaling).
1513: “ Geskiedenis van koning Richard die Derde ”.
1516: “Utopia ” (In Latyn) 1551 (In Engels).
1529: “Dialoog van uiteenlopende sake
1532: “ Konfusie van Tyndale. ”
1533: Die apologie van Sir Thomas More, Knight. ”
1543: Geskiedenis van Richard the Third ” (weergegee in Hardying ’s Chronicle of England).
1553: “ Comfortdialoog. ”
1559: “Works In Engels geskryf ” (Geredigeer deur William Rastell).

Huwelike:

  1. 1505 aan Jane Colt by Royden Parish Church.
  2. 1511 aan Alice Middleton by die Parish Church of St. Stephen, Walbrook.

Grafwerf:

St. Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London, England (Hoof in St. Dunstan ’s Church, Canterbury, Kent, Engeland.

Plekke van belang:

Die toring van London.
Standbeeld buite Chelsea Old Church, Chelsea Embankment.


Sir Thomas More en sy kontroversiële geskiedenis

As ons aan Richard III en die oorloë van die rose dink, sal die meeste van ons eers dink aan Sir Thomas More en sy “The History of King Richard III”. Dit is waarskynlik een van die mees kontroversiële bronne oor die Roses of the Roses wat daar is, en tog gebruik historici dit steeds. Die vraag is waarom daar so 'n aantrekkingskrag vir hierdie boek is en waarom het Thomas More dit geskryf? Dit is my hoop om met hierdie artikel 'n bietjie lig te werp op hierdie boek, op More en wat sy moontlike bedoelings was toe hy hierdie boek geskryf het. Ek sal hierdie artikel in twee dele verdeel wie Sir Thomas More was en wat die boek sê. Dit is belangrik om More se agtergrond te verstaan ​​as ons hoop het op die verstaan ​​van "The History of King Richard III". Ek sal slegs oor More se lewe skryf tot die tyd dat hy hierdie boek geskryf het, omdat sy latere lewe onder Henry VIII en sy teregstelling werklik nie die doel verklaar waarom More hierdie boek geskryf het nie.

Sir Thomas More: The Man

Wie was sir Thomas More, en waarom sou hy saak maak? Robert Whittington in 1520 sê:

More is 'n man met 'n engele -wysheid en enkelvoudige geleerdheid, ek ken nie sy medemens nie. Want waar is die man van daardie sagmoedigheid, nederigheid en vriendelikheid? Soos die tyd 'n man met wonderlike vreugde en tydverdryf vereis, en soms van 'n mens so 'n treurige swaartekrag vir die hele seisoen. (Murphy, 1)

Thomas More is op 7 Februarie 1478 (Ackroyd, 6) gebore vir John More en Agnes Graunger. More se kinderjare het die oorgang van Edward IV as koning na Richard III en uiteindelik na Henry VII gesien. Hy het 'n rukkie skoolgegaan by St. Anthony's en daarna 'n bladsy geword vir John Morton, aartsbiskop van Canterbury, 'n man wat dieper bewonder is en wat as 'n wyse man in sy geskiedenis sou verskyn. (Ackroyd, 35)

Nadat hy vir John Morton gewerk het, studeer More 'n bietjie aan die Universiteit van Oxford. Dit was in Oxford waar hy humanisme kon beoefen wat klassieke letterkunde bestudeer deur die studie van die antieke tale en sodra dit bemeester is, met behulp van retoriek om sekere onderwerpe te debatteer. (Johnson, 34-35) Humanisme sou die geskrifte van More en sy vriend Erasmus van Rotterdam vorm, wat die vertaling van die Nuwe Testament teen die Vulgaat sou stry, die gesag van die pous sou bevraagteken en diegene soos Luther, selfs diegene Erasmus was 'n vroom Katoliek. (Elton, 113). Om dit anders te stel, " Humaniste was daarop gemik om die mens en die Christen te integreer, nie te skei nie. ” (Murphy, 7)

More het Oxford verlaat sonder om 'n graad te behaal en na New Inn gegaan en later is hy in 1496 in Lincoln's Inn in Londen opgeneem. Herberge was nie wat ons vandag as herberg beskou het nie; (Ackroyd, 53). Hy was destyds sestien. Peter Ackroyd verduidelik hoe More beide sy godsdienstige studies kon balanseer met sy studie van die regte:

Godsdiens en die reg moes nie afsonderlik oorweeg word nie, dit impliseer mekaar. Daarom word die wet op sigself as volmaak geag, onbeskadig deur die slegte oordele van individuele beoefenaars, dieselfde argument oor die verdienste van die mis, in teenstelling met die deugd van die priester wat dit aangebied het, was die kern van die Katolieke eucharistiese geloof . Daarom is die wet ook as permanent beskou, dit was wat bekend was as waar, wat verandering of verval weerstaan. (Ackroyd, 63).

Dit moet verstaan ​​word om meer te verstaan. Vir hom was die gebruik van godsdienstige terme om politieke gebeure nog 'n deel van die daaglikse lewe te beskryf. 'N Ander deel van sy daaglikse lewe was sy gesin in 1505, hy trou met Jane Colt en hulle het vier kinders: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecily en John (Murphy, vii). Vier jaar later, in 1509, word Henry VIII koning van Engeland en in 1510 word More onder-balju van Londen gemaak en word hy in die parlement verkies. (Murphy, vii). Drie jaar later skryf More sy "The History of King Richard III", maar hy het dit nooit voltooi nie. (Meer, 3).

More se "Die geskiedenis van koning Richard III"

Baie argumenteer dat More sy "The History of King Richard III" geskryf het vir propaganda van die Tudor -dinastie, veral vir Henry VII, maar Ackroyd wys op iets baie interessant oor hul verhouding:

Daar is dikwels voorgestel dat More later vyandiggesind is teenoor die finansiële beproewings wat Henry VII op Londen probeer hef het. Daar is geen bewyse van 'n openlike geskil nie, maar More het beslis ten tyde van sy toetreding 'n skerp aanval op die dooie koning gemaak. (Ackroyd, 84)

As dit die geval was, wat was More se bedoeling met die skryf van hierdie boek? Voordat ons die vraag probeer beantwoord, moet ons die teks self ondersoek.

'The History of King Richard III' deur sir Thomas More is ongeveer minder as honderd bladsye lank. Relatief kort vir so 'n omstrede teks. Daar moet op gelet word dat hierdie teks in die losste moontlike sin as 'n 'geskiedenis' beskou word. Trouens, More gebruik nie onlangse geskiedenis uit sy tyd om sy eie geskiedenis te formuleer nie, maar as die humanist wat hy was, gebruik hy geskiedenis van Sallust en Tacitus as voorbeelde. (Ackroyd, 161). 'N Ander verskil van 'n tipiese geskiedenis is dat More vir sy geskiedenis op mondelinge bronne staatmaak. (Ackroyd, 161). Almal wat die geskiedenis bestudeer, weet dat mondelinge bronne nie altyd die betroubaarste bron is nie, want woorde kan verkeerd geïnterpreteer word.

More begin nie sy geskiedenis van Richard III met sê sy geboorte nie, maar begin sy boek met die dood van Edward IV. Hy beskryf Edward as " 'n goeie persoonlikheid, en baie vorstelik om vas te hou: moedig van hart ... ”(Meer, 4). More beskryf dan die beskermer van Edward se kinders, Richard III, en begin natuurlik eers met sy fisiese voorkoms (More, 8) en beskryf dan wie hy was:

…Neem en geheim, 'n diepe meningsverskil, nederig van aangesig, arrogant van die hart, uiterlik verbindbaar waar hy innerlik gehaat het, nie laat soen wie hy gedink het om afskuwelik en wreed te vermoor nie, maar altyd uit die kwaad, maar dikwels uit ambisie ... . Vriend en vyand was so onverskillig ... (Meer, 9)

Nie die mees beleefde manier om die broer van 'n koning wat self 'n koning sou wees, te beskryf nie, maar soos Sylvester sê, dit is nie omdat Richard 'n Yorkistiese koning was nie, maar omdat hy 'n ' tiran dissimuleer ”(Meer, xv). Nou was Richard nie die keuse van Edward as beskermer nie, dit was eintlik die broer van die koningin, Sir Anthony Woodville, ' 'n regte eerbare man, so dapper as 'n politiese raadsman " (Meer, 15). Richard hou egter nie van hierdie voorstel nie, en daarom het hy Lord Rivers en sy manne in die gevangenis gestuur en later onthoof vir 'verraad'. (Meer, 21).

