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Wat was die eerste groot historiese gebeurtenis wat afgeneem is?

Wat was die eerste groot historiese gebeurtenis wat afgeneem is?

Die eerste foto is vermoedelik aan die einde van die 1820's geneem. Maar wat was die eerste groot historiese gebeurtenis wat afgeneem is?


Dit is moeilik om 'n antwoord te gee, wat is 'nbelangrike historiese gebeurtenis?

Volgens Wikipedia was Carol Szathmari die eerste gevegsfotograaf tydens die Krimoorlog (1853-1856). Dit was 'n paar jaar voor die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog. Sommige tegniese inligting kan gevind word by die Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României

Op Wikipedia noem hulle ook 'n daguerreotipe van die Amerikaanse troepe in Satilo, Mexiko, (1847).

Hermann Biow het foto's gemaak na 'n groot brand in Hamburg (1842). Dit was ten minste 'n plaaslike belangrike historiese gebeurtenis.

Edit: Ek het nuwe inligting gevind. Die boek Photography: A Cultural History deur Mary Warner Marien bevat 'n paar interessante inligting op bladsy 44ev. Volgens die boek was daar geen planne om die foto's van die Hamburg -vuur te maak nie (Hermann Biow). Die eerste beplande foto's van historiese gebeure word in 1848 in Frankryk (abdikasie van koning Louis-Phillippe) deur Eugène Thibault gemaak.

Die eerste oorlogsfoto's kom uit die Mexikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog (1848, sien bladsy 47).


Die eerste opname van 'n foto was die eerste groot historiese gebeurtenis wat gefotografeer is (alhoewel dit by implikasie eerder as direk gefotografeer is: jy kan dit nie op die foto sien nie).


KORT ANTWOORD

Dit sou heel waarskynlik die Mexikaanse - Amerikaanse oorlog (1846-48). In die besonder is daar 'n 1847 prentjie wat die eerste amputasie wat gefotografeer is, kan wys.


BESONDERHEDE

Alhoewel die eerste foto uit 1826 of 1827 dateer (sien prentjie hier), het dit baie jare geneem om die probleem met die lang blootstellingstyd (tot 8 uur vir vroeë foto's) op te los. Teen 1841 is dit aansienlik afgesny (maar was nog minstens een minuut), en portrette en foto's van monumente het gewild geword. Teen die laat 1840's het fotograwe begin 'uitstap'

dorpe en dorpe is bedien deur reisende fotograwe wat waens as ateljees ingerig het

Dit wil voorkom asof dit uit hierdie tyd was dat die eerste groot historiese gebeurtenis (vir al die probleme van hierdie definisie) opgeteken is: die Mexikaanse -Amerikaanse oorlog.

Foto van 'n amputasie op 18 April 1847 tydens die Mexikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog van sersant Antonio Bustos deur die Belgiese chirurg Pedro Vander Linden (wat die been vashou) (via Wikimedia)

Hierdie foto kan ook die eerste van 'n amputasie wees. Ander foto's van die Mexikaanse Amerikaanse oorlog kan hier gevind word, almal met behulp van daguerreotipe fotografie.

Miskien is die volgende 'groot historiese gebeurtenis' wat gefotografeer is, die Groot Uitstalling in Londen in 1851. Die onderstaande foto gebruik 'n ander fotografiese proses (Calotype).

Gemonteerde Calotype wat 'n toneel uit die Groot Uitstalling van 1851 uitbeeld. William Henry Fox Talbot [Publieke domein], via Wikimedia Commons

As ons 'n plaaslike geleentheid aanvaar, dan is hierdie foto van 'n waterdrukking in 1842 voor die ander.

Op Pinterest 'N Groot skare kyk na 'n waterval by die Saône -rivier in Lyon, Frankryk, 1842. Moontlik die vroegste foto van 'n sportbyeenkoms.


Die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog is die eerste werklike gebruik van foto's wat ek vir 'n historiese gebeurtenis of oorlog gesien het. Dit het in 1861 begin, so daar is 'n leemte, maar ek weet nie van ander foto's wat moontlik geneem is nie.


Oorsprong Redigeer

Met die uitvinding van fotografie in die 1830's, is die moontlikheid om oorlogsgebeure vas te lê om die openbare bewustheid te verbeter, eers ondersoek. Alhoewel fotograwe verkieslik die vinnige gevegsoptrede akkuraat sou wou opneem, het die tegniese gebrek aan vroeë fotografiese toerusting dit moontlik gemaak om bewegings op te neem. Die daguerreotipe, 'n vroeë vorm van fotografie wat 'n enkele beeld met 'n silwer bedekte koperplaat gegenereer het, het baie lank geneem voordat die beeld ontwikkel het en kon nie onmiddellik verwerk word nie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Aangesien vroeë fotograwe nie in staat was om beelde van bewegende onderwerpe te skep nie, het hulle meer sedentêre aspekte van oorlog, soos versterkings, soldate en land voor en na die geveg saam met die herskepping van aksietonele opgeneem. Net soos met gevegsfotografie, is portretbeelde van soldate ook dikwels opgevoer. Om 'n foto te maak, moes die onderwerp 'n paar minute lank heeltemal stil wees, sodat hulle gemaklik was en bewegings verminder. [ aanhaling nodig ]

'N Aantal daguerreotipes is geneem van die besetting van Saltillo tydens die Mexikaans -Amerikaanse oorlog, in 1847 deur 'n onbekende fotograaf, hoewel dit nie vir joernalistiek was nie. [1] [2]

