Geskiedenis Podcasts

Groot geleenthede, sporthoogtepunte en Nobelpryse van 1986 - Geskiedenis

Groot geleenthede, sporthoogtepunte en Nobelpryse van 1986 - Geskiedenis

  • Sowjette bevry Natan Scharansky
  • Kernramp in Tsjernobil
  • Top in Reykjavik
  • Spanje en Portugal betree die gemeenskaplike mark
  • Marcos vlug uit die Filippyne
  • Amerikaanse vliegtuie val Tripoli aan
  • Pendeltuig Uitdager ontplof in die lug
  • Iran Contra Affair
  • Amerika reageer op Libiese terreur

Sport

NBA: Boston Celtics vs Houston Rockets Series: 4-2
NCAA Football: Penn State Record: 12-0-0
Heisman-trofee: Vinny Testaverde, miami-fl, QB-punte: 2,213
Stanley Cup: Montreal Canadiens vs Calgary Flames-reeks: 4-1
Super Bowl XX: Chicago Bears vs New England Patriots-telling: 46-10
Amerikaanse gholf: Ray Floyd telling: 279 baan: Shinnecock Hills GC ligging: Southhampton, NY
Wêreldbeker: Argentinië vs Wes-Duitsland telling: 3-2
Wêreldreeks: New York Mets vs Boston Red Sox-reeks: 4-3

Gewilde musiek

1. "Dis waarvoor vriende is" ... Dionne Warwick en vriende
2. "Hoe sal ek weet" ... Whitney Houston
3. "Kryie" ... Meneer Meneer
4. "Sara" ... Starship
5. "Hierdie drome" ... Hart
6. "Rock Me Amadeus" ... Flaco
7. "Soen" ... Prins
8. "Verslaaf aan liefde" ... Robert Palmer
9. "West End Girls" ... Pet Shop Boys
10. "Greatest Love of All" ... Whitney Houston

Top tien films

1. Vreemdelinge
2. 'n Amerikaanse stert
3. Terug skool toe
4. Kobra
5. Die kleur van geld
6. Die Kleur Pers
7. Krokodil Dundee
8. Af en uit in Beverly Hills
9. Ferris Bueller's Day Off
10. Die Goue Kind

Fiksie
1. "It" deur Stephen King
2. "Red Storm Rising" deur Tom Clancy
3. "Whirlwind" deur James Clavell
4. "The Bourne Supremacy" deur Robert Ludlum
5. "Hollywood Husbands" deur Jackie Collins

Niefiksie
1. "Vaderskap" deur Bill Cosby
2. "Fit for Life" deur Harvey en Marilyn Diamond
3. "His Way" deur Kitty Kelly
4. "The Rotation Diet" deur Martin Katahn
5. "You Are Only Old Once" deur dr Seuss

Gewildste televisieprogramme

1. The Cosby Show (NBC)
2. Gesinsbande (NBC)
3. Cheers (NBC)
4. Moord wat sy geskryf het (NBC)
5. The Golden Girls (NBC)
6. 60 minute (CBS)
7. Night Court (NBC)
8. Groeipyne (ABC)
9. Maanlig (ABC)
10. Wie is die baas? (ABC)

Academy Awards

Beste prent: "Out of Africa"
Beste regisseur: Sydney Pollack ... "Out of Africa"
Beste akteur: Paul Newman ... "The Color of Money"
Beste aktrise: Marlee Matlin ... "Children of a Lesser God"

Grammy -toekennings

Rekord van die jaar: "Higher Love" ... Steve Winwood
Liedjie van die jaar: "Dis waarvoor vriende is" ... Burt Bacharach, Carole Bayer Sager
Beste album: "Graceland" ... Paul Simon
Manlike sanger: Steve Winwood ... "Higher Love"
Vroulike sanger: Barbra Streisand ... "The Broadway Album"

Nobelpryse

ChemieDie prys is gesamentlik toegeken aan:HERSCHBACH, DUDLEY R., U.S.A., Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, geb. 1932;LEE, YUAN T., U.S.A., Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley, CA, geb. 1936 (inHsinchu, Taiwan); enPOLANYI, JOHN C., Kanada, Universiteit van Toronto, Toronto, geb. 1929:"vir hul bydraes oor die dinamika van chemiese elementêreprosesse "••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••LiteratuurSOYINKA, WOLE, Nigerië, geb. 1934:"wat in 'n wye kulturele perspektief en met poëtiese boventone diebestaansdrama "••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••VredeWIESEL, ELIE, VSA, geb. 1928: Voorsitter van 'The President's Commission on the Holocaust'. Skrywer, humanitêr.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Fisiologie of GeneeskundeDie prys is gesamentlik toegeken aan:COHEN, STANLEY, U.S.A., Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, geb. 1922; enLEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA, Italië en die V.S.A., Instituut vir Selbiologie van dieC.N.R., Rome, Italië, geb. 1909 (in Turyn, Italië):"vir hul ontdekkings van groeifaktore"••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••FisikaDie prys is met die helfte toegeken aan:RUSKA, ERNST, Bondsrepubliek Duitsland, Fritz- Haber-Institut derMax-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlyn, geb. 1906, d. 1988:"vir sy fundamentele werk in elektroniese optika en vir die ontwerp van dieeerste elektronmikroskoop "en die ander helfte gesamentlik om:BINNIG, GERD, Bondsrepubliek Duitsland, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, R & Mac217; schlikon, Switserland, geb. 1947; enROHRER, HEINRICH, Switserland, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Ruschlikon, Switserland, geb. 1933:"vir hul ontwerp van die skandeertunnelmikroskoop"

Pulitzer -pryse

Drama: Larry McMurtry ... "Lonesome Dove"
Geskiedenis: Walter A. McDougall ... "Die hemele en die aarde"
Internasionale verslagdoening: Lewis M. Simons, Pete Carey en Katherine Ellison ... "San Jose (CA) Mercury News"
Nasionale verslaggewing: Arthur Howe ... "Philadelphia Inquirer
Craig Flournoy en George Rodrigue ... "Dallas Morning News"
Staatsdiens: "Denver Post"

Tony -toekennings

Beste toneelstuk: "I'm Not Rappaport" ... Herb Gardner
"Die raaisel van Edwin Drood"
"Beste akteur in 'n toneelstuk: Judd Hirsch ..." I'm Not Rappaport
Beste aktrise in 'n toneelstuk: Bernadette Peters ... "Song & Dance"


