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Heroes and Landmarks of British Aviation, Richard Edwards en Peter J Edwards

Heroes and Landmarks of British Aviation, Richard Edwards en Peter J Edwards


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Heroes and Landmarks of British Aviation, Richard Edwards en Peter J Edwards

Heroes and Landmarks of British Aviation, Richard Edwards en Peter J Edwards

Sub: Van lugskepe tot die straaltydperk

Die meeste hoofstukke begin met 'n kort biografie van 'n spesifieke figuur in Britse lugvaart, en volg dan die prestasies van die onderneming wat hulle gestig het, of die vliegtuie of tegnologie waarmee hulle geassosieer is. Sommige fokus nader op 'n spesifieke persoon, so die hoofstukke oor R.J. Mitchell of Herbert Smith stop met hul dood of uittrede uit die vliegtuigbedryf. Die meeste van die ander eindig met die fusieperiode wat uiteindelik die grootste deel van die Britse vliegtuigbedryf in 'n enkele onderneming, nou BAE Systems, gekonsolideer het. Die proses van samesmeltings word behandel in die laaste hoofstuk, wat ons tot vandag toe neem.

Die individuele hoofstukke kan 'n bietjie verstrooi wees, van onderwerp tot onderwerp spring, en soms herhaalde inligting op twee verwante plekke (byvoorbeeld in die oorspronklike kort biografie en later in die geskiedenis van die onderneming). Ten spyte hiervan is hulle almal interessant, en kyk na die uitbuiting van 'n paar merkwaardige mense en die bydrae wat hulle tot die Britse oorlewing en uiteindelike oorwinning in twee wêreldoorloë gelewer het. U word baie bewus van die belangrikheid van die oorloë vir die meeste van hierdie ondernemings - die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het 'n jong bedryf tot 'n groot werkgewer verander, en in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die oorlewende ondernemings op 'n voorheen ondenkbare skaal uitgebrei.

Dit is 'n interessante benadering tot 'n geskiedenis van die Britse vliegtuigbedryf, met die fokus op die sleutelfigure wat gehelp het om die bedryf te skep of van die belangrikste vliegtuie te ontwerp.

Hoofstukke
1 - Ernest Willows en die lugskip oor die kanaal
2 - Short Brothers en die wêreld se eerste vliegtuigvervaardiger
3 - Geoffrey de Havilland en die wedloop na Australië
4 - Vincent Richmond, die R101 en die einde van Britse lugskipambisies
5 - Sir George White en die British and Colonial Airplane Company
6 - Thomas Sopwith en die kamele van Kingston
7 - Harry Hawker en die Hawker Hurricane
8 - RJ Mitchell en die geboorte van die Spitfire
9 - Herbert Smith en die ontwikkeling van die vegter
10 - Charles Rolls, Henry Royce and the Magic of Merlin
11 - Reginald Pierson en die Wellington Saga
12 - Alliott Verdon -Roe en die pad na Lancaster
13 - Frederick Handley Page en die opening van die Imperial Airways
14 - Charles Fairey en die reis van swaardvis na spiesvis
15 - Robert Blackburn en die Brough Buccaneers
16 - Robert Watson -Watt en die Prowlers of the Night Sky
17 - Frank Whittle and the Power Jets Company
18 - Harold Wilson and the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977
Bylaag 1 - Opsomming van die belangrikste Britse lugvaart, samesmeltings, verkrygings en nasionalisering
Bylaag 2 - Geselekteerde Britse lugvaartmuseums

Skrywer: Richard Edwards en Peter J Edwards
Uitgawe: Hardeband
Bladsye: 257
Uitgewer: Pen & Sword Aviation
Jaar: 2012



Nr 1 Skool vir Tegniese Opleiding RAF

No. 1 Skool vir Tegniese Opleiding (Nr 1 S van TT) is die Royal Air Force se vliegtuigingenieurswese -skool, gebaseer by RAF Halton van 1919 tot 1993, as die huis van die Aircraft Apprentice -skema. Die Aircraft Apprentice -skema het jong mans opgelei in die meganiese handel vir vliegtuigonderhoud, waarvan die gegradueerdes die bes opgeleide tegnici in die RAF was en gewoonlik na Senior NCO -geledere sou vorder. Egter een-en-negentig oudleerlinge het egter Air Rank behaal. Baie meer het onderoffisiere geword, waaronder Sir Frank Whittle, "vader van die straalmotor", wat sy vakleerlingskap by RAF Cranwell voltooi het, voor die verhuising na RAF Halton. [1] Gegradueerdes van die Aircraft Apprentice -skema by RAF Halton staan ​​bekend as Old Haltonians.


Die eskader is gevorm in Swingate Down, naby Dover, Kent, Engeland in April 1916. [5] In November 1917 het die eskader na Frankryk ontplooi en hul eerste operasie was in die Slag van Cambrai. [6] Toe die Eerste Wêreldoorlog geëindig het, het 49 eskader deel geword van die besettingsmagte en in Julie 1919 in Duitsland ontbind. [7]

Die eskader is in Februarie 1936 hervorm vanaf 'C' -vlug op nommer 18 -eskader by RAF Bircham Newton. [7] Die eskader hervorm aanvanklik met Hind -vliegtuie en verhuis in Maart 1938 na RAF Scampton. In September van dieselfde jaar begin die eskader Hampden -vliegtuie aanvaar, [5] die eerste operasionele eskader wat dit doen. [8]

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het hulle die aanval op die Dortmund-Ems-kanaal uitgevoer op 12 Augustus 1940. In 1942 het nr.49-eskader oorgeskakel na Manchesters, dan Lancasters, en in Oktober het die No.5 Group se epiese skemeraanval op die Schneider-bewapening gelei en lokomotiefwerke by Le Creusot. In 1943 neem die eskader deel aan die eerste "shuttle-bombardement" -aanval (toe die teikens Friedrichshafen en Spezia was), en die beroemde aanval op Peenemunde. Onder die teikens wat dit gedurende 1944 aangeval het, was die kusgeweerbattery by La Pernelle aan die kus van Normandië, en die V-1-vlieënde bomopbergplekke in die grotte by St. Leu d'Esserent aan die rivier Oise, ongeveer 30 kilometer noord wes van Parys. In Desember 1944 het dit deelgeneem aan 'n aanval op die Duitse Baltiese Vloot in Gdynia, en in Maart 1945 was dit verteenwoordig in die bomwerpersmag wat die verdediging van Wesel so verwoes het net voor die kruising van die Ryn dat kommando's die stad kon oorneem. met slegs 36 slagoffers.

Die eskader het by Lancasters gebly totdat dit weer in November 1949 met Lincolns toegerus is. Hulle het twee pligte tydens die Keniaanse Mau Mau-opstand van November 1953 tot Januarie 1954 en van November 1954 tot Julie 1955 uitgevoer. Tydens albei hierdie toere was dit onder bevel van eskaderleier Alan E. Newitt DFC. Nadat hy na die Verenigde Koninkryk teruggekeer het, is die eskader op 1 Augustus 1955 by RAF Upwood ontbind. [9]

Tydens hul tweede toer van operasie Avro Lincoln SX984 het in 'n ongeluk verlore gegaan. [10]

Hulle bedryf die Vickers Valiant van RAF Wittering en RAF Marham van 1 Mei 1956 tot 1 Mei 1965.

Die enigste oorblywende Vickers Valiant (XD818) - die een wat die eerste Britse waterstofbom op Kerseiland laat val het met 49 vierkante meter as deel van Operation Grapple - word bewaar in die RAF Museum Cosford, naby Wolverhampton. [11]

Die SX984 het tydens 'n ongeluk op 19 Februarie 1955 verlore gegaan terwyl hy in Kenia diens gedoen het tydens die Mau Mau -opstand.

By die terugkeer van 'n operasionele bombardement om 1540 uur, ongeveer 1 uur 25 minute vlieg tyd (totale lugtyd tot op die oomblik van die ongeluk was 1 uur 33 minute), het die vlieënier van SX984 verskeie ongemagtigde laagpassas oor die polisiehut by Githunguri uitgevoer, waar 'n ander 49 eskaderbemanning het besoek afgelê. Op die derde sodanige pas het SX984 die dak van die hut en 'n telegraafpaal getref en 'n deel van die vleuel en 'n deel van die neus daarvan afgebreek. Dit het skerp geklim, vasgesteek en neergestort op die grond 8 myl noord noordwes van Kiambu en vyf lede van die bemanning en vier burgerlikes op die grond doodgemaak. 'N Besoekende bemanningslid genaamd Pierson het daarin geslaag om die agterskutter uit die wrak te trek, maar hy is 'n paar uur later aan sy beserings dood. [12]

Die bevinding van die Raad van Ondersoek was dat die ongeluk veroorsaak is deur opsetlike ongehoorsaamheid aan bevele en ongemagtigde vliegvlugte.

Daar is 'n gedenkvenster vir die bemanning en burgerlikes wat dood is in die ongeluk in die St Leonard's Church, Sandridge in Hertfordshire, die Verenigde Koninkryk.