John McCosh, 'n chirurg in die Bengaalse leër, word deur sommige historici beskou as die eerste oorlogsfotograaf wat by sy naam bekend is. [3] [4] Hy het 'n reeks foto's gemaak wat die Tweede Anglo-Sikh-oorlog van 1848 tot 1849 beskryf. Dit bestaan ​​uit portrette van mede-offisiere, sleutelfigure uit die veldtogte, [3] administrateurs en hul vrouens en dogters, waaronder Patrick Alexander Vans Agnew, [5]: 911 Hugh Gough, 1st Burggraaf Gough die Britse bevelvoerder -generaal Sir Charles James Napier en Dewan Mulraj, die goewerneur van Multan. [6] [7] Hy fotografeer ook plaaslike mense en argitektuur, [7] artillerieplekke en die vernietigende nadraai. [5] McCosh het later die Tweede Anglo-Birmaanse Oorlog (1852–53) afgeneem waar hy kollegas, wapens, tempelargitektuur in Yangon en Birmaanse mense afgeneem het. [3]

Die Hongaars -Roemeens Károly Szathmáry Papp het foto's geneem van verskillende offisiere in 1853 en van oorlogstonele naby Olteniţa en Silistra in 1854, tydens die Krimoorlog. Hy het persoonlik in 1855 ongeveer 200 fotoalbums aan Napoleon III van Frankryk en koningin Victoria van die Verenigde Koninkryk aangebied. [8]

Stefano Lecchi het tussen 1849 en 1859 foto's geneem van die gevegsplekke van die Romeinse Republiek met behulp van die Calotype -proses [9]

Stigting Redigeer

Die eerste amptelike pogings tot oorlogsfotografie is deur die Britse regering aan die begin van die Krimoorlog gedoen. In Maart 1854 het Gilbert Elliott die opdrag gekry om uitsigte op die Russiese vestings langs die kus van die Oossee te neem. [10] Roger Fenton was die eerste amptelike oorlogsfotograaf en die eerste om 'n stelselmatige dekking van oorlog tot voordeel van die publiek te probeer doen. [5] [11]

Hy is aangestel deur Thomas Agnew en land in 1854 by Balaclava. Sy foto's was waarskynlik bedoel om die algemene afkeer van die Britse volk teen die ongewildheid van die oorlog te voorkom en om die soms kritiese beriggewing van korrespondent William Howard Russell van Die tye. [12] [13] Die foto's is omskep in houtblokke en gepubliseer in The Illustrated London News.

As gevolg van die grootte en omslagtige aard van sy fotografiese toerusting, was Fenton beperk in sy keuse van motiewe. Omdat die fotografiese materiaal van sy tyd lang blootstelling nodig gehad het, kon hy slegs foto's van stilstaande voorwerpe maak, meestal foto's wat hy vermy het om foto's te maak van dooie, beseerde of verminkte soldate. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Fenton het ook die landskap gefotografeer - sy bekendste beeld was van die gebied naby waar die Charge of the Light Brigade plaasgevind het. In briewe het huissoldate die oorspronklike vallei genoem Die Vallei van die Dood, toe Thomas Agnew die foto in September 1855 as een van 'n reeks van elf gesamentlik getoon het Panorama van die plato van Sebastopol in elf dele in 'n Londense uitstalling het hy die troep se bynaam geneem, uitgebrei as Die vallei van die doodskaduwee en dit aan die stuk toegeken. [14] [15]

Verdere ontwikkeling Redigeer

Fenton verlaat die Krim in 1855 en word vervang deur die vennootskap van James Robertson en Felice Beato. In teenstelling met Fenton se uitbeelding van die waardige aspekte van oorlog, toon Beato en Robertson die vernietiging. [16] Hulle het die val van Sevastopol in September 1855 afgeneem, met ongeveer 60 beelde. [17]

In Februarie 1858 arriveer hulle in Calcutta om die nagevolge van die Indiese Rebellie van 1857 te dokumenteer. [18] Gedurende hierdie tyd het hulle moontlik die eerste fotografiese beelde van lyke gemaak. [19] Daar word geglo dat ten minste een van die foto's wat in die paleis van Sikandar Bagh in Lucknow geneem is, die skeletoorblyfsels van Indiese rebelle afgebreek of herrangskik is om die dramatiese impak van die foto te verhoog.

In 1860 het Beato die vennootskap verlaat en die vordering van die Anglo-Franse veldtog tydens die Tweede Opiumoorlog gedokumenteer. Saam met Charles Wirgman, 'n korrespondent vir The Illustrated London News, het hy die aanvalsmag vergesel wat noordwaarts na die Taku -fort gereis het. Beato's foto's van die Tweede Opiumoorlog was die eerste om 'n militêre veldtog te dokumenteer terwyl dit ontvou het, deur dit te doen deur 'n reeks gedateerde en verwante beelde. [20] Sy foto's van die Taku -forte vorm 'n verhalende weergawe van die slag, met die benadering tot die forte, die gevolge van bombardemente op die buitemure en vestings, en uiteindelik die verwoesting in die forte, insluitend die lyke van dooie Chinese soldate . [20]

Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het Haley Sims en Alexander Gardner begin om gevegstonele te herskep om die beperkings van vroeë fotografie met betrekking tot die opname van bewegende voorwerpe te oorkom. Hul herkonfigureerde tonele is ontwerp om die visuele en emosionele gevolge van die geveg te versterk. [21]