In die boek van Thomas Thomas More is daar natuurlik geen datums nie, wat dit moeilik maak om vas te stel wanneer hierdie gebeurtenisse presies gebeur het of ook al gebeur het, insluitend die toesprake wat More ingesluit het, soos dié van die hertog van Buckingham wat probeer oortuig die voormalige koningin Elizabeth Woodville om haar ander seun aan Richard te oorhandig. (Meer, 29-33). Net so wanneer Elizabeth weier om haar seun prys te gee (More, 35-39) en later as sy dit teësinnig instem (More, 41-42). Dit is baie ikoniese toesprake in hierdie boek wat vol passie en hartseer is.

Waarom sou More hierdie feitelike of fiktiewe toesprake insluit? Peter Ackroyd gee ons 'n interessante insig in die vraag:

Dit is ook belangrik dat die mees uitgebreide gedeeltes van More se vertelling bedink word as toesprake, byvoorbeeld die meriete van heiligdom vir die koninklike kinders, is die onderwerp van lang debat, terwyl die reg van Richard om koning te word in 'n aantal redenasies. 'Die geskiedenis van Richard III' kan dan verstaan ​​word as 'n les in die kunste van dispuut en retoriese debat soortgelyk aan dié waarin More betrokke was as skoolseun en geleerde ... die staat: grammatika was deel van retoriek, en retoriek was deel van openbare plig. (Ackroyd, 162-163).

Hierdie boek is nie net 'n 'geskiedenis' nie, maar dit is ook 'n les in retoriek vir diegene in die regering. Meer was miskien 'n fan van die lees van geskiedenis, maar sy ware liefde was humanisme en regering, waarin retoriek en grammatika uiters belangrik was. Dit is die liefde vir humanisme en regering wat ons in die hele boek sien.

Meer gaan oor Richard se saak waarom hy koning moet wees. Nadat Richard van sy verraderlike voormalige vriend Lord Hastings (More, 49-54) ontslae geraak het, gaan hy oor na die belangrike deel van sy argument dat sy broer Edward reeds met 'n Mistress Shore getroud was voordat hy met Elizabeth Woodville trou. (More, 55 -58). Aangesien sy broer reeds getroud was, het dit beteken dat alle kinders wat hy met Elizabeth Woodville gehad het, as bastards beskou sou word, insluitend die jong koning Edward V. Dit was verdoemend genoeg, maar Richard wou seker maak dat dit 'n wettige steun het dat hy 'n dokument gemaak het, wat die kinders van Edward IV en Elizabeth Woodville as bastards verklaar het. (Meer, 60-61). Richard vra ook vir dr. Shaa om 'n preek te hou teen Edward se kinders met Elizabeth en die hertog van Buckingham wat sy toespraak lewer oor hoe groot Richard is (More, 70-76). Dit lei tot die epiese gevolgtrekking waar Richard "teësinnig" die troon inneem, aangesien hy die voor die hand liggende keuse is om kroon te neem sedert sy broer se erfgename as bastards verklaar is. Richard III het koning van Engeland geword.

Maar daar is nog 'n stuk in die raaisel. Wat het met die jong koning en sy broer gebeur? Meer laat ons twyfel oor wat met hulle gebeur het, want hy praat van gerugte dat John Green, sir Robert Brackenbury, die konstabel van die toring, sir James Tyrell en John Dighton deur Richard III beveel is om die broers dood te maak. (More, 85-90) . 'N Mens moet wonder of dit 'n geloofwaardige teorie of net retoriek is, aangesien More slegs hierdie teorie gehoor het en die feit dat daar geen skriftelike bewyse is nie. More gaan nie meer in detail hieroor nie en 'eindig' die boek met biskop Morton wat probeer om Richard III te oortuig om die land met wysheid te lei. (Ackroyd, 35). Dit is 'n baie ongewone einde vir iemand wat veronderstel is om die boek te skryf as propaganda vir die Tudor -dinastie.

Omdat ons weet dat More dit meer as 'n oefening oor humanisme skryf en nie hierdie boek voltooi het nie, hoe moet ons dan "The History of King Richard III" benader? Ek glo nie dat ons dit bloot moet weggooi nie. Dit was nie propaganda vir die Tudor -dinastie nie, aangesien dit in 1513 geskryf is, voordat More se politieke loopbaan werklik begin het. Die toesprake kan as voorbeelde van retoriek gesien word. Daar is 'n paar historiese feite soos die dood van Lord Hastings en Lord Rivers, Elizabeth Woodville wat haar seun aan Richard oorhandig het, en 'n regsdokument sowel as die preek van dr. Shaa. Dit pas by ander bronne. Wat Mistress Shore en die moord op die vorste van die toring betref, is dit 'n bietjie moeiliker om te bewys, aangesien ons nie werklike papierbewyse het om enige van die teorieë te ondersteun nie.

Oor die algemeen dink ek dat More se geskiedenis verstaan ​​moet word as 'n blik op geskiedenis vanuit 'n humanistiese lens. Dit is 'n belangrike stuk om te lees, want sommige van die feite in hierdie stuk is in werklikheid waar en dit gee ons 'n interessante blik op wat 'n Tudor -geleerde gedink het oor diegene wat onmiddellik voor die Tudors gekom het. "The History of King Richard III" deur Sir Thomas More is 'n boeiende leesstof vir almal wat belangstel in die Wars of the Roses, 'n donkerder siening van Richard III, of hoe humanisme in 'n geskrewe sin toegepas kan word. Ek beveel sterk aan dat u hierdie boek lees.

Wil u meer weet oor meer? (Bronne)

Ackroyd, Peter en Diarmaid MacCulloch. Die lewe van Thomas More. Londen: Folio Society, 2017.

Elton, G. R. Engeland onder die Tudors . Londen: Methuen, 1956.

Johnson, Paul. Die Renaissance: 'n kort geskiedenis . Bridgewater, NJ: Versprei deur Paw Prints/Baker & Taylor, 2008.

Meer nog, Thomas. Die geskiedenis van koning Richard III . Geredigeer deur Richard S. Sylvester. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.


Sir Thomas More

"Ek sterf as die getroue dienskneg van die koning, maar eers deur God".

Geen enkele sin gee 'n beter opsomming van 'n man wat hom toegewy het aan die diens van die Kroon en wat deur die Katolieke Kerk as heilige vereer sou word.

Sir Thomas More het in Tudor Engeland gewoon. Hy het 'n verskeidenheid rolle beklee, waaronder advokaat, kanselier, parlementslid en skrywer. Sy invloed op baie van hierdie terreine was nogal merkwaardig, veral sy beroemde teks, "Utopia".

Ongelukkig vir More het sy lewe op 'n dramatiese en kenmerkende Tudor -wyse geëindig toe hy geweier het om die egskeiding van koning Hendrik VIII sowel as die ingrypende onderbreking van die Engelse kerk uit Rome te erken.

More, 'n toegewyde verdediger van die Katolieke Kerk, het gevoel dat hy nie meer as kanselier van Henry VIII kon dien nie en bedank. Ongelukkig was dit die begin van die einde vir More, wat voortgegaan het om teen Protestantisme te argumenteer en dus in Julie 1535 verhoor en tereggestel is.

More, 'n Katolieke figuur in Engeland, 'n land wat besig was om 'n groot verandering in die rigting van protestantisme te ondergaan, het More 'n reformatoriese martelaar geword, een van die vele slagoffers, aan beide kante, wat veg en vir sy geloof aangevoer het.

In 1935 word More se lewe formeel deur pous Pius XI erken toe hy besluit het om More te kanoniseer. Dit is sy betekenis dat pous Johannes Paulus II hom in die 21ste eeu die beskermheilige van staatsmanne en politici gemaak het.

Sy verhaal begin in 1478 in Londen, gebore aan Agnes Graunger en haar man, sir John More, 'n man wat 'n gewaardeerde loopbaan in die regte gehad het. Een van die ses kinders, sy pa se roemryke loopbaan, sal die jong Thomas bevoordeel wat goeie opleiding ontvang het by een van die beste skole in die omgewing.