Soek doodsberigte 1690-Today

Soek doodsberigte in koerante

  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • Kalifornië
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Distrik van Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgië
  • Guam
  • Hawaii
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nasionaal
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • Noord-Carolina
  • Noord -Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Puerto Rico
  • Rhode eiland
  • Suid Carolina
  • Suid -Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • Wes -Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • Wyoming

Waarom soek u doodsberigte na navorsing oor familiegeskiedenis?

'N Doodsondersoek is meer as om net te weet wanneer jou voorouer gesterf het. Doodsberigte is mini-vertellings van 'n persoon se lewe wat die belangrikste gebeurtenisse tussen 'gebore' en 'oorlede op' beklemtoon. Ontdek hoe u voorouers geleef, liefgehad en hoe hulle onthou is. Meestal is 'n doodsondersoek dikwels die ontbrekende skakel of die belangrikste beginpunt om meer oor u familiegeskiedenis te leer. Alhoewel doodsberigte wat in koerante gepubliseer word nie die amptelike sterfregisters kan vervang nie, kan u kritiese besonderhede oor u voorouers leer. Sommige feite wat u in sterfkennisse en sterfkennisgewings kan vind:

  • Naam, plek en geboortejaar
  • Name van kinders, waar hulle gewoon het, en hul posisie in die familie se geboorteorde
  • Die name van die woonstede en hoe lank hulle in elkeen gewoon het
  • Ouderdom van eggenoot (man, vrou) by dood en hoe lank gelede
  • Besonderhede oor die lewensduur van ouers en grootouers
  • Naam van begraafplaas, datum en plek van die begrafnis en begrafnis

Die genealogiebank se doodsargief

Ons sterfkennis -argiewe bevat meer as 250 miljoen koerantberigte en sterfgevalle oor meer as 327 jaar uit meer as 9000 koerante. Daar word daagliks nuwe doodsberigte bygevoeg. U kan doodsberigte op naam, staat, stad of koerantpublikasie soek om u soektog te beperk.

Nuttige wenke om doodsberigte te soek:

  • Brei u soektog uit om meer plekke en koerante in te sluit.
  • Doodsberigte word gereeld gepubliseer in die plaaslike koerante waar u afgestorwe voorouer gewoon het of ander familielede gewoon het.
  • Soek slegs op 'n persoon se van.
  • As u nie 'n sterfkennis kan vind vir 'n familielid wat onlangs oorlede is nie, probeer 'n breër soektog op net hul van om meer resultate te kry

Wat kan 'n Amerikaanse doodsondersoek oor u voorouers vertel?

  • Doodsberigte word presies gepubliseer in plaaslike, staats- en nasionale Amerikaanse koerante.
  • Ons ontvang dieselfde "voer" van die koerante wat hulle na drukkerye stuur.
  • Ons aanlyn doodsberigargief word deur die loop van die dag bygewerk en bevat selfs die sterfkennisse wat in môre se koerante van regoor die land sal verskyn. Lees meer

'N Kort geskiedenis van doodsberigte

Verskeie tipes opskrifte is deur die jare vir doodsberigte gebruik, waaronder sterftes, doodsberigte, oorlede, ter herinnering, ter herinnering, gedenktekens, ens.

Doodsberigte verskyn al eeue lank in koerante. Namate koerante oor die jare verander het, het sterfkennis ook verander, maar die essensie daarvan bly tot vandag toe dieselfde.

Voordat die linotipe -masjien in 1886 uitgevind is, het uitgewers die tipe handmatig vir die druk van dagblaaie bepaal. Die proses het tyd geneem, daarom het koerante slegs 'n paar bladsye gehad (in die meeste gevalle slegs vier bladsye). Met minder bladsye was daar beperkte ruimte vir advertensies en nuusartikels, so die doodsberigte was gewoonlik baie kort.

In die meeste gevalle was 'n doodsberig slegs 'n een-voering wat aankondig dat 'n sekere persoon dood is. Die koerantredakteurs het vroeër besluit wie 'n meer uitgebreide doodsberig moet hê, gebaseer op die status en gewildheid van die oorledene in die gemeenskap. Bekende mense en diegene wat die redaksie gedink het van groot algemene belang sou wees, sou meer gedetailleerde sterfkennisse kry.

    Die lengte van 'n begrafnisoorlog van 'n persoon hang af van verskeie dinge:
  • Hoe belangrik dit vir die gemeenskap was
  • Hoeveel tyd het die redaksie nodig gehad om navorsing oor die oorledene te bestee om die doodsberig te skryf
  • As die doodsberig 'n belangrike verhaal moet vertel

Namate eeue verbygegaan het en dorpe in stede verander het, het gesinne op hul eie begin om doodsberigte te skryf, sodat hulle meer belangrike besonderhede oor hul familielede kon insluit. Die koerantbedryf het 'n nuwe term vir hierdie doodgeskrewe doodsberigte, "Death Notes", gedefinieer. Koerante het dit as betaalde advertensies ingesluit en begin hef vir die publisering van sterfkennisse. Die prys van 'n doodsberig hang gewoonlik af van die aantal woorde, die aantal invoegings en die insluiting van foto's.

Wat kan ons leer uit 'n doodsberigsoektog?

'N Doodsondersoek kan u baie besonderhede oor 'n spesifieke persoon vertel. As 'n gepubliseerde doodsaankondiging kan dit 'n huldeblyk wees met 'n uitgebreide biografie, of 'n eenvoudige, kort sterfkennisgewing. Deur middel van 'n doodsberig kan u verskillende inligting oor die oorledene of sy/haar familielede ontdek.

Gewoonlik bevat doodsberigte die naam van die oorledene en die begrafnisdatum. Alhoewel, kan hulle nie die sterfdatum bekend maak nie. Daarom moet u dit moontlik agterkom met behulp van ander besonderhede, soos die datum waarop die doodsberig gepubliseer is. Soos u egter sal besef met behulp van die doodsberigzoeker, bevat sterfkennisse ook dikwels meer diepgaande inligting, soos die geboortedatum, gades se name, ouers en kinders, huweliksdatum, sosiale status, beroep, opvoeding en meer. In baie sterfkennisse kan u die plek vind van die familielede van die oorledene toe hulle gepubliseer is.

'N Doodsondersoek kan 'n omvattende proses wees, maar die inligting wat u vind, kan die moeite werd wees.

Waarom is argief vir doodsberigte belangrik?

Elke doodsberig vertel 'n klein storie oor 'n persoon se lewe. Dikwels vertel hulle u of die persoon getroud was, wie hul kinders was, wie hul ouers was, die name van hul eggenote en vele ander besonderhede. As u doodsberigte soek, is dit dikwels die enigste keer dat 'n sekere persoon in 'n koerant verskyn het. Doodsberigte word beskou as 'n blywende geskrewe verslag van iemand se bestaan. Doodsargiewe kan familie, voorouers, vriende, lewensmaats en soms selfs verre vreemdelinge bymekaarbring.

Hulle speel 'n deurslaggewende rol in die behoud van die geskiedenis. Een sterfkennis verteenwoordig 'n skriftelike spoor van 'n persoon se lewe. Terwyl baie sterfkennisse uit dieselfde gemeenskap of dieselfde tydperk 'n venster oopmaak in die lewens van ons voorouers en hul gemeenskappe. Om die doodsberig van 'n persoon te vind, beteken om 'n verborge deur te vind wat lei tot wonderlike ontdekkings. Doodsberigte verbind ons deur ruimte en tyd, en dit help ons om belangrike besonderhede oor familielede en vriende te ontdek, deur belangrike dele van die geskiedenis te bewaar en dit vir die volgende generasies veilig te hou.

Waarvoor kan doodsondersoeke gebruik word?

Die besonderhede wat u ontdek, kan 'n interessante navorsingsavontuur oopmaak. Byvoorbeeld, die sterfkennis van u immigrantevoorouer kan u leidrade gee oor hul geboorteplek, sodat u die wortels van u gesin kan opspoor.

As u doodsberigte op die naam soek, kan u die nooiensvan van u vroulike voorouers ontdek. Die doodsberig van 'n man bevat moontlik die getroude naam van sy suster of dogter, en u kan die inligting nêrens anders vind nie. As u doodsberigte van u familielede, voorouers of vriende vind, vind u gedetailleerde biografieë. U sal hul agtergrond in hul gemeenskap kan leer, wat hulle vir 'n bestaan ​​verdien het, as hulle 'n lid van die kerk was, of as hulle aan 'n sekere gemeenskap of vooraanstaande groep behoort.

'N Soektog met sterfkennis neem u terug deur die tyd en gee u 'n insig in die lewe van u voorouer en hul naaste familielede.


Ondersoekers op die ongeluksterrein van 1967 kort nadat 'n North American Aviation X-15 vuurpylvliegtuig op 'n afstand van 62 000 voet opgebreek het terwyl hulle teen 4 000 km / h gery het. (NASA) Meer foto's

Peter Merlin en Tony Moore, selfbekende lugvaartnerdes, vind en sorteer deur militêre ongeluksplekke in die Mojave as 'n stokperdjie. Hulle noem hierdie naweek ekspedisies 'lugvaart -argeologie.'

Deur W.J. Hennigan

Foto deur Brian van der Brug

Video deur Don Kelsen

Verslaggewing van Mojave

P eter Merlin slenter deur die woestyn, sy-stappende salieborsel en kreosoot totdat hy 'n dorre plantegroei bereik. Hy wys op 'n dowwe halfmaanvormige litteken in die aarde wat 100 voet lank is.