Gardner en Mathew Brady het lyke van dooie soldate tydens die Burgeroorlog herrangskik om 'n duidelike beeld te skep van die gruweldade wat met die geveg verband hou. [22] In Soldate op die slagveld, Het Brady 'n omstrede tafelblad van die dooies in 'n verlate landskap opgelewer. Hierdie werk, saam met Alexander Gardner se werk uit 1863, Huis van 'n Rebel Sharpshooter, was beelde wat, toe dit aan die publiek gewys word, die verskriklike werklikheid van oorlog huis toe gebring het. [23]

Tydens die burgeroorlog het George S. Cook wat waarskynlik die wêreld se eerste foto's van werklike gevegte is, waarskynlik tydens die Unie-bombardement van die Konfederale vestings naby Charleston vasgevang-sy natbordfoto's wat onder vuur gemaak is, toon ontploffings en skepe van die Unie vuur op suidelike posisies 8 September 1863. [24] By toeval het die noordelike fotograwe Haas en Peale 'n fotografiese bord van USS gemaak New Ironsides in 'n geveg op 7 September 1863.

Die dodelikste oorlog in die Suid -Amerikaanse geskiedenis was die Paraguayaanse oorlog van 1865-1870. Dit was ook die eerste geleentheid vir Suid -Amerikaanse oorlogsfotografie. In Junie 1866 het die firma Montevideo van Bate y Compañía die Uruguayaanse fotograaf Javier López opdrag gegee om na die slagveld te reis. [25]

López het die natkollodasieproses gebruik en sy borde in 'n draagbare donker kamer gemaak en ontwikkel. Die borde was sensitief vir blou lig, net sy donker kamer was 'n oranje tent. Dit was die eerste keer dat fotografie Suid -Amerikaanse oorlogvoering dek en sy beelde word ikonies. [26] Die firma het wel 'n jaar gelede 'n fotograaf gestuur om die beleg van Paysandú te dek, maar hy het opgedaag nadat die geveg verby was. Hy het beelde van die verwoeste stad en lyke in 'n straat geneem.

Die Tweede Anglo-Afghaanse Oorlog van 1878-1880 is gefotografeer deur John Burke wat saam met die Britse magte gereis het. Dit was 'n kommersiële onderneming met die hoop om albums met oorlogsfoto's te verkoop.

20ste eeu Edit

Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was een van die eerste konflikte waartydens kameras klein genoeg was om op die persoon gedra te word. Die Kanadese soldaat Jack Turner het in die geheim en onwettig 'n kamera na die slagveld gebring en foto's gemaak. [27]

In die 20ste eeu het professionele fotograwe al die groot konflikte behandel, en baie is as gevolg daarvan gedood, waaronder Robert Capa, wat die Spaanse burgeroorlog, die Tweede Sino-Japannese oorlog, die D-Day-landings en die val van Parys, en konflikte in die 1950's tot sy dood deur 'n landmyn in Indochina in Mei 1954. [28] [29] Fotojoernalis Dickey Chapelle is in November 1965 deur 'n landmyn in Viëtnam vermoor. Die vlag omhoog op Iwo Jima in 1945 geneem deur fotojoernalis Joe Rosenthal. [30]

Anders as skilderye, wat 'n enkele illustrasie van 'n spesifieke gebeurtenis voorgehou het, het fotografie die geleentheid gebied om 'n uitgebreide hoeveelheid beeldmateriaal in omloop te bring. Die verspreiding van die fotografiese beelde het die publiek in staat gestel om goed ingelig te wees in die diskoerse van oorlog. Die koms van massa-weergegee oorlogsbeelde is nie net gebruik om die publiek in te lig nie, maar dit het as afdrukke van die tyd en as historiese opnames gedien. [31]

Massaprodusente het beelde wel gevolge gehad. Behalwe om die publiek in te lig, het die oorvloed van afbeeldings in verspreiding die mark te versadig, sodat kykers die vermoë kon ontwikkel om die onmiddellike waarde en historiese belangrikheid van sekere foto's te verontagsaam. [21] Ten spyte hiervan behandel fotojoernaliste steeds konflikte regoor die wêreld.

Joernaliste en fotograwe word beskerm deur internasionale konvensies van gewapende oorlogvoering, maar die geskiedenis toon dat hulle dikwels as stryd beskou word deur strydende groepe - soms om haat teenoor hul teenstanders te toon en ander kere om te verhoed dat die feite op die foto's bekend word. Oorlogsfotografie het gevaarliker geword met die koms van terrorisme in gewapende konflik, aangesien sommige terroriste joernaliste en fotograwe teiken. In die Irak -oorlog is 36 fotograwe en kamera -operateurs ontvoer of vermoor tydens die konflik van 2003 tot 2009. [32]

Verskeie mense is selfs dood deur Amerikaanse vuur. Twee Irakse joernaliste wat by Reuters werk, is veral tydens 'n lugaanval op 12 Julie 2007 deur 'n helikopter bestorm, wat 'n skandaal opgelewer het toe WikiLeaks die video van die geweerkamera publiseer. [33] Hilda Clayton is dood toe die mortier wat sy opneem, per ongeluk ontplof het. [34] Oorlogsfotograwe hoef nie noodwendig naby aktiewe gevegte te werk nie, maar hulle kan die nadraai van konflik dokumenteer. Die Duitse fotograaf Frauke Eigen het 'n fotografiese uitstalling oor oorlogsmisdade in Kosovo gemaak wat fokus op die kleding en besittings van die slagoffers van etniese suiwering, eerder as op hul lyke. [35] Eigen se foto's is geneem tydens die opgrawing van massagrafte, en is later gebruik as bewys deur die Internasionale Strafhof vir die voormalige Joego -Slawië. [36]


Eerste foto ooit

Die wêreld se eerste foto& mdashor ten minste die oudste foto wat oorleef is en mdash is in 1826 of 1827 deur Joseph Nic & eacutephore Ni & eacutepce geneem. Die skoot is geneem met behulp van 'n tegniek wat bekend staan ​​as heliografie, en is geneem uit 'n venster op die boonste verdieping by Ni & eacutepce se landgoed in Bourgondië. Aangesien heliografie unieke beelde lewer, is daar geen duplikate van die stuk nie, wat nou deel uitmaak van die permanente versameling aan die Universiteit van Texas-Austin.


