Geskiedenis Podcasts

Airco D.H.9

Airco D.H.9

Airco D.H.9

Die Airco D.H.9 was 'n onsuksesvolle eenmotorbomwerper wat ontwerp is om die D.H.4 te vervang, maar dit is in die steek gelaat deur die oorspronklike enjin. Die D.H.9 was baie soortgelyk aan die D.H.4 en het negentig persent van dieselfde vliegtuigraamwerk gedeel. 'N Aantal veranderings is aangebring om foute in die D.H.4 uit te skakel, waarvan die duidelikste gesien het dat die brandstoftenk en die vlieënier plekke verwissel het sodat die stuurkajuit van die vlieënier naby die posisie van die waarnemer/ kanonniers agter die vlerke was. Dit het beteken dat die twee bemanningslede makliker kon kommunikeer, en die kans verminder dat die vlieënier in 'n skielike brand beland.

Die eerste prototipe van die D.H.9 is vervaardig uit 'n bestaande D.H.4. Hierdie vliegtuig ondergaan sy vlugroetes in Hendon in Julie 1917, en sy prestasie was indrukwekkend genoeg om in massaproduksie te bestel word.

Soos so dikwels was dit die enjin wat die D.H.9 laat sak het. Die vliegtuig is ontwerp rondom die 300 pk B.H.P. motor, wat deur die Siddeley-Deasy Motor Car Company as die Siddeley Puma vervaardig sou word. Toe die eerste groep aluminium silinderblokke afgelewer is, het dit geblyk dat dit 'n fout was wat nie maklik reggestel kon word nie. Siddeley het besluit om die enjin se kraglewering tot 230 pk te verminder in die hoop dat die silinderblokke die laer kragvlakke kan hanteer. Ongelukkig was dit nie die geval nie. Nie net het die laer-aangedrewe Puma die prestasie van die D.H.9 verminder tot die punt waar dit eintlik laer was as die van die D.H.4 nie, dit was nog steeds geneig tot mislukking. Met sy volle militêre vrag het die nuwe vliegtuig 'n diensplafon van slegs 13.000 voet gehad en was dit baie stadiger as die kragtiger weergawes van die D.H.4.

Die enjinprobleme het die gevegsdebuut van die D.H.9 tot die somer van 1918 vertraag, waarna nege eskaders in Frankryk en dertien in Brittanje met die tipe toegerus was. Die D.H.9 het 'n rampspoedige gevegsrekord aan die Westelike Front gehad - tussen Mei 1918 en die einde van die oorlog het 99 en 104 eskaders 148 vliegtuie in 848 soorte verloor, twee derdes daarvan na ongelukke.

Die meerderheid D.H.9 -eskaders het Brittanje nooit verlaat nie, maar is eerder vir kuspatrollies gebruik, wat dikwels die D.H.6 -afrigter vervang het. Die onbetroubare enjins van die vliegtuig was nog steeds 'n probleem, maar die swak prestasie daarvan was ten minste nie so 'n probleem nie.

Die D.H.9 was nuttiger op minder gevaarlike fronte. Die lang afstand met ligter vragte het beteken dat dit gebruik is in pogings om Konstantinopel te bombardeer, en dit is ook gebruik in die laaste fase van die veldtog in Palestina.

'N Aantal pogings is aangewend om die D.H.9 met beter enjins toe te rus. Dit het bewys dat daar geen probleem was met die basiese ontwerp nie. Uiteindelik het die D.H.9 die Amerikaanse Liberty 12-enjin gekry om die baie meer suksesvolle D.H.9A te lewer, wat beperkte diens in die laaste maande van die oorlog gehad het voordat hy die belangrikste bomwerper van die naoorlogse RAF geword het.

Ondanks die probleme is 'n groot aantal D.H.9's gebou. 4,630 is bestel, waarvan 3,204 aan die einde van 1918 afgelewer is. Teen die tyd dat die produksie geëindig het, is 4,091 gebou, hoewel nie almal volledig voltooi is nie en baie van die laaste 800 direk in die stoor gelewer is. Die RAF het die laaste D.H.9's in Julie 1919 van sy sterkte afgeskaal, wat 'n groot aantal vliegtuie -oorskot aan die vereistes gelaat het. As gevolg hiervan was die DH9 in groot getalle beskikbaar vir uitvoer en is dit in die naoorlogse jare gebruik deur die lugmag van België, Pole, Suid-Afrika, Nieu-Seeland, Australië, Kanada, Indië, Afghanistan, Griekeland, Ierse Vrystaat , Holland, Letland, Chili, Estland Nederland en Spanje.

Enjin: Siddeley Puma
Krag: 230 pk
Bemanning: 3
Vleuel span: 42 ft 4 3/8 in
Lengte: 30ft 5in
Hoogte: 11 voet 3,5 duim
Tere gewig: 2,230 lb
Totale gewig: 3,325 pond
Maksimum spoed: 109,5 mph
Diensplafon: 15,500 voet
Uithouvermoë: 4h 30min
Bewapening: Een voorwaartse Vickers Gun, een agterste Lewis -gewere
Bomlading: twee bomme van 230lb of vier 112lb


Inhoud

Die DH.9 is in 1916 deur de Havilland ontwerp vir die Aircraft Manufacturing Company as opvolger van die DH.4. Dit het die vlerke en stert -eenheid van die DH.4 gebruik, maar het 'n nuwe romp gekry. Dit het die vlieënier in staat gestel om nader aan die skutter/waarnemer te sit en weg van die enjin en brandstoftenk. Die ander groot verandering van die DH.4 was die keuse van die belowende nuwe BHP/Galloway Adriatiese enjin, wat na verwagting 300 en 160 pk (224   kW) sou lewer, en sodoende die nuwe vliegtuig voldoende prestasie gee om by vyandelike vegters te pas. Ώ ]

Teen hierdie tyd, as gevolg van aanvalle deur Duitse bomwerpers op Londen, is die besluit geneem om byna die grootte van die Royal Flying Corps te verdubbel, met die meeste nuwe eskaders wat beplan is om met bomwerpers toegerus te word. ΐ ] Gebaseer op die prestasieberamings vir die DH.9 (wat na verwagting dié van die DH.4 sou oortref), en die ooreenkoms met die DH.4, wat beteken dat dit maklik sou wees om die produksie oor te skakel na die nuwe vliegtuig is groot bestellings (4 630 vliegtuie) geplaas.

Die prototipe ('n omskepte DH.4) vlieg die eerste keer by Hendon in Julie 1917. Ongelukkig was die BHP-enjin nie in staat om sy verwagte krag betroubaar te lewer nie, en die enjin is na 230  pk (186 &#) afgegradeer 160 kW) om die betroubaarheid te verbeter. Dit het 'n drastiese uitwerking op die vliegtuig se prestasie gehad, veral op groot hoogte, aangesien dit minder was as die van die DH.4 wat dit moes vervang. Dit het beteken dat die DH.9 deur vyandige vegters sou moes veg, wat die DH.9 maklik kon vang waar die DH.4 baie van hierdie aanvalle kon vermy.

Terwyl daar gepoog is om die DH.9 van 'n voldoende enjin te voorsien, met vliegtuie wat toegerus is met die Siddeley Puma, 'n ligter en vermoedelik kragtiger weergawe van die BHP, met die Fiat A12 -enjin en met 'n 430  pk (321  kW) ) Die Napier Lion -enjin was oor die algemeen onsuksesvol (hoewel die Lion -vliegtuig op 2 Januarie 1919 Α ]) 'n Wêreldhoogte -rekord van 30 500 m (13 900 m) op 2 Januarie 1919 opgestel het. 9A om die vliegtuig te transformeer.