Merlin kniel en skep 'n handvol sand op en laat dit deur sy vingers sif, en laat drie grys klippies agter, elk nie groter as 'n kwart nie.

"Sien jy hierdie rotse?" hy vra. "Dit is eintlik fragmente van gesmelte aluminium. Dit is die trefpunt waar die vlieënde vleuel neergestort het en die bemanning hul lewens verloor het. Net hier. Dit is die voorval wat die Edwards Air Force Base sy naam gegee het."

Die klippies was oorblyfsels van die YB-49, 'n eksperimentele bomwerper wat in 1948 neergestort het met kapt. Glen Edwards en 'n bemanning van vier. Sy ontydige dood het die weermag genoop om die Muroc -lugmagbasis tot sy eer te hernoem.

Merlin se stokperdjie en tydverdryf is om militêre ongeluksplekke in die Mojave te vind en te sorteer. Hy en Tony Moore, sy vennoot op hierdie naweek -ekspedisies, noem dit 'lugvaart -argeologie'.

'Om so naby Edwards te woon, is soos 'n egiptoloog wat in Egipte woon,' het Merlin gesê. "Dit is die 'vallei van die konings' genoem."

Die lug bokant die Mojave -woestyn is legendaries. Die eerste Amerikaanse straalvliegtuig het hierheen gevlieg. Die klankgrens is hier gebreek. Ruimtependeltuie het hier na die aarde teruggekeer. Maar die mislukkings en ineenstortings, tragiese voetnote vir hierdie merkwaardige prestasies, is minder bekend.

Merlin en Moore verwys na hulself as "The X-Hunters", 'n knik vir die gebruik van die X van die lugmag by die noem van eksperimentele vliegtuie. Hul bevindings het die weermag se begrip van die ruimtevaartgeskiedenis van Suid -Kalifornië verbreed.

'Hulle waarde vir die kantoor is groot,' sê Richard Hallion, 'n afgetrede amptenaar wat 20 jaar as historikus van die lugmag gewerk het. "In baie gevalle was daar slegs 'n growwe benadering van die plek waar die ongelukke plaasgevind het."

Peter Merlin, middel, en Tony Moore, links, by 'n gedenkteken vir die bemanning van 'n noodlottige YB-49-toetsvlug naby Mojave. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times) Meer foto's

Ondanks die grootheid van die Mojave, is daar min ongeluksterreine wat Merlin en Moore nog nie gevind het nie. Hulle het 'n lys saamgestel van meer as 600 liggings te midde van die verskroeide sand en rots, en tot dusver het hulle meer as 100 ondersoek.

Merlin en Moore is onwaarskynlik konfederate. Merlin (49), die introvert, is geneig tot lang pouses wanneer hy praat. Hy het 'n dun Errol Flynn-snor en dit is bekend dat hy 'n safarihoed en leerbaadjie dra met 'The X-Hunters' op die rug.

Moore (55) is 'n groot, vriendelike man wat met 'n metaalstap loop as gevolg van slegte heupe. Hy het grootgeword in Northridge en is al lank gefassineer deur Edwards, en dit lyk asof hy 'n verhaal het oor enige vliegtuie wat ooit gebou is.

Hulle werk albei by Edwards, maar in 1991 was die selferkende lugvaartnerdes op die Burbank-lughawe in diens toe hulle 'n gesprek gevoer het oor die lugvaartgeskiedenis van die streek. Moore het aan Merlin gesê dat hy die wrakplek van die XB-70 gevind het, 'n eksperimentele bomwerper wat in 1966 met 'n F-104 gebots het.

Merlin was geïnteresseerd. Maar lugvaartliefhebbers is geheimsinnig oor die inligting wat hulle het - soos vissers wat nie sal weet waar die grotes is nie - daarom gee Moore Merlin vae aanwysings na die webwerf: ongeveer 20 kilometer noord van Barstow.

Die volgende Maandag kom Merlin glimlaggend aan die werk. Hy het die webwerf gevind.

'Ek was geskok,' het Moore gesê. "Ek moes hom 'n gebied van twee myl gegee het om deur te soek. Maar hy het dit gevind, tot sy eer."

Kyk die video

Lugvaartliefhebbers kyk deur die geskiedenis in die woestyn

Merlin en Moore spandeer hul vrye tyd om militêre vliegtuigongelukke in die Mojave te vind en te sif.

Nadat hulle hul gedeelde verliefdheid erken het, het hulle besluit om saam te werk. Toe die twee mans begin om vliegtuigwrakke te ondersoek, het hulle meestal gesteun op lêers van die Edwards History -museum en 'n omgewingsimpakstudie van 1993 van die basis wat slegs 15 plekke bevat.

Op hul eerste ekspedisie het Moore en Merlin na 'n boek geskryf wat deur 'n voormalige toetsvlieënier geskryf is, wat die ongeluk van majoor Michael Adams, wat in 1967 dood is toe die North American Aviation X-15 vuurpylvliegtuig wat hy bestuur het, gedokumenteer het op 62,000. voet terwyl u teen 4 000 mph ry.

Volgens die boek was die wrak 'n paar kilometer noordoos van Johannesburg geleë. Maar toe hulle op die plek kom, het die terrein nie gelyk aan wat op die swart en wit foto's van die boek uitgebeeld is nie.

Na 'n paar uur se vrugtelose soektog besluit hulle om huis toe te gaan. Toe hulle in die rigting van die Amerikaanse 395 ry, gewaar Moore 'n berg in die verte wat soos 'n in die boek lyk.

Hulle trek op 'n grondpad en dreun na die berg. Nog landmerke begin touhou. Daar was 'n rant met 'n uitsteeksel van wit rotse naby sy kruin.

Hulle het uit hul Jeep geklim en begin berg toe stap, met tussenposes om die boek te raadpleeg. Merlin kyk toe na die grond en sien 'n stukkie metaangedraaide metaalbuise.

'Ons is hier,' skreeu hy en merk dat die grond besaai is met nog meer metaalfragmente.

Hulle het twee jaar lank oor die puinveld gekam en 125 pond onderdele teruggekry, insluitend 'n waarskuwingslig wat waarskynlik in die kajuit gloei terwyl Adams baklei het om homself en die vliegtuig te red. Hierdie items is by die vlugtoetsmuseum in Edwards.

'N Gedenkteken merk nou die terrein. Dit is opgerig in 2004. Meer as 60 mense, waaronder Merlin, Moore en lede van Adams se familie, het die toewyding bygewoon.

'Ons benader hierdie plekke gereeld vanuit 'n historiese perspektief,' het Merlin gesê. "Maar daar is 'n menslike element wat voortleef. Om die emosionele reaksie van die gesin te sien, het my regtig gewys hoeveel die webwerwe vir mense kan beteken."

Onder hul ander vondste was die ongeluksterrein vir 'n ander vlieënde vleuel, 'n eksperimentele bomwerper wat van hout was, die N-9M genoem. Die vliegtuig het in 1943 12 myl wes van Edwards afgeneem.

Die mans het ook stukke van die Bell X-2 opgespoor, wat in 1956 buite beheer getuimel het en die proefvlieënier kapt. Milburn Apt doodgeskiet het toe hy in die Kramer Hills aan die oostelike rand van die basis doodgeskiet het.

Sewe kilometer wes van Kalifornië het hulle die plek gevind van die NF-104A-ongeluk wat Chuck Yeager in 1963 sou doodgemaak het as hy nie betyds uitgestoot is nie. 'N Onlangse nie-dodelike wrak was die X-31 wat in 1995 minder as 'n half kilometer van Kalifornië 58 neergestort het.

As 'n vliegtuig in die woestyn gaan, probeer die weermag soveel moontlik van die wrak te herstel. Dit is 'n prioriteit om stewige stukke op te haal.

Ek het genoeg ballonne van Mickey Mouse gesien wat my 'n leeftyd lank kon hou. "

- Peter Merlin

Meestal is Merlin en Moore op soek na kleiner dele, soos 'n gedraaide vel van vlekvrye staal, geroeste bevestigingsmiddels en toebehore of gebreekte kapdeksels.

Hulle soek die horison na glinsterende metaal as hulle dink dat hulle op die regte plek is. Sodra hulle 'n deel van 'n stertvin ontdek het. Maar dit is skaars om sulke items te vind, en dikwels is dit wat hulle dink 'n vliegtuigonderdeel wat in die verte skitter, 'n Mylar -ballon.

'Ek het genoeg ballonne van die Mickey Mouse gesien wat my 'n leeftyd kan hou,' het Merlin gesê.

As hulle iets vind wat hulle dink hulle kan identifiseer, neem hulle dit huis toe en weeg en meet dit. Hulle verifieer die egtheid van die onderdeel deur reeksnommers, inspeksiestempels na te jaag of 'n vervaardiger se boek oor die vliegtuig te ondersoek. Nadat hulle dit gedokumenteer het, sal hulle dit aan die vlugtoetsmuseum of ander instansies skenk. Hulle het 'n boek geskryf met die titel "X-Plane Crashes."