Wanneer is fotografie uitgevind?

Eerste foto: 1827

Dit was slegs een uit 'n reeks eksperimente, maar View from the Window by Le Gras is die vroegste foto wat nog oorleef het. Nic & eacutephore Ni & eacutepce gebruik 'n metaalplaat met 'n film chemikalieë daarop.

Alhoewel dit ligsensitief was, was dit nie baie sensitief nie. Dit het 8 uur geneem om die prent op te neem. U kan sonlig aan beide kante van die geboue sien verlig. Van hier af beweeg die tydlyn van fotografie vinnig.

Sterrekundiges, ander wetenskaplikes en 'n nuwe ras kunstenaars/wetenskaplikes, die naturiste, het verskillende metaalplaattegnologieë begin gebruik. Die naturiste was dikwels self wetenskaplikes en uitvinders, en gebruik hierdie nuwe tegnologie om die skoonheid van die wêreld om hulle op te teken.

Daguerreotipe: 1839

Omtrent hierdie tyd het die woord fotografie begin word om hierdie nuwe bedryf te beskryf. Vanaf 1839 het die gewilde metaalplaatproses, bekend as daguerreotipe, hierdie mengsel van kuns en tegnologie vir die massas oopgemaak.

foto deur merrymoonmary via iStock

Die massas wat die tyd en geld kon bekostig, was in elk geval hierby betrokke. Alhoewel dit een van die makliker fotoprosesse van metaalplaat was, was dit steeds morsig, duur, baie tydrowend en ietwat gevaarlik.

Voer die kamera in: 1841

Fotograwe van hierdie era gebruik oor die algemeen kameras wat deur hulself of geskoolde vakmanne ontwerp en gemaak is, en het lense wat deur optiese vervaardigers vervaardig is, aangepas om fotografies te gebruik.

Vroeg in die kamera se tydlyn van die geskiedenis van fotografie was optiese ondernemings soos Zeiss, Leitz en ander wat lense spesifiek vir fotografie begin ontwerp het. Voightlander het 'n stap verder gegaan en in 1841 'n kamera vir metaalplate bekendgestel.

Fotojoernalistiek: 1848 - 1865

Benewens die wetenskaplike gebruik en al die kuns wat geproduseer is, het fotografie ook in die nuus gekom. Die Juniedae 1848 -werkers kom in opstand in Frankryk, die Krimoorlog van 1853 - 1856 en die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog van 1861 - 1865 bring fotografiese beelde van oorlog in die openbare oog.

Geskrewe joernalistieke beskrywings en handgetekende of geverfde illustrasies is vervang deur fotografiese beelde. Hierdie beelde is in openbare vertonings vertoon en in koerante en tydskrifte gepubliseer.

foto deur duncan1890 via iStock

In die fotografie -tydlyn het dit fotografie gehelp om 'n sterk plek in die moderne samelewing te kry. Kan u u nou die nuus sonder foto's voorstel?

Celluloid Roll Film: 1835 - 1887

Metaal- en glasplate was broos, omslagtig en moeilik om mee te werk, en ietwat duur vir die gemiddelde mens. Fotograwe het steeds gesoek na 'n meer toeganklike metode.

'N Kombinasie van twee tegnologieë, silwerhaliede en emulsies gebaseer op selluloïde, word steeds verbeter.

In 1835 het Henry Fox Talbot 'n lewensvatbare metode uitgevind om 'n gelatienemulsie op papier te versprei. In 1839 het sterrekundige John Herschel 'n manier gevind om die beeld wat deur silwer haliede aangeteken is, reg te stel.

foto deur juankphoto via iStock

In 1887 is hierdie twee tegnologieë eers saam as 'n fotografiese film vervaardig. Hierdie film kan in individuele velle of as 'n rol vervaardig word.

KODAK: 1888

George Eastman van Rochester, New York, het 'n idee gehad. Gebruik hierdie nuwe rolfilm, bou 'n eenvoudige kamera wat maklik is om te gebruik en bemark dit as 'n prettige produk. In die geskiedenis van fotografie was Eastman 'n meester in bemarkingsfotografie vir die massas. & ldquoU druk op die knoppie, ons doen die res. & rdquo

foto deur DutchScenery via iStock

Eastman Kodak het 'n dryfveer geword in die wêreldwye oplewing van fotografie. Hulle het baie verskillende filmsformate bekendgestel, beide in rolle en lakens, sowel as kameras vir beginners, entoesiaste en professionele fotograwe.

Bewegende prente: 1878 - 1900

foto deur Grafissimo via iStock

Rolprente, bewegende foto's of films is 'n vasgemaakte deel van die tydlyn van fotografie.

Die vraag oor hoe om die bewegende onderwerpe die beste te vang, is eers suksesvol beantwoord deur Eadweard Muybridge in reaksie op die afhandeling van 'n weddenskap oor perdehoewe en galop. Die dinge wat tegnologie beweeg!