Vandag se beroemde verjaarsdae

George Mallory

1886 George Mallory, Engelse bergklimmer ("want dit is daar"), gebore in Mobberley, Engeland († 1924)

    Alexander Wetmore, Amerikaanse ornitoloog († 1978) Blanche Yurka, Amerikaanse aktrise (Taxi, A Tale of Two Cities), gebore in Saint Paul, Minnesota († 1974) Margarita Xirgu, Katalaanse verhoogaktrise, regisseur en politieke radikale (Bloody Wedding , Mariana Pineda), gebore in Barcelona, ​​Spanje († 1969) Paul Joostens, Vlaamse skilder Hans Ruin, Finse Sweedstalige historikus Annie & quotMae & quot Busch, Australiese aktrise (Foolish Wives), gebore in Melbourne, Victoria (1946) Con Conrad [Dober], Amerikaanse liedjieskrywer (& quotMa! It's Making Eyes at Me & quot; The Continental & quot), en teaterprodusent, gebore in NYC, New York († 1938) Edward Steuermann, Oostenryk-Amerikaanse pianis en komponis, gebore in Sambor, Oostenryk Hongaarse Ryk († 1964) Manuela Fernández-Fojaco, Spaanse supercentenarium († 2009) Blanche Sweet, Amerikaanse aktrise (Home Sweet Home, Avenging Conscience), gebore in Chicago, Illinois († 1986) Cota Ramaswami, Indiese krieketspeler (Davis) Beker vir Indië 1922, toets 1936), gebore in Madras Philip Barry, Amerikaanse dramaturg (Philadelphia Story) George Thalben-Ball, Australies-Engelse orrelis (Birmingham City Organist, 1949-83), en komponis (Elegy), gebore in Sydney, Australië (d. 1987) Henry Wadsworth, Amerikaanse akteur (The Thin Man, Applause, Fast & Loose), gebore in Maysville, Kentucky († 1974)

Anastasia Nikolaevna

1901 Anastasia Nikolaevna, jongste dogter van die laaste Russiese tsaar, Nicholas II en Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, gebore in Peterhof -paleis, Sint Petersburg, Rusland († 1918)

    Llewellyn Rees, Britse teaterakteur (A Fish Called Wanda, Invisible Creature), gebore in Charmouth, Dorset, Engeland († 1994) Raymond Radiguet, Franse joernalis/skrywer (Le diable ouch corps) Jeanette MacDonald, Amerikaanse aktrise en sanger (& quotWhen I'm Calling You & quot), gebore in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania († 1965) Keye Luke, Chinese-Amerikaanse akteur (Across the Pacific, Yangtse Incident), gebore in Guangzhou, China († 1991) Manuel Rosenthal, Franse komponis (Bootleggers) ), gebore in Parys, Frankryk († 2003) Eduard Tubin, Estse komponis, gebore in Torila, Governorate of Livonia († 1982) (James) & quotKay & quot Kyser, Amerikaanse orkesleier en radiopersoonlikheid (Kay Kyser's Kollege van Musiekkennis), gebore in Rocky Mount, Noord -Carolina († 1985) Benny Payne, Amerikaanse jazzpianis (Cab Calloway Billy Daniels Show), gebore in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania († 1986) Froelich Rainey, Amerikaanse antropoloog en vasvra -moderator (What in the World) , gebore in Black River Falls, Wisconsin († 1992) Bud C ollyer, Amerikaanse TV -emcee (Beat the Clock, To Tell the Truth), gebore in NYC, New York Nedra Volz, Amerikaanse aktrise, gebore in Montrose, Iowa (d. 2003) Stanley Knowles, Kanadese politikus († 1997) Avon Long, Amerikaanse akteur (Roots: Next Generation, The Sting, Harry en Tonto), gebore in Baltimore, Maryland († 1984) John Nicholas & quotDick & quot Foran, Amerikaanse akteur (OK Crackerby, Fort Apache, Winners of the West), gebore in Flemington, New Jersey († 1979) Ray McKinley, Amerikaanse orkesleier en jazz -tromspeler (Glenn Miller Time), gebore in Fort Worth, Texas († 1995) Glen Morris , Amerikaanse Olimpiese baan- en veldkampioen (Olimpiese goud, 1936) en akteur (Tarzan, Hold That Co-ed), gebore in Denver, Colorado († 1974) Henry Brandon [Heinrich von Kleinbach], Duits-Amerikaanse akteur (The Searchers , Assault on Precinct 13, Drums of Fu Manchu), gebore in Berlyn, Duitsland (omstreeks 1990) Sammy Cahn [Cohen], Amerikaanse liriekskrywer (& quotThree Coins in a Fountain & quot "High Hopes" & quotCall Me Irresponsible & quot), gebore in NYC, New York ( d. 1993) Sylvia Porter, finansiële skrywer (Sylvia Porter's Money Book) EG Marshall [Everett Eugene Grunz], Amerikaan 'n akteur (12 Angry Men, The Defenders), gebore in Owatonna Minnesota (d. 1998) Billy Wade, krieketpaaltjiewagter (Suid-Afrikaner in 11 toetse 1938-50)

George Mikan

1924 George Mikan, American Basketball Hall of Fame-sentrum (NBA All Star 1951-54 NBL MVP 1948 Minneapolis Lakers), gebore in Joliet, Illinois († 2005)

    Liesbeth den Uyl-van Vessem, Nederlandse feminis en vrou van premier Joop den Uyl, gebore in Amsterdam, Nederland († 1990) Herman & quotAce & Wallace, Amerikaanse blues-kitaarspeler en sanger, gebore in St Louis, Missouri († 1996) Rex Collings, Engelse uitgewer (Rex Collings), († 1996) Robert Arthur, Amerikaanse akteur (12 O'Clock High, Just For You), gebore in Aberdeen Washington († 2008) Patricia Hutchinson, Britse ambassadeur (Uruguay)

Paul McCartney

1942 -Paul McCartney, Britse rock -sanger -liedjieskrywer, baskitaarspeler, klavierspeler (The Beatles -& gister & quotI Will & quot Wings -& Silly Love Songs & quot), gebore in Liverpool, Engeland

Thabo Mbeki

1942 Thabo Mbeki, president van Suid-Afrika (1999-2008), 1ste vise-president (1994-99) en ekonoom, gebore in Mbewuleni, Oos-Kaap

    Carl Radle, Amerikaanse baskitaarspeler (Derek en die Dominoes), gebore in Tulsa, Oklahoma († 1980) Richard Perry, Amerikaanse platemaatskappy (Harry Nilsson Ringo Starr Leo Sayer Pointer Sisters), gebore in Brooklyn, New York, Barry Evans, Engelse akteur (Dr Upton-Dr in the House, Mind Your Language), gebore in Guildford, Engeland (1997) Raffaella Carrà [Pelloni], Italiaanse sangeres en aktrise, gebore in Bologna, Italië Paul Lansky, Amerikaanse elektroniese komponis, gebore in New York City Sandy Posey, Amerikaanse pop- en countrysanger (& quotSingle Girl & quot), gebore in Jasper, Alabama Rick Griffin, Amerikaanse kunstenaar en 'n toonaangewende ontwerper van psigedeliese plakkate in die 1960's (Grateful Dead), gebore in Palos Verdes, Kalifornië (d. . 1991) Russell Ash, Britse skrywer ('die menslike Google'), gebore in Surrey, Engeland Fabio Capello, Italiaanse sokkerafrigter Bruiser Brody [Frank Goodish], professionele worstelaar († 1988)