Operasionele geskiedenis [wysig | wysig bron]

Om die produksietempo te verhoog, is hoeveelheidsbestellings vir die DH.9 ook by Alliance, G & amp; J. Weir, Short Brothers, Vulcan,  Waring & amp Gillow en National Aircraft Factories No. 1 en No. 2 geplaas.

Die eerste aflewerings is in November 1917 gedoen na 108 Squadron  RFC   en dit het eers in Maart 1918 met ن Squadron in Frankryk geveg, en teen Julie 1918 het nege eskaders wat oor die Westelike Front werksaam was, die tipe gebruik.

Die prestasie van die DH.9 in aksie oor die Westelike Front was 'n ramp, met groot verliese weens sy swak werkverrigting en as gevolg van enjinonderbrekings, ondanks die afgradering van sy enjin. Tussen Mei en November 1918 het twee eskaders aan die Wesfront (nrs. 㻣   en 𧅨) 54 neergeskiet, en nog 94 in ongelukke afgeskryf. [4]   Nietemin, op 23 Augustus 1918 het 'n DH9 gevlieg deur luitenant  Arthur Rowe Spurling  van 49 eskader, met sy waarnemer,  Sersant Frank Bell, eenkantig aangeval dertig  Fokker D.VII   vegters, maak vyf van hulle neer. [aanhaling nodig] Captain  John Stevenson Stubbs   het 11 lugoorwinnings in 'n DH9 behartig, insluitend die uiters ongewone prestasie van 'n#160 ballonafbreek  met een. [5]

Die DH.9 was ook meer suksesvol teen die Turkse magte in die  Middle East, waar hulle minder opposisie ondervind het, en dit is wyd gebruik vir kuspatrollies, om die operasies van#160U-bote te probeer afskrik.

Na die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is DH.9's bedryf deur 㺯 Squadron  and 𧇝 Squadron   in 1919 ter ondersteuning van die   White Russian Army van   General Denikin   tydens die   Russian Civil Oorlog. [6]   Die laaste gevegsgebruik deur die RAF was ter ondersteuning van die   finale veldtog   teen   Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (bekend deur die Britte as die "Mad Mullah") in  Somalia   gedurende Januarie - Februarie 1920. [6 ]   Dit was verbasend dat die produksie na die einde van die oorlog tot 1919 kon voortgaan, terwyl die DH.9 uiteindelik uit diens was met die  RAF   in 1920. [7]

Na afloop van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het 'n groot aantal surplus DH.9's teen lae pryse beskikbaar geword en die tipe is wyd uitgevoer (insluitend vliegtuie wat aan  Commonwealth  nations geskenk is as deel van die  Imperial Gift   program. [3]

Die  Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag het 48 DH.9's ontvang en dit baie gebruik teen die  Randopstand   in 1922. Verskeie Suid-Afrikaanse vliegtuie is weer saam met  Bristol Jupiter   radiale enjins as die M'pala, dien tot 1937. [8]


Nou met 5 500 + gelys!

Opskrif 1

Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die inhoud van 'n spesifieke beeld in die Nivo -skuifbalk. Gee 'n kort beskrywing van die prentjie hier.

Opskrif 2

Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die inhoud van 'n spesifieke beeld in die Nivo -skuifbalk. Gee 'n kort beskrywing van die prent hier.

Opskrif 3

Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die inhoud van 'n spesifieke beeld in die Nivo -skuifbalk. Gee 'n kort beskrywing van die prentjie hier.

Opskrif 4

Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die inhoud van 'n spesifieke beeld in die Nivo -skuifbalk. Gee 'n kort beskrywing van die prentjie hier.

Inligting oor

Dit is eenvoudig 'n dummy -teks van die druk- en setbedryf. Sedert die 1500's is Lorem Ipsum die standaard dummy -teks in die bedryf.

Inligtingsentrum

Dit is eenvoudig 'n dummy -teks van die druk- en setbedryf. Sedert die 1500's is Lorem Ipsum die standaard dummy -teks in die bedryf.

Inligting regs

Dit is eenvoudig 'n dummy -teks van die druk- en setbedryf. Sedert die 1500's is Lorem Ipsum die standaard dummy -teks in die bedryf.

19de eeuse ballonvaart

Dit blyk 'n groot deel van ons lugvaarterfenis te wees wat vergeet is - of geïgnoreer is. Maar hoekom? Dit onderskei die VK werklik.

'N Skilderagtige aansig

'N Gids vir ons wonderlike lugvaart -erfenis van vliegplekke

Lugvertonings

'N Galery met foto's, van lugvertonings in die Verenigde Koninkryk. Ons het regtig 'n wonderlike hoeveelheid lugskoue in die Verenigde Koninkryk wat gewoonlik 'n groter aantal toeskouers lok as groot sportbyeenkomste.

Hendon

* HENDON: Burgerlike vliegveld, (Ook bekend as THE LONDON AERODROME voor WW1). Sien ook HENDON SUID

Let wel: hierdie prentjie is verkry van Google Earth & copy

Die uiteensetting van die WW2 HENDON -vliegveld kan omtrent gemaak word, en bevat HENDON SUID.

Ook bekend as die GRAHAME-WIT AERODROOM en die HENDON AVIATION GROUNDS

PRENTGALLERY EEN
Let wel: Van hierdie foto's word geskandeer Vliegtuig maandeliks, Junie 1987. Hierdie wonderlike foto's is oorspronklik gepubliseer in Vlug en Die vliegtuig.

Gallery One onderskrifte
Foto een: Brindejonc des Moulinais gaan van Mei 1913 op 'n hoogterekordpoging, saam met 'n passasier, by Hendon opstyg.
Foto Twee: 'N Deel van die Valkyrie -vloot van die Aeronautical Syndicate in Mei 1911 by Hendon.
Foto Drie: Claude Grahame-White, met Richard Gates as passasier, pylonwedrenne by Hendon in Oktober 1912.
Foto vier: Meer wedrenne by Hendon, Augustus 1912.
Foto vyf: R. J. Lillywhite in 'n Grahame-White Boxkite op 'n Hendon-rendag in Junie 1914.
Foto ses: Klassieke uitsig op Hendon Aerodrome geneem vanaf 'n Avro 504K in Mei 1919.

Gedeelde burgerlike/militêre vliegveld in WW1. RNAS -lugstasie

Later burgerlike vliegveld/lughawe van 1919 tot 1925. In die Tweede Wêreldoorlog word dit as 'n lughawe gelys onder RAF -bevel. Later RAF -vliegveld

Bedryf deur: Oorspronklik in 1910 deur Everett Edgcumbe & amp Co. Ltd, later Grahame-White Aviation Co

Militêre gebruikers: WW1: RNAS Home Defense Station en Flying School (1914 tot 1916)

Royal Navy Air Station (Flying School oorspronklik bedryf deur Grahame-Wight, ens. Deur die Admiraliteit oorgeneem, hoewel burgerlike instrukteurs behoue ​​bly).