In 'n kort tydjie is kameras en gepaardgaande projekte uitgevind om deurlopende bewegings te verfilm en te vertoon deur op 'n groot skerm te projekteer. Latere innovasies soos klankopname word ook mettertyd bygevoeg.

35mm Film en die Leica: 1913

Een van die meer algemene formate van rolfilm was 135 -formaat, ook 35mm genoem. Hierdie formaat is hoofsaaklik vir rolprente gebruik, maar dit het ook in klein patrone vir miniatuur -stilkameras begin rol, soos dit destyds genoem is.

Die filmkameras het 35mm film vertikaal deur die kameras vervoer, met 'n beeldraamwerk van 18x24mm. In 1913 het Oskar Barnack, 'n ingenieur van Leitz, 'n prototipe -kamera ontwerp wat die film horisontaal vervoer het, met 'n beeldraam van 24x36 mm.

Foto deur jacopo marello op Unsplash

Teen 1925 is die Leica I bekendgestel en het dit 'n kommersiële sukses geword. Mettertyd het die 24x36mm -formaat een van die mees vervaardigde en gebruikte beeldformate in alle fotografie geword. Dit geld vandag nog in digitale kameras.

35mm SLR's: 1957 en 1959

Alhoewel daar baie film- en kameraformate bestaan, het 35mm een ​​van die gewildste formate in ons fotografiegeskiedenis geword.

In 1957 is die eerste ooglens-kyk-enkellensrefleks-kamera met 'n onmiddellike retourspieël deur Asahi Optical van Japan bekendgestel, die Pentax genoem.

In 1959 word die Nikon F, 'n professionele 35 mm SLR met 'n hele stelsel lense, motoraandrywings en ander toebehore daar rondom vrygestel.

Foto deur Jonathan Talbert op Unsplash

35 mm SLR's het een van die primêre soorte kameras geword vir fotografiese beelde. Hulle vormfaktor en beeldformaat is steeds een van die meer dominante kragte in moderne digitale fotografie.

Digital Reigns Supreme: 1975 - Hede

Die geskiedenis van die tydlyn van fotografie vorder tot vandag toe, met digitale beeldvorming wat die meeste fotograwe op die voorgrond tree. Digitaal is 'n fantastiese medium vir fotografie vanweë al die uiteenlopende formate, bergings- en vertoonopsies en die gemak van die oordrag van beelde.

Die eerste bekende digitaal opgeneemde beelde is in 1975 in 'n Kodak -laboratorium geskep en dit het 23 sekondes geneem om die beeld van 0,01 MP te neem. Die kamera was baie basies, maar die opnameapparaat weeg 8 pond.

Onder die eerste digitale kameras van die tagtigerjare en negentigerjare was verskeie kameras van rekenaarskerms van rekenaarvervaardigers en groter kameravervaardigers. Van ongeveer 1989 tot in die vroeë 2000's werk Fuji en Kodak saam met Canon en Nikon om digitale kameras te maak wat pas by wat professionele persone benodig.

Nikon het toe die D1 in 1999 bekendgestel. Dit was die eerste keer dat 'n groot kamera -vervaardiger alleen 'n kamera ontwerp en gebou het spesifiek as 'n digitale stelselkamera.

Foto deur Chris Yang op Unsplash

Teen 2004 het die sensor in die Canon EOS 1D Mark II die resolusiekrag van die voormalige Kodachrome -skyffilm in die industrie oortref. Digitaal was hier om te bly. DSLR's neem byna 35 mm SLR's oor.

Tydlyn geskiedenis van fotografie gaan voort: Tans

Alhoewel baie aandag gegee word aan 35mm -kameras, film of digitaal, bestaan ​​daar baie ander formate. Ons kan ook kyk na die bekendstelling van video -opname vir rolprente.

Een van die interessantste aspekte van die tydlyn van fotografie is die moderne slimfoon. Dink net, ons kan 'n kamera in ons sak dra wat foto's en video's opneem. Ons kan hierdie foto's en films dan feitlik onmiddellik na byna oral ter wêreld oordra.

Foto deur Omar Prestwich op Unsplash

In vergelyking met die camera obscura of stinkende metaalplate, kom ons beslis ver.

Die onderwerp van 'n tydlyn vir die geskiedenis van fotografie kan 'n taamlik groot boek vul.

Hopelik sal hierdie kort opsomming u in gedagte hou om voort te gaan met die bevordering van u as kunstenaar/wetenskaplike/vakman, ook bekend as fotograaf!


20 Eerste foto's uit die geskiedenis van fotografie

Fotografie is 'n medium van onbeperkte moontlikhede sedert dit oorspronklik in die vroeë 1800's uitgevind is. Die gebruik van kameras het ons in staat gestel om historiese oomblikke vas te vang en die manier waarop ons onsself en die wêreld om ons sien, te hervorm. Om die wonderlike geskiedenis van fotografie en fotografiese wetenskap te vier, het ons twintig fotografiese 'eerstes' van die afgelope twee eeue bymekaargemaak.

#1. Die eerste foto

Die wêreld se eerste foto wat in 'n kamera gemaak is, is in 1826 deur Joseph Nicéphore Niépce geneem. Die foto is geneem uit die vensters op die boonste vloer van Niépce se landgoed in die Bourgondiese streek, Frankryk. Hierdie beeld is geneem deur 'n proses wat bekend staan ​​as heliografie, waarin Bitumen van Judea op 'n stuk glas of metaal bedek is wat die Bitumen verhard het in verhouding tot die hoeveelheid lig wat dit getref het.