Isabella Rossellini

1952 Isabella Rossellini, Italiaanse aktrise en model (Big Night, Blue Velvet), gebore in Rome, Italië

    Rick Gazda, trompetspeler (The Miami Horns), gebore in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Idriss Déby, Tsjadiese politikus en militêre offisier (president van Tsjaad, 1990–2021), gebore in Berdoba, Tsjaad (omstreeks 2021) Jerome Smith, Amerikaanse kitaarspeler ( KC & amp; the Sunshine Band - & quot; Booogie Shoes & quot), gebore in Miami, Florida (omstreeks 2000) William Beard, Amerikaanse sessie en toer -drummer (Face To Face Sessions Americana), gebore in Boston, Massachusetts Brian Benben, Amerikaanse, akteur (Dream On, Gangster Chronicles), gebore in Winchester, Virginia John Scott, Engelse orreliste en koormeester, gebore in Wakefield, Engeland (d. 2015) Andrea Evans, Amerikaanse aktrise (Young & amp Restless, Tina-One Life to Live), gebore in Aurora , Illinois Ralph Brown, Britse akteur (Withnail en ek), gebore in Cambridge, Engeland, West Arkeen, Amerikaanse kitaarspeler en liedjieskrywer (vir Guns N 'Roses-& quotIt's So Easy, & quot "The Garden & quot), gebore in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Frankryk (d. 1997) Andres Galarraga, Venezolaanse infielder (Colorado Ro ckies), gebore in Caracas [Genevieve] Alison Moyet, Engelse rock -sanger (Yaz, Alf), gebore in Essex, Engeland Jan [ice] Merrill, snitster (Amerikaanse rekord langafstandhouer 1979)

Blake Shelton

1976 Blake Shelton, Amerikaanse country-sanger-liedjieskrywer (& quot; Boys 'Round Here & quot; God Gave Me You & quot & Honey Bee & quot), en TV-persoonlikheid (The Voice), gebore in Ada, Oklahoma

    Tara Platt, Amerikaanse aktrise en stemaktrise vir Japannese anime films (Temari-Naruto), gebore in Fairfax, Virginia Antonio Gates, Amerikaanse voetbalspeler Ivana Wong, Hongkongse sanger en liedjieskrywer Craig Mottram, Australiese middelafstand hardloper (World C'ship brons 2005, die enigste nie-Afrikaanse hardloper wat sedert 1987 'n medalje gewen het), gebore in Frankston, Victoria Teresa Cormack, slagoffer van kindermoord in Nieu-Seeland († 1987) Ella (Jiahua) Chen, lid van die Taiwanese meisiesgroep SHE Janne Happonen, Finse skispringer, gebore in Kuopio, Finland Richard Gasquet, Franse tennisspeler, gebore in Béziers, Frankryk

Richard Madden

1986 Richard Madden, Skotse akteur (Games of Thrones, Cinderella), gebore in Elderslie, Skotland


Die Sowjet -kernreaktor in Tsjernobil ontplof

Die Sowjet -kernreaktor in Tsjernobil ontplof op 26 April, wat radioaktiewe materiaal in groot dele van Europa vrystel.

Meer inligting oor die kernramp in Tsjernobil

1. 'n Kernkragstasie in Tsjernobil, Oekraïne (wat nog deel van die Sowjetunie was) het gedurende April 1986 ontplof en 'n groot kernramp veroorsaak.

2. As gevolg van die ontploffing is groot hoeveelhede bestraling en radioaktiewe materiaal in die plaaslike omgewing vrygestel, wat die gesondheid en veiligheid van duisende mense beïnvloed, insluitend plantwerkers, skoonmaakwerkers en die plaaslike bevolking.

3. Die ontploffing en die gevolglike brand is veroorsaak deur 'n eksperiment wat verkeerd gegaan het, die teenwoordigheid van ontwerpfoute in die reaktor en 'n gebrek aan veiligheidsoorsig.

4. Honderde duisende mense is deur die ramp verplaas toe die Sowjetunie die omliggende gebied binne 30 myl van die kernaanleg ontruim en afsluit.

5. Die ontploffing in Tsjernobil het nie net die omliggende omgewing met straling beskadig nie, maar dele van Europa, veral Swede en Finland, is ook deur besmette stof en lug uit Tsjernobil getref terwyl dit deur die atmosfeer beweeg.

6. Uiteindelik kon opruimingswerkers die kernramp bekamp deur 'n beton "sarkofaag" oor die beskadigde reaktor te plaas, maar dit word steeds as onstabiel beskou.

7. Gedurende die laat 1990's tot middel 2000's het Europa en Oekraïne saamgewerk om 'n nog meer permanente en stabiele bedekking vir die bestraling te skep.


Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling is gebore in Portland, Oregon, in die Verenigde State. Sy familie kom uit 'n reeks Pruisiese boere, en sy pa werk onder meer as 'n farmaseutiese verkoopsman. Nadat hy eers aan die Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon gestudeer het, behaal Linus Pauling sy PhD aan die California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, waarmee hy die bande vir die res van sy loopbaan behou het. In die 1950's het Linus Pauling se betrokkenheid by die anti-kernbeweging daartoe gelei dat hy as 'n vermeende kommunis bestempel is, wat daartoe gelei het dat sy paspoort soms herroep is. Linus en Ava Helen Pauling het saam vier kinders gehad.

1954 -prys: Die ontwikkeling van kwantummeganika gedurende die twintigerjare het 'n groot impak gehad, nie net op die gebied van fisika nie, maar ook op chemie. Gedurende die dertigerjare was Linus Pauling een van die baanbrekers wat kwantummeganika gebruik het om chemiese binding te verstaan ​​en te beskryf - dit wil sê die manier waarop atome saamsmelt om molekules te vorm. Linus Pauling het op 'n wye verskeidenheid gebiede in die chemie gewerk. Hy het byvoorbeeld gewerk aan die strukture van biologies belangrike chemiese verbindings. In 1951 publiseer hy die struktuur van die alfa helix, wat 'n belangrike basiese komponent van baie proteïene is.