RFC Home Defense Night Landing Ground 1916 tot 1919. RFC Flying School 1916 tot

1918. RFC/RAF No.2 Aircraft Acceptance Park (1917 tot 1919)

RFC/RAF Training Squadron Station, RFC/RAF School of Instruction, No.1 (Communications) Sqdn

Desember 1918: No.1 (Communications) Sqdn (DH.4s & amp Handley Page 0/400s)

Maart 1919: No.2 (Communications) Sqdn

Tussenoorlogse jare:

600 & 601 Sqdns Auxiliary Air Force (Westland Wapitis)

604 vierkante meter (DH.9As, Wapitis & Hawker Harts later Demons, later teruggekeer met Blenheims)

611 (West Lancashire) Sqdn (Hawker Harts)

24 Communications Sqdn (Tiger Moths)

* Battle of Britain RAF Station (vanaf 10 Julie 1940) 11 Groep

257 Sqdn Hawker Hurricanes (steeds hier gevestig 1 Augustus 1940)

WW2: RAF Fighter Command

504 vierkante meter (Hawker Hurricanes)

257 vierkante meter (aanvanklik Vickers-Supermarine Spitfires, vervang deur orkane)

Transport Command 116 Wing MCS

24 Sqdn (DH89A Dominies, Douglas C-47 Dakotas)

USAAF 9th Air Force 86th Air Transport Sqdn

Na 1945: 604 vierkante meter (Spitfires) ATC -sweeftuig wat vlieg

Siviele aktiwiteite: Voor 1914 tot 1940: GA -opleiding, vreugdesry, lugskoue (bekend as Aerial Derbys voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog), vervaardiging en wedrenne. Kommersiële handves en beperkte gebruik van lugrederye

Gebruikers van burgerlike handves: 1911 tot 1940: Aircraft Transport & amp Travel, D.H. Airplane Hire Service (gebaseer op die nabygeleë STAG LANE), Grahame-White Aviation, The Airadvert Co

Britse lugdiensgebruikers: 1919 RAF No.1 (Communications) Sqdn., Wat burgerlike passasiers- en posvlugte na Parys en Versailles maak, meestal om die terme van die vredesverdrag vas te stel nadat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog geëindig het. Die gebruik van DH.4's en HP 0/400s (Daar is verskeie voorbeelde van die RAF se diens na die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en voordat die burgerlike ondernemings georganiseer is). Daar is 'n sterk argument dat die RAF die eerste Britse lugredery was!

Vliegskole: Voor WW1 en in sommige gevalle tydens WW1: Beatty School of Flying, Blackburn Flying School, British Caudron Flying School, Chanter Flying School, Deperdussin Flying School, WH Ewen School of Flying, Grahame-White Aviation, J Laurence Hall Flying School, Hall & amp; Temple Flying School*, London & amp; Provincial Aviation, McArdle & amp Drexel Flying School, Ruffy-Baumann Flying School, Temple School, The Aeronautical Syndicate, The Bleriot School, Willows Flying School

*Dit blyk nou dat die Temple School in 1913 die naam is van die & lsquoHall School of Flying & rdquo.

Tussen die oorloë: Beatty School of Flying, Grahame-White Aviation, London Flying Club, Temple Flying School (van HENDON SUID)

Vervaardiging: Voor 1914: Blair Atholl Airplane Syndicate, Breguet Airplanes (fabriek in Willesden), Everett Edgcumbe, Farman, Grahame-White Co, Handley Page Co (slegs finale vergadering en vlugtoetsing?), Morane, Nieuport en amp General Aircraft, WHEwen Aviation (later British Caudron Company), The Aeronautical Syndicate

In 1912 word The Aircraft Company later die Aircraft Manufacturing Co & ndash Airco. In WW1 het Airco 'n groot fabriek gebou, 'n paar kilometer suidwaarts in The Hyde, Hendon

Plesiervlugte: Voor WW1: Grahame-White Aviation en ander

Ander gebruike: Vroeë 1950's webwerf vir die groot Britse SBAC jaarlikse lugskou later oorgeplaas na Farnborough in? Word steeds in 2004 deur die Police Air Support Unit gebruik vir vereistes deur die Hendon -polisie se opleidingskool.

Ligging: SE van Burnt Oak, SW van Mill Hill, NE van Colindale, NW van Hendon en 7nm NNW van die City of London. Die oorspronklike HENDON-vliegveld was geleë in die gebied wat nou bekend staan ​​as Grahame Park, (vermoedelik na Grahame-White?), Aan die W van die RAF-museum en die latere vliegveld na die S en E van hierdie perseel.

Museum: Die RAF Museum. Ongetwyfeld een van die beste ter wêreld en een van die mees gesogte in die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Bedryfstydperk: Byna seker in 1910 tot 1957 geopen?

Terrein area: Voor 1914: Die oorspronklike terrein was redelik klein, net 'n paar hektaar, maar het vinnig uitgebrei. In September 1910 word dit 146 hektaar genoem, hoewel sommige 207 hektaar, selfs 220 hektaar, sê. In 1911 het HENDON 'n omtrek van 2 myl


WW1: 192 hektaar 1097 x 1097

Aanloopbane: WW2: 15/33 1212x46 gras 10/28 914x46 gras
01/19 933x46 gras

Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bestaan ​​daar volgens 'n ingeligte bron slegs twee grasbane, 'n NE/SW -baan van 914 meter en 'n korter E/W -aanloopbaan van 732 meter

NOTAS: Daar moet beslis gesê word dat die RAF -museum op hierdie terrein vandag 'n eer aan alle betrokkenes is. Dit is werklik 'n wonderlike prestasie en is een van die beste museums wat oral gevind kan word.

'N MIKE CHARLTON GALLERIE

Let wel: hierdie foto's van poskaarte is vriendelik gestuur deur Mike Charlton, wat 'n wonderlike versameling het. Sien www.aviationpostcard.co.uk

Derde prentjie: ek dink nie ek het enige rekord van hierdie merkwaardige vlug gesien nie. Die poskaart is op 20 Julie 1911 gestuur. Maar hier is 'n bewys dat dit plaasgevind het?


Elfde prentjie: Ek wonder of iemand die vliegtuig in hierdie reeks kan identifiseer. Ek het beslis 'n paar idees, maar eerlik gesê, ek is uit my diepte.


Twaalfde prentjie: Die motors lyk duidelik voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, maar ek veronderstel dat motorontwerp nie baie ontwikkel het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog nie. Ek kan nie dink aan 'n ontwerp soos hierdie wat voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog verskyn het nie. Dit lyk inderdaad na my om 'n Vickers Vimy te wees, of ten minste iets soortgelyks. As iemand vriendelik advies kan gee, is dit baie welkom.

Dertiende prent: Vermoedelik mnr Brock wat met die Bl & eacuteriot vlieg, en 'n Henri Farman op die voorgrond?

Veertiende prentjie: Sonder twyfel 'n Bl & eacuteriot -masjien, vermoedelik 'n 'XI '?

DIE BAIE VROEGGESKIEDENIS
So tipies van die geskiedenis en veral persoonlike verslae, die volgende aanhaling van C C Turner in sy boek Ou vliegdae illustreer hoe wispelturig geheue kan wees. Hy het die volgende rekening: & ldquoMr Handley Page vlieg nie self nie, maar die verwysing laat my dink aan die verbintenis wat hy met mnr Pemberton Billing gemaak het. Ek kan nie onthou wie van hulle die uitdager was nie, maar die spel moes gegee word aan hom wat binne 'n dag geleer het om te vlieg. Mnr Pemberton Billing het ongetwyfeld met 'n praktiese voordeel begin, want in ongeveer 1908 het hy 'n masjien gehad en dit amper gevlieg. Hy het in elk geval die weddenskap gewen. Mnr. Handley Page, wat met sy eie vliegtuig by Hendon gevlieg het, het beslis van die grond af gekom en weer geland. Hy beland in 'n ietwat weerkaatsende manier, maar sonder om skade aan te rig, en toe hy uitklim, vra 'n vriend. & lsquoHet u my landing gesien? & rsquo & lsquoEk het almal gesien, en rsquo was die antwoord.