#2. Die eerste kleurfoto

Die eerste kleurfoto is geneem deur die wiskundige fisikus, James Clerk Maxwell. Die stuk hierbo word beskou as die eerste duursame kleurfoto en is deur Maxwell onthul tydens 'n lesing in 1861. Die uitvinder van die SLR, Thomas Sutton, was die man wat die ontspanknop ingedruk het, maar Maxwell word toegeskryf aan die wetenskaplike proses wat dit gemaak het moontlik. Vir diegene wat probleme ondervind met die identifisering van die beeld, is dit 'n drie-kleur boog.

#3. Die eerste Kaapse Canaveral -bekendstellingsfoto

NASA-fotograwe het die eerste foto gemaak van 'n Cape Canaveral-lanseer in Julie 1950. Die vuurpyl wat gelanseer is, staan ​​bekend as die 'Bumper 2', 'n tweestadige vuurpyl wat bestaan ​​uit 'n V-2-raket en 'n WAC Corporal-vuurpyl. Die foto wys ook duidelik dat ander fotograwe in 'n ry staan ​​en gereed is om hul foto's van die gebeurtenis te kry.

#4. Die eerste digitale foto

Die eerste digitale foto is in 1957 geneem, amper 20 jaar voordat Kodak se ingenieur die eerste digitale kamera uitgevind het. Die foto is 'n digitale skandering van 'n skoot wat aanvanklik op film geneem is. Die prent beeld die seun van Russell Kirsch uit en het 'n resolusie van 176 𴢈 – 'n vierkantige foto wat enige Instagram -profiel waardig is.

#5. Die eerste foto van 'n persoon

Die eerste foto van 'n mens verskyn hierbo in 'n kiekie wat deur Louis Daguerre geneem is. Die blootstelling het ongeveer sewe minute geduur en was daarop gemik om die Boulevard du Temple, 'n deurpad in Parys, Frankryk, vas te lê. As gevolg van die lang blootstellingstyd was baie mense wat in die straat gestap het, nie lank genoeg op hul plek om 'n indruk te maak nie. Links onder op die foto kan ons egter 'n man sien staan ​​en sy skoene laat blink. Verdere ontleding van die prentjie het later 'n paar ander figure gevind, en kan u dit vind?

#6. Die eerste selfportretfoto

Voordat 'selfies' woedend was, het Robert Cornelius 'n kamera opgestel en die wêreld se eerste selfportret agter in 'n onderneming in Chestnutstraat in Center City, Philadelphia, geneem. Cornelius sit 'n bietjie meer as 'n minuut voor die lens, voordat hy die sitplek verlaat en die lens bedek. Die nou ikoniese foto is 170+ jaar gelede in 1839 geneem.

#7. Die eerste hoax -foto

Die eerste hoax -foto is in 1840 deur Hippolyte Bayard geneem. Beide Bayard en Louis Daguerre het baklei om die titel "Vader van die fotografie" op te eis. Bayard het vermoedelik sy fotografieproses ontwikkel voordat Daguerre die Daguerreotype bekendgestel het. Die aankondiging van die uitvinding is egter uitgestel, en Daguerre het die oomblik geëis. In 'n rebelse optrede het Bayard hierdie foto gemaak van 'n verdrinkte man wat beweer dat hy homself om die lewe gebring het weens die vete.

#8. Die eerste lugfoto

Die eerste lugfoto is nie deur 'n hommeltuig geneem nie, maar in plaas daarvan deur 'n lugballon in 1860. Hierdie lugfoto beeld die stad Boston van 2 000 voet af. Die fotograaf, James Wallace Black, het sy werk 'Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It' genoem.

#9. Die eerste sonfoto

Die eerste foto van ons son is op 2 April 1845 deur die Franse natuurkundiges Louis Fizeau en Leon Foucault geneem. Die momentopname is geneem met behulp van die Daguerreotype -proses (moenie dit aan Bayard vertel nie) en het na 'n 1/60 sekonde gevolg. As u die foto noukeurig waarneem, kan u verskeie sonvlekke sien.

#10. Die eerste ruimtefoto

Die eerste foto uit die ruimte is geneem deur die V-2 #13-vuurpyl, wat op 24 Oktober 1946 gelanseer is. Die foto beeld die aarde in swart-en-wit van 'n hoogte van 65 myl af. Die kamera wat die skoot geneem het, was 'n 35 mm -filmkamera wat elke tweede en 'n half 'n raam geknip het toe die vuurpyl reguit in die atmosfeer klim.

#11. Die eerste nuusfoto

Alhoewel die fotojoernalis se naam moontlik weggeglip het, het sy werk dit nie gedoen nie. Hierdie foto wat in 1847 via die Daguerreotype -proses geneem is, is vermoedelik die eerste foto wat ooit geneem is vir die nuus, 'n man wat in Frankryk gearresteer is.

#12. Die eerste president foto

John Quincy Adams, die sesde president van die Verenigde State, was die eerste president wat sy foto laat neem het. Die daguerreotipe is in 1843 geskiet, 'n goeie aantal jare nadat Adams sy amp verlaat het in 1829. Die eerste om sy foto te laat neem in die kantoor was James Polk, die 11de president, wat in 1849 afgeneem is.

#13. Die eerste weerligfoto

Weerlig kan 'n opwindende onderwerp wees om vas te lê, en die eerste fotograaf wat 'n momentopname gemaak het, het dit in 1882 gedoen. Fotograaf, William Jennings, het sy bevindings gebruik om aan te toon dat weerlig baie ingewikkelder was as wat oorspronklik gedink is en let op hoe die weerlig vertak in bogenoemde stuk.

