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Burgeroorlog Seegeskiedenis November 1863 - Geskiedenis

Burgeroorlog Seegeskiedenis November 1863 - Geskiedenis

2 -3 Die verslag van luitenant -bevelvoerder Greenleaf Cilley, U.S.S. Catskill, het uitgebreide konfederale voorbereidings aangedui om enige poging van die Unie om die hindernisse tussen Forts Sumter en Moultrie te oortree, te ontmoet terwyl die woedende noordelike bombardement van Fort Sumter voortduur. Daar is gesien hoe twee bote onder seil van Sumter na Sullivan's Island beweeg, 'het Cilley geskryf.' Omstreeks 23:00. 'n ballon met twee ligte daaraan steek uit Sumter op en dryf in die rigting van Fort Johnson. Om middernag het 'n stoomboot Sumter verlaat en na Fort Johnson beweeg. Met sonsopkoms. waargeneem die drie ramme [C.S.S. Charleston, Chicora en Palmetto State] en die sywiel-stoomboot wat in die geveg vooruit van Johnson na Charleston geanker het, en elkeen met sy torpedo bo-op die boë. "

3-4 Vlootmagte onder bevelvoerder Strong, insluitend die USS Monongahela, Owasco en Virginia, konvooi en ondersteun troepe onder bevel van generaal Banks in Brazos Santiago, Texas. Die landing begin op die 2de en duur die volgende dag sonder verset voort. Op die 4de Brownsville, Texas, is ontruim en die vastrapplek van die Unie aan die grens met Mexiko verseker. Generaal -majoor Dana het aan kommandeur Strong geskryf en hom bedank vir die "baie dienste wat u tydens hierdie ekspedisie gelewer het, veral vir die ywerige diens wat kaptein Henry en die bemanning van die Owasco gelewer het om die stoomtransport van Zephyr te red tydens die laat storm [onderweg ondervind] 30 Oktober] en sleep haar na die ontmoetingsplek en na u en u bemanning om die stoomtransport Bagley in nood te help; ook veral vir die sein -dapperheid van u dapper tere om ons soldate gister deur die gevaarlike branding by die monding van die Rio te land Grande "Die vlootmag het ook vinnig 'n paar blokkade hardlopers in die omgewing gevang.

3 Admiraal Dahlgren het Fort Sumter gedurende die aand van sy vlagskip deeglik ondersoek en 'kon duidelik die verdere gevolge van die afvuur waarneem, maar', het hy bygevoeg, 'hierdie massa ruïne is in staat om 'n aantal vyande te huisves, wat moontlik kan behou hul houvas totdat dit deur die bajonet verdryf is. "

U.S.S. Kenwood, waarnemende meester Swaney, het die stoomboot Black Flank van Port Hudson, Louisiana, gevang met vrag katoen.

4 VSA Virginia, waarnemende luitenant C.H. Brown, het beslag gelê op die Britse skoener Matamoras by die monding van die Rio Grande -rivier met skoene, byle en grawe vir die Konfederale Weermag.

5 Skepe van die South Atlantic Blockading Squadron het voortgegaan om Fort Sumter te kanonadeer in samewerking met weermagbatterye aan wal op Morris Island. Admiraal Dahlgren beskryf die resultate van die gekombineerde bombardement: "Die enigste oorspronklike kenmerk wat oor is, is die noordoostelike gesig, die res is 'n hoop rommel."

U.S.S. Virginia, waarnemende luitenant C.H. Brown, beslag gelê op die blokkade van die Britse bas Science, en, in samewerking met die VSA Owasco, luitenant -bevelvoerder Henry, het die blokkade van die Britse brigette Volante en Dashing Wave by die monding van die Rio Grande -rivier vasgelê.

Admiraal Porter het majoor -generaal Banks geskryf in reaksie op die generaal se lang uitgesproke versoek vir geweerbote naby en onder New Orleans. Die admiraal het hom meegedeel dat 'n dosyn geweerbote ingerig is, en het bygevoeg: 'Dit gee u 22 kanonbote in u afdeling, met diegene wat nou daar is, en ek sal moontlik meer kan doen nadat ons die rebelle uit die Tennessee teruggejaag het Rivier. " Banks het middel Desember geskryf dat hierdie hulp 'die vyand onmoontlik sou maak om ons, soos hulle tot dusver gedoen het, te irriteer deur die wonderlike netwerk van bevaarbare waters wes van die Mississippirivier teen ons te gebruik'.

Blockade -hardloper Margaret en Jessie is op see oos van Myrtle Beach, Suid -Carolina, gevange geneem ná 'n lang jaag deur die weermagvervoer Fulton en die V.S. Nansemond, luitenant R. Lamson. Die jaagtog is die vorige aand deur die VSA begin Howquah, waarnemende luitenant Mac-Diarmid, wat die stoomboot die hele nag in die oog gehou het. U.S.S. Keystone State, bevelvoerder Edward Donaldson, het die oggend by die agtervolging aangesluit en was byderhand toe die gevangenskap plaasgevind het, wat 'n einde gemaak het aan die loopbaan van 'n skip wat die blokkade ongeveer 15 keer uitgevoer het.

U.S.S. Beauregard, waarnemende meester Burgess, het beslag gelê op die blokkade wat die Britse skoener Volante voor Kaap Canaveral, Florida, uitgevoer het, met vrag, insluitend sout en droë goedere.

6 Gekonfronteer met die probleem om deur die doolhof van ingewikkelde Konfederale obstruksies naby Fort Sumter te gaan as die vang van Charleston uit die see sou plaasvind, het die Noorde nog 'n innovasie beleef deur John Ericsson, 'n gevierde bouer van die V.S. Monitor. Hierdie datum, U.S.S. Patapsco, bevelvoerder Stevens, het Ericsson se torpedo teen obstruksie getoets. Die toestel, wat 'n gietijzer was, ongeveer 23 voet lank en 10 duim in deursnee wat 600 pond poeier bevat, is aan 'n vlot gehang wat aan die boog van die ysterkleed vasgemaak was en deur twee lang spanne vasgehou is. Die betoging was gunstig, want die skok van die ontploffing was 'skaars waarneembaar' aan boord van Patapsco, en alhoewel 'n 'regtig vreeslike' waterkolom 40 of 50 voet in die lug gegooi is, het min van die water op die dek van die ysterkap geval. Selfs in die kalm water waarin die toets uitgevoer is, het die vlot egter ernstig inmeng met die bestuur van die skip. Admiraal Dahlgren het aansienlik opgemerk dat 'perfek gladde water' hier ''n wonderwerk is'. Stevens het die mening uitgespreek dat die torpedo slegs bruikbaar was teen vaste voorwerpe, maar dat die reëling en aanhegting te ingewikkeld is vir operasies teen ysterkaste en dat 'iets in die pad van 'n torpedo wat met 'n fasiliteit bestuur kan word' nodig is.

C.S.S. Alabama, kaptein Semmes, het bas Amanda in Oos -Indië met vrag hennep en suiker gevang en vernietig.

7 Die stoomboot Allen Collier, met vrag katoen, is deur die konfederale guerrillas in Whitworth's Landing, Mississippi, verbrand nadat sy die beskerming van die V.S.A. verlaat het. Eastport, waarnemende vaandrig Sylvester Pool. Die ongemaklike stilte op die rivier het konstante geweerbootbedekking vereis.

Snyer van die VS. Sagamore, luitenant -bevelvoerder Charles E. Fleming, het die blokkade met die Britse skoener Paul by Bayport, Florida, vasgelê.

8 VSA James Adger, bevelvoerder Thomas H. Patterson en U.S.S. Niphon, waarnemende meester Breck, het die stoomskip Cornubia noord van New Inlet, Noord -Carolina, gevange geneem.