1962 -prys: Die atoombomme op Hiroshima en Nagasaki was 'n keerpunt in Linus Pauling se lewe. Saam met ander wetenskaplikes het hy gepraat en geskryf teen die kernwapenwedloop, en hy was 'n dryfveer in die Pugwash -beweging. Dit het probeer om die rol van kernwapens in die internasionale politiek te verminder en is in 1995 bekroon met die Vredesprys. In 1959 stel Linus Pauling die beroemde "Hiroshima Appeal" op, die slotdokument wat uitgereik is na die vyfde wêreldkonferensie teen atoombome en waterstofbomme. Hy was een van die vernaamste bewegers wat die kernmagte van die VSA, die Sowjetunie en Groot -Brittanje aangespoor het om 'n verdrag vir verbod op kerntoetse te sluit, wat op 10 Oktober 1963 in werking getree het. Op dieselfde dag het die Noorse Nobelkomitee aangekondig dat Linus Pauling is bekroon met die vredesprys wat sedert 1962 beklee is.

Een persoon, Linus Pauling, het twee onverdeelde Nobelpryse ontvang. In 1954 ontvang hy die Nobelprys vir Chemie. Agt jaar later het hy die Nobelprys vir Vrede ontvang vir sy teenkanting teen massavernietigingswapens.

Om hierdie afdeling aan te haal
MLA -styl: Linus Pauling – Feite. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2021. Do. 17 Junie 2021. & lttttps: //www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/1954/pauling/facts/>

Leer meer

Nobelpryse 2020

Twaalf laureaten het in 2020 'n Nobelprys ontvang vir prestasies wat die grootste voordeel vir die mensdom was.

Hulle werk en ontdekkings wissel van die vorming van swart gate en 'n genetiese skêr tot pogings om honger te bekamp en nuwe veilingsformate te ontwikkel.


Jimmy Carter wen die Nobelprys vir Vrede

Op 11 Oktober 2002 wen die voormalige president Jimmy Carter die Nobelprys vir vrede “ vir sy dekades se onvermoeide poging om vreedsame oplossings vir internasionale konflikte te vind, om demokrasie en menseregte te bevorder en om ekonomiese en sosiale ontwikkeling te bevorder. ”

Carter, 'n grondboontjieboer uit Georgië, het tussen 1977 en 1981 een termyn as Amerikaanse president gedien. Een van sy belangrikste prestasies as president was die bemiddeling van die vredesgesprekke tussen Israel en Egipte in 1978. Die Nobelkomitee wou Carter gee (1924-) die prys daardie jaar vir sy pogings, tesame met Anwar Sadat en Menachim Begin, maar dit is deur 'n tegniese rede verhinder dat hy nie teen die amptelike sperdatum genomineer is nie.

Nadat hy sy amp verlaat het, het Carter en sy vrou Rosalynn in 1982 die in Atlanta gevestigde Carter Center geskep om menseregte te bevorder en menslike lyding te verlig. Sedert 1984 werk hulle saam met Habitat for Humanity om huise te bou en bewustheid van haweloosheid te verhoog. Onder sy vele prestasies het Carter gehelp om siektes te bestry en ekonomiese groei in ontwikkelende lande te verbeter en het hy as waarnemer gedien by talle politieke verkiesings regoor die wêreld.


Historiese gebeure op 15 Oktober

Aanstelling van belang

1522 Keiser Karel I noem Hernán Cortés goewerneur van Mexiko

    Khanate van Kazan word verower deur troepe van Ivan Grozny. In opdrag van Catherine de 'Medici word die eerste ballet & quotBallet Comique de la Reine & quot in Parys opgevoer

Gregory verower Julius Caesar

1582 Gregoriaanse kalender bekendgestel in Spanje, Portugal en pontifieke state, nadat hulle 10 dae na 4 Oktober oorgeslaan het om die kalender te sinkroniseer

    Spaanse algemene strateeg Bernardino de Mendoza beset fort Ryn Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve beweer Montreal Prins Willem III aangestel as onderkoning van Overijssel Jode van Lublin word vermoor Asser Levy kry slagterslisensie (kosjer vleis) in New Amsterdam Torsåker heksieproewe begin, grootste hekseproewe in Swede , 71 onthoofde en verbrande Engelse vloot onder Lord Peterborough beset Barcelona Cornelis Steenoven is 1ste aartsbiskop van die Ou Katolieke kerk in Utrecht, Nederland Saksiese leër gee hom oor aan Pruise

Roman Ryk

1764 Edward Gibbon sien 'n groep broeiers wat in die verwoeste tempel van Jupiter in Rome sing, wat hom inspireer om te begin werk aan The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

    Mjr James Graves Simcoe aangestel as kommandant van Queen's Rangers (Penn) Jean Pilstre de Rozier maak die eerste ballonstyging van die eerste ballon Vroegste temperatuur van 0 ° C in NYC

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1789 Eerste presidensiële toer-George Washington in New England

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1815 arriveer Napoleon Bonaparte op die eiland St Helena om sy ballingskap te begin

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1816 Lord Byron bekyk die liefdesbriewe van Lucrezia Borgia en digter Pietro Bembo in Milaan en verklaar dit & quotdie mooiste liefdesbriewe ter wêreld & quot

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1827 word Charles Darwin toegelaat aan Christ's College, Cambridge

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1842 word Karl Marx hoofredakteur van die Rheinische Zeitung

Abraham Lincoln, die presidensiële ikoon

1860 skryf die 11-jarige Grace Bedell aan Abraham Lincoln en sê dat hy 'n baard moet laat groei

    Cliff House open in San Francisco, die eerste van vele op die webwerf Konfederale troepe beset Glasgow, Missouri Groot brand in Quebec vernietig 2500 huise. 45ste kongres (1877-79) roep Edison Electric Light Company bymekaar om Mexikaanse soldate Victorio dood te maak, een van die grootste Apache-weermag strateë. Eerste Amerikaanse vissertydskrif, American Angler, gepubliseer Hooggeregshof verklaar Burgerregtewet van 1875 ongrondwetlik Hoss Radbourne voer sy 60ste oorwinning van die seisoen uit Modest Mussorgsky se musikale fantasie & quotNight on Bald Mountain & premières in Kononov Hall, Rusland.