Vandag wil ek die aandag vestig op die opmerking: & ldquoHy het beslis van die grond af gekom, maar let op, maar dit word nie erken dat dit 'n 'lsquoflight' was nie, selfs in daardie dae! Aangesien ek dit elders duidelik gemaak het, moet die kort hop wat die Wright -broers in 1903 gemaak het, ook nie as 'n ldquoa -vlug & rdquo beskou word nie. Dit is nogal 'n ander probleem om te oorweeg wie die eerste persoon was. In hierdie geval is dit beslis net 'n masjien wat skaars van die grond af kom, selfs vir die geringste afstand nie & lsquoflying & rsquo. Wie was die eerste om hierdie prestasie te behaal, vermoed ek dat ons nooit sal weet nie? En natuurlik vra ons hier eenvoudig 'n motorvlug natuurlik. Ironies genoeg, na soveel jare se navorsing, blyk dit nou was die Wright -broers wat eers 'n beheerde kring bereik het. Maar by Dayton.

Weer van C C Turner, en ldquo Wyle Richard Gates het Hendon -vliegveld gemaak. Dit is van hier af dat M Louis Pulhan in 1910 met sy vlug na Manchester begin het, en daarna het Gates begin werk om die bome skoon te maak en dit te dreineer. Toe besluit hy dat hy moet leer vlieg. & Rdquo Mnr Gates het die vader geword van & ldquocrazy flying & rdquo, wat in die vroeë dae 'ldquoRag Time Flying' genoem word. die sentrum van vliegsport was grootliks aan hom te danke. & rdquo CC Turner dring ook daarop aan dat mnr. Bernard Isaac 'n belangrike figuur in die skepping van HENDON was. Isaac het die Airplane Supply Company gestig.

Maar, (daar is altyd 'n & ldquobut & rdquo), Andrew Renwick in sy uitstekende boek RAF Hendon hou vol dat Edgar Isaac Everett in vennootskap met Kenelm William Edward Edgcumbe die stigter van Everett Edgcumbe & amp Co Ltd was met 'n perseel in die nabygeleë Colindeep Lane en begin werk aan 'n eenvliegtuig. Sommige sê dat 'n sekere Charles Richard Fairey (later natuurlik 'n baie bekende vliegtuigvervaardigingsonderneming) by hom aangesluit het, wat volgens sommige ook saam met Martin en Handasyde by die WELSH HARP (of OLD WELSH HARP) gewerk het. 'n Vliegveld was nodig om hul eenvliegtuig te toets. Die motor het op 1 Februarie 'n foto gepubliseer waarin getoon word dat bome afgekap word om 'n plek te vlieg. In Februarie 1910 keur Hendon Urban District Council die oprigting van 'n skuur goed waarin die Everett-Edgcumbe-monoplane gehuisves kan word en werk kan begin.


ANDREW RENWICK
Ten tyde van die skryf van hierdie nota vroeg in 2013, was en was Andrew Renwick jare lank (en moontlik nog steeds?) Die kurator van foto's by die RAF Museum, sodat hy beslis van alle mense was moet ken die presiese geskiedenis van die webwerf, aangesien hy ook die skrywer van die boek is RAF Hendon The Birthplace of Aerial Power. Hy het baie vriendelik aangebied om my baie vrae rakende die vroeë vlieggeskiedenis te beantwoord, veral in hierdie gebied van NW -Londen.

Byvoorbeeld, in Februarie 1910 is berig dat Claude Grahame-White 'n Bleriot-vliegtuig suksesvol by Hendon gevlieg het. Ek dink ons ​​is dit albei eens dat dit byna seker was by THE HYDE, 'n nabygeleë plek.

DIE VORMING VAN HENDON AS & lsquoTHE LONDON AERODROME
Van Andrew Renwick & ldquo Op 30 September 1910 het Kenelm Edgcumbe en sy swaer, Harold Arthur Arkwright, The London Aerodrome Company Limited geregistreer om die perseel te bekom. Huurkontrakte is verkry en meer grond is skoongemaak op 2 November 1910 Lawrence Ardern is 'n aandeelhouer gemaak ter erkenning van die hulp wat hy verleen het by die verkryging van die verskillende huurkontrakte. maar, let op die afwesigheid van die naam Richard Gates tot dusver, wat baie deur C C Turner in sy boek van ongeveer 1927 gespot is. die voorste vliegwerf in die Verenigde Koninkryk.

'N ARGUMENT WAT NIE WEN NIE?
Kenners kan en sal argumenteer oor hierdie punt wat deur Andrew Renwick bevorder is dat HENDON eintlik die geboorteplek van Aerial Power & rdquo BROOKLANDS was (SURREY) en FARNBOROUGH (HAMPSHIRE) is natuurlik ook ernstige aanspraakmakers, en ek wil OOSKERK byvoeg (KENT). Maar uit die oogpunt van groot publieke lof en die promosie wat HENDON Britse lugvaart bied, bevat hierdie webwerf al die aas? Soos so dikwels elders aangedui, die skoonheid van die verskaffing net a & lsquoGuide & rsquo het baie voordele en beslis in nie beweer dat hy 'n definitiewe antwoord gee en eintlik eintlik die teenoorgestelde probeer. Dit is natuurlik net menslik om tot gevolgtrekkings en menings te kom kan uitgesaai word in 'n & lsquoGids & rsquo. Wat my werklik aangegryp het as dit my nie gefassineer het nie, is die groot verskeidenheid uiteenlopende verslae en menings in so 'n gespesialiseerde onderwerp uit die onlangse geskiedenis!


DIE BEGIN
Sonder twyfel is die eenvoudige feit dat die Franse vlieënier Louis Paulhan gekies het om te begin by die slegs gedeeltelik skoongemaakte HENDON & lsquoaerodrome & rsquo en die Daaglikse pos Die wedloop tussen Londen en Manchester in April 1910 het HENDON en lsquoon-the-map & rsquo gesit. Vandag is dit nogal moeilik om die effek op die bevolking te probeer voorstel, maar dit is beslis nie 'n oordrywing om te sê dat dit gelyk was aan die eerste landing op die maan. Daar kan inderdaad aangevoer word dat die gebeurtenis 'n groter impak gehad het omdat daar baie duisende langs die roete opgedaag het om die wedloop te sien, terwyl dit met die maanlanding slegs op TV gesien is.