9 VSA James Adger, bevelvoerder Patterson, het die blokkade -hardloper Robert E. Lee by Cape Lookout Shoals, Noord -Carolina, gevange geneem. Die stoomboot het 2 dae tevore Bermuda verlaat met vrag, insluitend skoene, komberse, gewere, soutpeter en lood. Sy was een van die bekendste en suksesvolste hardlopers. Haar voormalige kaptein, luitenant John Wilkinson, CSN, het later geskryf: 'Sy het die blokkade een-en-twintig keer onder my bevel uitgevoer en tussen ses duisend sand en sewe duisend bale katoen na die buiteland geneem, ter waarde van ongeveer twee miljoene dollars goud, en het ewe waardevolle vragte in die konfederasie ingebring. ”

Intelligensiegegewens oor die Konfederale vlootvermoë in die waters van Georgië het bevelvoerders van die Unie -leër en vloot bereik. C.S.S. Savannah, bevelvoerder Robert F. Pinkney, het twee 7-duim- en twee 6-duim-Brooke-gewere en 'n torpedo op haar boog as wapen. Sy het twee ander torpedo's in haar pakplek gedra. Haar sye was bedek met 4 duim gerolde yster en haar spoed was ongeveer sewe knope "in gladde water." C.S.S. Na berig word, het Isondiga, 'n houtstoomboot, ou ketels en 'onbetroubare' masjinerie. Daar word gesê dat die rame vir nog twee ramme op die voorraad by Savannah is, maar geen yster kon verkry word om dit te voltooi nie. Resolute, wat deur die unie se bevelvoerders gedink word dat hulle wag op 'n geleentheid om die blokkade te onderhou, is omskep in 'n tender, en al die katoen in Savannah word na Wilmington oorgeplaas vir versending deur die blokkade. Georgia, 'n drywende battery onder bevel van luitenant Washington Gwathmey, CSN, was naby anker naby Fort Jackson en is na berig word ''n mislukking' '. Soortgelyke inligting het die unie se bevelvoerders in staat gestel om hul denke te hersien en hul taktiek aan te pas by die nuwe toestande om die blokkade te handhaaf en met groter doeltreffendheid teen die kus te beweeg.

Admiraal Porter het sekretaris Welles geskryf waarin hy voorgestel het dat die Coast Survey noukeurige kaarte maak van die gebied aangrensend aan die Mississippirivier "waar die navigasie bestaan ​​uit ontelbare mere en wat nie bekend is nie, behalwe die mees ervare vlieëniers." Die bestaan ​​van hierdie waterweë, het hy bygevoeg, 'sou beslis nooit bekend wees deur die ondersoek van moderne kaarte nie.' Veertien dae later beveel die sekretaris aan by die sekretaris van die tesourie, Salmon P. Chase, dat opnames soortgelyk aan dié wat deur die Coast Survey gedoen is vir agteradmiraal S. Lee langs die kus van Noord -Carolina, in ooreenstemming met Porter se versoek gedoen word. Welles het opgemerk dat die operasies van die Mississippi -eskader en die vervoervloot 'baie vergemaklik' sou word, en hy het vloothulp vir so 'n poging aangebied.

Admiraal Buchanan beveel waarnemende adelhoof Edward A. Swain aan om by Fort Morgan aan te meld om 'bevel te neem oor die CSS Gunnison en uit die hawe van Mobile te gaan en, indien moontlik, die USS Colorado of enige ander vaartuig van die blokkade -eskader te vernietig.' Gunnison was 'n torpedoboot.

U.S.S. Niphon, waarnemende meester Breck, het die blokkade -hardloper Ella en Annie van Masonboro lnlet, Noord -Carolina, gevange geneem met wapens en voorraad. In 'n poging om te ontsnap, het Ella en Annie vir Niphon gestamp, maar toe die twee skepe langs die kant swaai, word die hardloper deur die boord geneem.

10 Toe 'n intensiewe twee weke lange bombardement van die Unie op Fort Sumter tot 'n einde gekom het, het generaal Beauregard opgemerk: "Die bombardement van Sumter gaan geleidelik af. Die totale aantal skote [ontvang] sedert 26ste, toe die aanval weer begin is, is 9,306."

Generaal -majoor James B. McPherson rapporteer aan luitenantkommandant EK Owen, V.S. Louisville, dat hy 'n aanval deur die Konfederale troepe naby Goodrich's Landing, Louisiana, verwag het. 'Ek moet versoek,' het die generaal geskryf, 'dat u een of twee geweerbote na Goodrich's Landing sal stuur om generaal [John P.] Hawkins te help indien nodig.' Vir meer as twee maande het McPherson staatgemaak op vlootondersteuning in die lig van suidelike bewegings in die gebied.

U.S.S. Howquah, waarnemende luitenant MacDiarmid, het die blokkade -stoomboot Ella by Wilmington gevange geneem.

C.S.S. Alabama, kaptein Semmes, het die skip, Winged Racer, gevang en verbrand in die Straat van Sunda by Java, met suikerlading, huide en jute. 'Sy het ook', het Semmes geskryf, ''n groot voorraad Manila -tabak, en die pype van my matrose wou aanvul.'

11 C.S.S. Alabama, kaptein Semmes, het die skeepswedstryd vasgevang en vernietig na 'n lang agtervolging van die Gasparstraat met vrag Japanse goedere na New York.

14 VSA Bermuda, waarnemende luitenant J.W. Smith, het die skoener Mary Campbell herower nadat sy dieselfde dag vroeër in beslag geneem is deur die konfederate onder bevel van meester Duke, CSN, wie se gewaagde uitbuiting vyf maande tevore (sien 8 Junie 1863) gelei het tot die vang van 'n Unie -skip naby New Orleans. Bermuda neem ook 'n naamlose lugger wat die Konfederate gebruik het om Mary Campbell te vang. Die gevangene het by Pensacola plaasgevind nadat die skepe onder die bevel van Duke uit die Perdidorivier gekom het. Luitenant Smith het dit berig. die berugte James Duke. ek het ook die Normandie gevang, met watter vaartuig hy saam met tien van sy bemanning vir my land gemaak het, en ek het rede om te glo dat hy haar gestrand en verbrand het. . "

Die meedoënlose druk wat die Unie -vloot op die Konfederasie uitoefen, word al hoe duideliker. Paymaster John deBree, CSN, het aan sekretaris Mallory gerapporteer: "Omdat ons hulpbronne beperk is tot die blokkade en die verminderde aantal produsente in die land, was dit die hoofdoel om die vloot te voed en te beklee sonder om streng te die tegniese dinge wat verkry word in tye van vrede en oorvloed. " DeBree het opgemerk dat die Konfederale Vloot sy lap grootliks by blokkade hardlopers moes koop en "noodwendig hoë pryse moes betaal. Tog het die sluiting van die Mississippirivier ons die voordeel van 'n volledige voorraad skoene, komberse en lap verloor.. noodsaaklikheid so dringend dat ons verplig was om hierdie manier van kleding aan te neem, ons halfnaakte en vinnig groeiende vloot. " Die betaalmeester het berig dat die gebrek aan skoene 'ons grootste probleem' is en dat skoene eerder van doek as van leer gemaak word. "Vir leerskoene sal ons moet wag op die aankoms van verskepings uit die buiteland, en hierin voel ons meer as enige ander ongerief wat veroorsaak word deur die verlies van ons goedere. Deur die sluiting van die Mississippirivier." Die konfederasie se vermoë om die oorlog voort te sit, word steeds meer afhanklik van voorraad wat deur die blokkade loop, en die blokkade word strenger.