Kritici meen dat die betekenis van die mans se bevindings effens oordrewe is. Raymond Puffer, afgetrede Edwards -historikus, het gesê hul werk is meer 'n stokperdjie as enigiets anders.

Ander ontdekkingsreisigers, soos G. Pat Macha, verkies om die ongeluksterreine ongeskonde te laat.

'Dit is 'n groot probleem op hierdie gebied: om net 'n foto te neem of die goed saam te neem huis toe', sê Macha (67), wat al 50 jaar lank ongelukke in Suid -Kalifornië geïdentifiseer en gedokumenteer het.

Macha besef egter dat die twee mans hul bevindings aan die basis teruggegee het, eerder as om vas te hou wat hulle herstel het.

Toeriste soek deur die Mojave-woestynlandskap op soek na puin van 'n X-15-ongeluk in 1967 naby Johannesburg. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times) Meer foto's

Merlin en Moore is trots om gesinne te help wat 'n seun of 'n pa verloor het in een van hierdie noodlottige ongelukke.

Terwyl Moore by die YB-49-ongeluksterrein gestaan ​​het wat Edwards doodgemaak het, het Moore iets in die vuil sien glinster. Hy het dit opgetel: Dit was 'n sterre saffier, perfek behalwe 'n effense skyfie aan die een kant.

Die klein klip was 'n raaisel totdat Moore met 'n ingenieur gesels het wat op die basis was die dag toe die YB-49 neerstort.

Die ingenieur noem dat 'n lid van die bemanning, majoor Daniel H. Forbes, 'n paar weke voor die ongeluk getroud was. Sy vrou het vir hom 'n saffierring gegee. Die weermag het die omgewing gevind, maar nie die klip nie.

Moore was verstom: "Ons het die klip gevind," het hy gesê. 'Ons het dit vyf jaar gelede reg in die middel van die webwerf gevind.'

Hy het 'n foto van die saffier aan die lugmagpersoneel gestuur, wat die weduwee van Forbes gaan besoek het.

'N Halfeeu het verloop sedert die tragedie. Die weduwee is weer getroud en het aanvanklik nie die ring onthou nie. Toe wys hulle haar die prente.

Sonder om 'n woord te sê, stap sy na haar slaapkamer en keer terug met 'n bypassende ster-saffierring in haar hand. Die klip is uiteindelik aan haar teruggestuur tydens 'n seremonie by die Kansas -lugbasis wat die naam van Daniel Forbes dra.

'Dit is ongelooflik hoeveel dinge moes gebeur om die ring met haar te herenig,' het Moore gesê. "Dit het al ons werk bevestig."


Silwer ster

Die Silver Star-toekennings is die derde hoogste toekenning van die Verenigde State uitsluitlik vir militêre operasies wat konflik behels en beklee die vyfde plek in die rangorde van militêre toekennings agter die Medal of Honor, die Crosses (Distinguished Service Cross Navy Cross en Air Force Cross), die verdediging Uitnemende diensmedalje (toegeken deur die departement van verdediging) en die onderskeidingsdiensmedaljes van die verskillende takke van diens. Dit is die hoogste toekenning vir strydmoed wat nie uniek is aan 'n spesifieke tak wat dit deur die weermag, vloot, marinekorps, lugmag, kuswag en handelaars toegeken is nie. Dit kan deur enige van die individuele dienste aan nie net hul eie lede nie, maar ook aan lede van ander takke, buitelandse bondgenote en selfs aan burgerlikes gegee word vir "dapperheid in aksie" ter ondersteuning van gevegsendings van die Amerikaanse weermag .

Omdat die Silver Star slegs toegeken word vir strydmoed, is die enigste toestelle wat daarop gedra word:

    in plaas van addisionele Army/AF -toekennings in plaas van 'n sesde Army/AF -toekenning in plaas van addisionele Navy/USMC -toekennings in plaas van 'n sesde Navy/USMC -toekenning.

(Sewe toekennings van die Silver Star sou dan op die lint vertoon word as 'n Silver OLC en 1 Bronze OLC vir Army of Air Force. Vir Navy/Marine Corps Awards sou dit 'n Silver Star plus 1 Gold Star wees.)

Gestig deur president Woodrow Wilson

Die Silver Star -medalje is tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deur president Woodrow Wilson gestig as die 'Citation Star', en is slegs deur die Amerikaanse weermag toegeken, hoewel dit deur die oorlogsdepartement aan lede van die Amerikaanse vloot en mariniers oorhandig is. Oorspronklik het dit 'n silwer ster van 3/16 duim gedra wat op die lint van die diensmedalje gedra moes word vir die veldtog waarin die aanhaling gegee is. Los op grond van die vroeëre verdienste -sertifikaat was die Citation Star terugwerkend beskikbaar vir diegene wat het hulle onderskei tydens militêre operasies tot in die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog. (Daarna is dit toegeken vir dapperheid aan helde van die burgeroorlog wat op dieselfde wyse aangehaal is vir dapperheid in aksie.) Voor 1932 het die Algemene Orde toekennings aangekondig van die 'Citation Star' begin gewoonlik:

"In opdrag van die president, onder die bepalings van die wet van die kongres wat op 19 Julie 1918 goedgekeur is (Bul. No. 43, WD, 1918), word die volgende amptenare en aangewese mans aangehaal vir dapperheid in aksie en 'n silwer ster mag geplaas word op die lint van die oorwinningsmedaljes wat aan sulke offisiere en aangewese mans toegeken word. " ('N Vertelling van die handeling of dade wat gevolg is vir elke man wat aangehaal word.)

Op 22 Februarie 1932, die datum wat George Washington se 200ste verjaardag sou gewees het, het stafhoof -generaal Douglas MacArthur, generaal Washington, se "Badge for Military Merit (1782)" herleef as die Purple Heart. In dieselfde jaar pleit hy ook suksesvol vir die omskakeling van die "Citation Star". Toe sy aanbeveling deur die Minister van Oorlog goedgekeur word, is die silwer ster van 3/16 'van 'n lintapparaat omskep in 'n volwaardige medalje.

Merietesertifikaat - Silver Star -voorganger

Die Silver Star-medalje is ontwerp deur Rudolf Freund van Bailey, Banks en Biddle, en het bestaan ​​uit 'n vergulde brons vyfpuntige (punt-op in teenstelling met die neerwaartse ontwerp van die Medal of Honor) ster met 'n lourierkrans in sy middelpunt. Die lintontwerp bevat die kleure van die vlag en lyk baie soos die vroegste voorganger van die medalje, die Certificate of Merit Medal. Die agterkant van die medalje is leeg, behalwe vir die verhoogde teks "Vir dapperheid in aksie", waaronder gewoonlik die naam van die ontvanger gegraveer is.

Is die silwer ster van silwer gemaak?

Tegnies is die Silver Star nie gemaak van werklike silwer nie. Die goue kleur van die vergulde brons - ormolu - ster lyk in stryd met die naam van die toekenning, Silver Star. Die naam Silver Star kom van die medalje se geskiedenis van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die 3/6 "silwer ster wat prominent in die middel van die medalje verskyn.

Die Silver Star -medalje bly uitsluitlik 'n weermagversiering tot 7 Augustus 1942, byna 'n jaar nadat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog begin het. Op daardie datum is die Silver Star -medalje uitgebrei deur 'n kongreswet vir toekenning deur die vlootafdeling vir optrede op of na 7 Desember 1941 (Public Law 702, 77th Congress).

Ons skat dat die aantal Silver Star-medaljes wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en tans toegeken is, iewers tussen 100,000 en 150,000 is. Alhoewel die getal redelik groot lyk, in vergelyking met die meer as 30 miljoen Amerikaanse mans en vroue wat gedurende daardie tydperk in uniform gedien het, is dit duidelik dat die Silver Star 'n seldsame toekenning is, wat aan minder as 1 uit elke 250 veterane toegeken word van militêre diens.


VERWANTE ARTIKELS

Edwards sê dat vroue hul hare moet verf met 'n lae onderhoudskleur, soos 'n donkerbruin donkerbruin (links), en gereeld inskakel (regs) om gesplete punte te voorkom

Edwards sê dat u u hare moet kleur in 'n kleur wat 'perfek smelt by u natuurlike kleure'

As u 'n skaduwee kies wat naby u natuurlike kleur is, verminder u ook verligings- en verligte behandelings wat u hare kan uitdroog, het mnr. Edwards bygevoeg.

Omdat die winterweer die kans op skeurpunte vergroot, sê hy dat dit 'n goeie idee is om gereeld in te skryf - een keer elke ses weke - om u slotte in 'n goeie toestand te hou.

Hy sê verhitte stylgereedskap soos reguit en krul moet altyd vermy word en vervang word met kreatiewe voorkoms, soos vlegsels wat hare gesond hou.

Edwards sê dat vroue hul hare moet behandel net soos hulle vir hul vel sorg, omdat albei op dieselfde manier deur koue lug beskadig word

En as dit kom by die beskerming van u hare van binne na buite, sê Edwards dat dit alles daarop neerkom dat u genoeg water drink.

'As u aan die binnekant gedehidreer is, sal dit aan die buitekant verskyn,' het hy gesê.