Teen 1490 dien hy die aartsbiskop van Canterbury, John Morton (ook Lord Chancellor of England) as sy huishoudelike blad. Hierdie ervaring sou jongmense sterker dien, aangesien Morton 'n aanhanger was van 'n ontwikkelende filosofie oor lewe en opvoeding, waarvan die wortels as humanisme beskryf kan word. Morton herken spoedig sy talente en benoem More vir 'n plek aan die Universiteit van Oxford.

Nadat hy twee jaar aan die universiteit was en blootgestel was aan 'n tipiese klassieke opvoeding, verlaat hy Oxford om sy pa se voetspore te volg en 'n loopbaan in die regte te volg. Hy word dus 'n student by Lincoln's Inn en word in 1502 na die kroeg geroep.

Terwyl hy sy beroep as advokaat nagestreef het, was die trekking wat hy gevoel het teenoor sy geloof en geestelike lewe sterk. Een van sy goeie vriende, Desiderius Erasmus, het gesê dat hy nadink oor die moontlikheid om voltyds 'n geestelike lewe te volg en sy regsloopbaan te laat vaar. Alhoewel hy nie op hierdie spesifieke pad gegaan het nie, sou die vroomheid waarna hy aangetrokke was, sy loopbaan lei en as rede vir sy afsterwe dien.

In 1505 trou hy met Jane Colt en het vier kinders by haar gehad voor haar hartseer, vroeë dood. More het 'n besonder ongewone gesindheid teenoor die gesinslewe gehad, wat destyds nie kenmerkend was nie: hy wou byvoorbeeld sy vrou opvoed deur haar te onderrig en het later daarop aangedring dat sy dogters 'n klassieke opvoeding sou ontvang, net soos sy seun sou ontvang.

Hierdie benadering tot die opvoeding van sy kinders, hoewel onortodoks baie bewondering begin wen het van mede -adellike gesinne en selfs Erasmus self, wat hom verstom het oor More se dogter se welsprekendheid en akademiese vaardigheid.

Die familie van Sir Thomas More

More het 'n groot gesin gehad, wat vinnig hertrou na die dood van sy vrou en 'n ander kind opneem, sowel as voog vir nog twee jong meisies. Hy het bewys dat hy 'n sorgsame en toegewyde vader was vir al die kinders, hulle bemoedig en met hulle kommunikeer terwyl hy weg was.

Terug in die sakewêreld het hy besluit om sy loopbaan in die regte te laat vaar ten gunste van 'n rol as politikus, en behaal sy eerste sukses as parlementslid in Great Yarmouth in 1504 en verteenwoordig later kiesafdelings in Londen.

Gedurende sy politieke loopbaan het hy in 'n verskeidenheid rolle gedien, onder meer as 'n Undersheriff van Londen, 'n posisie wat hom groot respek besorg het. Mettertyd het hy 'n Privy-raadgewer geword en verdere werk van 'n meer diplomatieke aard op die vasteland onderneem, wat hom 'n ridderskap en 'n nuwe posisie as onder-tesourier van die staatskas besorg het.

Toe hy deur die geledere styg, kom hy ook baie nader aan koning Henry VIII en dien hy as 'n persoonlike adviseur. In hierdie hoogs prominente posisie verwelkom hy diplomate en skakels tussen Henry VIII en ander figure, waaronder Lord Chancellor Wolsey.

Gedurende hierdie prestasieperiode het More ook tyd gevind om sy bekendste teks, "Utopia", wat in 1516 gepubliseer is, te vervaardig. op 'n eiland. Die vertelling is in Latyn saamgestel en beskryf die kulturele gebruike van die samelewing, wat orde, billikheid en gemeenskaplike eienaarskap van die eiland uitbeeld. Sommige van hierdie temas kan as wortels in die kloosterlewe beskou word, terwyl die uitbeelding van 'n veilige, gelyke funksionerende samelewing meer algemeen 'n beroep sou wees op mense soos Karl Marx en Friedrich Engels.

Titel houtsny vir ‘Utopia ’ deur Thomas More.

Die fiksiewerk het op sy eie tyd aanleiding gegee tot 'n hele genre van sy eie, 'n distopiese fiksie waardeur ideale samelewings die fokus van die verhaal was, insluitend werke soos "New Atlantis" deur Francis Bacon en "Candide" van Voltaire .

Terwyl sy literêre bekwaamheid intussen duidelik geword het, het More groot sukses behaal toe hy Wolsey in 1529 as Lord Chancellor opgevolg het. Dit sou egter op die punt staan ​​om te skend, aangesien sy kansellerskap saamgeval het met 'n enorme oomblik in die geskiedenis van die Christendom: die Protestantse Hervorming.

Terwyl hy in sy rol dien, het hy sy standpunt duidelik gemaak, sy steun vir die Katolieke Kerk verklaar en Wolsey gehelp om die invoer van Lutherse tekste na Engeland te belemmer. Hy het ook groot aanspraak gemaak op die Tyndale Bible, aangesien dit kettery was.

Terwyl hy as Lord Chancellor dien, word daar verwysings na sy gebruik van geweld en geweld in die hantering van diegene wat hy as ketter bestempel het, maar daar is nog steeds baie debat oor die vraag of hierdie beskuldigings waar is. Onder sy beheer is ses individue op die brandstapel verbrand, maar in hierdie tydperk was dit 'n algemene straf vir dwaalleer. Trouens, enige gerugte oor oormatige geweld is deur die man self in sy 'verskoning' van 1533 weerlê.

Sy standpunte was egter toenemend in opposisie met die parlement en die belangrikste met die koning. In 1529 word dit 'n misdaad gemaak om die bewering te ondersteun dat daar 'n ander gesag is as die wettige oppergesag van die koning.

Koning Henry VIII

Teen 1530 het More se konflik met Henry VIII tot 'n einde gekom. Hy het geweier om 'n brief te onderteken waarin hy gevra word dat die pous die huwelik van Henry en Catherine van Aragon ongedaan sal maak, terwyl hy ook 'n hewige debat voer met Henry oor die oplegging van dwaalwette.

In die daaropvolgende jaar is 'n koninklike besluit aangekondig waarin geëis word dat die geestelikes Henry VIII erken as die opperhoof van die Church of England. Meer uitdagend geweier om die eed te onderteken, maar hy het hom nie in die openbaar uitgespreek in teenstelling met sy monarg nie.

Uiteindelik, in Mei 1532, bedank hy as kanselier, met die gevoel dat hy nie meer in sy rol kan voortgaan nie.

'N Jaar later skryf hy aan Henry en spreek sy geluk uit dat hy 'n vrou in Anne Boleyn gevind het, maar hy weier om die kroning by te woon, wat uiteindelik as 'n openbare snuif beskou word en 'n reaksie noodsaak.

In die komende maande bevind More hom aan die ontvangkant van verskeie bewerings, waarvan sommige deur Thomas Cromwell op hom gerig is. Verskeie pogings om hom aangekla te sien, is nie opgevolg nie, totdat More op 13 April 1534 gevra is om sy trou aan die Erfreg te sweer.

More se weiering was die laaste strooi. Vier dae later is hy na die Tower of London geneem en van hoogverraad aangekla.

‘Thomas More neem afskeid van sy dogter Margaret Roper ’, deur Edward Matthew Ward

Op 1 Julie 1535 is sy verhoor gehou. Hy is voor 'n paneel beoordelaars gebring, wat ook 'n groot deel van Anne Boleyn se familie insluit, waaronder haar oom, broer en haar pa. Binne vyftien minute is More skuldig verklaar.

Die saak is gesluit, More is gevonnis om opgehang, getrek en in kwarte ingevul te word, 'n verwagte straf in die lig van die omstandighede, maar Henry VIII het gelas dat hy eerder onthoof word.

Op 6 Julie 1535 het Thomas More se roemryke loopbaan, ontluikende skryftalent, politieke gretigheid en godsdienstige vroomheid skielik tot 'n einde gekom. Hy is tereggestel, 'n man wat koning Henry VIII vroom gedien het en tog tot die einde getrou gebly het aan sy oortuigings en oortuigings.

Jessica Brain is 'n vryskutskrywer wat spesialiseer in geskiedenis. Gebaseer in Kent en 'n liefhebber van alles wat histories is.