Om terug te keer na die boek Andrew Renwicks RAF Hendon: & ldquoSheds is opgerig en hellip.en hoewel die vliegveld nie heeltemal gereed was nie, is dit op 1 Oktober 1910 geopen. Die Aero het berig dat genoeg grond skoongemaak is om 'n halwe myl te laat loop, met werkers wat meer heinings en bome opruim om 'n oppervlakte van meer as 200 hektaar te skep en 'n kring van 1 & frac34 myl toe te laat. & Andrew Renwick maak ook die punt dat: & ldquoThe grootte op 'n vliegveld was belangrik & hellip..in die vroeë dae & hellip.all vlieg oor die vliegveld uitgevoer is, het vlieëniers selde die grens van die vliegveld aangedurf, wat langlaufvlugte merkwaardig gemaak het. & rdquo


DIE EERSTE OM TE KOM
Dit blyk nou dat die eerste twee organisasies wat die skure by HENDON beset het, was The Bl & eacuteriot School met Norbert Chereau as bestuurder en Pierre Prier as hoofinstrukteur geopen. Frank Hedges Butler was hul eerste studentevlieënier. Die tweede organisasie was die Aeronautical Syndicate Ltd, oorspronklik gestig op LARKHILL (WILTSHIRE) in Julie 1909. Om aan te haal uit Andrew Renwick: & ldquoDie vliegtuie van die Bleriot School en die Aeronautical Syndicate is gereeld in die lug oor Hendon te sien in 'n tyd toe min mense selfs 'n motor gesien het. & rdquo Hy reken ook die Everett-Edgcumbe Die eenvliegtuig het nooit behoorlik gevlieg nie, alhoewel dit 'n paar hopies gemaak het.

Ek besef wel dat ek elders in hierdie gids oor die onderwerp gekraak het, maar daar moet onthou word dat die sogenaamde 'ldquofirst-aangedrewe vlug' deur die Wright-broers in Kittykawk in die VSA, in 1903, niks van die aard was nie. Dit was net 'n & lsquoshort hop & rsquo in grond effek. In April 2013 het ek verneem dat Jane & rsquos World Aircraft die bewering aanvaar het dat Gustave Weisskopf (Whitehead) in 1901 'n vlug van ongeveer 50 meter in Connecticut afgelê het en dat die Smithsonian Institute hul besluit om die krediet van die Wright -broers in krediet te hersien, hersien het. 1948. (Sien: www.gustavewhitehead.com)

Dit kom egter beslis voor die broers Wright het gedoen bereik die eerste & lsquoproper & rsquo -vlug deur 'n kring te vlieg, toe hulle terugkeer om te eksperimenteer in Dayton, Ohio. Al wat oor die Weisskopf -poging gesê kan word, is dat dit 'n bleddie lang hop was, maar beslis nie 'n vlug nie. Die probleem blyk te wees dat die oorgrote meerderheid kundiges en akademici nie vlieëniers is nie en dus nie kan onderskei tussen 'n masjien wat in die lug word nie en 'n vlug wat in sy mees basiese vorm behels, om 'n kring te vlieg en sodoende die masjien in die basiese elemente te oefen. vir 'n vlug, in totaal drie as, klim, draai en dalend. Daar is geen uitdruklike vereiste om selfs op dieselfde plek as die opstyg te land nie, maar dit word oor die algemeen nog steeds verkieslik beskou!

Dit is 'n groot skande, want die broers Wright, wat so gulsig was, was van plan om patente vir alle masjiene en masjiene alleen by hulle te laat registreer (natuurlik 'n belaglike idee), die presiese datum van die eerste stroombaan wat deur een van die broers gevlieg is lyk in geheimsinnigheid gehul. Of moet dit eenvoudig nie aangeteken word nie? Nadat hulle byna geen belangstelling in die VSA vir hul masjinerie gehad het toe hulle in Europa verskyn om hul vaardighede in Le Mans te demonstreer nie, het al die Europese vlieëniers gedink dat hulle die beste vliegtuie gehad het, selfs al kon hulle niks in Europa vir sekere aspekte ooreenstem nie. prestasie soos klimtempo, snelheid, diensplafon, ens.

Daar is gou besef dat die & lsquoWright Flyer & rsquo -ontwerp baie inherente probleme het en dat 'n ander benadering nodig is. Sonder te veel twyfel was die Franse vlieëniers en ontwerpers wat die onderwerp bespreek het in die Aero Club de France op die Champs Elysees in Parys, wat dit alles reggekry het. Die terme wat hulle aangeneem het, word inderdaad steeds wêreldwyd gebruik vir baie vliegtuigkomponente, soos romp, romp en aileron, ens. gehad het om voor die vlieënier te wees. Om dit agter die vlieënier te laat posisioneer, soos met die Wright -ontwerpe, beteken dat 'n ernstige ongeluk altyd dodelik sou wees as die enjin die vlieënier tref. Nietemin, nuut ontwerpe met die enjin agter die vlieënier/bemanning word nog etlike jare gemaak, alhoewel ek glo dat ek nie te veel in Frankryk beweer nie en deur Franse ontwerpers in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog glad nie? Nodeloos om te sê dat die Britte vasgeklou het aan die ontwerp van die pusher lank nadat ontwerpers in ander lande die idee laat vaar het, veral vir 'n gevegsrol.

Meer as honderd jaar later behou die oorgrote meerderheid nuwe ligte vliegtuie nog steeds hierdie funksie.

EMILE PUPIN
Keer terug na Andrew Renwick en RAF Hendon die volgende persoon wat verskyn het, was Emile Pupin met sy & lsquoPupin monoplane & rsquo, maar daar blyk geen rekord te wees dat dit ooit gevlieg het nie.


HENDON ONTWIKKEL
Weereens van Andrew Renwick en ldquo Nadat meer hangars gebou is, kon die Grahame-White School uit Brooklands verhuis en nuwe werkswinkels het die by Walham Green vervang. & Rdquo

Van C C Turner, onder die vroegste persoonlikhede by HENDON in 1910, was Robert Blackburn en Harold Blackburn wat 'n vliegskool hier onder bestuur van Harold bestuur het. Vreemd genoeg was geen van hulle verwant nie en Robert het natuurlik die beroemde Blackburn Airplane Company gestig, uiteindelik gevestig in BROUGH, YORKSHIRE. Dit is baie vreemd, want CC Turner was daar en 'n joernalis, maar Andrew Renwick maak geen melding van die Blackburns wat in 1910 by HENDON was nie. maak geen melding van Robert Blackburn wat betrokke was nie!

Oorspronklik het ek opgemerk dat: & ldquoHENDON-vliegveld tot stand gekom het volgens baie sogenaamd baie betroubare rekeninge toe Claude Grahame-White saamgewerk het met Louis Bl & eacuteriot en Sir Hiram Maxim om 'n internasionale lugvaartsentrum in 1911 te stig. Dit was die tyd toe HENDON bekend geword het as & lsquoTHE LONDON AERODROME & rsquo. & Quot Soos u nou kan sien, was dit nie die geval nie.

Voor dit het Claude Grahame-White vroeg in 1910 'n vliegskool in Pau, Frankryk, opgerig en ook 'n skool in BROOKLANDS (SURREY) vir 'n paar maande in 1910. Volgens Andrew Renwick in RAF Hendon, een van sy leerlinge aan Pau was Edith Maud Cook, (ook bekend as Miss Spencer Kavanagh). Sy kon die eerste Britse vlieënier gewees het as sy nie in 'n ongeluk dood was voordat sy haar toets geslaag het nie, maar 'n valskermspring van 'n ballon in Coventry het op 9 Julie verkeerd gegaan en sy sterf die volgende dag. & rdquo


'N REKENING DEUR JOSHUA LEVINE
In sy uitstekende boek Fighter Heroes of WW1 Joshua Levine gee hierdie verslag deur Eric Furlong: & ldquoClarence Winchester was 'n vryskut -vlieënier met sy eie vliegtuig wat vreugdes aan mense gee vir iets soos & pond1 per keer. Hy het die passasier in die vliegtuig gesit en begin bang maak deur vir hulle te sê dat hulle moet raak hierdiedat wat hulle ook al doen, hulle nie daarteen moes leun nie dit, dit draad was 'n absolute dood as hulle daarin verstrengel geraak het. Teen die tyd dat hulle opstyg, was die passasier jellie. Toe ons hom vra waarom hy dit gedoen het, het hy gesê: 'Wel, hulle dink dat hulle geld verdien as hulle regtig bang is & hellip & rsquo. & Rdquo. Neem byvoorbeeld die meestal geïgnoreerde en ietwat belaglike demonstrasies wat deur kajuitpersoneel uitgevoer is voor elke vertrek in 'n moderne vliegtuig. Die meerderheid van die passasiers weet diep van binne presies wat hulle in 'n ernstige noodgeval gaan doen - hulle skreeu en skrik en verhinder daardeur elke poging van die vlugpersoneel om die situasie te beheer, en voorkom dat die kajuitpersoneel 'n suksesvolle ontruiming kan bewerkstellig rare circumstances this might occur these days.