Generaal Beauregard het kommentaar gelewer op die beperkings van die Konfederale skepe by Charleston: "Ons kanonbote is in ses opsigte defektief: Eerstens. Hulle het geen snelheid nie, loop slegs van 3 tot 5 myl per uur in gladde water en geen stroom nie. Tweedens. Hulle is van te groot trek om deur ons binnelandse waters te navigeer. Derde. Hulle is nie seewaardig vanweë hul vorm en konstruksie nie. Selfs in die hawe word hulle soms as onveilig beskou in 'n storm. Vierdens. Hulle is nie in staat om die vyand se XV-duim-skote te weerstaan ​​nie naby. Vyfde. Hulle kan nie op lang afstand veg nie. Sesde. Hulle is baie duur, warm, ongemaklik en sleg geventileer; gevolglik sieklik. " Desondanks was die generaal genoodsaak om sterk op hulle te vertrou in sy planne vir die verdediging van Charles-ton teen 'n see-aanval. Gebrek aan industriële kapasiteit, fondse en materiaal om sterk oorlogskepe te bou, het die Konfederasie nietemin baie bereik met onvoldoende skepe.

U.S.S. Dai Ching, luitenant -bevelvoerder James C. Chaplin, het die skoener George Chisholm van die Santeerivier, Suid -Carolina, met vrag sout gevang.

15 VSA Lodona, waarnemende luitenant Brodhead, het beslag gelê op die blokkade wat die Britse skoener Arkties suidwes van Frying Pan Shoals, Noord -Carolina, met vrag sout loop.

15-16 het Fort Moultrie 'n swaar aandbombardement op posisies van die Unie-leër in Cumming's Point, Morris-eiland, geopen. Brigadier -generaal Gillmore wend hom onmiddellik tot admiraal Dahlgren vir hulp. 'Sal u 'n paar van u vaartuie laat opskuif om 'n aanval deur bote op die seevlak van die punt te voorkom,' bedraad hy laatnag. Die admiraal antwoord "dadelik" en beveel die sleepbote op patrolliediens om "goed uit te kyk". U.S.S. Lehigh, bevelvoerder Andrew Bryson, grond toe hy Cumming's Point bedek het en is die volgende oggend onder swaar vuur geneem voordat die VSA Nahant, luitenant -bevelvoerder John J. Cornwell, het haar afgekry. Landsmen Frank S. Gile en William Williams, skutmaat George W. Leland, stuurman Thomas Irving en seeman Horatio N. Young van Lehigh is daarna met die erepenning vir heldhaftigheid bekroon terwyl hulle 'n lyn van hul skip na Nahant vervoer het, wat Lehigh moontlik gemaak het om vry te werk van haar desperate posisie.

16 Die effek van die westerse suksesse van die Unie is erg onder die indruk van die Konfederale inspanning in die rolverdeling. Kommandeur John K. Mitchell het aan sekretaris Mallory geskryf dat daar 'n kritieke tekort aan brandstof is vir vervaardigingsdoeleindes en vlootgebruik. "Die besetting van Chattanooga deur die vyand in Augustus het die aanbod van die myne in daardie streek, waarop die openbare werke in Georgië en Suid -Carolina en die vlootvaartuie in die waters van daardie state afhanklik was, effektief afgesny. van hierdie plek [Richmond] en van die Egiptiese myne in Noord -Carolina na Charleston gestuur. " Hy het gerapporteer dat daar voldoende steenkool in die Richmond -omgewing is om die Konfederale skepe wat in die waters en riviere van Virginia werk, te voorsien, en hy voel dat hout suksesvol vir steenkool in Charleston en Savannah vervang kan word. Mitchell het hulde gebring aan die deeglikheid van die Unie -blokkade toe hy oor die ekonomiese toestand van die Konfederale State geskryf het: 'Die pryse van byna alle noodsaaklike artikels het vyf tot tien keer hoër gestyg as dié wat by die uitbreek van die oorlog geheers het, en vir baie artikels is 'n veel groter vooruitgang bereik, sodat die loon van die hoër grade offisiere, selfs diegene met klein gesinne, nie voldoende is vir die betaling van hul direksie nie; hoeveel groter moet dan wees die moeilikheid om te lewe in die geval van die laer grade van offisiere en die families van ingeroepe persone. Hierdie moeilikheid, wanneer die private kredietbronne en die beperkte middele van die meeste offisiere uitgeput raak, moet spoedig, tensy die verligting verleng word bereik deur die regering die punt van nood of van liefdadigheidsafhanklikheid, 'n punt wat in baie gevalle reeds bereik is. "

16-17 VSA Monongahela, Commander Strong, begeleide weermagvervoer en het die landing van meer as duisend troepe op Mustang -eiland, Aransas Pass, Texas, gedek. Die seevaarders van Monongahela het 'n battery van twee houwitsers aan wal beman, en die skip het die konfederale werke afgeskud totdat die verdedigers sonder getal oorgegee het. General Banks het groot lof uitgespreek oor die 'groot hulp' wat Monongahela tydens hierdie suksesvolle operasie verleen het.

17 VSA Mystic, waarnemende meester William Wright, toegewys aan die Noord -Atlantiese blokkade -eskader, het op skoen Emma D. beslag gelê uit Yorktown, Virginia. Dieselfde dag skryf assistent -sekretaris Fox, admiraal SP Lee, waarin hy die doeltreffendheid van die eskader prys: "Ek wens u geluk met die gevangene van Wilmington. Nege stoomwaens is in 'n kort tyd verlore vir die rebelle, alles as gevolg van die 'goeie gees' van ons mense wat betrokke was by die blokkade. Dit is 'n ernstige plig en goed onderhou en Jeff Davis gee ons 'n groter kompliment as ons eie mense as hy verklaar dat daar slegs een hawe in 3500 myl is (onthou dat die hele Atlantiese front van Europa maar 2900 myl) waardeur hulle voorraad kan kry. "

18 Handelsskoener Joseph L. Garrity, 2 dae uit Matamoras na New York, is in beslag geneem deur vyf suidelike simpatiseerders onder Thomas E. Hogg, later 'n meester in die Konfederale vloot. Hulle het as passasiers op die skip geklim. Hogg het die bemanning van Joseph L. Garrity op 26 November aan die kus van Yucatan "sonder letsel aan lewens of ledemate" geland en haar na Britse Honduras geseil, waar hy haar as blokkade -hardloper Eureka binnegegaan en haar vrag katoen verkoop het. Drie van die bemanning is uiteindelik in Liverpool, Engeland, gevange geneem en aangekla van seerowery, maar op 1 Junie 1864 het die konfederale kommissaris James Mason, minister van buitelandse sake, Benjamin in kennis gestel dat hulle vrygespreek is van die aanklag. Intussen is Garrity onder toesig van die Amerikaanse handelsagent in Belize, Brits Honduras, oorgedra en uiteindelik na haar eienaars teruggekeer.

Waarnemende meester C. W. Lamson, U.S.S. Granite City, berig die vang van die skoener Amelia Ann en die Spaanse bas Teresita, met lading katoen, wat albei probeer om die blokkade by Aransas Pass, Texas, te bestuur.

Kaptein Thomas A. Faries, CSA, bevelvoerder van 'n battery naby Hog Point, Louisiana, gemonteer om die beweging van die Unie -skeepvaart op die Mississippirivier te verbied, het 'n verbintenis met die VSA gerapporteer Choctaw, Franklin en Carondelet. "Die Choctaw het haar posisie hierbo verlaat en in die verbygaan 'n baie sterk vuur uit haar boog-, sy- en agterste gewere gelewer, terwyl die vier geweerpistole in die dak vir 'n kort rukkie gefilm het."