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1888 besluit die Duitse filosoof Friedrich Nietzsche om sy outobiografie & "Ecce Homo" op sy 44ste verjaardag te skryf

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1894 Kaptein Alfred Dreyfus gearresteer en beskuldig van spioenasie in Frankryk

    Henry Perky neem 'n patent op 'n masjien wat hy saam met William Ford ontwikkel het vir die bereiding van graan vir voedsel, andersins bekend as gerasperde koring. Kleefspinnekoppe Die Russe word deur die Japannese in die Slag van Shaho teruggedryf, albei kante ly baie: Japannese (16.000) en Russe (60.000)

Musiek Première

1905 Claude Debussy se simfoniese skets & quotLa Mer & quot het première in Parys

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1912 Red Sox Tris Speaker's maak slegs die wêreldreeks sonder bystand dubbelspel, van die buiteveld af

    Treinongeluk in Liverpool tydens "Black Week" Slag van Warskou, begin (eindig 21 Oktober) Clayton Anti-Trust Act aanvaar (vakbond en stakingregte) Chicago White Sox klop NY Giants, 4 wedstryde teen 2 in 14de World Series

Uitvoering

1917 Die Nederlandse eksotiese danser Mata Hari word tereggestel deur 'n vuurpeloton vir spioenasie vir Duitsland tydens WWI in Vincennes naby Parys

    Britse Q-skip Cymric sink Britse duikboot J6 14 perde begin 300 myl wedloop van Vt na Massa vir $ 1000 prysgeld NY Yankees 1st World Series oorwinning wat NY Giants verslaan, 4 wedstryde teen 2

Vryheidsbeeld

1924 Amerikaanse president Calvin Coolidge verklaar die Statue of Liberty as 'n nasionale monument

Histories Publikasie

1924 publiseer André Breton sy & quotSurrealistiese manifest & quot met Éditions du Sagittaire in Parys

    Pittsburgh Pirates klop Washington Senators, 4 wedstryde teen 3 in die 22ste Wêreldreeks Willem Landré se opera & quotBeatrice & première in die Haagse Oostenrykse regering van Seipel, vorm Philip Barry se "White Wings!" Premiere in NYC

Hindenburg -ramp beëindig die tydperk van Zeppelins

1928 Duitse dirigible "Graf Zeppelin" land in Lakehurst, NJ

Kontrak van Rente

1928 teken Walter Johnson 'n kontrak van drie jaar om die senatore te bestuur

    Tata Airlines (later Air India) maak sy eerste vlug. 20ste wysiging van die Amerikaanse grondwet tree in werking: die termyn van die president begin in Januarie, nie Maart nie Philadelphia Eagles speel die eerste NFL-wedstryd, verloor teen NY Giants met 56-0 in die NHL St Louis Eagles

Histories Publikasie

    In plaas van enige handelsaanbiedings te aanvaar, stel die Yanks Tony Lazzeri, Robert Sherwoods & quot; Be Lincoln in Illinois & quot; première in NYC LaGuardia -lughawe oop in NYC Yeshiva of Mir sluit na 124 jaar -16] Swaar Duitse lugaanval op Londen, 400 dood in Waterloo -stasie in Londen, gebombardeer deur Duitse lugwaffe

Film Vrylating

1940 "The Great Dictator", 'n satiriese rolprent met sosiale kommentaar deur en met Charlie Chaplin in die hoofrol

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1941 word Hideki Tojo aangestel as premier van die keiserlike Japan

    Jode wat vasgevang is buite die Nazi -getto -mure in die besette Pole kan doodgemaak word Duitse 6de leër beset Tractorenfabriek, 3 000 Duitsers sterf The Arrow Cross Party (baie soortgelyk aan Hitler se NSDAP (Nazi -party)) neem die mag in Hongarye oor. Baseball -bywoning behaal rekord 10,28 miljoen (Tigers 1,28 is die hoogste) Kleinste aandeel in die Wêreldreeks sedert 1918 (kaarte $ 3,748, Red Sox $ 2,140) St Louis Cards klop Boston Red Sox, 4 wedstryde teen 3 in die 43ste Wêreldreeks. van Manipur oorgeneem deur die Indiese regering Tripura sluit aan by die Indiese unie

Televisie Debuut

1951 & quotI Love Lucy & quot; met Lucille Ball en Desi Arnaz in die hoofrol, debuteer op CBS

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1951 Eerste sintese van 'n orale voorbehoedmiddel (norethindron) gemaak deur Luis E. Miramontes onder leiding van Carl Djerassi en George Rosenkranz by die Mexikaanse medisyne -onderneming Syntex

Histories Publikasie

1952 & quot; Charlotte's Web & quot; deur EB White en geïllustreer deur Garth Williams word uitgegee deur Harper & amp Brothers

Fotografie

1952 Die invloedryke fotografieboek van Henri Cartier-Bresson "The Decisive Moment" word die eerste keer in die VSA en Frankryk gepubliseer

    John Patrick's & quotTeahouse of the August Moon & quot; première in New York KOIN TV -kanaal 6 in Portland, OF (CBS) begin uitsaai van WJNL (nou WFAT) TV -kanaal 19 in Johnstown, PA (IND) begin orkaan Hazel val in die VSA in Noord -Carolina as 'n kategorie 4 orkaan sterf 195 in die VSA en Kanada

LPGA Kampioenskap

1961 LPGA Championship Women's Golf, Stardust CC: Mickey Wright wen haar derde LPGA -titel oortuigend met 9 houe van Louise Suggs

    Byron R White aangestel in die Hooggeregshof WLOX TV-kanaal 13 in Biloxi-Gulfport, MS (ABC) begin uitsaai

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1963 Ludwig Erhard volg Konrad Adenauer op as kanselier van Wes -Duitsland

    Craig Breedlove stel 'n outosnelheidsrekord van 846,97 km / h. St Louis Cardinals klop NY Yankees, 4 wedstryde teen 3 in die 61ste World Series. NY Yankees verskyn in 14 en wen 9 van die laaste 16 World Series -Amerikaners Al Oerter wen sy derde van vier agtereenvolgende Olimpiese diskusstitels vir mans. op die Olimpiese Spele in Tokio klop Tsjeggië Ludvík Daněk met 0.08m Amerikaner Don Schollander swem 'n wêreldrekord 4: 12.2 om die 400 m vryslag goue medalje op die Olimpiese Spele in Tokio te wen, tweede van Schollander se 4 goue medaljes op die Spele. Amerikaanse naelloper Bob Hayes is gelyk aan wêreldrekord 10.0s om Kuba se Enrique Figuerola met 0.2s te klop en die 100 m goue medalje vir mans op die Olimpiese Spele in Tokio te wen

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1965 Dodgers en Sandy Koufax wen die sewende wedstryd van die 62ste World Series vs Twins

    WEMT (nou WVII) TV -kanaal 7 in Bangor, ME (ABC) begin uitsaai, Australië verbied Troggs se & quotI Can't Myself Control & quot as & quitterribly obscene & quot

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1966 LBJ onderteken 'n wetsontwerp wat die Amerikaanse departement van vervoer skep

Die moederland roep

1967 The Motherland Calls, 'n monumentale standbeeld ter herdenking van die slag van Stalingrad, voltooi in Volgograd, Rusland, destyds die hoogste standbeeld ter wêreld wat ontwerp is deur Yevgeny Vuchetich