And, this isn&rsquot my very cynical view either read the accident reports.

Joshua Levine also tells another interesting story about HENDON. &ldquoOn Sundays, Frederick Handley-Page would send his aircraft, Yellow Peril, down to London Aerodrome, where its pilot would give joyrides. There was one man who refused to take a &lsquoflip&rsquo, however, as Charles Tye recalls:&rdquo &ndash &lsquoEvery Sunday, we used to take people up for trips. From Hendon, round Hyde Park and back. I don&rsquot suppose the trip lasted more than ten minutes and we used to charge a guinea. One particular Sunday, Handley-Page was there himself and I saw him talking to the actress Gladys Cooper. We hadn&rsquot had a customer for a while, and the pilot, a man named Whitehead, said to me, &lsquoI wonder if Miss Gladys Cooper wants a trip? Go and ask! And if she doesn&rsquot want a flip, ask Mr. Page if he&rsquod like one. I don&rsquot think he&rsquos ever been in the air before!&rsquo So I went over and just stood aside Mr. Page while he was taliking to Gladys Cooper. &lsquoWhat do you want, Charlie?&rsquo he asked. I said, &lsquoMr. Whitehead is sitting up there and he&rsquos getting fed up. Is anybody coming up?&rsquo He said, No!&rsquo So I said, &lsquoWell, he says he&rsquod like to take jy up as he doesn&rsquot think you&rsquove been in the air before!&rsquo He looked at Miss Gladys Cooper and he took me aside and whispered in my ear, &lsquoYou go back and tell Whitehead &ndash I build them. I don&rsquot bloody well fly them!&rsquo

This very direct and honest statement regarding the role of designer and manufacturer still seriously affects the industry even today. There have been at least a couple of very serious accidents caused because the designers knew little, or even cared, about how pilots actually fly aircraft, or for that matter, how aircraft should be flown properly. I could cite examples of many airliners which have been certified as safe despite having very serious design flaws relating to the well understood basics of how to fly aeroplanes. Ignoring principles taught to everybody learning to fly even a basic training type. Indeed, in jaded moments I have often said, relating to light aircraft, that they are now so safe the primary role of the designer is to make them dangerous to operate! Exactly the same can be said about many modern cars of course, with many quite superfluous complexities being included.

This said, and as related, Federick Handley Page gehad het flown.


THE HANDLEY PAGE EPISODE
Official records show that J G Weir was awarded his Pilots Certificate, (No.24), after flying a Blériot Monoplane from HENDON on the 8th of November 1910. The Handley Page concern started in 1908 and became a limited company about one year later. Later on, (probably in 1916), with a factory in Cricklewood, but, according to Jane&rsquos 1917 &lsquoAll The World&rsquos Aircraft&rsquo their flying ground was HENDON. This was soon to change as Handley Page developed their own airfield at CRICKLEWOOD and was later, after WW1, to become the eerste &lsquoproper&rsquo British international airport adjacent to their factory, and Handley Page operated by their own airline.

Scanned from British Aviation - The Pioneer Years by Harold Penrose, surely this must be a very interesting aeroplane. It seems that is was built by Handley Page at his Barking factory to the design of a Mr T Sonoda of Japan. I wonder if the 'Rising Sun' motif on the rudder was then a legal requirement for Japanese aircraft, akin to the 'Swiss Cross', a white cross on a red band, on the tail of all Swiss civil aircraft?


Geskiedenis

The Airco DH.9 ( after 1920, the de Havilland DH.9) was a British bomber flown during the First World War by the Royal Flying Corps and — by war’s end — the Royal Air Force. Intended as a replacement for Airco’s earlier, highly successful DH.4, it was ordered in very large numbers, with over 2,000 in RAF service by November 1918. Unfortunately, it was not only inferior to the DH.4, but its performance was so poor that it cost a great many Allied airmen their lives.

The idea was for the DH.9 to have similar performance to the DH.4, but longer range, helping to form Britain’s first strategic bomber force. But in reality, the DH.9’s performance was not similar to that of the DH.4 far from it. Originally intended to be fitted with an American-supplied Liberty V-12 engine, the DH.9 was instead mated with a BHP 230 hp engine, due to delays in production that rendered the Liberty unavailable. But the BHP was the engine that was fitted to the DH.4 at the prototype stage, and later replaced by the Rolls Royce Eagle, a superior engine capable of 250 hp. Unfortunately, a Rolls Royce powerplant was not in the DH 9’s future. It entered service saddled with the underpowered, unreliable BHP. The alternative of a Rolls Royce engine was not an option due to the limitations on production capacity and priorities for its use in other aircraft – including the DH.4.

The DH.9 was designed by Geoffrey de Havilland for the Aircraft Manufacturing Company (Airco) in 1916. It used the wings and tail unit of the DH.4 but had a new fuselage, enabling the pilot to sit closer to the gunner/observer and away from the engine and fuel tank. The other major change from the DH.4 was the choice of the promising new BHP/Galloway Adriatic engine, predicted to produce 300 hp (224 KW) and so give the new aircraft an adequate performance to match enemy fighters. But in flight tests beginning at Hendon in July 1917 the BHP proved disappointing, having such difficulty consistently delivering the initially rated 300 hp that it was de-rated to 230 hp (186 kW) in order to improve reliability. This rendered the DH.9 inferior to the DH.4 it was intended to replace, particularly at high altitude, with all too often with fatal results.

The DH. 9 design altered the DH4 two-seater bomber in two ways: First, it moved the pilot’s cockpit rearwards, just behind the trailing edge of the wing, making space for an internal bomb bay in the fuselage. Second, the engine centre line was raised and the nose radiator replaced by a vertical water tank and a radiator in the bottom of the fuselage. Compared to the DH4, the total empty weight was reduced by 100 lbs, the fuel tank size increased and the bomb load increased by 500 lbs, at the cost of “a slight loss of speed and climb and an increase in the landing speed.” The design had the advantage of closing of the gap between the pilot and the observer/gunner, improving communication between them during combat. However, when fully loaded, the DH. 9’s service ceiling was about 14,000 ft., some 2,000 ft. lower than the DH4. The deficiencies in its powerplant combined with its heavier bomb load meant that in combat, enemy fighters would be able to reach and attack the DH.9 formations more easily. Authorities had evidence early on that the slower, lower flying DH.9 would have to fight its way through enemy fighters before reaching its targets, whereas the earlier DH.4 was able to avoid many such attacks due to its superior speed. Despite this, plans went ahead to put the new type into service — perhaps with a thought of fitting it with a improved powerplant as soon as possible — but at the cost of many Allied airmen’s lives.