20 Admiraal Farragut, gretig om terug te keer na seevaart in die Golf, het sekretaris Welles van New York in kennis gestel dat die V.S. Hartford en Brooklyn "sal nie binne minder as drie weke gereed wees vir die see nie, van die beste inligting wat ek kan kry. Ek is veral spyt daaroor, want ek sien dat General Banks in die veld is en dat my dienste nodig mag wees." Die admiraal het opgemerk dat hy 'n brief van Commodore Bell ontvang het wat in sy afwesigheid beveel het dat daar nie genoeg skepe was om aan die kus van Texas te dien nie en ook die blokkade elders te onderhou. Farragut het opgemerk dat 'n paar ysterbekleedings in St. Louis gebou het en het voorgestel: 'Hulle trek ongeveer 6 voet water en sal die vaartuie wees om in die vlak waters van Texas te werk, as die departement hulle daar sou beveel.' Drie dae later het die sekretaris gevra om admiraal Potter "om die onderwerp te oorweeg en die departement so vroeg as moontlik in kennis te stel in watter mate daar aan Farragut se wense voldoen kan word." Porter het op die 27ste geantwoord dat hy "in die loop van 'n maand" agt ligte trekke aan Farragut kan verskaf en dat "ses weke van vandag af tien skepe na admiraal Farragut kan stuur as ek die offisiere en die manne kan kry."

21 VSA Grand Gulf, bevelvoerder George M. Ransom en weermagvervoer Fulton het beslag gelê op die Britse stoomskip Banshee suid van Salter Path, Noord -Carolina.

22 VSA Aroostook, luitenant Chester Hatfield, het die skoener Eureka by Galveston gevang. Sy is met lading katoen na Havana gebind.

U.S.S. Jacob Bell, waarnemende meester Schulze, het 'n troeplanding op St.

23 Die bedreiging van Konfederale torpedo's in die riviere en kusgebiede het 'n toenemende bedreiging geword namate die oorlog vorder. Die noodsaaklikheid om behoorlike voorsorgmaatreëls te tref teen hierdie innovasie in vlootoorlogvoering het die operasies in die noorde vertraag en skepe vasgemaak wat andersins positiewer gebruik sou kon word. Hierdie datum het sekretaris Welles kaptein Gansevoort, die V.S. Roanoke, by Newport News: "Sedert die ontdekking van die torpedo op James River, naby Newport News, voel die departement ongemaklik oor die posisie van u vaartuig, aangesien dit blykbaar die ontwerp van die rebelle is om sulke masjiene van vernietiging op haar. Waaksaamheid word vereis. " By ontvangs van hierdie instruksie het Gansevoort 2 dae later geantwoord: "Die Roanoke lê hier in die diepste water, en tot onlangs, wanneer die nodige krag tydelik deur ongevalle tot masjinerie verminder is, is 'n piekboot gedurende die hele nag aan die gang gehou net bokant hierdie ankerplek om te verhoed dat sulke missiele die skip nader. kyk uit vir torpedo's. "

24 Admiraal Lee het sekretaris Welles geskryf oor 'n gesprek met generaal Benjamin F. Butler terwyl hy die geluide van Noord -Carolina heroorweeg het: 'Ek het hom my mening gegee oor die beste manier om Wilmington aan te val, naamlik om uit New Berne te marsjeer en die beste aan te gryp. en die naaste versterkte inham in die noorde van Fort Fisher, om die Kaapse Vreesrivier oor te steek en te blok, of om onder Fort Caswell (die sleutel tot die posisie) te beland en die rivier van die regteroewer tussen Smithville en Brunswick te versper. " Vier dae later ondersteun bevelvoerder W.A. Parker die standpunt van die admiraal nadat hy sy eie waarnemings gemaak het. Hy het 'n gesamentlike aanval op die weermag en die vloot aanbeveel om Fort Fisher te vang, en geskryf: 'Ek is van mening dat 25 000 man en twee of drie ysterklere gestuur moet word om hierdie plek te vang, as daar so 'n groot mag vir hierdie doel ingerig kan word. Die ysterklere moet aangewend word om die aandag van die garnisoen by Fort Fisher af te lei tydens die landing van ons troepe by Masonboro Inlet, en om te verhoed dat die mag daar gebruik word om die afbraak teë te staan. Fort Fisher sou waarskynlik val na 'n kort weerstand, soos ek ingelig is dat die swaar gewere almal na die see wys, en dat daar slegs 'n klein voorsiening gemaak is om 'n aanval uit die binneland te weerstaan. " Die pogings van die vakbond in die ooste was egter op hierdie tydstip gekonsentreer op die vang van Charleston, en 'n strekking na Wilmington is uitgestel. Die stad was tot vroeg in 1865 'n uitstekende toevlugsoord vir hardlopers.

Onder dekking van U.S.S. Pawnee, bevelvoerder Balch en die USS Marblehead, luitenant -bevelvoerder Richard W. Meade jr., Weermag se troepe het begin sink as struikelblokke in die Stonorivier bo Legareville, Suid -Carolina. Die troepe, beskerm deur Marblehead, het die vorige dag geland. Die vlootmag bly op stasie op versoek van brigadier -generaal Schimmelfennig om 'n moontlike Konfederale aanval te voorkom.

25 Die dapper, maar oorweldigende Konfederale Vloot het baie probleme ondervind in die stryd om oorlewing. Een van hulle was die onvermoë om genoeg wapens te bekom. Kommandeur Brooke het hierdie dag aan sekretaris Mallory gerapporteer dat daar ordonnansie -werkswinkels in Charlotte, Richmond, Atlanta en Selma, Alabama, gehou is. Terwyl groot pogings aangewend is om in die suidelike behoeftes te voorsien, het Brooke geskryf: "Die gebrek aan swaar wapens is tydens hierdie oorlog ernstig gevoel. Die tydige toevoeging van 'n voldoende aantal swaar gewere sou ons hawens onskadelik maak vir die aanvalle van die vyand se vloot, of dit nou ysterklere is of nie.

U.S.S. Fort Hindman, waarnemende luitenant John Pearce, het die stoomboot vrywilliger op Natchez -eiland, Mississippi, gevange geneem.

26 VSA James Adger, bevelvoerder Patterson, het die Britse blokkade -hardloper Ella van Masonboro Inlet, Noord -Carolina, met vrag sout beslag gelê.

U.S.S. Antona, waarnemende meester Zerega, het die skoener Mary Ann suidoos van Corpus Christi met vrag katoen gevang.

27 VSA Twee susters, waarnemende meester Charles H. Rockwell, het beslag gelê op die blokkade met die skoener Maria Alberta naby Bayport, Florida.

28 VSA Chippewa, luitenant -bevelvoerder Thomas C. Harris, konvooi weermagvervoer Monohassett en Mayflower op Skull Creek, Suid -Carolina, op 'n verkenningsmissie. Alhoewel konfederale troepe verdedigende posisies gevestig het om aanvalle te weerstaan, het die effektiewe vuur van Chippewa hulle verhinder om die beweging te stop. "Die doel van die ekspedisie is volledig bereik," het Harris gesê, "en die verkenning was voltooi."

29 VSA Kanawha, luitenant -bevelvoerder Mayo, het die skoenertjie Albert (of Wenona) gevang wat probeer het om die blokkade uit Mobile te verwyder, met vrag katoen, hars, terpentyn en tabak.

Op versoek van generaal -majoor Banks, 'n geweerpersoneel van die V.S. Monongahela, bevelvoerder Strong, het aan wal gegaan om die haubits te beman ter ondersteuning van 'n weermagaanval op Pass Cavallo, Texas.