#14. Die eerste noodlottige vliegtuigongelukfoto

Rampfoto's is miskien nie die aangenaamste onderwerpe nie, maar ons kan leer uit ons foute uit die verlede. Hierdie foto uit 1908 toon die dood van Aviator Thomas Selfridge aan. Die vliegtuig was 'n eksperimentele ontwerp deur die Aerial Experimental Association, wat deel was van die Amerikaanse weermag. Die vliegtuig het ook Orville Wright vervoer toe dit neerstort, maar hy het dit oorleef.

#15. Die eerste maan foto

Die eerste foto van die maan is op 26 Maart 1840 deur John W. Draper geneem. Die foto was 'n Daguerreotipe wat Draper van sy observatorium op die dak aan die Universiteit van New York geneem het. Die beeld het sedertdien 'n aansienlike hoeveelheid fisiese skade opgedoen.

#16. Die eerste gekleurde landskapsfoto

Die eerste gekleurde landskap wat die wêreld in kleur vertoon, is in 1877 geneem. Fotograaf, Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron, was 'n baanbreker in kleurfotografie en was die brein agter die proses wat hierdie foto geskep het. Die skoot beeld Suid -Frankryk uit en het die gepaste titel "Landskap van Suid -Frankryk".

#17. Die eerste foto van die aarde vanaf die maan

Die aarde is op 23 Augustus 1966 van al die glorie van die maan af gefotografeer. 'N Maan -wentelbaan wat in die omgewing van die maan reis, het die skoot geneem en is daarna in Robledo De Chervil in Spanje ontvang. Dit was die maan se ruimtetuig se 16de wentelbaan om die maan.

#18. Die eerste Tornado -foto

Die natuur kan 'n vernietigende krag wees, en hierdie beeld van 'n Tornado is geneem in 1884. Die fotograaf is geneem deur 'n plaaslike vrugteboer wat in Anderson County, Kansas, woon. Die amateurfotograaf, A.A. Adams, het sy bokskamera bymekaargemaak en die foto 14 myl van die sikloon geneem.

#19. Die eerste foto van Mars

Die eerste beeld van die planeet Mars is deur Viking 1 geneem kort nadat dit op die rooi planeet geraak het. Die foto is op 20 Julie 1976 geneem, aangesien NASA sy missie vervul het om beelde van die planeet se oppervlak met 'n hoë resolusie te verkry. Die beelde is gebruik om die Mars -landskap en die struktuur daarvan te bestudeer.

#20. Die eerste 3D Amerikaanse president portretfoto

Rekenaarkundiges van die Smithsonian en die USC Institute for Creative Technologies het saamgespan om die eerste 3D Presidentsportret te neem. Die opname van Barack Obama gebruik 'n pasgemaakte 50 LED-ligskikking, agt 'sport'-kameras en ses groothoekkameras. Die foto is meer as 3D gedruk en kan by die Smithsonian besigtig word.


Die 16 belangrikste oomblikke in die naakte TV -geskiedenis

Net toe ons gedink het dat HBO, om 'n kabel-TV-geraas deur te breek, 'n paar testikels met 'n kat-o-x-nege-sterte moet slaan of kyk hoe iemand se ma seks het, HBO bewys dat alles wat u nodig het, 'n randy stenograaf is, gespeel deur Alexandra Daddario, en die gebrek aan 'n T-hemp.

Kris Jenner, Amerika se mees naakte ouma, 2014

U kan nie 'n eenvoudige reality-TV-program oor die kinders van voorheen beroemde tieners kyk sonder om borste te sien nie. Can nudity even have impact anymore? Have boobs finally jumped the shark? (Note to self: Is it possible to find a coffee mug with a picture of boobs jumping a shark?) Is it over? Yeah, probably not.

The Enduring Reign of Sideboob

Pamela Anderson, Sideboob Pioneer, Baywatch, September 1992

There was a time, before the Internet showed Paris Hilton’s sideways red-carpet boob, when there was very little nakedness on TV. It was the era of sideboob, and it’s not over. We don't know who thought of it, but they should be richer than Pam Anderson by now.

Natalie Dormer Becomes the Most Disrobed Lady in History (of shows we admit to watching)

It's not just Game of Thrones, it's The Tudors! And something from the BBC! And with any luck, season two of True Detective!

The Creative Nakedness of Game of Thrones

Perhaps no other show has done more than _GoT _to pioneer the imaginative wearing of less. Prime example: Cave-Bath Steamed Nipples (above). This is why nubile wildings exist.

Men Get Gratuitously Not Naked

David Cross bathing in Jorts on “Arrested Development”, 2003

Right now, you can turn on your television and see a naked woman doing basically anything a human is capable of doing—broadcasting the news, showering in prison. Sometimes these women even interact with men! And what are the men wearing when they join these casually nude women in bed, or in the shower, or in any old place? Broek. Or shirts. Or furs. Recall, for instance, the Game of Thrones scene where poor naked Rose Leslie's Ygritte stands, exposed, in front of Kit Harington's Jon Snow, who is sporting…a mammoth-sized animal pelt over pants, and probably a shirt and some armor. It's embarrassing, the way we are spared the sight of something we see every day. It's actually more awkward than the real thing. And if programmers won't go full frontal, we have "A Modest Proposal" (see above David Cross in Arrested Development selfs bathed in jorts.)—Zach Baron

Okay, And Sometimes Men Get Gratuitously Naked

Surprise Nakedness, Part 1: Late Show with David Letterman

Feeling celebratory, Drew Barrymore bares her half birthday suit to David Letterman on the Late Show for his forty-eighth.