Inleiding

Sir Thomas More (1477 - 1535) was die eerste persoon wat 'n 'utopie' geskryf het, 'n woord wat gebruik word om 'n perfekte denkbeeldige wêreld te beskryf. More se boek stel 'n komplekse, selfstandige gemeenskap op 'n eiland voor, waarin mense 'n gemeenskaplike kultuur en lewenswyse deel. Hy het die woord 'utopie' geskep uit die Griekse ou-topos wat 'geen plek' of 'nêrens' beteken. Dit was 'n woordspeling - die byna identiese Griekse woord eu -topos beteken ''n goeie plek'. Die kern van die woord is dus 'n belangrike vraag: kan 'n perfekte wêreld ooit realiseer? Dit is onduidelik of die boek 'n ernstige voorstelling is van 'n beter lewenswyse, of 'n satire wat More 'n platform gegee het om die chaos van die Europese politiek te bespreek.

More was 'n Engelse prokureur, skrywer en staatsman. Hy was op 'n tyd een van Henry VIII se betroubaarste staatsamptenare en word in 1529 kanselier van Engeland.


Inleiding

Sir Thomas More (1477 - 1535) was die eerste persoon wat 'n 'utopie' geskryf het, 'n woord wat gebruik word om 'n perfekte denkbeeldige wêreld te beskryf. More se boek stel 'n komplekse, selfstandige gemeenskap op 'n eiland voor, waarin mense 'n gemeenskaplike kultuur en lewenswyse deel. Hy het die woord 'utopia' uit die Grieks geskep ou-topos wat 'geen plek' of 'nêrens' beteken. Dit was 'n woordspeling - die byna identiese Griekse woord eu-topos beteken ''n goeie plek'. Die kern van die woord is dus 'n belangrike vraag: kan 'n perfekte wêreld ooit realiseer? Dit is onduidelik of die boek 'n ernstige voorstelling is van 'n beter lewenswyse, of 'n satire wat More 'n platform gegee het om die chaos van die Europese politiek te bespreek.

More was 'n Engelse prokureur, skrywer en staatsman. Hy was op 'n tyd een van Henry VIII se betroubaarste staatsamptenare en word in 1529 kanselier van Engeland.


Sir Thomas More tydlyn - geskiedenis

Nie 'n afstammeling nie, maar ek het 'n oulike verhaal oor 'n seuntjie wat deel was van 'n toer wat ek 'n paar jaar gelede by die werk gehou het. Die kinders het tougestaan ​​en die onderwyser het gesê: "Almal kom agter Thomas More aan" en toe ek aan die voorkant kom, vra ek "So, is jou naam Thomas More?" Hy kyk op na my en glimlag en sê: "Ek is vernoem na 'n man wat sy kop afgekap het!"

Dit beantwoord dus nie heeltemal u vraag nie, maar dit laat my altyd glimlag. Maar ek sal vanaand deur 'n paar boeke kyk en kyk of ek 'n regte antwoord vir u kan vind, as niemand anders my daarteen slaan nie!

Dit is nie 'n antwoord nie, maar ek het wel 'n verwysing gevind na 'n boek (hierdie jaar gepubliseer) met die titel "The Family and Descendants of St. Thomas More" deur Martin Wood. Dit klink asof dit goeie inligting bevat as u dit kan regkry.

Ek het onlangs ontdek dat ek 'n direkte afstammeling van Thomas More is, aangesien hy my tiende Oupagrootjie is.

Plaas 'n antwoord of e -pos direk via my webblad as u die afstammeling wil sien. www.loganisle.com

Ek is die skrywer van die boek "The Family and Descendants of St Thomas More" wat in 'n antwoord aan Mary Anne oor lewende afstammelinge genoem word. Thomas More is my 14 x oupagrootjie.
Die boek is beskikbaar by die uitgewer 'Gracewing' en by Amazon.co.uk.
Elke hoofstuk van die boek handel oor 'n ander geslag van die gesin tot in die middel van die 1800's.
Ek sal almal help wat my kontak.

Dankie vir u antwoorde. Ek het die boek van meneer Wood bestel en sien uit daarna om dit te lees.

Vir al u aanhangers van “The Tudors ” en meer. Hier is 'n fassinerende blik op die afstammelinge in die gehoor .. ek is moontlik een van hulle, en u ook!

Tudors Afstammelinge in die gehoor. Is jy een van hulle?

Sien die waaierkaarte vir die karakters in The Tudors:
http://www.familyforest.com

I am a directed descendant. I forget how many greats are in there, but he is my great-grandfather to some degree.

I am a direct descendant of Thomas More. He is my 17th great grandfather. My line comes into Virginia, West Virginia, and now in Ohio. Surnames associated are: Foster, Terrill, Burns, and Burch.

I am a direct descendant via the Roper and Winn line. My great grandmother was Lucy Strickland-Constable who was the great-great-great-great granddaughter of Elizabeth Henshaw, nee Roper.

I had just the direct linage of my husbgand done by a geneologist 2 years ago. It showed my husband was a direct descendant of Sir Thomas More.
Unfortunately, I had my computer compromised and lost all my information. I have been able to work Out all lines of his family except the More one.
Could somebody set me right , as far as the first generation to be born in America.

I also discovered through Ancestry.com, that Sir Thomas More was my 12th great grandfather, through my father's line.
I'm so amazed!

I'm a direct descendant through my father's line. Sir Thomas More is my 12th great-grandfather and Captain Myles Standish is my 9th great grandfather.

From Ancestry.com I found out that Sir. Thomas More is my 17th great-grandfather on my father's mother side.

he is my 13th great grandfather from my mother's line

Thomas More is my 14th great grandfather according to Ancestry.com This is on my fathers side. . .from the US

Same here, Ancestry.com says he's my 16th Great Grandfather. kinda cool. I never did like that Henry Tudor anyway.

He Is My 19Th Great Grandfather On My Father's Mother's Side. Ancestry.Com

I descend from Sir Thomas More, starting with his paternal grandfather, as follows:

William More Esquire (died 1467)
is my 16th great grandfather
Sir John More (1451 - 1530)
son of William More Esquire
▽Sir Thomas More (1478 - 1535)
son of Sir John More
▽John More II (1509 - 1547)
son of Sir Thomas More
▽Thomas "The Younger" More III (1538 - 1606)
son of John More II
▽Thomas More (1568 - 1616)
son of Thomas "The Younger" More III
▽Alice More (1593 - 1628)
daughter of Thomas More
▽Thomas Vail (1620 - 1687)
son of Alice More
▽Samuel Vail (1654 - 1695)
son of Thomas Vail
▽Rev. John J. Vail (1685 - 1774)
son of Samuel Vail
▽Joseph Vail (1717 - 1804)
son of Rev. John J. Vail
▽Joseph "John" Vail (1741 - 1818)
son of Joseph Vail
▽James Vail (1796 - 1825)
son of Joseph "John" Vail
▽Solomon Vail (1825 - 1906)
son of James Vail
▽Merida Marlow Vail (1854 - 1925)
son of Solomon Vail
▽Byron Solomon Vail (1878 - 1949)
son of Merida Marlow Vail
▽Courtney Ballard "Bill" Vail (1911 - 1978)
son of Byron Solomon Vail
▽Dennis Michael "Mike" Vail (1940 - 1998)
son of Courtney Ballard "Bill" Vail
▽Douglas Micah Vail (born 1970)
the son of Dennis Michael "Mike" Vail

Unfortunately Ancestry has mistakes which lead some (especially in America)to believe that they are descended from Sir/St Thomas More when they are not. If you make such a claim, I can help. Contact me at [email protected]
[Martin Wood: Author "The Family and Descendants of St. Thomas More". Published in the UK. April 2008.

I thought I was a descendent of Sir Thomas More as well until Martin showed me I was incorrect. I never got an answer from Martin about DNA testing though. Have you had your DNA tested? If so I have done 23andme& AncestryDNA and would love to compae! Dankie.

Many comments from people claiming to be direct descendents of Thomas More, yet online genealogical charts say that there have been no direct descendents from the male OR female line since the late 18th century.