Gedurende die koudste wintermaande, beveel hy ook aan om die conditioner een of twee keer per week vir 'n masker te ruil en elke dag 'n ligte serum soos Virtue Labs Healing Oil ($ 60) aan te wend.

Jaye Edwards se voorspellings vir haartendense vir 2021

In 'n opstanding het min mense sien aankom, sê Edwards dat die snyplek terug is in 'n onstuimige, moderne interpretasie van die ikoniese haarstyl van die disco-era.

Die shag -snit, geskep deur die kapper Paul McGregor, is 'n styl wat in verskillende lengtes gelaag is en aan die bokant en sye geveder is.

Natural-looking auburn tones and coppery blondes are making a huge comeback, Mr Edwards says, while more obviously dyed shades have fallen out of favour.

'Timeless, classic and bold', Mr Edwards predicts a revival of the '90s-inspired pixie cut in 2021.

Short, layered bobs which grow out evenly over time are also making a comeback, as women opt for hassle-free styles that require little maintenance.

Curly hair is back in a big way as women embrace their natural waves and turn away from heated styling tools, according to Mr Edwards.

He previously told Daily Mail Australia the closure of beauty salons at the peak of the pandemic is responsible for the nationwide shift towards a more natural look.

Mr Edwards says if there's any hair colour that transcends season, it's bronde, a combination of brown and blonde-toned ombré shades and balayage that is flattering on almost anyone.

After years of platinum shades dominating the salon chair, this autumn Mr Edwards says he is getting more requests for warm blonde which helps to enhance the skin's natural glow, making you look younger.

'Shag' cuts (left) last popular in the 1970s and auburn colouring (right) are back in fashion, according to top Australian hairstylist Jaye Edwards


The prince found such restraints irksome, while his parents were upset by his refusal to marry and settle down. When the Prince’s choice fell on a twice-divorced American, Mrs Wallis Simpson, constitutional problems arose. Never steady or strong of will, the prince had to decide between Mrs Simpson and the Crown, which passed to him in 1936 on the death of his father George V. In the event, Edward VIII became the only British sovereign to resign the throne of his own will.

He abdicated on 10 December 1936, broadcasting a memorable farewell message by radio, and left the country to marry Mrs Simpson in France. He was made Duke of Windsor and lived abroad, maintaining friendly, if distant, links with his relatives until his death in 1972.

In this exclusive extract, we present a brief guide to Edward and Mrs Simpson’s relationship:

Mrs Simpson’s first introduction to Edward, Prince of Wales

In January 1931, Lady Furness held a weekend house party at Burrough Court, near Melton Mowbray, to which she invited the Prince of Wales. A married couple who were also on the guest list suddenly fell ill, and in their place she invited Mr and Mrs Ernest Simpson.

Like Lady Furness, Mrs Simpson was born in America, and was already once divorced. In 1928 she made a second marriage to Ernest Simpson, a native of New York who had served in the Coldstream Guards and become a naturalised British citizen. Though Mrs Simpson had lived in England for several years she still clung fiercely to her ‘American ways and opinions’, and her Baltimore accent was very pronounced. Hard-faced and by no means attractive, she was always elegant and well-dressed, and the Prince of Wales found her sympathetic, understanding and witty. Though she made little impression on him at their first meeting, she and her husband invited him to dine at their London flat a year later, and soon an invitation to spend a weekend at Fort Belvedere followed. The association, as she remarked in her memoirs, ‘imperceptibly but swiftly passed from an acquaintanceship to a friendship.’ Mutual friends and members of the household soon noticed that the Prince appeared to be infatuated by her as never before.

The King talks to the Prince of Wales about his future

Six days after the thanksgiving service for the 25th anniversary of the King and Queen’s accession to the throne, the King had a long and serious talk with the Prince of Wales about the future when he ascended to the throne, and regretting that he had never married. To this the Prince replied that he could never marry, as such a life had no appeal for him. When the King accused him of keeping Mrs Simpson as his mistress, the Prince reacted with anger and gave his word of honour that he had never had any immoral relations with her. He then begged the King to invite her to the Jubilee Ball at Buckingham Palace and to Ascot, which the King did with reluctance. It was a decision which caused the rest of the royal family as much mortification as it did the King to approve.

The Duke of York was especially shocked. He had already noticed with bitterness that Mrs Simpson was accepting large sums of money from the Prince of Wales, as well as jewellery – particularly family heirlooms bequeathed to the Prince by Queen Alexandra, who had taken it for granted that he would make a suitable marriage and would need them to give to his Queen Consort. On hearing about the interview that had passed between father and son he was aggrieved that the Prince of Wales should have lied to blatantly about his relationship with Mrs Simpson. He was sure that the two were lovers, suspicions soon to be confirmed by the Prince’s staff.*

*As Duke of Windsor, to the end of his days he denied that his wife had been his mistress during her second marriage. He successfully sued one author, Geoffrey Dennis, whose Coronation Commentary, published in 1937, referred to her having been his mistress, and some twenty years later threatened to take the official biographer of the late King George VI, John Wheeler-Bennett, to court if he did not drop the word ‘mistress’ from his book.

The Prince of Wales becomes King

On the afternoon of 16 January 1936, as he was shooting in Windsor Great Park, the Prince of Wales was handed a note written by Queen Mary. She had advised him that the royal physician, Lord Dawson of Penn, was ‘not too pleased with Papa’s state at the present moment’, and he should come to Sandringham, but in a casual manner so as not to alarm him.

Next morning, he flew to Sandringham in his private aeroplane. Later that day he telephoned Mrs Simpson to tell her that the King was unlikely to live for than two or three days. The Dukes of York and Kent joined them, leaving the Duke of Gloucester who was at Buckingham Palace, recovering from his laryngitis. On 20 January, shortly after midday, the King received his Privvy Counsellors for the last time. Propped up in an armchair, wearing his dressing-gown, he was too weak to do more than answer ‘Approved’ when the Lord President read out the order paper, and make two shaky marks signifying his initials G.R. on the document. Shortly before midnight, in the words of Lord Dawson, his life moved ‘peacefully to its close’.

Queen Mary’s first act as a widow was to kiss the hand of the eldest son, the new sovereign. Immediately afterwards, the new King telephoned Mrs Simpson with the news.

Edward’s relationship with his brother, the Duke of York, deteriorates

The new King’s penny-pinching (he had made cuts, dismissing members of staff and only telling the family once it was a fait accompli) at a time when he was showering his mistress with lavish gifts lost him much sympathy from his servants and household. Shortly after his accession, a sanction was obtained that no man in royal employment should be dismissed without being offered alternative employment, but this rule was soon quietly dropped by the King. Servants resented having their wages cut when they spent much of their time loading furniture, plates and cases of champagne for despatch to Mrs Simpson’s flat. The King’s personal instruction that soap supplied for the guests in the royal residences, which was collected up after the guests had left and finished in the servants’ quarters, should in future be brought to his own rooms, was also ill-received below stairs.

At the time of her brother-in-law’s accession, the Duchess of York was in low spirits. Early in the new year she has been struck down with influenza, and was till very weak when the King died. She grieved for him, noting that unlike his own children she was never afraid of him, and in all the years she had known him ‘he never spoke one unkind or abrupt word to me.’ As yet she attached little importance to the King’s infatuation for Mrs Simpson, though a tasteless remark by the latter did nothing to raise her standing with the Duchess. She was told that in early February, during a conversation about court mourning, Mrs Simpson remarked that she had not worn black stockings since she gave up the Can-can.

It was noticed that the Yorks no longer visited Fort Belvedere, so much did they dislike what they heard of the King’s subservient behaviour towards Mrs Simpson. The Gloucesters did, but with deep misgivings. They were unhappy about the liaison, but the Duke felt personally obliged to go. The Kents did likewise, but the Duke was saddened that his eldest brother, who had always been so close, now appeared so remote and distant. Against her better judgement, the Duchess of Kent regularly invited her brother-in-law and Mrs Simpson to tea at Coppins and at their London home in Belgrave Square.

Mrs Simpson files for divorce

September 1936 had been a bad month for the royal family October was to bring more portents of the impending crisis. Edward VIII’s private secretary, Hardinge, was informed by the Press Association that Mrs Simpson’s divorce petition was to be heard at Ipswich Assizes on the 27th of the month. Aghast, he discussed the news with Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who went to see the King on 20 October to warn him what a scandal his ‘friendship’ with the lady was causing, and to ask him to try and prevent the divorce from going through. The King firmly declined. As yet, Baldwin took a less serious view of matters than Hardinge, who called upon the Duke and Duchess of York to warn them that the King’s abdication was a definite possibility.

Though the British press still adhered to a gentleman’s agreement that the name of Mrs Simpson should not appear in their columns, it was becoming an increasingly open secret that the King intended to marry her. Mrs Simpson’s decree nisi was granted on the grounds of Ernest’s adultery, but suspicion was rife that everything had been arranged for the convenience of her and the King. On 10 November, her name was publicly mentioned for the first time in the House of Commons. During question time, the Coronation was referred to, and Mr McGovern, Labour member for Shettleston, Glasgow, declared angrily that they need not bother to talk about it in view of the odds at Lloyd’s that there would be no Coronation. To cries of ‘Shame!’, he retorted, ‘Yes – Mrs Simpson!’