    AL -uitbreidingsvoorstel, KC kies Roger Nelson en vlieëniers kies Don Mincher 1ste Al Oerter van die VSA wen die mans se diskus in die Olimpiese rekord 64,78 m by die Mexikostadspele Oerter se ongekende vierde agtereenvolgende Olimpiese diskusstitel The Nationalist Party of Northern Ireland (NPNI) onttrek uit sy rol as 'amptelike' opposisie in die Noord -Ierse parlement by die Stormont -Australiër, loop die Australiese Ralph Doubell 'n wêreldrekord van 1: 44.40 om die Keniaanse Wilson Kiprugut te wen en die 800 m vir mans op die Olimpiese Spele in Mexiko te wen.Die Britse atleet David Hemery stel 'n wêreldrekord van 48.12s om Gerhard Hennige van Wes -Duitsland te klop en die goue medalje in die 400 m -hekkies vir mans op die Olimpiese Spele in Mexiko -stad te wen.Die Amerikaanse naelloper Wyomia Tyus wen haar tweede agtereenvolgende Olimpiese 100m -titel met 'n wêreldrekord van 11.08s, spanmaat Barbara Ferrell met 0.08s vir die goue medalje by die Mexico City Games Bank of America Wêreldhoofkwartier (555 Kalifornië) begin die toegewyde TV -netwerk van Madison Square Garden (Rangers vs North Stars) N Y Met Ron Swoboda se skouspelagtige duikvangs van sinkende voering met hardlopers op 1ste en 3de op 9de, wen Mets in die 10de plek in die Wêreldreeks -wedstryd. Oriole Earl Weaver word 1ste bestuurder wat in 60 jaar uitgeskiet word tydens 'n World Series -wedstryd in Vietnam Moratoriumdag, miljoene landwyd protesteer teen die oorlog

Musiek Toekennings

1969 3de Country Music Association -toekenning: Johnny Cash en Tammy Wynette wen


Sporthoogtepunte vir 1983

Hier is 'n paar van die sporthoogtepunte in die sportwêreld vir 1983.

Yannick Noah het die Franse Ope gewen vir die enigste grand slam -titel van sy loopbaan. Alhoewel hy 23 titels op sy naam het, het dit nooit tot 'n meer groot slam -sukses gelei nie. Martina Navratilova het nog 'n skouspelagtige seisoen beleef met drie Grand Slam -titels, wat slegs die Franse Ope misgeloop het. Jimmy Connors het sy agtste en laaste Grand Slam -titel in die Amerikaanse Ope gewen en die destydse komende speler verslaan Ivan Lendl.

Arthur Ashe het in Junie daardie jaar 'n noodlottige omseiloperasie ondergaan waartydens hy MIV opgedoen het, wat uiteindelik tot sy dood in 1993 gelei het.

Detroit 186 verslaan Denver 184 in 'n 3OT -wedstryd. Die totale 370 punte wat behaal is, bly steeds die hoogste telling ooit in die NBA na 30 plus jare.

Tom Watson het die Britse Ope gewen vir sy agtste en laaste major. Sy totale oorwinnings is sedertdien slegs deur twee gholfspelers oortref. Patty Sheehan het die LPGA -kampioenskap gewen vir die eerste van haar ses hoofvakke.

Laurent Fignon van Frankryk het die Tour de France vir die eerste keer gewen. Fignon sou sy titel ook die volgende jaar suksesvol verdedig. Greg LeMond was destyds 'n opkomende ruiter, en hy het daardie jaar die padkampioenskap gewen om die enigste Amerikaner te word wat die prestasie behaal het. LeMond sou later in sy loopbaan groot sukses behaal in die Tour de France.

Sien 'n paar video's uit die sportwêreld in 1983. Hieronder is 'n tydlyn van 'n paar belangrike resultate in die sportwêreld vir die jaar 1983.

Datum Resultate
Feb Super Bowl gehou in Pasadena gewen deur Washington
April Golf Masters gewen deur Seve Ballesteros (2de oorwinning)
Mei Tennis Franse Ope gewen deur Yannick Noah en Chris Evert Lloyd
Junie Golf US Ope gewen deur Larry Nelson
Julie die fietstoer de France gewen deur Laurent Fignon
Julie Tennis Wimbledon wen deur John McEnroe en Martina Navratilova
Julie Gholf Britse Ope gewen deur Tom Watson
Aug Golf US PGA gewen deur Hal Sutton
Sep Tennis Amerikaanse Ope gewen deur Jimmy Connors en Martina Navratilova
Okt Die Baseball World Series is gewen deur Baltimore Orioles
Des Tennis Australië Ope gewen deur Mats Wilander en Martina Navratilova

Let daarop dat die datums vir vorige geleenthede nie altyd bekend is nie, en soms net in die maand wat die huidige geleentheid gehou word, geplaas word. As daar geen presiese datum is nie, is dit slegs 'n geskatte maand wat dit gehou is.

Laat weet my as u 'n regstelling het of weet van gebeure wat hier ingesluit moet word.


Naguib Mahfouz

Gebore in Kaïro in 1911, Naguib Mahfouz begin skryf toe hy sewentien was. Sy eerste roman is in 1939 gepubliseer en nog tien is geskryf voor die Egiptiese Revolusie van Julie 1952, toe hy vir 'n paar jaar opgehou skryf het. Een roman is egter in 1953 heruitgegee en die voorkoms van die Kaïro Triologie, Bayn al Qasrayn, Qasr al Shawq, Sukkariya (Tussen die paleise, paleis van verlange, Sugarhouse) het hom in 1957 in die Arabiese wêreld beroemd gemaak as 'n voorstelling van die tradisionele stedelike lewe. Met Die kinders van Gebelawi (1959), begin hy weer skryf, in 'n nuwe trant wat gereeld politieke oordele onder allegorie en simboliek verberg. Werke uit hierdie tweede periode sluit die romans in, Die dief en die honde (1961), Herfs kwartels (1962), Small Talk on the Nile (1966), en Miramar (1967), asook verskeie kortverhale.

Until 1972, Mahfouz was employed as a civil servant, first in the Ministry of Mortmain Endowments, then as Director of Censorship in the Bureau of Art, as Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema, and, finally, as consultant on Cultural Affairs to the Ministry of Culture. The years since his retirement from the Egyptian bureaucracy have seen an outburst of further creativity, much of it experimental. He is now the author of no fewer than thirty novels, more than a hundred short stories, and more than two hundred articles. Half of his novels have been made into films which have circulated throughout the Arabic-speaking world. In Egypt, each new publication is regarded as a major cultural event and his name is inevitably among the first mentioned in any literary discussion from Gibraltar to the Gulf.

Van Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1988, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1989

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate.