Some of the most used internet genealogy sites have led a number of people to believe that they are descended from Sir/St Thomas ore, when they are not.
There are no early descendants who went to America.
The Vail line, fro0m which some claim descent is far from proved and has involved a good deal or name and place changes to make it look authentic.
Some claim descent from a John Moore who went to Virginia in 1620, but his English ancestry is unknown. He was most certainly not the son of Mary More (b.1553) and her husband Edward Moore/More who (beside five daughters)only had two sons, Henry and Thomas, both of whom became Jesuit priests. The claim that a Thomas More married a Martha Brookes is a pure fabrication.
Martin Wood
[Author: "The Family and Descendants of St Thomas More". Published in the UK. April 2008.]

Attention of Mr martin Wood, author of the book related to the descendants of st Thomas More.
My Granbd grand mother, born Marie-Antoinette-Jeanne Onffroy de Verez used to relate the fact that we are descendants from Thomas More by claire Pike de Barbuth who married Pierre-Rolland Onffroy de Verez. can you tell me if any of these names is appearing in your research before I purchase youir book ?

My mother told me when I was young that sir Thomas more is my 5th great uncle or so and I have been trying to find others but I'm not sure if all of these people here are actually related since ansetery is not a good resource.

After researching myself, the late Martin Wood of England was correct on clear proof needed to connect the Vail line with Sir Thomas More. Martin Wood's prevailing book is well researched and countervails travails. Possibly an archive will surface, but to no avail so far. The Vail family did marry into the More and Moore families in England and America in the 16th and 17th centuries, but evidence is still vital for exact descent from any of the family of Sir Thomas More.

He is a well missed author.

My second cousin researched the Roper family tree. When tracing his father's family tree (Edward Roper) he discovered that the Roper's from Reading in Berkshire were decendents of William Roper and Margaret Moore (Sir Thomas's daughter). Does anyone have any info on the Moore-Roper anvestry ?

Hi! Thomas More is my 14th-Great-Grandfather. I'm 16, and my grandfather, who is British (TM's 12th-great-grandson), found an old family tree in his childhood home when he was cleaning it out following his mother's death about 20 years ago and made this discovery. I don't have the full line right now, but I'll try to find it.

Thank you for your post. I am new to tracing my ancestors so I can only go on snippets of info. I did contact my cousin but he didn't respond. The last piece of information I can find was that William and Margaret had 2 son's Thomas and Anthony. They both married and Thomas had 2 daughters who married so that was the last of the Roper name. Anthony married Lucy Cotton but I don't know if they had any children. There is a huge gap overy the centuries until you get to my Gt Grandfather Edward Roper who died in 1966.

I've been researching my family history and Sir Thomas More is my 16th great grandfather. I'm related to him by his son John More.

I've been researching my family history and Sir Thomas More is my 16th great grandfather. I'm related to him thru his son John More.

My family genealogy shows that we too are from the More/Moore line. But I tend to be a bit skeptical, therefore will continue to research the lineage. Things that I do know is that a side of the family were very much into ministry of the Christian Faith in England and in America. Late 1500's (Eng) thru 1800's (USA). so, anything is possible. Member of the Champion Family

I am James More, and my family thinks that we have relations with Sir Thomas More. I am also a male. Wat dink jy? You think the descendants are still alive my last name is spelled More also, which is a peculiar thing. Tell me what you think. Dankie

I am a decendant of the George Moore family of Moore Hall in County Mayo, Ireland. Family lore has said that they (and therefore I) are descended from Sir Thomas More, bUt I have never been able to find the direct connection. I would appreciate if you know. [email protected]

I am also 17th great granddaughter of St. Thomas Moore. Would love to connect with other descendants! We have a lot to live up to! [email protected]

I am a 12th descendant to Christopher Cresacredit Moore, he was Sir Thomas Moores Grandson. :-)

I have been researching my maternal line and was given this list of grandparents which leadds back to Sir Thomas More. I have similar facial features to the paintings I have seen of him. Here is the list I was given. Thomas is the 15th great grandfather of Kathleen
1. Kathleen is the daughter of Lillian (Cauldwell) Rogan [unknown confidence]
2. Lillian is the daughter of Vesta Elizabeth Ann Kinnear [unknown confidence]
3. Vesta is the daughter of Millicent Alberta (Noble) Kinnear [unknown confidence]
4. Millie is the daughter of Thomas Henry Noble [unknown confidence]
5. Thomas is the son of Hezekiah Noble [unknown confidence]
6. Hezekiah is the son of Thomas Smith Noble [unknown confidence]
7. Thomas is the son of Stephen Noble [unknown confidence]
8. Stephen is the son of Ruth (Church) Noble [confident]
9. Ruth is the daughter of Ruth Hitchcock [confident]
10. Ruth is the daughter of Elizabeth (Walker) Hitchcock [unknown confidence]
11. Elizabeth is the daughter of Elizabeth (Wheeler) Walker [unknown confidence]
12. Elizabeth is the daughter of Miriam (Hawley) Wheeler [unknown confidence]
13. Miriam is the daughter of Katherine (Booth) Hawley [unknown confidence]
14. Katherine is the daughter of Ann (Revel) Booth [confident]
15. Ann is the daughter of Ann More [unknown confidence]
16. Ann is the daughter of John More II [unknown confidence]
17. John is the son of Thomas More [unknown confidence]
This makes Thomas the 15th great grandfather of Kathleen.
[email protected]

I am not a descendent, just an admirer of this Catholic Saint and Martyr. And if his portrait is trustful, he was very cute too.

This family tree from the 19th century shows descent from Thomas Moore, through Anthony Roper's daughter Isabel to Isabella Wiseman, wife of Sir Henry Bosville (d 1638), so (if true) all descendants of Sir Henry are descended from Thomas More

The brewer James Hinton Baverstock (my great^4 grandfather) commissioned the genealogy, and many of his descendants took the name Bosville.

Hola! Me podrías pasar el árbol de los Roper? En mi familia aparece una Mary Anne Fernandez Ropero, casada con Manuel del Castillo Negrete y según nuestras abuelas somos descendientes de Santo Tomas Moro. Mi mail es [email protected]

I’m a direct descendant of Sir Richard Rich, sooo, my apologies

My 15th great grandpa was Sir Richard Rich. mea culpa.

He is my 14th Great grandfather. I went my dad his dad his dad and soon. Also my family lived in Virginia and West Virginia.

Saint Thoomas More is my 14th times great grandfather. I went my dad his dad his dad and back. Also they lived in Virginua and West Virginia.


Sir Thomas More Timeline - History

"The King's good servant, but God's first." 1

Thomas More was born in Milk Street, London on February 7, 1478, son of Sir John More, a prominent judge. He was educated at St Anthony's School in London. As a youth he served as a page in the household of Archbishop Morton, who anticipated More would become a "marvellous man." 1 More went on to study at Oxford under Thomas Linacre and William Grocyn. During this time, he wrote comedies and studied Greek and Latin literature. One of his first works was an English translation of a Latin biography of the Italian humanist Pico della Mirandola. It was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1510.
Around 1494 More returned to London to study law, was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1496, and became a barrister in 1501. Yet More did not automatically follow in his father's footsteps. He was torn between a monastic calling and a life of civil service. While at Lincoln's Inn, he determined to become a monk and subjected himself to the discipline of the Carthusians, living at a nearby monastery and taking part of the monastic life. The prayer, fasting, and penance habits stayed with him for the rest of his life. More's desire for monasticism was finally overcome by his sense of duty to serve his country in the field of politics. He entered Parliament in 1504, and married for the first time in 1504 or 1505, to Jane Colt. 2 They had four children: Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely, and John.
More became a close friend with Desiderius Erasmus during the latter's first visit to England in 1499. It was the beginning of a lifelong friendship and correspondence. They produced Latin translations of Lucian's works, printed at Paris in 1506, during Erasmus' second visit. On Erasmus' third visit, in 1509, he wrote Encomium Moriae, of Praise of Folly, (1509), dedicating it to More.
One of More's first acts in Parliament had been to urge a decrease in a proposed appropriation for King Henry VII. In revenge, the King had imprisoned More's father and not released him until a fine was paid and More himself had withdrawn from public life. After the death of the King in 1509, More became active once more. In 1510, he was appointed one of the two under-sheriffs of London. In this capacity, he gained a reputation for being impartial, and a patron to the poor. In 1511, More's first wife died in childbirth. More soon married again, to Alice Middleton. They did not have children.
During the next decade, More attracted the attention of King Henry VIII. In 1515 he accompanied a delegation to Flanders to help clear disputes about the wool trade. Utopia opens with a reference to this very delegation. More was also instrumental in quelling a 1517 London uprising against foreigners, portrayed in the play Sir Thomas More, possibly by Shakespeare. More accompanied the King and court to the Field of the Cloth of Gold. In 1518 he became a member of the Privy Council, and was knighted in 1521.
More helped Henry VIII in writing his Defence of the Seven Sacraments, a repudiation of Luther, and wrote an answer to Luther's reply under a pseudonym. More had garnered Henry's favor, and was made Speaker of the House of Commons in 1523 and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1525. As Speaker, More helped establish the parliamentary privilege of free speech. He refused to endorse King Henry VIII's plan to divorce Katherine of Aragón (1527). Nevertheless, after the fall of Thomas Wolsey in 1529, More became Lord Chancellor.
While his work in the law courts was exemplary, his fall came quickly. He resigned in 1532, citing ill health, but the reason was probably his disapproval of Henry's stance toward the church. He refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn in June 1533, a matter which did not escape the King's notice. In 1534 he was one of the people accused of complicity with Elizabeth Barton, the nun of Kent who opposed Henry's break with Rome, but was not attainted due to protection from the Lords who refused to pass the bill until More's name was off the list of names. 3
In April, 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy, and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17. More was found guilty of treason and was beheaded alongside Bishop Fisher on July 6, 1535. More's final words on the scaffold were: "The King's good servant, but God's First." More was beatified in 1886 and canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint by Pope Pius XI in 1935.