Entering service in November 1917, the deployment of the DH.9 to France was a disaster, frequently resulting in heavy losses, due mainly to the poor performance of the BHP engine. For Major General Hugh Trenchard, commanding officer of the Royal Flying Corps on the Western Front from 1915-1917, the events of 31 July 1918 confirmed his early prejudices about the DH.9. A formation of a dozen aircraft from No. 99 Squadron set out to bomb the town of Mainz. Three aircraft dropped out with engine trouble before crossing the lines nine aircraft continued but due to enemy opposition attacked Saarbrucken instead. Four aircraft were brought down before reaching the target, and of the five remaining, a further three were shot down by the time the raid was completed. This one action resulted in the loss of 14 aircrew, eight of whom never got near their target.

By the end of August 1918 Maj. Gen. Trenchard, by then recalled to London to take up the post of Chief of the Air Staff for the recently created Royal Air Force, decided that the DH.9’s were unfit for front-line service “and that the losses which must be expected they would suffer did not justify again sending them over the lines.” He accordingly withdrew the type from front-line service, and it was thereafter used for transport or liaison duties.

Elsewhere the DH.9 continued in service until the Armistice. Despite its limitations, when flown in a tight defensive formation, the DH.9 could hold off attackers with some success and squadrons claimed a number of victories against attackers. The DH.9 saw service in France with Nos 27, 49, 98, 99, 103, 104, 107, 108, 206, 211 and 218 Squadron. Some 2,166 DH.9’s were delivered for RAF service by the end of October 1918 and a total of 3,204 were produced.

Between May and November 1918, two squadrons on the Western Front (Nos. 99 and 104) lost 54 DH.9’s shot down, and another 94 written off in accidents. DH.9’s were more successful against the Turkish forces in the Middle East, where they faced less opposition, and were also used extensively for coastal patrols, to deter U-boat operations. The DH.9’s combat record in France was a key reason it was re-deployed to these duties. After the war, a single DH 9 was rebuilt as an air ambulance, requiring a modification of the fuselage by placing a special installation behind the cockpit over what had been the gunner’s postion. This was the widest part of the fuselage, where stretchers could be fitted to keep the injured in a stable position. Only one DH 9 was so modified, as larger, twin-engined aircraft became available for this duty in the 1920’s.

While attempts were made to provide the DH.9 with an adequate engine, with aircraft being fitted with the Siddeley Puma, a lightened and supposedly more powerful version of the BHP, and also with the Fiat A12 engine, and finally with a 430 hp (321 kW) Napier Lion engine, these were generally unsuccessful (although the Lion-engined aircraft did set a World Altitude Record of 30,500 ft (13,900 m) on 2 January 1919). Ultimately, it required a redesign into the DH.9A to transform the aircraft.

Type: tactical bomber/patrol aircraft/air ambulance
Manufacturer: Airco
Designed by: Geoffrey de Havilland
First flight: July 1917
Introduced: 1917
Retired: 1920
Primary users: Royal Air Force, RNAS, RFC.
Number Built: 4091
Variants: DH.9A, DH.9C, Westland Walrus
Length: 30 ft 5 in (9.27 m)
Wingspan: 42 ft 4½ in (19.92 m)
Height: 11 ft 3½ in (3.44 m)
Wing area: 434 ft² (40.3 m²)
Empty weight: 2,360 lb (1,014 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 3,790 lb (1,723 kg)
Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Puma piston engine, 230 hp (172 kW)
Maximum speed: 98 kn (113 mph, 182 km/h)
Endurance: 4½ hours
Service ceiling: 15,500 ft (4,730 m)
Climb to: 10,000 ft 18 min 30 sec
Bemanning: 2
Armament: One forward firing .303 Vickers machine gun one or two rear .303 Lewis guns on Scarff ring

Reviewing the record nearly a century later, one wonders why the DH.9 was allowed to enter service at all with a clearly inferior powerplant, which literally meant the difference between life and death for many British airmen. It is curious that, given the initial specifications laid down for the new bomber, it was not given an equally successful if not identical powerplant to the aircraft it was intended to replace. It is equally curious that, when its designated powerplant was proven deficient prior to its deployment to France, arrangements were not made to increase production of the Rolls Royce Eagle engine which had made the DH.4 such a successful aircraft, or to scrap the DH.9 altogether in favor of increasing production of the DH.4. Was it simply a case of political pressure to give the Royal Flying Corps its first strategic bomber, regardless of the cost, with national prestige so tied up in the project that failure could not be conceded? In any event, the DH. 9 was a great deal more successful as liaison aircraft and air ambulance than as a bomber.

Comparisons in performance between the DH.4 and DH.9

The Official History of the War in the Air makes particular reference to the performance of the DH4 and DH9 bombers during the Battle of Amiens, illustrating the poor performance of the newer aircraft.

” The DH4 fitted with the 275 horse power Rolls Royce (Eagle VI) engine was splendidly reliable. In the four days of intensive fighting from 8-11 August inclusive the DH4’s of 205 Squadron were in the air for a total of 324 hours 13 minutes, and dropped sixteen tons of bombs. Every aeroplane returned from its mission and no more than one had to be struck off the strength of the squadron.”

” By way of comparison, a typical DH9 squadron flew a total of 115 hours in the same period and dropped four and a half tons of bombs. During the operations seven of the DH9’s were lost and two others were wrecked, and ten pilots had to leave formation without dropping their bombs, through engine trouble.”


And from TAH's own archive.

Broughton-built de Havilland Chipmunk 21 G-AMUC gambols over Portsmouth after its delivery to Hamble-based Air Service Training in October 1952.

We originally captioned this image as being Hawker Siddeley test pilot John Farley in P.1127 XP984 aboard HMS Bulwark in June 1966. However, John contacted The Aviation Historian to put the record straight: "I did not fly from Bulwark in June 1966, so if the ship and date are right, the pilot is wrong!" After a little digging we found that it was in fact John's colleague Hugh Merewether. It's a fair cop &ndash thanks, John! This aircraft is now on display at Brooklands Museum.

The Piasecki 16H-1A Pathfinder II was one of several machines built by the company in the 1960s while engaged in research into the high-speed compound helicopter concept, whereby the rotor is unloaded in flight by means of a wing. An in-depth feature on Piasecki's compound helicopters is coming soon in The Aviation Historian.

Gone fishin' &ndash perfect for getting away from it all, the Bensen B-8MW Hydrocopter was a classic 1950s idea that, perhaps disappointingly, never really caught on. Capable of 40–75 m.p.h., the Hydrocopter was powered a 72 h.p. McCulloch two-stroke engine and was a development of the Gyroboat &ndash literally just a skiff with a rotor!

Seen here in Luftwaffe markings, the sole Savoia-Marchetti SM.93 ground-attack aircraft was the Italian company's final World War Two design. It carried a crew of two, with the pilot lying in a prone position, and was powered by a Daimler-Benz DB605 engine. Look out for more on this and other little-known Italian wartime designs in forthcoming issues of The Aviation Historian.

A magnificent portrait of factory-fresh de Havilland Comet 4 G-APDR of BOAC shortly after its first flight in July 1959. Flying the flag for Britain on long-haul routes until 1965, G-APDR later went on to serve with Mexicana.