Abdication rapidly progressed from a grim but remote possibility, to inevitability. London was alive with rumours at all levels of society. Even friends of the King acknowledged, albeit with reluctance, that if the King married Wallis, he would have to abdicate immediately, otherwise there would be a renewed Socialist (and perhaps Republican) agitation, the formation of a King’s party, a Yorkist party, and a general election in which the King’s marriage and its acceptability or otherwise would be a major distraction at a time of recession and severe unemployment at home, and sabre-rattling from dictators abroad.

Abdication

On 16 November the King invited Baldwin to Buckingham Palace, and told him that he intended to marry Wallis Simpson at the earliest possible opportunity, whether his ministers approved or not. If they did not, he was prepared to abdicate. Later that evening he went to see Queen Mary at Marlborough House, and told her and the Princess Royal.

Since King George V’s death, mother and daughter had drawn very close to each other. Whenever she and her husband were at their London residence, the Princess Royal spent as much time as possible with the Queen, and during the crisis she was her mother’s greatest support. They were ‘astounded and shocked’ at his threat – or intention – to relinquish the throne. The Queen told him firmly that he must give up Wallis or the throne and it was his duty to give up the former. To this, he countered that he felt unable to function as King without marrying her, and therefore his ultimate duty was to leave the throne.

On the morning of 10 December, all four brothers were present at the signing of the Instrument of Abdication. With a degree of calmness which astonished the others, King Edward signed several copies of the Instrument and then five copies of his message to Parliament, one for each Dominion Parliament.

There were still difficulties to be resolved in what was an unprecedented situation. Never before had a British monarch voluntarily abdicated the British throne. The last King to be deposed, James II (in 1688, coincidentally also on 11 December), had never formally renounced the throne and still called himself King during his remaining twelve years of exile abroad. Edward was suddenly worried about how badly off he would be, and requested that the terms of his father’s will should be strictly observed as regards his life interest in Balmoral and Sandringham they should be treated as absolutely his, for him to dispose of as he saw fit. There was uncertainty as to whether he would be provided for by government, and whether the life or freehold interest in Balmoral passed to the crown under Scottish law. A few minor alterations were agreed and signed. Neither his brother nor Lord Wigram realised that he had made huge savings in his personal fortune for such an eventuality. When they did, it added to the anger and resentment they already felt at his rejecting his responsibilities as King and head of the family, while being unwilling to accept the financial consequences of doing so.

Another issue to be settled was the outgoing sovereign’s future title. As he was born the son of a Duke, he would be Lord (instead of a plain Mr) Edward Windsor, and under such a name he could stand for election to the House of Commons. The chance that Mrs Simpson might persuade him to do so did not escape their notice. Only be confirming him as HRH Duke of Windsor could he be barred from doing so, and the Duke of York maintained that he could not speak or vote in the House of Lords† but he would not be deprived of his position in the army, navy or Royal Air Force.

At 1:52 p.m. on Friday 11 December, ‘that dreadful day’, in the phrase of the new King, Britain witnessed her third sovereign in eleven months. Prince Albert, Duke of York, was now King George VI. He had chosen his regnal name a few days earlier preferring to take the same one as his father in order to demonstrate a sense of continuity with the latter’s reign, and in preference to the name of Albert, which he recognised had too Germanic a ring.

† This was technically incorrect. Royal dukes can speak in the House of Lords. The sons of King George III, and King Edward VII as Prince of Wale, had previously done so as would Prince Charles and Richard, Duke of Gloucester many years later. The former King Edward VIII’s title was created by Letters Patent on 8 March 1937.

The Duke of Windsor and Mrs Simpson marry

A week before King George’s 1937 Coronation, the Duke of Windsor and Mrs Simpson were reunited. On 3 May, she was informed that the decree had been made absolute, and she called the Duke in Austria. He caught the ‘Orient Express’ from Salzburg that afternoon and met her at the Château de Candé, central France, at lunchtime the following day.

Candé, which belonged to a very rich French-born naturalised American named Charles Bedaux, had been chosen for the Windsors’ marriage. The Duke had sadly resigned himself to the fact that none of his family would be attending, and Sir Edward Metcalfe accepted an invitation to be his best man. What rankled far more deeply, however, was King George VI’s refusal to raise Wallis to royal rank upon their marriage.

The wedding took place as arranged on 3 June. A civil marriage by the Mayor of Monts was followed by a religious ceremony at which the Reverend R. Anderson Jardine officiated. Jardine, vicar of St Paul’s Church, Darlington, was warned by the Bishop of Durham that he had ‘no episcopal licence or consent’ to conduct the ceremony, but went ahead anyway.

Extracted from George V's Children by John Van Der Kiste


Early life and ministry

Edwards’s father, Timothy, was pastor of the church at East Windsor, Connecticut his mother, Esther, was a daughter of Solomon Stoddard, pastor of the church at Northampton, Massachusetts. Jonathan was the fifth child and only son among 11 children he grew up in an atmosphere of Puritan piety, affection, and learning. After a rigorous schooling at home, he entered Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut, at the age of 13. He was graduated in 1720 but remained at New Haven for two years, studying divinity. After a brief New York pastorate (1722–23), he received the M.A. degree in 1723 during most of 1724–26 he was a tutor at Yale. In 1727 he became his grandfather’s colleague at Northampton. In the same year, he married Sarah Pierrepont, who combined a deep, often ecstatic, piety with personal winsomeness and practical good sense. To them were born 11 children.

The manuscripts that survive from his student days exhibit Edwards’s remarkable powers of observation and analysis (especially displayed in “ Of Insects”), the fascination that the English scientist Isaac Newton’s optical theories held for him (“ Of the Rainbow”), and his ambition to publish scientific and philosophical works in confutation of materialism and atheism (“ Natural Philosophy”). Throughout his life he habitually studied with pen in hand, recording his thoughts in numerous hand-sewn notebooks one of these, his “Catalogue” of books, demonstrates the wide variety of his interests.

Edwards did not accept his theological inheritance passively. In his “ Personal Narrative” he confesses that, from his childhood on, his mind “had been full of objections” against the doctrine of predestination—i.e., that God sovereignly chooses some to salvation but rejects others to everlasting torment “it used to appear like a horrible doctrine to me.” Though he gradually worked through his intellectual objections, it was only with his conversion (early in 1721) that he came to a “delightful conviction” of divine sovereignty, to a “new sense” of God’s glory revealed in Scripture and in nature. This became the centre of Edwards’s piety: a direct, intuitive apprehension of God in all his glory, a sight and taste of Christ’s majesty and beauty far beyond all “notional” understanding, immediately imparted to the soul (as a 1734 sermon title puts it) by “a divine and supernatural light.” This alone confers worth on humanity, and in this consists salvation. What such a God does must be right—hence Edwards’s cosmic optimism. The acceptance and affirmation of God as he is and does and the love of God simply because he is God became central motifs in all of Edwards’s preaching.

Under the influence of Puritan and other Reformed divines, the Cambridge Platonists, and British philosopher-scientists such as Newton and Locke, Edwards began to sketch in his manuscripts the outlines of a “ Rational Account” of the doctrines of Christianity in terms of contemporary philosophy. In the essay “ Of Being,” he argued from the inconceivability of absolute Nothing to the existence of God as the eternal omnipresent Being. It was also inconceivable to him that anything should exist (even universal Being) apart from consciousness hence, material things exist only as ideas in perceiving minds the universe depends for its being every moment on the knowledge and creative will of God and “spirits only are properly substance.” Further, if all knowledge is ultimately from sensation (Locke) and if a sense perception is merely God’s method of communicating ideas to the mind, then all knowledge is directly dependent on the divine will to reveal and a saving knowledge of God and spiritual things is possible only to those who have received the gift of the “new sense.” This grace is independent of human effort and is “irresistible,” for the perception of God’s beauty and goodness that it confers is in its very nature a glad “consent.” Nevertheless, God decrees conversion and a holy life as well as ultimate felicity and he has so constituted things that “means of grace” (e.g., sermons, sacraments, even the fear of hell) are employed by the Spirit in conversion, though not as “proper causes.” Thus, the predestinarian preacher could appeal to the emotions and wills of humankind.


10 All-Time Great Pilots

WHEN WE ASSEMBLED THE FOLLOWING LISTS OF GREAT PILOTS (and the list of milestone flights that follows), we faced the same dilemma that Von Hardesty, a National Air and Space Museum aeronautics curator, faced as author of Great Aviators and Epic Flights (Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 2003). "If you mention Jean Mermoz," Hardesty writes in the introduction, "Why not Henry Guillaumet, who crashed and survived a six-day ordeal in the Andes? If you cover the crossing of the English Channel by Louis Blériot, why not the transcontinental aerial trek of Cal Rodgers? When the chapter outline was shown to one curator, he remarked, 'The problem is who to omit!' Such an observation genuinely haunted all of us who designed and worked on this book."