1. Last words on the scaffold, 1535, according to Paris Newsletter, August 4, 1535:
"qu'il mouroit son bon serviteur et de Dieu premierement."
2. Ackroyd, Peter. The Life of Thomas More. New York: Anchor Books., 1999.
3. The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Ian Ousby, Ed.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Other local biographical resources:

Bibliography:
Ackroyd, Peter. The Life of Thomas More. (1998)
Fox, Alistair. Thomas More: History and Providence. (1983)
Fox, Alistair. Utopia: An Elusive Vision. (1992)
Logan, George M. The Meaning of More's Utopia (1983)
Marius, Richard. Thomas More: A Biography (1984)
Pineas, Rainer. Thomas More and Tudor Polemics (1968)
Reynolds E. E. Sir Thomas More (1965)
Reynolds E. E. Thomas More and Erasmus. (1965)
Reynolds E. E. The Field Is Won: The Life and Death of Saint Thomas More. (1968)
Wegemer, Gerard B. Thomas More : A Portrait of Courage. (1995)
Wegemer, Gerard B. Thomas More on Statesmanship. (1996)

Jokinen, Anniina. "The Life of Sir Thomas More." Luminarium.
6 July 2012. [Date you accessed this article].

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Site copyright ©1996-2018 Anniina Jokinen. Alle regte voorbehou.
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Indictment, trial, and execution

More’s refusal to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn, whom Henry married after his divorce from Catherine in 1533, marked him out for vengeance. Several charges of accepting bribes recoiled on the heads of his accusers. In February 1534 More was included in a bill of attainder for alleged complicity with Elizabeth Barton, who had uttered prophecies against Henry’s divorce, but he produced a letter in which he had warned the nun against meddling in affairs of state. He was summoned to appear before royal commissioners on April 13 to assent under oath to the Act of Succession, which declared the king’s marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne valid. This More was willing to do, acknowledging that Anne was in fact anointed queen. But he refused the oath as then administered because it entailed a repudiation of papal supremacy. On April 17, 1534, he was imprisoned in the Tower. More welcomed prison life. But for his family responsibilities, he would have chosen for himself “as strait a room and straiter too,” as he said to his daughter Margaret, who after some time took the oath and was then allowed to visit him. In prison, More wrote A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation, a masterpiece of Christian wisdom and of literature.

His trial took place on July 1, 1535. Richard Rich, the solicitor general, a creature of Thomas Cromwell, the unacknowledged head of the government, testified that the prisoner had, in his presence, denied the king’s title as supreme head of the Church of England. Despite More’s scathing denial of this perjured evidence, the jury’s unanimous verdict was “guilty.” Before the sentence was pronounced, More spoke “in discharge of his conscience.” The unity of the church was the main motive of his martyrdom. His second objection was that “no temporal man may be head of the spirituality.” Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn, to which he also referred as the cause for which they “sought his blood,” had been the occasion for the assaults on the church: among his judges were the new queen’s father, brother, and uncle.

More was sentenced to the traitor’s death—“to be drawn, hanged, and quartered”—which the king changed to beheading. During five days of suspense, More prepared his soul to meet “the great spouse” and wrote a beautiful prayer and several letters of farewell. He walked to the scaffold on Tower Hill. “See me safe up,” he said to the lieutenant, “and for my coming down let me shift for myself.” He told the onlookers to witness that he was dying “in the faith and for the faith of the Catholic Church, the king’s good servant and God’s first.” He altered the ritual by blindfolding himself, playing “a part of his own” even on this awful stage.

The news of More’s death shocked Europe. Erasmus mourned the man he had so often praised, “whose soul was more pure than any snow, whose genius was such that England never had and never again will have its like.” The official image of More as a traitor did not gain credence even in Protestant lands.


Sir Thomas More: Biography, Facts and Information

Today we know Sir Thomas More primarily as the author of Utopia, and as one of the more famous martyrs of Henry VIII’s reign. The popular image is of a man – principled, steadfast, courageous – who placed his own conscience above his king’s demands.

Yet if you were to ask More’s contemporaries to describe him, their words would be as conflicted and contradictory as the man himself. He was a brilliant scholar of the Renaissance who died rather than betray the Catholic church. As a young man, he seriously contemplated joining the priesthood, only to become one of the most successful politicians of his time. And he was a father who insisted his three daughters have the same education as his son. Perhaps more than any other courtier of Henry’s reign, More embodied the searching, troubled spirit of the early 16th century.

After his death, and for centuries thereafter, Sir Thomas More was known as the most famous victim of Henry VIII’s tyranny. It was More’s execution – far more than those of Anne Boleyn or Thomas Cromwell or Margaret Pole – which established the king’s reputation for capricious cruelty. This was partly due to More’s intellectual prominence he was perhaps the most famous Englishman on the continent, with a wide and varied correspondence. It was also due to Henry’s deep and unfeigned friendship with More. (We should note, however, that More – brilliant and perceptive – was never especially comfortable in his king’s good graces. “If my head should win him a castle in France,” he told his son-in-law in 1525, “it should not fail to go.”)

More’s beginnings, however, hardly predicted his spectacular career. In Utopia, he identified himself as a “citizen of London”, and it was in London that he was born on 7 February 1477, the only surviving son of John More and his first wife, Agnes Graunger. John More was a successful lawyer who was later knighted and made a judge of the King’s Bench he was prosperous enough to send his son to London’s best school, St Anthony’s at Threadneedle Street. And he was well-connected enough to later secure his son’s appointment as household page to John Morton, the archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor of England. There is an apocryphal story that Morton predicted his bright and lively page would grow into a “marvelous man”.

More’s adolescent years were spent under the reign of Henry VII, the first Tudor king. And his patron Morton was infamous as the architect of that king’s very successful – and subsequently very unpopular – tax policy. Morton’s tax philosophy was a marvel of inescapable logic: “If the subject is seen to live frugally, tell him because he is clearly a money saver of great ability, he can afford to give generously to the King. If, however, the subject lives a life of great extravagance, tell him he, too, can afford to give largely, the proof of his opulence being evident in his expenditure.” And while this reasoning worked to replenish the royal treasury for Henry VII, it also provided the second Tudor king with a chance to curry popular favor when he – in one of his first acts as Henry VIII – imprisoned and later executed Edmund Dudley and Richard Empson, who were Morton’s (and his father’s) tax collectors.

However, we should not assume that Morton’s politics had any profound impact upon More. Quite the opposite. Both men were enthusiastic Humanist scholars, but they parted ways with regard to the king’s prerogative. In 1504, More was elected to Parliament and one of his first acts was to oppose Henry VII’s request of a “grant” of three-fifteenths. It was More’s impassioned speeches against this large and unjust burden that made the king reduce it by more than two thirds. And the king was not pleased with the young lawyer he promptly imprisoned More’s father in the Tower until he paid a substantial fine.