30 Sekretaris Mallory beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid vir die behoorlike opleiding van vlootoffisiere in sy jaarverslag oor die vloot van die Konfederale State. Dit was, het hy geskryf, '' 'n onderwerp van die grootste belang ''. Hy merk op: "Die vlootmagte van die aarde verleen besondere sorg aan die opvoeding van hul offisiere, wat nou meer as ooit vereis word deur die veranderinge in al die elemente van vlootoorlogvoering. Benoem uit die burgerlike lewe en beskik oor die algemeen maar min kennis van die pligte van 'n offisier en selde selfs die woordeskat van hul beroep, is hulle tot dusver na vaartuie of batterye gestuur, waar dit onmoontlik is om kennis te verkry van die belangrikste takke daarvan, wat die beste, indien nie net, verkry kan word deur metodiese studie nie. " Mallory het opgemerk dat daar 693 offisiere en 2 250 aangewese mans in die Konfederale Vloot was. Hy het berig dat terwyl die oorwinnings van die Unie by Little Rock en aan die Yazoo-rivier die departement se pogings om skepe in daardie gebied te bou beëindig het, die konstruksie 'goeie vordering gemaak het in Richmond, Wilming-ton, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, aan die Roanoke, Peedee , Chattahoochee en Alabama Rivers. " Twee groot probleme wat Mallory opgetel het, het die Konfederasie tydens die konflik ontstel, die gebrek aan geskoolde arbeid om skepe te bou en die onvermoë om voldoende yster te bekom om dit te beskerm. In die industriële noorde was dit ook nie 'n probleem nie - 'n faktor wat gehelp het om die verloop van die oorlog te bepaal.

Konfederale vlootoffisiere en -manne het tydens die oorlog 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die verdediging van die suidelike oewer. Hierdie datum het sekretaris Mallory die vlootbevel by Drewey's Bluff geprys, wat die James River -benadering na Richmond bewaak het. Hy het gesê dat die battery, wat bestaan ​​uit seelui en mariniers, in 'n hoë doeltreffendheid is, en vermoedelik is die rivierhindernisse voldoende in verband met die strand- en duikbootbatterye om die vaartuie se skepe deur te keer. krag word gebruik op duikbote en torpedo's. "


Oes maan, 'n sywiel-stoomboot, is in 1863 in Portland, Maine, gebou en is deur Commodore Montgomery gekoop van Charles Spear in Boston, Massachusetts, 16 November 1863. Sy is ingerig vir blokkade by Boston Navy Yard en in opdrag van 12 Februarie 1864 , Waarnemende luitenant JD Warren in bevel.

Werk met die South Atlantic Blockade Edit

Toegewys aan die South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Oes maan 18 Februarie vertrek uit Boston en arriveer uit Charleston, Suid -Carolina, 25 Februarie 1864. Volgende dag maak admiraal John A. Dahlgren die stoomboot sy vlagskip. Nadat hy in Washington Navy Yard ingesit is vir herstelwerk. Oes maan begin sy gewone blokkeringspligte op 7 Junie 1864 uit Charleston.

Die stoomboot het die volgende nege maande langs Tybee Island, Georgia, die Noord -Edistorivier en die Charleston -hawe gedien. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het sy ook opgetree as 'n piek- en versendingsvaartuig, sowel as die vlagskip van admiraal Dahlgren.

Sink Redigeer

Terwyl hy saam met die sleepboot USS voortgaan Klawer kort na 0800 op 1 Maart 1865 Oes maan het 'n torpedo (myne) in Winyahbaai, Suid -Carolina, getref. Admiraal Dahlgren, wat ontbyt in sy kajuit wag, sien hoe die skut verpletter en na hom ontplof.

Die ontploffing het 'n groot gat in die skip se romp agter geblaas en sy sak in 2½ vate water. Een man is dood. Die admiraal en die bemanning is aan boord van USS geneem Nipsies. Oes maan is van haar waardevolle masjinerie ontneem en op 21 April 1865 laat vaar.

In 1963, byna 100 jaar later, is 'n projek begin om in te samel Oes maan uit die modder aan die onderkant van Winyahbaai en om die skip te herstel, maar het min vordering gemaak.

Hierdie artikel bevat teks uit die publieke domein Woordeboek van Amerikaanse vlootgevegskepe. Die inskrywing kan hier gevind word.


Fort McAllister was 'n klein erde fort langs Genesis Point en gewapen met verskeie swaar kanonne om die Great Ogeechee River benadering suid van Savannah, Georgia, te verdedig. Dit is herhaaldelik uitgebrei deur meer gewere, deurkruisings en bomwerings by te voeg. Obstruksies en uiteindelik torpedo's (myne) het die verdediging van die rivier voltooi.

In Julie 1862 die blokkade hardloper Nashville hardloop teen die rivier om blokkades te ontsnap en bly vasgekeer. Leer dat die Nashville het naby die fort gelê, beveel adm. Du Pont, bevelvoerder Charles Steedman om 'n "verkenning van krag te maak" en om die fort te vernietig indien moontlik. Op hierdie tydstip was die garnisoen onder bevel van kapt Alfred L. Hartridge van Co. A., 1st Georgia Volunteer Infantry, die "DeKalb Riflemen." [3] Die hoofbattery het bestaan ​​uit vyf 32-pond en 'n gladde boring van 42 ponder. [4] Op 29 Julie het Steedman die houtgeweerbote USS gelei Paul Jones, Unadilla, Huron en Madgie teen die werk in 'n 90-minute lange afstand ruil. Steedman het bevind dat die nadering van die fort onaanvaarbare verliese sou veroorsaak en het teruggetrek. [5]

An 8" Columbiad was added to the fort in August and the garrison was replaced with the Emmett Rifles and the Republican Blues. [6] Under Cdr. John L. Davis the Federal gunboats USS Wissahickon en Dagbreek and a mortar schooner engaged the fort for several hours on November 19. The fort did not reply to the initial long-range bombardment and waited until the warships ascended the river to the guns' effective range. When the lead vessels reached 3,000 yards the garrison opened fire and immediately scored a hit, holing the Wissahickon below the waterline. The Federals withdrew. [7] [8] Damage to the fort was minor and readily repaired and only three men were slightly wounded in the fortifications. [9]

Adm. Du Pont dispatched an ironclad in an attempt to capture the fort, sink the Nashville and burn the Atlantic and Gulf railway bridge farther up the river. [10] This would provide the first test of the new Passaic class of ironclad monitor armed with the massive new 15" Dahlgren cannon, at the time the heaviest cannon mounted on a warship. [11] The single turret of the new class contained one 11" Dahlgren in addition to the 15". On January 27, 1863 the monitor USS Montauk, three gunboats, and a mortar schooner again engaged the fort. Commander John L. Worden of the Montauk shelled the fort for five hours at a range of 1,500-1,800 yards, penetrating and tearing up the parapets, but causing no lasting damage or casualties. Likewise, thirteen hits scored by the fort's artillery did little beside denting the monitor's plate and sink a small launch. The defenders simply repaired the damaged earthworks during the night. [12]

On February 1, Worden tried again to silence the fort. The prior night Federal scouts had removed several mines from the channel so that the vessels could more closely approach. [13] The Montauk spent another five hours bombarding at only 600 yards distance. The garrison commander, Maj. John B. Gallie, was killed and seven were wounded. Major George Wayne Anderson was placed in Command of the fort following the death of Major Gallie. [14] The monitor was struck by 48 rounds and the turret jammed for a time. [15] Following this engagement, the river defenses would be augmented with the placement of nine "Rains torpedoes" in the channel near where the Montauk had engaged the fort. [16]

Unable to run the Federal blockade, the Nashville had been sold and converted into an armed commerce raider under Capt. Thomas H. Baker. Dit is herdoop tot die Ratelslang and on February 27 Baker attempted to make the open sea during rainy weather, but was deterred by a blockader. Returning, the raider ran aground on a bend upriver from the fort but still visible to the blockaders. The next morning Worden anchored the Montauk about 1,200 yards from the fort, and about equidistant to the Ratelslang stuck in the river bend. The monitor began firing on the stranded ship and the fort fired on the ironclad in an attempt to distract the Union vessel. After only a few minutes the Montauk sent its fifth shot into the raider's hull. This and subsequent shells produced a fire and eventually explosions which destroyed the ship. Die Montauk had fired fourteen rounds in all. [17]