Naguib Mahfouz died on August 30, 2006.

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1988

To cite this section
MLA style: Naguib Mahfouz – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Thu. 17 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/literature/1988/mahfouz/biographical/>

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Nobel Prizes 2020

Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.


Elie Wiesel – Acceptance Speech

It is with a profound sense of humility that I accept the honor you have chosen to bestow upon me. I know: your choice transcends me. This both frightens and pleases me.

It frightens me because I wonder: do I have the right to represent the multitudes who have perished? Do I have the right to accept this great honor on their behalf? … I do not. That would be presumptuous. No one may speak for the dead, no one may interpret their mutilated dreams and visions.

It pleases me because I may say that this honor belongs to all the survivors and their children, and through us, to the Jewish people with whose destiny I have always identified.

I remember: it happened yesterday or eternities ago. A young Jewish boy discovered the kingdom of night. I remember his bewilderment, I remember his anguish. It all happened so fast. The ghetto. The deportation. The sealed cattle car. The fiery altar upon which the history of our people and the future of mankind were meant to be sacrificed.

I remember: he asked his father: “Can this be true?” This is the twentieth century, not the Middle Ages. Who would allow such crimes to be committed? How could the world remain silent?

And now the boy is turning to me: “Tell me,” he asks. “What have you done with my future? What have you done with your life?”

And I tell him that I have tried. That I have tried to keep memory alive, that I have tried to fight those who would forget. Because if we forget, we are guilty, we are accomplices.

And then I explained to him how naive we were, that the world did know and remain silent. And that is why I swore never to be silent whenever and wherever human beings endure suffering and humiliation. We must always take sides. Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victim. Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented. Sometimes we must interfere. When human lives are endangered, when human dignity is in jeopardy, national borders and sensitivities become irrelevant. Wherever men or women are persecuted because of their race, religion, or political views, that place must – at that moment – become the center of the universe.

Of course, since I am a Jew profoundly rooted in my peoples’ memory and tradition, my first response is to Jewish fears, Jewish needs, Jewish crises. For I belong to a traumatized generation, one that experienced the abandonment and solitude of our people. It would be unnatural for me not to make Jewish priorities my own: Israel, Soviet Jewry, Jews in Arab lands … But there are others as important to me. Apartheid is, in my view, as abhorrent as anti-Semitism. To me, Andrei Sakharov‘s isolation is as much of a disgrace as Josef Biegun’s imprisonment. As is the denial of Solidarity and its leader Lech Walesa‘s right to dissent. And Nelson Mandela‘s interminable imprisonment.

There is so much injustice and suffering crying out for our attention: victims of hunger, of racism, and political persecution, writers and poets, prisoners in so many lands governed by the Left and by the Right. Human rights are being violated on every continent. More people are oppressed than free. And then, too, there are the Palestinians to whose plight I am sensitive but whose methods I deplore. Violence and terrorism are not the answer. Something must be done about their suffering, and soon. I trust Israel, for I have faith in the Jewish people. Let Israel be given a chance, let hatred and danger be removed from her horizons, and there will be peace in and around the Holy Land.

Yes, I have faith. Faith in God and even in His creation. Without it no action would be possible. And action is the only remedy to indifference: the most insidious danger of all. Isn’t this the meaning of Alfred Nobel’s legacy? Wasn’t his fear of war a shield against war?

There is much to be done, there is much that can be done. One person – a Raoul Wallenberg, an Albert Schweitzer, one person of integrity, can make a difference, a difference of life and death. As long as one dissident is in prison, our freedom will not be true. As long as one child is hungry, our lives will be filled with anguish and shame. What all these victims need above all is to know that they are not alone that we are not forgetting them, that when their voices are stifled we shall lend them ours, that while their freedom depends on ours, the quality of our freedom depends on theirs.

This is what I say to the young Jewish boy wondering what I have done with his years. It is in his name that I speak to you and that I express to you my deepest gratitude. No one is as capable of gratitude as one who has emerged from the kingdom of night. We know that every moment is a moment of grace, every hour an offering not to share them would mean to betray them. Our lives no longer belong to us alone they belong to all those who need us desperately.

Thank you, Chairman Aarvik. Thank you, members of the Nobel Committee. Thank you, people of Norway, for declaring on this singular occasion that our survival has meaning for mankind.

Van Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1986, Editor Wilhelm Odelberg, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1987

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1986

Elie Wiesel held his Acceptance Speech on 10 December 1986, in the Oslo City Hall, Norway.

(The speech differs somewhat from the written speech.)

To cite this section
MLA style: Elie Wiesel – Acceptance Speech. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Thu. 17 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1986/wiesel/26054-elie-wiesel-acceptance-speech-1986/>

Learn more

Nobel Prizes 2020

Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.


Alfred Nobel

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Alfred Nobel, tenvolle Alfred Bernhard Nobel, (born October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—died December 10, 1896, San Remo, Italy), Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist who invented dynamite and other more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes.

When was Alfred Nobel born?

Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist Alfred Nobel was born October 21, 1833, in Stockholm, Sweden.

What is Alfred Nobel famous for?

Alfred Nobel is best known for his invention of dynamite and an explosive device called a blasting cap, which inaugurated the modern use of high explosives. He also founded the Nobel Prizes.

How was Alfred Nobel educated?

Alfred Nobel initially learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. He later learned from private tutors, becoming competent in chemistry. After working under the direction of Swedish American naval engineer and inventor John Ericsson in the United States, Nobel returned to Europe to work in his father’s factory in St. Petersburg.

How did Alfred Nobel die?

By 1895 Nobel had developed angina pectoris. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, on December 10, 1896.

How did Alfred Nobel found the Nobel Prizes?

Alfred Nobel was known to be generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies. In his will, he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.

Alfred Nobel was the fourth son of Immanuel and Caroline Nobel. Immanuel was an inventor and engineer who had married Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell in 1827. The couple had eight children, of whom only Alfred and three brothers reached adulthood. Alfred was prone to illness as a child, but he enjoyed a close relationship with his mother and displayed a lively intellectual curiosity from an early age. He was interested in explosives, and he learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. Immanuel, meanwhile, had failed at various business ventures until moving in 1837 to St. Petersburg in Russia, where he prospered as a manufacturer of explosive mines and machine tools. The Nobel family left Stockholm in 1842 to join the father in St. Petersburg. Alfred’s newly prosperous parents were now able to send him to private tutors, and he proved to be an eager pupil. He was a competent chemist by age 16 and was fluent in English, French, German, and Russian as well as Swedish.

Alfred Nobel left Russia in 1850 to spend a year in Paris studying chemistry and then spent time in the United States working under the direction of John Ericsson, the builder of the ironclad warship Monitor. Upon his return to St. Petersburg, in 1852, Nobel worked in his father’s factory, which made military equipment during the Crimean War. After the war ended in 1856, the company had difficulty switching to the peacetime production of steamboat machinery, and it went bankrupt in 1859.