That was the beginning of Thomas More’s public career, and it was a telling one. More’s connection to Morton had earlier secured him admittance to Oxford, where he studied for two years, mastering Greek and Latin with “an instinct of genius”, and studying a wide variety of subjects, including music. His father recalled him to London and he trained as a law student at New Inn and later Lincoln’s Inn. The governors of Lincoln admired him enough to appoint him lecturer on law for three consecutive years. More’s brilliance of mind and curious, kindly character gained him many friends and admirers. Yet even as his legal future seemed assured, More was deeply conflicted about his future. He had long felt a calling to the priesthood. Now he decided to seriously test his religious convictions.

He moved into the Carthusian monastery adjoining Lincoln’s Inn and participated in the monks’ way of life as much as he could, while still pursuing his legal career. His father was not supportive, but More was fully prepared to be disowned rather than disobey God’s will. To that end, he spent the next three years in study and prayer, wearing a hair shirt next to his skin (a practice he never abandoned), and struggling to reconcile his genuine religious fervor with the demands of the outside world. In the end, he decided, in the words of his friend Erasmus, “to be a chaste husband rather than an impure priest.”

It should be noted that More’s affinity for the monastic life never left him, despite his later marriages, family, and career. Even as he secretly wore a hair shirt, he openly and consistently fasted, prayed, and maintained a relatively modest household. When he later built his ‘Great House’ in Chelsea, its rooms were specifically designed to encourage quiet study and prayer. More’s piety was the defining aspect of his character even as the circumstances of his life changed, it remained constant and unyielding.

His decision to become a lay Christian now made, More quickly married. His choice was Jane Colt, the eldest daughter of a gentleman farmer. His son-in-law William Roper, whose biography of More is one of the first biographies ever written, tells us that More chose his wife out of pity: “[A]lbeit his mind most served him to the second daughter, for that he thought her the fairest and best favored, yet when he considered that it would be great grief and some shame also to the eldest to see her younger sister preferred before her in marriage, he then, of a certain pity, framed his fancy towards” Jane. True or not, the marriage proved to be happy and fruitful, though of brief duration. After bearing More three daughters (Margaret, Elizabeth, Cicely) and one son (John), Jane died in 1511. More later memorialized her as “uxorcula Thomae Mori” her gentle personality is attested to by Erasmus’s letters, as he was a frequent visitor to More’s home. The two men had first met in 1497 and remained close friends until More’s death.

More’s wife had been – like most women of her time – ill-educated, and during their brief marriage, he taught her Latin and other subjects. She was an apt enough pupil to later converse with visitors in Latin. And More determined that their daughters would receive the same education as their son. The symbolism and importance of this decision cannot be underestimated. More’s eldest daughter Margaret would become the first non-royal Englishwoman to publish a work in translation.

More was thus in his early thirties, successful, happily married, when the tax collectors Dudley and Empson were beheaded on Tower Hill at the command of the new king, Henry VIII. As a newly elected representative for London in Parliament and an undersheriff in the city, he was deeply involved in public life. He worked eight years as undersheriff and proved himself an impartial judge and able administrator. Contemporary chroniclers often referred to him as a friend of the poor. The one potentially scandalous act of his life was his quick second marriage to a widow seven years his senior, Alice Middleton. They married less than a month after Jane Colt’s death and More had to seek special dispensation from the church. It was granted, and the wealthy widow became stepmother to his four children, and More stepfather to her daughter and son. It proved to be another happy marriage, though More’s friends remarked upon Alice’s sharp tongue and occasionally brusque ways. Perhaps the contrast with the quiet, gentle Jane was too striking. For More’s part, he undoubtedly appreciated his second wife’s superb housekeeping skills for they allowed him the freedom to pursue his increasingly successful career.

It is at this moment that we must step back and consider the England in which More now lived. There was a new king, – a handsome, athletic young man who had once been destined for the church. But his older brother perished and the younger brother was crowned at 18 years old, and quickly wed his brother’s widow. She was the Spanish princess, Katharine of Aragon, one of the daughters of the Catholic rulers of Spain. She was a devout and learned young woman, and though we primarily know her as the older wife who could not bear Henry his desired son and heir, she was once young and pretty and well-liked. Henry VIII’s later statements to the contrary, his marriage to Katharine began happily and continued so for some years. There was a feeling in England that a new era had begun.

Henry VIII was a Catholic ruler, and enjoyed friendly relations with the papacy until he sought to divorce Katharine. But that was years in the future. As a young king, he was named “Defender of the Faith” by the pope for defending the church against Protestant heresy his Lord Chancellor was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. And because of his early education in religious matters, Henry was no mere spectator in religious debate.

For these reasons, More had no cause to suspect his monarch of anything less than fealty to their shared faith. And as his own reputation grew in London, he attracted the notice of the all-powerful Cardinal Wolsey. In May 1515, More was sent to Bruges as part of a delegation arranged by Wolsey to revise an Anglo-Flemish commercial treaty. It was during this trip that he began to write Utopia, his most famous work. It was More who coined the term, a pun on the Greek words for ‘no place’ and ‘good place’. More had already begun writing his History of King Richard III as well it is considered the first masterpiece of English history and is wholly pro-Tudor. Its influence upon William Shakespeare’s Richard III is immense.

Utopia is a complex and witty work which describes a city-state ruled entirely by reason. It is meant to contrast with the reality of European rule, divided by ideologies and greed and self-interest. More essentially argued that communal life is the only way to end the ill effects of self-interest on politics. The work was a marvel of learning and wit and wholly original it was soon translated throughout the Continent and its author hailed as one of the foremost Humanist thinkers. It is no exaggeration to state that its publication ensured More a stature that no other Englishman of his time enjoyed.

Cardinal Wolsey – and the king – needed no further reason to bring More into the king’s service. His work at Bruges and, later, Calais, as well as his continuing duties as undersheriff in London, were clear evidence of his skill and popularity. More’s letters indicate that he was not particularly keen to enter royal service. This was not due to any dislike of the king. Rather, he felt that he could be more effective in the city itself, not closeted away amongst the nobles and councilors of Henry’s court. But polite prevarications only worked for so long and soon More was a genuine courtier, with all its attendant duties – and benefits.

He was first appointed a Privy Councilor and accompanied Wolsey to an important diplomatic mission to Europe. He impressed the cardinal enough that he was knighted upon his return and made under-treasurer of the Exchequer. More importantly, he developed a personal relationship with Henry VIII, and because known as the king’s “intellectual courtier”. Soon he was acting as Henry’s personal secretary and adviser, delivering official speeches, greeting foreign envoys, drafting treaties and other public documents, and composing the king’s responses to Wolsey’s dispatches. More also engaged in a public war of words – on the king’s behalf – with Martin Luther, the father of the Reformation.

In April 1523, he was elected speaker of the House of Commons. His position at court meant that he was to be the king’s advocate before parliament. But to More’s credit, he made an impassioned plea for greater freedom of speech in parliament. Such was his reputation that the the great universities – Oxford and Cambridge – made him high steward. His personal life remained placid and content. His eldest daughter Margaret married the lawyer William Roper in 1521, and More continued his practice of prayer and supervision of learning at his home.

His home at Chelsea was as close as Tudor England would come to an 18th century French salon. Intellectuals from England and Europe visited More was a generous and kind host. He collected books and rare objects, but he gave away his possessions freely as well. He had a true gift for friendship and inspired deep loyalty amongst his family and friends. Among his guests, in fact, was the king himself. He would arrive unbidden, to either eat with the family or walk in the garden with More, his arm slung casually about More’s shoulders.

Despite such evidence of royal favor, it is likely that More chafed at his service to the king. He was no fool he noted Wolsey’s great – and increasingly ostentatious – wealth. His natural piety was at odds with other courtiers, all of whom jockeyed ceaselessly for the king’s favor. Ironically, it was his own honesty and probity which ensured his continued service to Henry.

We come now to the great event of Henry’s reign. By 1527, the king was in his mid-thirties, and his wife six years older. The queen had suffered a series of miscarriages throughout their marriage their only surviving child was the Princess Mary. Henry needed a son and heir. He had an illegitimate son, called Henry Fitzroy, by one of his early mistresses. The boy, born in 1519, was welcome proof to Henry that he could father a son – and that his lack of an heir was entirely Katharine’s fault. Even special physicians summoned from Spain could not help the queen to conceive again.