Soos die Montauk withdrew down the river, it struck a torpedo (mine). Quick action by the commander and pilot steered the vessel onto a mud bank as the tide receded, sealing the leak until repairs could be effected. Following temporary patching, the rising tide refloated the boat. Uiteindelik het die Montauk was sent to Port Royal for permanent repairs. [18]

After the early engagements with the fort, Adm. Du Pont recognized that a single monitor turret lacked the rate of fire to force the capitulation of the earthen battery. He therefore ordered three ironclads—USS Patapsco, Passaic, en Nahant—to test their guns and mechanical appliances and practice artillery firing by attacking the fort. Die Montauk was to be held in reserve as its 15" gun had already fired a large number of rounds and its durability was unknown at the time. Capt. Percival Drayton of the Passaic would command this expedition. [19]

Anticipating an attack, the malleable fort was again expanded, adding a 10" Columbiad. The fort then consisted of a "32-pounder rifle" (an old 32-pounder smoothbore rifled so that it would fire an approximately 64-pound rifled bolt or somewhat lighter shell), a 10" Columbiad, an 8" Columbiad, a 42-pounder smoothbore, three 32-pounder smoothbores (one being a "hot shot" gun), and 10" mortar in a connected work. [20] Additionally, several sharpshooters were placed in the marsh on the opposite side of the river near where the monitors were likely to station during an attack. [21]

On March 3, 1863, the three newer ironclads conducted an eight-hour bombardment. They were supported by five gunboats and three mortar schooners held out of range of the fort's guns. Several steamers containing the 47th New York Infantry awaited nearby to occupy the fort when subdued. [22]

The lead monitors anchored about 1,200 yards from the fort and commenced shelling as the fort attempted to target the gun ports when the turrets rotated to fire. The bombardment knocked out the 8" Columbiad, tore large holes in the face of the fort, and for a time disabled all but the 10" Columbiad, before several other guns could be returned to service. [23]

The Confederate sharpshooters hidden in the marsh fired on Capt. Drayton and Cmdr. Miller when they emerged on the deck of the Passaic. Neither was seriously injured, and they withdrew into the vessel. Grapeshot was fired into the marsh to discourage any further sharpshooting. [24]

While most of the damage experienced by the ironclads was the result of firing of their own cannon, the 10" Confederate mortar battery inflicted some potentially fatal damage to the Passaic. The mortar battery commander, Capt. Robert Martin, realized that explosive mortar shells would have little effect, so he filled each shell with sand instead of gunpowder, to increase its weight and density. This would result in it retaining more velocity and momentum when it struck the thinly armored deck. One of these struck and partially penetrated the ironclad, only being stopped from penetrating all the way through the vessel because it struck on a beam. [25]

As the tide was receding and nightfall was coming, the naval vessels withdrew. Capt. Drayton attempted to prevent repair of the earthworks overnight by maintaining 13" mortar fire on the fort overnight. This prevented slave labor from conducting the repair, but it did not prevent Confederate soldiers from working. The damage had been repaired by the next afternoon, and the loss of the fort's mascot, Tom Cat, reported to General Beauregard. [26]

The attack on the fort had failed and no further naval assaults against it were ordered. Valuable information about several deficiencies of the monitors had been revealed by the action, and efforts would be made to remedy them where possible. [27]

The first test of the 15-inch Dahlgren gun and single-turret monitors against the sand parapets of Fort McAllister had revealed several things:

  • The very slow rate of fire of the very large cannon in two-gun turrets resulted in little offensive power and allowed defenders time to fire against the open gun ports, then take cover. The defenders could fire several times as rapidly. Even several monitors firing at once did not create a sufficient volume of fire to suppress the battery.
  • The monitors were subject to jamming of their turret rings or other mechanical failures of the guns that could take their battery out of action. effects of broken bolts on impact posed a hazard to the crew even though the armor prevented penetration.
  • The thin monitor decks were vulnerable to plunging fire from heavy mortars.
  • Earthworks could be rapidly repaired overnight or the following day so that a garrison could return to full effectiveness.
  • Long-range mortar fire against a fort was so inaccurate as to be ineffective.
  • Suppressing fire against earthworks would be required overnight to limit the ability to repair damage.
  • Obstructions and mines prevented passage past forts, even though the monitors might be "invulnerable" to the fort's guns during the passage.
  • Sand forts held up well to shelling, while mud forts did not.
  • Properly constructed traverses and bombproofs prevented forts from easily being taken out of action on the flank. [28]

Du Pont attempted to address the shortcomings as best he could while preparing for the attack on Charleston. He ordered the strengthening of the decks with additional armor. He attempted to create a "submarine torpedo exploder" on the bow of his vessels to clear mines. He added as many ironclads to the assault as possible to increase the total volume of fire against the defenses.

Adm. Du Pont's warnings and concerns about the inability of monitors to reduce earthen forts would go unheeded as he prepared the assault on Charleston harbor. The assault was a failure and an ironclad (USS Keokuk) was lost in the attempt. Du Pont accepted responsibility for the failure at Charleston by resigning. [29]

Fort McAllister would not be subdued by naval bombardment, but would succumb to an infantry assault at the end of Sherman's March to the Sea in December 1864.


The Battle of the Falkland Islands

A month after German naval forces led by Admiral Maximilian von Spee inflicted the Royal Navy’s first defeat in a century by sinking two British cruisers with all hands off the southern coast of Chile, Spee’s squadron attempts to raid the Falkland Islands, located in the southern Atlantic Ocean, only to be thwarted by the British navy. Under the command of Admiral Doveton Sturdee, the British seamen sought vengeance on behalf of their defeated fellows.

Spee could have given the Falklands a wide berth, but he brought his fleet close to British squadrons anchored in Cape Pembroke in the Falkland Islands, confident he could outdistance the slow British Dreadnoughts, or big battleships, he saw in the port. Instead, the German light cruisers, damaged by the long voyage and heavy use, soon found themselves pursued by two swift battle cruisers, Onbuigsaam en Onoorwinlik, designed by Britain’s famous First Sea Lord, Jackie Fisher, to combine speed and maneuverability with heavy hitting power.

Onbuigsaam opened fire on the German ships from 16,500 yards, careful to stay outside the range of the German guns. Spee’s flagship, Scharnhorst was sunk first, with the admiral aboard his two sons, on the Gneisenau en NÜrnberg, also went down with their ships. All told, Germany lost four warships and more than 2,000 sailors in the Falkland Islands, compared with only 10 British deaths.

Historians have referred to the Battle of the Falkland Islands as the most decisive naval battle of World War I. It gave the Allies a huge, much-needed surge of confidence on the seas, especially important because other areas of the war—the Western Front, Gallipoli—were not proceeding as hoped. The battle also represents one of the last important instances of old-style naval warfare, between ships and sailors and their guns alone, without the aid or interference of airplanes, submarines, or underwater minefields.


President Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address

Op 19 November 1863, tydens die toewyding van 'n militêre begraafplaas in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog, lewer president Abraham Lincoln een van die mees onvergeetlike toesprake in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis. In fewer than 275 words, Lincoln brilliantly and movingly reminded a war-weary public why the Union had to fight, and win, the Civil War.

Die Slag van Gettysburg, wat vier maande tevore geveg is, was die enigste bloedigste slag van die Burgeroorlog. In die loop van drie dae is meer as 45 000 mans dood, beseer, gevang of vermis. The battle also proved to be the turning point of the war: General Robert E. Lee’s defeat and retreat from Gettysburg marked the last Confederate invasion of Northern territory and the beginning of the Southern army’s ultimate decline.