Alfred and his parents returned to Sweden, while his brothers Robert and Ludvig stayed behind in Russia to salvage what was left of the family business. Alfred soon began experimenting with explosives in a small laboratory on his father’s estate. At the time, the only dependable explosive for use in mines was black powder, a form of gunpowder. A recently discovered liquid compound, nitroglycerin, was a much more powerful explosive, but it was so unstable that it could not be handled with any degree of safety. Nevertheless, Nobel in 1862 built a small factory to manufacture nitroglycerin, and at the same time he undertook research in the hope of finding a safe way to control the explosive’s detonation. In 1863 he invented a practical detonator consisting of a wooden plug inserted into a larger charge of nitroglycerin held in a metal container the explosion of the plug’s small charge of black powder serves to detonate the much more powerful charge of liquid nitroglycerin. This detonator marked the beginning of Nobel’s reputation as an inventor as well as the fortune he was to acquire as a maker of explosives. In 1865 Nobel invented an improved detonator called a blasting cap it consisted of a small metal cap containing a charge of mercury fulminate that can be exploded by either shock or moderate heat. The invention of the blasting cap inaugurated the modern use of high explosives.

Nitroglycerin itself, however, remained difficult to transport and extremely dangerous to handle. So dangerous, in fact, that Nobel’s nitroglycerin factory blew up in 1864, killing his younger brother Emil and several other people. Undaunted by this tragic accident, Nobel built several factories to manufacture nitroglycerin for use in concert with his blasting caps. These factories were as safe as the knowledge of the time allowed, but accidental explosions still occasionally occurred. Nobel’s second important invention was that of dynamite in 1867. By chance, he discovered that nitroglycerin was absorbed to dryness by kieselguhr, a porous siliceous earth, and the resulting mixture was much safer to use and easier to handle than nitroglycerin alone. Nobel named the new product dynamite (from Greek dynamis, “power”) and was granted patents for it in Great Britain (1867) and the United States (1868). Dynamite established Nobel’s fame worldwide and was soon put to use in blasting tunnels, cutting canals, and building railways and roads.

In the 1870s and ’80s Nobel built a network of factories throughout Europe to manufacture dynamite, and he formed a web of corporations to produce and market his explosives. He also continued to experiment in search of better ones, and in 1875 he invented a more powerful form of dynamite, blasting gelatin, which he patented the following year. Again by chance, he had discovered that mixing a solution of nitroglycerin with a fluffy substance known as nitrocellulose results in a tough, plastic material that has a high water resistance and greater blasting power than ordinary dynamites. In 1887 Nobel introduced ballistite, one of the first nitroglycerin smokeless powders and a precursor of cordite. Although Nobel held the patents to dynamite and his other explosives, he was in constant conflict with competitors who stole his processes, a fact that forced him into protracted patent litigation on several occasions.

Nobel’s brothers Ludvig and Robert, in the meantime, had developed newly discovered oilfields near Baku (now in Azerbaijan) along the Caspian Sea and had themselves become immensely wealthy. Alfred’s worldwide interests in explosives, along with his own holdings in his brothers’ companies in Russia, brought him a large fortune. In 1893 he became interested in Sweden’s arms industry, and the following year he bought an ironworks at Bofors, near Varmland, that became the nucleus of the well-known Bofors arms factory. Besides explosives, Nobel made many other inventions, such as artificial silk and leather, and altogether he registered more than 350 patents in various countries.

Nobel’s complex personality puzzled his contemporaries. Although his business interests required him to travel almost constantly, he remained a lonely recluse who was prone to fits of depression. He led a retired and simple life and was a man of ascetic habits, yet he could be a courteous dinner host, a good listener, and a man of incisive wit. He never married, and apparently preferred the joys of inventing to those of romantic attachment. He had an abiding interest in literature and wrote plays, novels, and poems, almost all of which remained unpublished. He had amazing energy and found it difficult to relax after intense bouts of work. Among his contemporaries, he had the reputation of a liberal or even a socialist, but he actually distrusted democracy, opposed suffrage for women, and maintained an attitude of benign paternalism toward his many employees. Though Nobel was essentially a pacifist and hoped that the destructive powers of his inventions would help bring an end to war, his view of mankind and nations was pessimistic.

By 1895 Nobel had developed angina pectoris, and he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, in 1896. At his death his worldwide business empire consisted of more than 90 factories manufacturing explosives and ammunition. The opening of his will, which he had drawn up in Paris on November 27, 1895, and had deposited in a bank in Stockholm, contained a great surprise for his family, friends, and the general public. He had always been generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies, and he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.


Sporting Highlights for 1976

Here are some of the sporting highlights in the world of sport for 1976. The major events of this year in sport were the Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

The most notable event of the Winter Olympics was the fourth straight gold medal win by ex-Soviet Union's men's hockey team. This dominance was the reason the US win against the ex-Soviet in the next Olympics was of such prominence.

In the Summer Olympics, 25 African teams boycotted the games because New Zealand, which played in apartheid South Africa, was allowed to participate. The most memorable event of the games was provided by a 14 year old Nadia Comăneci. She scored a perfect 10 once believed as unattainable. These Games were also the first to introduce testing for anabolic steroids and other prohibited substances.

In men's tennis, Bjorn Borg won his third grand slam title and his first at Wimbledon defeating Ilie Năstase in straight sets. Borg went on to win the Wimbledon in the next four years, to finish his career with five Wimbledon and 11 grand slams. Jimmy Connors won the US Open for the second time. Chris Evert, who had won two grand slam titles in each of the last two years kept her pace to win two more on this year.

Muhammad Ali, the all-time great boxer, won four heavyweight title fights in the year which also included the technical knockout of Richard Dunn in Munich.

Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 1976.

Datum Results
Jan Tennis Australia Open won by Mark Edmondson and Evonne Cawley
Feb Super Bowl held in Miami won by Pittsburgh
Feb 4-15 Winter Olympic Games were held in Innsbruck, Austria
April Golf Masters won by Raymond Floyd
Mei Tennis French Open won by Adriano Panatta and Sue Barker
June Golf US Open won by Jerry Pate
July the Cycling Tour de France won by Lucien Van Impe
July Tennis Wimbledon won by Bjorn Borg and Chris Evert
July Golf British Open won by Johnny Miller
July 17 - Aug 1 Summer Olympic Games were held in Montreal, Canada
Aug Golf US PGA won by Dave Stockton (his 2nd title)
Sep Tennis US Open won by Jimmy Connors and Chris Evert
Oct The Baseball World Series won by Cincinnati Reds

Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.