And so, when More returned from a diplomatic mission to France in summer 1527, the king laid the open Bible before his favorite councilor. It was, Henry told him, proof that his marriage to Katharine was incestuous due to her previous marriage to his brother. It was unlawful before man and God and thus void. The king added that his lack of a legitimate son was clear proof of God’s displeasure.

Was More surprised by this speech? We do not know. We do know that he tried in vain to support the king’s position. He read anything and everything he could find on the subject. In the end, he could not be persuaded. Katharine was the king’s true wife. He did not share his opinion with the king. And the king did not force the issue. Certainly Henry wanted More’s support. As England’s premier intellectual, More’s opinion mattered. It mattered to London shopkeepers, and to great churchmen. If the great Sir Thomas More believed the king’s marriage to be unlawful, why, it must be so! But if the great Sir Thomas More believed the king to be wrong? Henry was wise enough to state his case and let it go, – for a little while at least. And More was more convinced than ever that he needed to leave royal service.

Unfortunately, Cardinal Wolsey was unable to secure an annulment for the king. The reasons were various, but the most important was Katharine’s position as aunt to the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Charles would not let his aunt be cast aside (he was also considering the dynastic appeal of her daughter with Henry), and he pressured the pope to deny Henry’s petition. Wolsey, for all his brilliance and cunning, could not compete with that influence. And the king was now newly enamored of a young noblewoman called Anne Boleyn. His desire for an annulment was now not merely to secure a legitimate heir it was also spurred by his desire to marry Anne.

Anne’s personal religious feeling was unimportant. She was by necessity hostile to the Catholic church. They were preventing her marriage to the king. Likewise, Henry became understandably angry at the papacy’s refusal to repudiate Charles. Perhaps his earlier justification for the annulment had been a matter of self-interest, a selective interpretation of opaque text. But time and impatience had made him emphatic in his righteousness. It was perfectly clear to any objective observer that the marriage was unlawful before God! The king raged. He sent envoys. He dictated letter after letter. He badgered Katharine ceaselessly. Nothing worked. The pope would not relent. Meanwhile, time was passing and a king used to instant obedience was determined to wait no longer. Wolsey was destined to die for his failure to secure the annulment. Fortunately for the old cardinal, he died before the king could kill him. Unfortunately for More, Henry appointed him Lord Chancellor of England. The honor was tremendous notably, More was the first layman to hold the office. He handled his responsibilities with his usual skill, but it was a balancing act, and an increasingly dangerous one. For example, as Lord Chancellor, More proclaimed the opinion of the English universities as favorable to the king’s annulment. But he himself did not sign the letter in which most of England’s nobles and prelates petitioned the pope to declare the marriage unlawful. And when the English clergy were forced to acknowledge Henry as the supreme head of their church, More attempted to resign his office.

His resignation was at first not accepted. Henry still hoped for More’s support. But eventually the break between the king and his chief minister could not be ignored. More suffered a sharp chest pain, possibly angina, and begged the king to release him from his duties. This was on 16 May 1532, the date on which the archdiocese of Canterbury, as head of the English clergy, sent a document to Henry VIII in which is promised to never legislate or even convene without royal assent, thus making the king – a lay person – head of the spiritual order in England.

Henry accepted More’s resignation. Their old friendship was past the king’s new advisors were anti-Catholic and pro-Protestant, most notably among them was Thomas Cromwell. He had once served under Wolsey and knew More well. Cromwell was an astute politician whose beliefs changed at the whim of his royal master. He was even more aware than the king of More’s popular appeal and this was to More’s detriment for it meant that his refusal to publicly support the king was not something that could be forgiven or forgotten. More would have to either acknowledge the king’s spiritual supremacy and marriage to Anne Boleyn, or he would die. That was clear to Cromwell almost from the first, and perhaps to More, too.

But in the meantime, More had eighteen months of seclusion and study at his home in Chelsea. He lived in relative poverty, for he held no office and relied solely upon the hundred pounds per annum he collected from a property rental. He did not struggle with the reduction in means, and busied himself with planning a tomb for himself and his wives , as well as defending his faith in various pamphlets. He never explicitly courted controversy, but he felt compelled to answer the ‘reformers’ such as William Tyndale. His months of peace ended in 1533, when he refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn.

This blatant disrespect could not be tolerated and More’s name was included in a Bill of Attainder against Elizabeth Barton, the ‘Holy Maid of Kent’, who had prophesized against the king’s annulment. More’s only communication with Barton had been to warn her against meddling in affairs of state. It did not matter. His name was on the attainder and he was brought before the Privy Council in February 1534. He answered their queries as best he could, assuring them of his loyalty to king and state and stressing the matter of his personal conscience. It was his great popularity that saved him. It gave the king pause, and More was allowed to return home. But he knew what was coming. And his old friend, the duke of Norfolk, took care to warn him of his danger, “Indignatio principis mors est.” To which More famously replied, “Is that all, my lord? Then, in good faith, between your grace and me is but this, that I shall die today, and you tomorrow.”

It was the Act of Succession, passed the following month, that sealed his fate. It stated that all who were called upon must take an oath acknowledging Anne as Henry’s wife and their future children as legitimate heirs to the throne. This More was fully prepared to do. Anne was the anointed queen. But – and of course this clause was added simply to trap More – the Act also required a repudiation of “any foreign authority, prince or potentate.” More could recognize Anne as the crowned queen of England. But he could not recognize the king’s authority as head of the new church of England. And so he was imprisoned in the Tower of London on 17 April 1534.

More was not a man to be broken by prison, but he suffered physically. His spirits were high when visited by family and friends, though they were only permitted to see him if they took the Oath which he had refused. He encouraged them to do so. After several months, he was visited by Cromwell, but More refused to engage him in debate and merely declared himself a faithful subject of the king. In June 1535, after he had been imprisoned for over a year, Cromwell’s servant, Richard Rich, now solicitor general, stated that he had spoken with More and More had denied Parliament’s power to make Henry head of the church. This was an obvious lie More had never said anything of the sort to any other visitor, – why Rich? And why such an obvious and clumsy admission?

Despite widespread belief, even amongst Protestants, that Rich was lying, his statement was enough for a fresh inquiry to begin. It was then discovered that More had written to John Fisher, the bishop of Rochester, who was also imprisoned in the Tower for not taking the oath. This discovery resulted in removal of More’s books and writing materials. He could now only write to his wife and favorite daughter Margaret with a piece of coal or burnt stick on scraps of paper.

Op 1 Julie 1535 is hy aangekla van hoogverraad. Die gevolglike verhoor was bloot 'n bewys ondanks sy hartstogtelike en briljante verweer, het niemand ooit verwag dat More iets anders as 'skuldig' gevind sou word nie. En so was hy. Hy is tot die dood van 'n verraaier gevonnis - om getrek, opgehang en in kwarte gesny te word - maar die koning het dit na onthoofding verander. Dit was 'n klein genade.

Die verhaal van More se laaste dae het 'n groot invloed. 'N Mens hoef nie sy godsdienstige oortuigings te deel om sy innerlike krag en edele karakter te waardeer nie. Hy het vyf dae gewag voordat hy na die steier op Tower Hill ontbied is. 'Sien my veilig,' het hy vir die luitenant gesê wat hom begelei het, 'en toe ek afkom, laat ek vir myself skuif.' Hy het homself geblinddoek en die vergadering bymekaargemaak om sy einde te sien “in die geloof en vir die geloof van die Katolieke Kerk, die goeie dienaar van die koning, maar God se eerste”. Selfs More se Protestantse vyande het hom nie as 'n verraaier geglo nie, maar sy dood word byna algemeen beskou as martelaarskap. Erasmus het oor sy vriend getreur en geskryf dat More se "siel suiwerder was as sneeu" en sy "genialiteit was van so 'n aard dat Engeland nooit sou gehad het nie en nooit weer so sal wees nie." More is in 1886 deur die Katolieke Kerk salig gemaak en in 1935 deur Pius XI heilig verklaar.


Kyk die video: Trial of Sir Thomas More (Oktober 2021).