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RH12 9PP
Verenigde Koninkryk

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MICK OAKEY
e-mail [email protected]
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AIRCO DH.9

The Airco DH.9 (from de Havilland 9) also known after 1920 as the de Havilland DH.9 was a British bomber used in the First World War. A single-engined biplane, it was a development of Airco’s earlier, highly successful DH.4 and was ordered in very large numbers for Britain’s Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force.

An unreliable engine which did not deliver the expected power meant, however, that the DH.9 had poorer performance than the aircraft that it was meant to replace. This resulted in heavy losses to squadrons equipped with the DH.9, particularly over the Western Front. It was subsequently developed into the DH.9A with a more powerful and reliable engine.

Ontwerp en ontwikkeling

The DH.9 was designed by de Havilland for the Aircraft Manufacturing Company in 1916 as a successor to the DH.4. It used the wings and tail unit of the DH.4 but had a new fuselage. This enabled the pilot to sit closer to the gunner/observer and away from the engine and fuel tank. The other major change from the DH.4 was the choice of the promising new BHP/Galloway Adriatiese engine, which was predicted to produce 300 hp and so give the new aircraft an adequate performance to match enemy fighters.

By this time, as a result of attacks by German bombers on London, the decision was made to almost double the size of the Royal Flying Corps, with most of the new squadrons planned to be equipped with bombers. [1] Based on the performance estimates for the DH.9 (which were expected to surpass those of the DH.4), and the similarity to the DH.4, which meant that it would be easy to convert production over to the new aircraft, massive orders (4,630 aircraft) were placed.

The prototype (a converted DH.4) first flew at Hendon in July 1917. [2] Unfortunately, the BHP engine proved unable to reliably deliver its expected power, with the engine being de-rated to 230 hp in order to improve reliability. This had a drastic effect on the aircraft’s performance, especially at high altitude, with it being inferior to that of the DH.4 it was supposed to replace. This meant that the DH.9 would have to fight its way through enemy fighters, which could easily catch the DH.9 where the DH.4 could avoid many of these attacks.

While attempts were made to provide the DH.9 with an adequate engine, with aircraft being fitted with the Siddeley Puma, a lightened and supposedly more powerful version of the BHP, with the Fiat A12 engine and with a 430 hp Napier Lion engine, these were generally unsuccessful (although the Lion engined aircraft did set a World Altitude Record of 30,500 ft (13,900 m) on 2 January 1919 [3] ) and it required redesign into the DH.9A to transform the aircraft.

The first deliveries were made in November 1917 to 108 Squadron RFC, with several more squadrons being formed or converted to the DH.9 over the next few months, and with nine squadrons operational over the Western Front by June 1918.

The DH.9’s performance in action over the Western front was a disaster, with heavy losses incurred, both due to its low performance, and engine failures (despite the prior de-rating of its engine). For example, between May and November 1918, two squadrons on the Western Front (Nos. 99 and 104) lost 54 shot down, and another 94 written off in accidents. [4] The DH.9 was however more successful against the Turkish forces in the Middle East, where they faced less opposition, and it was also used extensively for coastal patrols, to try and deter the operations of U-boats.

Following the end of the First World War, DH.9s operated by 47 Squadron and 221 Squadron were sent to southern Russia in 1919 in support of the White Russian Army of General Denikin during the Russian Civil War. [5] The last combat use by the RAF was in support of the final campaign against Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (known by the British as the “Mad Mullah”) in Somalia during January—February 1920. [5] Surprisingly, production was allowed to continue after the end of the war into 1919, with the DH.9 finally going out of service with the RAF in 1920. [6]

Following the end of the First World War, large number of surplus DH.9s became available at low prices and the type was widely exported (including aircraft donated to Commonwealth nations as part of the Imperial Gift programme. [3]

The South African Air Force received 48 DH.9s, and used them extensively, using them against the Rand Revolt in 1922. Several South African aircraft were re-engined with Bristol Jupiter radial engines as the M’pala, serving until 1937. [7]

Because of the large number of surplus DH.9s available after the war many were used by air transport companies. They provided a useful load carrying capability and were cheap. Early air services between London, Paris and Amsterdam were operated by DH.9s owned by Aircraft Transport and Travel. A number of different conversions for civil use were carried out, both by Airco and its successor the de Havilland Aircraft Company and by other companies, such as the Aircraft Disposal Company. [8] Some radial powered DH.9Js continued in use until 1936. [9]


Airco D.H.9 - History

C6501, the first production Airco DH9 with 230hp BHP engine.

Airco DH9 with Napier Lion engine in a wintry landscape.

Airco DH9B civil conversion G-EAGY of Aircraft Transport & Travel Ltd.

Civilian Airco DH9C G-EBAX of De Havilland Aeroplane Hire Ltd.

QANTAS civil design G-AUFM based on DH9C fuselage with DH50 wings and cabin layout.

Airco DH9 G-EAQM the first single engine aircraft to fly from England to Australia.

Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar III powered DH9J G-EBEZ of De Havilland School of Flying.

Operasionele geskiedenis

Eerste Wêreldoorlog

The DH.9A entered service in July 1918 with No. 110 Squadron RAF, moving to France on 31 August 1918 to serve with the RAF's Independent Air Force on strategic bombing missions. Its first mission was against a German airfield on 14 September 1918. [ 3 ] A further three squadrons commenced operations over the Western Front before the Armistice, with 99 Squadron (also serving with the Independent Air Force) replacing DH.9s, while 18 Squadron and 216 Squadron replaced DH.4s. [ 3 ] Despite the superior performance of the DH.9A over the DH.9, the DH.9A squadrons suffered high losses during their long range bombing missions over Germany. [ 8 ] Other squadrons flew coastal patrols from Great Yarmouth before the end of the year.

The United States Marine Corps also adopted the DH.9A, its Northern Bombing group receiving at least 53, operations starting in September 1918. [ 9 ]

Interwar RAF service

While the squadrons in service at the end of the First World War quickly disbanded or re-equipped in the postwar dis-armament, the DH.9A continued in service as the RAF's standard light bomber, with a total of 24 squadrons being equipped between 1920 and 1931, both at home and abroad.

The first post war operations were in southern Russia in 1919, in support of the "White Army" against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War. In September 1919, the RAF personnel were ordered to return home, leaving their aircraft behind. [ 6 ] A squadron of DH.9As was deployed to Turkey in response to the Chanak Crisis in 1922, but did not engage in combat. [10]

The DH.9A was one of the key weapons used by Britain to manage the territories that were in its control following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Great War. Five squadrons of DH.9As served in the Middle East, [ 11 ] carrying out occasional bombing raids against rebelling tribesmen and villages. A larger radiator was fitted to cope with the high temperatures, while additional water containers and spares (including spare wheels lashed to the fuselage) were carried in case the aircraft were forced down in the desert, the DH.9A's struggling under ever heavier loads. Despite this it served successfully, with the Liberty engine being picked out for particular praise for its reliability ("as good as any Rolls Royce") in such harsh conditions. [ 12 ] Some DH.9A aircraft were also transported to India to supplement the British Indian Army.

At home, the DH.9A continued on in regular RAF service until 1930, also forming the initial equipment of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force (RAuxAF).

Soviet service

The R-1 was heavily used by the Soviet Air Forces through the 1920s as its standard light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. The Soviets deployed R-1s in support of the Chinese Kuomintang forces in the Northern Expedition against warlords in 1926-27 and against Chinese forces in clashes over control of the Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria in 1929. R-1s were also used in support of operations against Basmachi Rebels in central Asia. [ 13 ]