Charged by Pennsylvania’s governor, Andrew Curtin, to care for the Gettysburg dead, an attorney named David Wills bought 17 acres of pasture to turn into a cemetery for the more than 7,500 who fell in battle. Wills invited Edward Everett, one of the most famous orators of the day, to deliver a speech at the cemetery’s dedication. Almost as an afterthought, Wills also sent a letter to Lincoln—just two weeks before the ceremony—requesting 𠇊 few appropriate remarks” to consecrate the grounds.

At the dedication, the crowd listened for two hours to Everett before Lincoln spoke. Lincoln’s address lasted just two or three minutes. The speech reflected his redefined belief that the Civil War was not just a fight to save the Union, but a struggle for freedom and equality for all, an idea Lincoln had not championed in the years leading up to the war. This was his stirring conclusion: “The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom𠅊nd that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”


American Civil War November 1863

November 1863 is best remembered for what was to become the most famous speech made during the American Civil War – the Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincon. Again, as in October 1863, the weather dictated what senior commanders could do in the field.

November 2 nd : President Lincoln was invited to make a speech at the dedication of the new cemetery at Gettysburg. Jefferson Davis visited Charleston and publicly stated that he believed the city would not fall.

November 3 rd : Sherman continued his march to Chattanooga. Unwilling to rely on a single rail line from Decatur to Nashville for his supplies, he ordered that it was rebuilt as double tracked.

November 4 th : General Bragg, supported by Jefferson Davis, rid himself of General Longstreet and his 20,000 men who were sent to support Confederate troops at Knoxville.

November 7 th : General Meade, commander of the Army of the Potomac, attacked Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Several Confederate redoubts were captured at Kelly’s Ford on the Rappahannock River and 1,629 prisoners were taken. However, the North lost far more men killed – 83 to 6.

November 8 th : Meade continued his assault on Confederate positions but by now they are no more than skirmishes as opposed full-scale assaults.

November 9 th : Lincoln visited the theatre to see a play called “The Marble Heart” that starred John Wilkes Booth.

November 14 th : Sherman arrived at Bridgeport at the head of 17,000 men. His men had covered 675 miles in just fourteen days. At Bridgeport, Sherman was briefed by Grant as to the state of play at Chattanooga. Sherman was told not to expect any help from the Army of the Cumberland, as it would maintain its defensive position rather than an offensive one.

In the South, the Confederate Government ordered the use of force in its efforts to collect taxes. This included the confiscation of property and was primarily directed at farmers in North Carolina who were refusing to pay their taxes.

November 15 th : Sherman started his campaign against Chattanooga. Accepting Grant’s advice, Sherman viewed the role of the Army of the Cumberland to be solely defensive.

November 16 th : Longstreet finally reached Knoxville. However, lacking heavy artillery, Longstreet was unable to besiege the town, which was well defended by Union troops commanded by General Burnside.

November 18 th : Lincoln left Washington DC en route to Gettysburg.

November 19 th : The dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg took place. 15,000 people assembled there. The dedication started with a two-hour speech by Edward Everett as to the course of the battle. Lincoln spoke after Everett and for only ten minutes and received polite applause. Some in the gathering were unaware that he had even spoken. ‘The Times’ in London considered Everett’s speech to have been very good while the President’s was a disappointment. His speech was carefully prepared and not, as was once thought, put together on the train journey from Washington to Gettysburg. Lincoln himself said “the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here.”

November 20 th : Sherman’s advance on Chattanooga was delayed by heavy rain.

November 21 st : With better weather, Sherman prepared for his attack on Chattanooga.

November 23 rd : Unionist troops took Orchard Knob just outside of Chattanooga. The capture of this position gave them a height advantage over Confederate positions around Chattanooga. Such was the strategic advantage of Orchard Knob, Grant made it his headquarters.

November 25 th : Sherman started his main assault against Confederate positions around Chattanooga, especially the men based on Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. By 15.00 the positions held by the Army of Tennessee had fallen. Seven Congressional Medals of Honour were awarded for the Union assault on Missionary Ridge. One went to Lieutenant Arthur MacArthur, the father of Douglas MacArthur.

November 26 th : The Army of the Potomac threatened an attack on Richmond.

Bragg withdrew his forces from the Chattanooga area To Dalton, Georgia, having lost 10% of his men – 6,667 out of 64,000. Bragg was not to know that Sherman’s army had suffered a similar percentage of casualties – 5,824 out of 56,000 men. By withdrawing, Bragg kept his army as an effective fighting unit. However, Sherman’s army was free to advance on Atlanta.

November 27 th : The Army of the Potomac meets that Army of Northern Virginia at Mine Run

November 30 th : An attack on the Army of Northern Virginia was cancelled at the last minute when Meade decided that Lee’s men were too well dug in.


The Battle of Chattanooga:

By 23 November 1863, 70,000 Federal troops were amassed in battle of Chattanooga. The Federal breakout began with General Thomas seizing Orchard Knob from the Confederates, and driving the Confederate line back. The next day, Joseph Hooker led the Federal attack at the Battle of Lookout Mountain, known as the “The Battle above the Clouds,” and used his six-to-one advantage in men to defeat the Confederates.

But the key battle was the Battle of Missionary Ridge. It was begun on 24 November and engaged with a fury on 25 November. Again the Federals had six to one odds in their favor, but the three Confederate lines ascending the steep ridge threw back Federal attacks all day—at times in hand to hand combat.

General Thomas, however, refused to be denied victory. He brought up 23,000 Federals on a two mile-long line and sent them charging a full mile under fire. The bluecoats crashed into and overwhelmed the 3,200 Confederates in the rifle pits at the base of the ridge. As retreating Confederates scrambled out of the way, fire poured down on the Federals from the Confederate second line: artillery fire, musket fire, an inferno of blazing fire. The Yankee junior officers on the spot thought they had no choice: they had to charge straight up the mountain through that avalanche of artillery shells and bullets.

Grant, seeing the blue uniforms move up, thought it was suicide and demanded to know who had given the order to attack up the ridge. No one knew, but the bluecoats kept moving, dodging behind whatever cover they could find as they made their ascent. Soon they had captured the second line of Confederate rifle pits, the defenders scrambling higher to the final line. Though the fire remained fierce and deadly, the Union troops got a break. As the Federals ascended, the Confederate artillery‘s field of fire diminished to nothing, it being impossible to depress the barrels any farther. The Confederate gunners were reduced to lighting fuses on canister shells and rolling them and cannon balls down the ridge.

Grabbing the flag of the 24th Wisconsin from an exhausted color sergeant, eighteen-year-old Lieutenant Arthur MacArthur (father of future general Douglas MacArthur) led the final charge: “On Wisconsin!” he cried. Soon the Federals were over the top, and as MacArthur planted his regiment’s colors in front of what had been Braxton Bragg’s headquarters he was greeted with the sight of Confederate uniforms melting away down the reverse slope of the ridge.

Phil Sheridan led the Federals’ pursuit, which continued the next day. Only the fighting courage of Patrick Cleburne’s shielding division (Cleburne was known as “the Stonewall Jackson of the West”) allowed the Confederates to escape. The charge up Missionary Ridge had decided the contest. Told that Confederate generals had considered Missionary Ridge impregnable, Grant replied, “Well, it was impregnable.”4 But the bravery of men like Arthur MacArthur and Phil Sheridan had changed that.


Burgeroorlog

The Election of 1860
Slavery and its expansion into the western territories divided the nation. Southern slaveholders thought that banning slavery in the territories was the first step to abolishing it everywhere. Many northerners believed that if slavery expanded westward it was just a matter of time before it would move back into the North. This debate fractured the political parties into regional factions.

Republican Abraham Lincoln won the election with less than 40 percent of the popular vote and without winning one southern state. News of his victory prompted a secession movement across the South.