1. James H. Doolittle

At age 15, Doolittle built a glider, jumped off a cliff, and crashed. Undaunted, he hauled the pieces home, stuck them back together, and returned to the cliff. After his second plunge, there was nothing left to salvage. In 1922, Lieutenant Doolittle made a solo crossing of the continental United States in a de Havilland DH-4 in under 24 hours. The Army sent him back to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where in 1925 he earned a doctorate in aeronautical engineering. Two years later, he climbed to 10,000 feet in a Curtiss Hawk, pushed the stick forward until he saw red (negative Gs make blood pool in the head), and performed the first outside loop. In 1929, aided by Paul Kollsman’s altimeter and Elmer Sperry’s artificial horizon and directional gyro, he flew from takeoff to landing while referring only to instruments. “Aviation has perhaps taken its greatest single step in safety,” declared the New York Times.

He next took up air racing and collected the major trophies: the Schneider in 1925 with a Curtiss seaplane, the Bendix in 1931 with the Laird Super Solution, and the Thompson in 1932 in one of the treacherous Gee Bees, when he also set the world’s landplane speed record. With this triumph, he observed: “I have yet to hear of anyone engaged in this work dying of old age,” and retired from racing.

In 1942 Doolittle was sent off to train crews for a mysterious mission. He ended up leading the entire effort. On April 18, 1942, 15 North American B-25s staggered off a carrier and bombed Tokyo. Most ditched off the Chinese coast or crashed other crew members had bailed out, including Doolittle. Though he was crushed by what he called his “failure,” Doolittle was awarded the title Brigadier General and a Congressional Medal of Honor, which, he confided to General Henry “Hap” Arnold, he would spend the rest of his life earning.

2. Noel Wien

Thanks to Noel Wien, Alaska has a higher ratio of aircraft and pilots to residents than any other state. In the 1920s, almost single-handedly, Wien introduced the airplane to Alaska, and over some 50 years, aircraft became virtually the primary mode of transport in the vast and thinly populated state, which is twice the size of Texas and infinitely less hospitable in climate and geography.

Wien, a native of Minnesota, arrived in Anchorage in June 1924 at age 25 with his first aircraft, an open-cockpit Standard J-1 biplane. Being the only flier in Alaska that summer and the next, and with little competition for a number of years thereafter, just about every flight he made was a first, starting with a flight from Anchorage over the Alaskan Range to Fairbanks. Wien was the first in Alaska and Canada to fly north of the Arctic Circle, and made the first commercial flight between Fairbanks and Nome. He was first to fly the Arctic Coast commercially, the first to fly from North America to Siberia via the Bering Strait, and ultimately the first to fly a year-round service, throughout the vicious winters. All this with sketchy maps, no radio, and virtually no paved landing strips.

Wien got so good, writes author Ira Harkey in Pioneer Bush Pilot: The Story of Noel Wien, he could land the Standard in a mere 300 feet. Surveyor Sam O. White said: “I don’t belive there was ever anyone around here who could get everything out of an aiplane like Noel Wien did. It was like the wings were attached to his own shoulders.”

Wien’s flights broke other records as well. In 1927 he noted, “the last boat leaving in October didn’t mean isolation from the States until the first boat next June. For the first time ever, Nome got mail and fresh foods for Thanksgiving. Everybody looked forward to getting Christmas mail and foods, but they were disappointed—I was down on a lake in a blizzard Christmas Day.”

Wien flew everything and everybody to everywhere: bodies to burial sites, tourists to stunning views, gold dust from prospectors to market, sick folks to hospitals, trappers and dogs to hunting grounds. He lost an eye to infection in 1946, but he was able to hold on to his medical certificate and continued flying commercially until 1955. Wien stopped counting flight hours at 11,600.

3. Robert A. Hoover

After his Spitfire was shot down by a Focke-Wulf 190 over the Mediterranean in 1944, Hoover was captured and spent 16 months in the Stalag Luft 1 prison in Barth, Germany. He eventually escaped, appropriated an Fw 190 (which, of course, he had never piloted), and flew to safety in Holland. After the war Hoover signed up to serve as an Army Air Forces test pilot, flying captured German and Japanese aircraft. He became buddies with Chuck Yeager Hoover was Yeager’s backup pilot in the Bell X-1 program, and he flew chase in a Lockheed P-80 when Yeager first exceeded Mach 1.

Hoover moved on to North American Aviation, where he testflew the T-28 Trojan, FJ-2 Fury, AJ-1 Savage, F-86 Sabre, and F-100 Super Sabre, and in the mid-1950s he began flying North American aircraft, both civil and military, at airshows. Jimmy Doolittle called Hoover “the greatest stick-and-rudder man who ever lived.”

Hoover is best known for the “energy management” routine he flew in a Shrike Commander, a twin-engine business aircraft. This fluid demonstration ends with Hoover shutting down both engines and executing a loop and an eight-point hesitation slow roll as he heads back to the runway. He touches down on one tire, then the other, and coasts precisely to the runway center.

Despite the numerous awards accorded him, Hoover remains humble enough to laugh at himself. He notes in his autobiography, Forever Flying, that in the 1950s, after showing off his Bugatti racer to the neighborhood kids, he asked, “Well, what do you think?” One youngster’s reply: “I think you’ve got the biggest nose I’ve ever seen.”

4. Charles A. Lindbergh

The young man who would give aviation its biggest boost since the Wright brothers got his start in aviation as a wingwalker, barnstormer, and parachutist. His proficiency in the latter art paid off when he had to bail out of a trainer during his Army stint and another three times while flying the Chicago-St. Louis mail run for the Robertson Air Corporation.

Any collection of photos of Lindbergh can easily be divided into pre-Atlantic crossing and post. There are many broad smiles before he flew solo nonstop from New York to Paris in May 1927 not many thereafter. Lindbergh was assaulted by the media and besieged by the adulation of the entire United States. By 1929, when Lindbergh was surveying cross-country routes for Transcontinental Air Transport and posing with movie stars to publicize the airline, the smile had vanished.

Lindbergh made his greatest survey flight in 1931 for Pan Am, when he and his wife and radio operator/navigator Anne Morrow set out in a Lockheed Sirius on floats to establish the shortest air route from New York to China via Churchill in Canada, Nome, Petropavlosk, Tokyo, and Nanking. Two years later the pair scoped out north and south Atlantic cities for operational facilities on Pan Am’s transatlantic routes. This round-the-Atlantic flight in the Sirius encompassed landings in Greenland, Iceland, Sweden, Russia, Denmark, Scotland, Portugal, the Canary Islands, Brazil, and Puerto Rico.

In 1944, Lindbergh tested the Vought F4U Corsair in the field—the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific—and flew several missions with the U.S. Marines, downing a Japanese Zero. In New Guinea, he demonstrated to Army Air Forces pilots a fuel-saving technique that extended the range of the Lockheed P-38 from 575 to 750 miles. Charles Lindbergh’s flight to Paris was just the beginning of his career.

His daughter Reeve revealed Lindbergh’s method and his mastery when she recalled flying with him in an Aeronca Champion whose engine had quit: “He was persuading and willing and coaxing that airplane into doing what he wanted it to do, leaning it like a bobsled right down where it could safely land. He could feel its every movement as though it were his own body. My father wasn’t flying the airplane, he was being the airplane. That’s how he always done it.”

5. Charles E. Yeager

As a young Army Air Forces pilot in training, Yeager had to overcome airsickness before he went on to down 12 German fighters, including a Messerschmitt 262, the first jet fighter. After the war, still in the AAF, he trained as a test pilot at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, where he got to fly the United States’ first jet fighter, the Bell P-59, which he took on a joyride, flying low over the main street of his West Virginia hometown.

Yeager then went to Muroc Field in California, where Larry Bell introduced him and fellow test pilot Bob Hoover to the Bell XS-1. In his autobiography, Yeager, he says that Bell, in assuring them that a deadstick landing would be a piece of cake, bragged that “[W]ithout fuel aboard, she handles like a bird.”

“A live bird or a dead one?” Hoover asked.

In Yeager’s hands, the bullet-shaped XS-1 performed as advertised, and on October 14, 1947, ignoring the pain of two cracked ribs, he reached Mach 1.07 and lived to tell about it. The X-1 was not designed to take off under its own power it was air-dropped from a mothership. In January 1949, Yeager fired up the X-1’s four rockets on the runway. “There was no ride ever in the world like that one!” he later wrote. The aircraft accelerated so rapidly that when the landing gear was retracted, an actuating rod snapped and the wing flaps blew off.

He also managed to fly the Douglas X-3, Northrop X-4, and Bell X-5, as well as the prototype for the Boeing B-47 swept-wing jet bomber. The Bell X-1A nearly ate him for breakfast one December day in 1953. Yeager thought he could coax the X-1A to Mach 2.3 and bust Scott Crossfield’s Mach 2 record, achieved in the Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket. At 80,000 feet and Mach 2.4, the nose yawed, a wing rose, and the X-1A went berserk “in what pilots call going divergent in all three axes,” Yeager wrote. “I called it hell.” He was able to recover at 25,000 feet.

Yeager was sent to Okinawa in 1954 to test a Soviet MiG-15 that a North Korean had used to defect. When he stopped test-flying that year, he had logged 10,000 hours in 180 types of military aircraft.

6. Scott Crossfield

When Navy fighter pilot and flight instructor Scott Crossfield heard about the Bell Experimental Sonic XS-1 under construction in 1947, he wrote to its manufacturer proposing that he be named its first test pilot he offered to fly it for free. Bell did not reply, but no matter: In 1950 Crossfield was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and sent to Edwards Air Force Base in California to fly the world’s hottest X-planes, including the X-1, the tail-less Northrop X-4, the Douglas D-558-I Skystreak and D-558-II Skyrocket, the Convair XF-92A (which he pronounced “under-powered, under- geared, underbraked, and overweight”), and the Bell X-5. He made 100 rocket-plane flights in all. On November 20, 1953, he took the D-558-II to Mach 2.04, becoming the first pilot to fly at twice the speed of sound.

He gained a reputation as a pilot whose flights were jinxed: On his first X-4 flight, he lost both engines in the Skyrocket, he flamed out the windshield iced over in the X-1. After a deadstick landing in a North American F-100, he lost hydraulic pressure and the Super Sabre slammed into a hangar wall. Forever after, Chuck Yeager crowed, “The sonic wall was mine the hangar wall was Crossfield’s.”

Despite the many thrills at Edwards in the Golden Age of X-Planes, Crossfield was seduced by an aircraft on the North American drawing board. In 1955, he quit the NACA and signed on with the manufacturer, where he found his calling with the sinister-looking X-15. Crossfield made the first eight flights of the X-15, learning its idiosyncrasies, and logged another six after NASA and Air Force pilots joined the program. On flight number 4, the fuselage buckled right behind the cockpit on landing, but he had his closest call on the ground, while testing the XLR-99 engine in June 1960. “I put the throttle in the stowed position and pressed the reset switch,” Crossfield wrote in his autobiography Always Another Dawn. “It was like pushing the plunger on a dynamite detonator. X-15 number three blew up with incredible force.” Fire engines rushed to extinguish the blaze, and Crossfield was extracted from the cockpit. “The only casualty was the crease in my trousers,” he told reporters. “The firemen got them wet when they sprayed the airplane with water.” You sure it was the firemen? a reporter asked. Yes, he was sure, he aid. “I pictured the headline: ‘Space Ship Explodes Pilot Wets Pants.’ ”

7. Erich Hartmann

Unlike the rest of the pilots in “Ten Great,” Erich Hartmann flew only one aircraft type, and did almost all his flying during World War II. But his downing a mindboggling 352 enemy aircraft and earning the title of the Greatest Ace of All Time, No Kidding, places him on this list fair and square.

Hartmann’s mother taught him to fly gliders in his teens. He enlisted in the Luftwaffe in 1940, and his profiency at gunnery school marked him as a rising star. When he arrived on the Eastern Front at age 20, he was nicknamed Bubi (boy) by fellow pilots, and took to the Messerschmitt Me 109 like a duck to water. Hartmann’s winning technique was to fly so close to the enemy that he couldn’t miss. In November 1942 he scored his first victory, and within a year had downed 148 aircraft. The number of medals and awards seemed to keep pace with the number of fallen aircraft, which reached 301 in August 1944.

His superiors deemed him too valuable an asset to remain in combat (he was forced down 16 times) and called him back to test the Messerschmitt Me 262. But Hartmann was dedicated to fighting the Soviets and finagled a reassignment to the front. He was made a group commander and downed another 51 aircraft before Germany surrendered. In less than three years, he had flown 825 combat sorties.

Hartmann spent 10 years in a Russian prison. Three years after his release in 1955, he was commanding West Germany’s first all-jet fighter wing. He remained with the air force for another 15 years.

8. Anthony W. LeVier

Along with the P-38, the U-2, and the SR-71, Tony LeVier was one of Lockheed’s most prized legends. LeVier cut his teeth on air racing and placed second in the 1939 Thompson Trophy Race. The next year he was hired as a test pilot by General Motors then he moved to Lockheed.

LeVier flight-tested the P-38 Lightning to the ragged edges of its envelope and was sent to England to teach Eighth Air Force pilots how to get the most out of it. On one harrowing flight, in a 60-degree dive at over 500 mph initiated at 35,000 feet, the airplane started to nose over LeVier hauled back on the stick, trying to maintain dive angle. What saved him were dive-recovery flaps that engineers had just installed to prevent this very problem. At 13,000 feet, LeVier slowly regained control. “My strain gauges were set for 100 percent of limit load,” he reported in Test Pilots by Richard Hallion, “and they were all over 100 and all the red warning lights were on when I finally got out of the dive.”

Next up: the XP-80A, the nation’s first operational jet fighter. In 1945, by which time he was Lockheed’s chief test pilot, an XP-80’s turbine disintegrated and took the tail off the airplane. LeVier bailed out and crushed two vertebrae upon landing, an injury that grounded him for six months. He later called it “the most horrifying experience of my whole flying career.”

After World War II ended, LeVier worked with the model 75 Saturn and XR60-1 Constitution transports, and on the side bought a P-38 and got back into air racing. In 1946 he again placed second in the Thompson race. LeVier was the first to fly the XF-90, the YF-94 Starfire, the XF-104 Starfighter, and the U-2. (In Kelly: More Than My Share of It All, Lockheed designer Kelly Johnson recounts that when LeVier first saw the F-104, he asked, “Where are the wings?”—a question a great many others at least wondered about.) In 1950 he piloted the first Lockheed aircraft to surpass Mach 1, an F-90, which he dove at an angle of 60 degrees to reach 900 mph. When LeVier retired in 1974, he had made the first flights of 20 aircraft, had flown some 240 types of aircraft, and had survived eight crashes and a mid-air collision.

9. Jean Mermoz

In January 1921, on his third try, Jean Mermoz got his pilot’s license. Three years later, he signed up as a pilot with Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère, and set out to attain the goal of aircraft designer Pierre Latécoère: to create an airmail line linking Europe with Africa and South America.

In 1926, Mermoz had engine trouble over the Mauritanian desert and made an emergency landing. He was captured by nomadic Moors and held prisoner until a ransom was paid—a common practice and one of the many torments on the Latécoère airmail routes, which linked Toulouse to Barcelona, Casablanca, and Dakar. Mermoz was lucky—five Latécoère pilots were killed by Moors. Other hazards: the hostile Sahara, impenetrable Andes, and 150-mph winds that roiled over the southern Argentine coast.

In 1927, Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère became Compagnie Général Aéropostale, and Mermoz took charge of the South American routes. He made Aéropostale’s first South American night flight in April 1928 from Natal in Brazil to Buenos Aires in Argentina, along a route unmarked by any sort of beacon. After he showed the way, mail delivery was no longer restricted to daylight-only operations.

Mermoz next tackled shortening the Argentina-to-Chile route pilots had to make a thousand-mile detour to get around the Andes. With mechanic Alexandre Collenot, Mermoz set out in a Latécoère 25 monoplane and found an updraft that carried them through a mountain pass, but a downdraft smashed the aircraft onto a plateau at 12,000 feet. After determining that they could not hike out, Mermoz cleared a crude path to the edge of the precipice and removed from the aircraft anything that wasn’t bolted down. He and Collenot strapped themselves in, and Mermoz got the airplane rolling down the path. In effect, they dove off the mountain, and Mermoz pointed the nose straight down, hoping to gain flying speed. Again, luck was with him. And in July 1929, with the acquisition of Potez 25 open-cockpit biplanes that had a much higher ceiling than the Laté 25, Mermoz and Henry Guillaumet opened a scheduled route between Buenos Aires and Santiago.

In early 1930, Aéropostale looked to bridge the Atlantic. Mermoz, in a new Latécoère 28 float-equipped monoplane, took off on May 12 from St. Louis, Senegal, with a navigator, a radio operator, and a load of mail. As night fell, they flew into a series of waterspouts that rose into stormy clouds. In Wind, Sand and Stars, published in 1940, fellow Aéropostale pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry wrote: “Through these uninhabited ruins Mermoz made his way, gliding slantwise from one channel of light to the next, flying for four hours through these corridors of moonlight. And this spectacle was so overwhelming that only after he had got through the Black Hole did Mermoz awaken to the fact that he had not been afraid….”

Mermoz flew 1,900 miles in 19.5 hours, and landed in the Natal harbor the next morning. “Pioneering thus, Mermoz had cleared the desert, the mountains, the night, and the sea,” Saint-Exupéry wrote. “He had been forced down more than once…. And each time that he got safely home, it was but to start out again.”

The U.S. press called Mermoz “France’s Lindbergh.” On December 7, 1936, Mermoz departed Africa in a fourengine seaplane, bound for Brazil, on the weekly mail run. It was his 28th Atlantic crossing. Neither he nor his crew were seen again.

10. Jacqueline Auriol

The daughter-in-law of Vincent Auriol, president of France from 1947 to 1954, Jacqueline Auriol learned to fly so she could escape the stuffy protocol of the Palais Elysée. Her mentor, instructor Raymond Guillaume, imbued her with a passion for aerobatics. After the crash of a Scan 30 amphibian in which she was a passenger, she faced 22 surgeries to put her face back together yet, her first words in the ambulance rushing her to the hospital were “Will it be long before I can fly again?”


21–23 June 1937

Work order for Amelia Earhart’s Lockheed Electra at Bandoeng, 21–23 June 1937. (Purdue University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections) deur


Kyk die video: Richard Edwards Rallying Mini Tempest 2009 (Mei 2022).