1860 Election Map

Oorlog
By the time Lincoln took the oath of office, seven southern states had formed the Confederate States of America. Four others soon joined. On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces bombarded Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, and Lincoln responded by calling for 75,000 new volunteers for the Union army. Both North and South were confident they could easily win the struggle. Each misjudged the other’s determination and tragically underestimated the horrors of the war ahead. Neither predicted that African Americans would transform this war into a battle for freedom.


Chattanooga

The Federals’ victory at Chattanooga opened up the Deep South for a Union invasion and set the stage for Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign the following spring.

Hoe dit geëindig het

Unie -oorwinning. After the battles, the rivers, rails, and roads of Chatta­nooga were firmly in Union hands. The city was transformed into a supply and communications base for Sherman’s 1864 March to the Sea.

In konteks

Following Union general William Rosecrans’s defeat at Chickamauga on September 18–20, 1863, the Army of the Cumberland fell back to the high ground and rail hub at Chattanooga, Tennessee. Confederate general Braxton Bragg chose to besiege the Union forces entrenched around the city, hoping to starve them into surrender.

In October, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was given command of all Union forces in the west and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George Thomas. After securing the vital “Cracker Line” to feed his starving army and defeating the Confederate counterattack at Wauhatchie, Grant turned his focus to a Union breakout.

The three-day Battles of Chattanooga resulted in one of the most dramatic turnabouts in American military history. When the fighting stopped on November 25, 1863, Union forces had driven Confederate troops away from Chattanooga, Tennessee, into Georgia, clearing the way for Union general William T. Sherman's March to the Sea a year later. Sherman wreaked havoc as his troops blazed a path of destruction, burning towns between Atlanta and Savannah in an effort to cripple the South.

Distraught at his devastating loss at the Battle of Chickamauga in September, Union general William Rosecrans retreats to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Confederate general Braxton Bragg, looking to capitalize on his victory against Rosecrans, follows the Federals there and establishes positions on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, successfully putting the Union troops under siege and cutting off their supply line.

On October 17, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant is given command over the newly created Military Division of the Mississippi, which puts all Federal troops in the Western Theater—including the Army of the Cumberland—under his control. In the days that follow, Grant learns that Rosecrans is planning to withdraw the Army of the Cumberland from Chattanooga, effectively surrendering the strategically important city. Grant immediately replaces Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George Thomas and orders Thomas to hold Chattanooga, to which Thomas responds, “we will hold the town till we starve.” In an effort to send support to the men of the Army of Cumberland, Grant sets up a “Cracker Line” to move food across the Tennessee River to the soldiers under siege.

November 23. Grant receives word from Confederate deserters that Bragg is withdrawing some of his brigades. On seeing columns of Confederates marching away from Missionary Ridge, Grant becomes concerned that Bragg is sending troops to reinforce the Confederates under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet near Knoxville. In an effort to prevent this, Grant sends 14,000 Union troops to engage a rear-guard of 600 Confederates at Orchard Knob. The vastly outnumbered Rebels are able to get off only one volley before being overrun by the Federals. Orchard Knob serves as Grant’s headquarters for the remainder of the battle.

November 24. Major General Joseph Hooker strikes the Confederate left at Lookout Mountain. Hooker has three divisions under his command, which are led by generals John W. Geary, Charles Cruft, and Peter J. Osterhaus. At 10:30 a.m., Geary’s men make contact with Confederate general Edward Walthall’s men one mile southwest of Point Lookout. The Confederates’ inferior numbers are quickly driven back. Om 13:00. Confederate general John C. Moore launches a counterattack against the surging Union forces, but the Rebels find themselves severely outflanked and retreat through the fog. That night, Bragg holds a council with his generals and decides to withdraw from Lookout Mountain to reinforce Missionary Ridge. This hands Grant a second victory.

Although Grant expects Gen. William T. Sherman to attack Missionary Ridge in coordination with Hooker’s attack at Lookout Mountain, faulty intelligence leads Sherman’s men to Billy Goat Hill instead. Undaunted, Grant is determined to follow up the success of November 24 with a coordinated effort. Hooker will advance on Missionary Ridge from the south while Sherman attacks Tunnel Hill, on the northern end of the Confederate position. Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland is arrayed against the center of Bragg’s line to offer assistance as needed.


When the Russian navy sailed into New York

Many Americans are surprised to learn that until the early 20 th century, the United States had better relations with Russia than with Britain or France. The United States had fought two bitter wars against Britain: the War of Independence and the War of 1812.

Additionally, the two nations endured many years of tension without war, mostly related to border issues in North America, where Canada remained British territory. During the American Civil War, the British government&rsquos sympathy seemed to be with the Confederacy and there was great concern in Washington that the British would give enter the war on the side of the South.

The United States had its share of difficulties with France as well. While France had been a vital ally of the young nation during its War of Independence, relations deteriorated shortly afterward.

In 1793 the United States quarreled with France about neutrality and then fought a brief, undeclared war in 1798. By the time of the Civil War Americans were complaining about the French occupation of Mexico and that regime&rsquos conduct toward Confederate rebels.

By contrast, the United States had never had a quarrel with Imperial Russia, and, in fact, the relationship was characterized by peace and goodwill. Empress Catherine II (the Great) refused to send Russian soldiers requested by King George III to suppress the rebellion of his subjects in North America.

Emperor Alexander I helped mediate a peace between the United States and Britain to end the War of 1812. In 1832, Russia became the first nation to have &ldquomost favored nation&rdquo trading status with the United States. The United States alone stood by Russia in 1854 and 1855 during the Crimean War.

The American government furnished Russian forces with arms and sent a whole shipload of gunpowder to the defenders of the Siberian coast. Frank Golder, no Russophile, would later write of the Crimean War, &ldquoBy the time it was over the United States was the only nation in the world that was neither ashamed nor afraid to acknowledge boldly her friendship with Russia.&rdquo

One of the greatest spectacles of the 1863 New York social season was the Russian Ball held in honor of the officers of the Russian fleet, on November 5. Source: Brooklyn Museum

Those Americans who supported the Union cause during the Civil War were also pleased that Emperor Alexander II had freed Russia&rsquos serfs in February 1861. He became known as the &ldquoTsar Liberator&rdquo, while Americans referred to President Lincoln as &ldquoThe Great Emancipator&rdquo for freeing the slaves in Confederate territories in January 1863.

During the fall of 1863, the darkest hour of the Civil War, part of the Russian fleet arrived at the ports of New York and San Francisco. The first group came in September, and the second in October. There were 12 ships in total.

While the Russians never said why they had come, their arrival was interpreted by many Americans as a concrete expression of Russian friendship. The North seemed to be urgently in need of friends and the arrival of Russian warships dramatically highlighted the fact that not only was Alexander II America&rsquos one true friend, but that he was seemingly prepared to fight on our side.

&ldquoGod bless the Russians!&rdquo exclaimed Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, and this sentiment was echoed throughout the Union.

Die verwelkoming wat die Russe in New York en San Francisco ontvang het, was oorweldigend en het uitgebreide balle ingesluit. Die New York -eskader het ook Washington en Boston besoek, en is ook in daardie stede met galas begroet.

Sailing on the &ldquoAlmaz&rdquo clipper was the composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Legend has it that he wrote &ldquoFlight of the Bumblebee&rdquo because of that trip. He wrote in a letter home: &ldquoI&rsquom bored and hear buzzing wind all the time.&rdquo Some believe that buzzing became the sound of the bees in his famous composition.

&ldquoFlight of the Bumblebee&rdquo by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Source: Youtube

The squadrons remained in the U.S. almost a year before returning home.

Dr. C. Douglas Kroll is an associate professor of history at the College of the Desert in Palm Desert, California.


Kyk die video: Three Mile Island Documentary (Desember 2021).