Surprise Nakedness, Part 2: The Super Bowl Halftime Show

During the Super Bowl halftime show, Janet Jackson reveals that a giant ninja star is tragically stuck in her right nip!

Surprise Nakedness, Part 3: MTV Movie Awards

Brüno (a.k.a. Sacha Baron Cohen, in full Victoria's Secret Angel regalia) straddles Eminem. He's super jazzed about it!

NYPD Blou Breaks All the Rules

Dennis Franz's pioneering butt on NYPD Blou, Fall 1993

"I wanted to have adults in realistic sexual situation," says NYPD Blue co-creator Steven Bochco. Which meant more breasts and butts—male and female—than any network show at the time. There would be no Game of Thrones, if there was no NYPD Blue.


Social Documentation and Advances in Technology

In the second half of the 19th century, the field would expand beyond war and disaster photos. Photographer John Thomson paired with journalist Adolphe Smith for a monthly magazine that depicted the lives of people on the streets of London. From 1876 to 1877, Street Life in London revolutionized the field by using images as the dominant means of storytelling.

Room in a Tenement in New York City. (Photo: Jacob Riis / Museum Syndicate)

Two important technological developments also helped push the field forward&mdashhalftone printing and flash powder. Halftone, which eventually replaced engraving, allowed the full range of shadows in photographs to be printed and sped up the printing process greatly. By the early 1900s, the technology would be adopted by most daily papers. Flash powder allowed for candid, indoor photography, something that would be fundamental for the foremost social photojournalist of the time, Jacob Riis.

A Danish immigrant, Riis arrived in the United States in 1870. His seminal work, How the Other Half Lives, documented the lives of immigrants living in New York&rsquos slums and tenements. Used as a catalyst for social reform, his work showed the real power that photojournalists can have for spurring change.


Inhoud

The coining of the word "photography" is usually attributed to Sir John Herschel in 1839. It is based on the Greek φῶς (phōs), (genitive: phōtós) meaning "light", and γραφή (graphê), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light". [4]

A natural phenomenon, known as camera obscura or pinhole image, can project a (reversed) image through a small opening onto an opposite surface. This principle may have been known and used in prehistoric times. The earliest known written record of the camera obscura is to be found in Chinese writings by Mozi, dated to the 4th century BCE. [5] Until the 16th century the camera obscura was mainly used to study optics and astronomy, especially to safely watch solar eclipses without damaging the eyes. In the later half of the 16th century some technical improvements were developed: a biconvex lens in the opening (first described by Gerolamo Cardano in 1550) and a diaphragm restricting the aperture (Daniel Barbaro in 1568) gave a brighter and sharper image. In 1558 Giambattista della Porta advised using the camera obscura as a drawing aid in his popular and influential books. Della Porta's advice was widely adopted by artists and since the 17th century portable versions of the camera obscura were commonly used — first as a tent, later as boxes. The box type camera obscura was the basis for the earliest photographic cameras when photography was developed in the early 19th century. [6]

The notion that light can affect various substances — for instance, the suntanning of skin or fading of textile — must have been around since very early times. Ideas of fixing the images seen in mirrors or other ways of creating images automatically may also have been in people's minds long before anything like photography was developed. [7] However, there seem to be no historical records of any ideas even remotely resembling photography before 1700, despite early knowledge of light-sensitive materials and the camera obscura. [8]

In 1614 Angelo Sala noted that [9] sunlight will turn powdered silver nitrate black, and that paper wrapped around silver nitrate for a year will turn black. [10]

Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694. [11]

Schulze's Scotophorus: earliest fleeting letter photograms (circa 1717) Edit

Around 1717, [12] German polymath Johann Heinrich Schulze accidentally discovered that a slurry of chalk and nitric acid into which some silver particles had been dissolved was darkened by sunlight. After experiments with threads that had created lines on the bottled substance after he placed it in direct sunlight for a while, he applied stencils of words to the bottle. The stencils produced copies of the text in dark red, almost violet characters on the surface of the otherwise whitish contents. The impressions persisted until they were erased by shaking the bottle or until overall exposure to light obliterated them. Schulze named the substance "Scotophorus" when he published his findings in 1719. He thought the discovery could be applied to detect whether metals or minerals contained any silver and hoped that further experimentation by others would lead to some other useful results. [13] [14] Schulze's process resembled later photogram techniques and is sometimes regarded as the very first form of photography. [15]

De la Roche's fictional image capturing process (1760) Edit

The early science fiction novel Giphantie [16] (1760) by the Frenchman Tiphaigne de la Roche described something quite similar to (color) photography, a process that fixes fleeting images formed by rays of light: "They coat a piece of canvas with this material, and place it in front of the object to capture. The first effect of this cloth is similar to that of a mirror, but by means of its viscous nature the prepared canvas, as is not the case with the mirror, retains a facsimile of the image. The mirror represents images faithfully, but retains none our canvas reflects them no less faithfully, but retains them all. This impression of the image is instantaneous. The canvas is then removed and deposited in a dark place. An hour later the impression is dry, and you have a picture the more precious in that no art can imitate its truthfulness." [17] De la Roche thus imagined a process that made use of a special substance in combination with the qualities of a mirror, rather than the camera obscura. The hour of drying in a dark place suggests that he possibly thought about the light sensitivity of the material, but he attributed the effect to its viscous nature.

Scheele's forgotten chemical fixer (1777) Edit

In 1777, the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele was studying the more intrinsically light-sensitive silver chloride and determined that light darkened it by disintegrating it into microscopic dark particles of metallic silver. Of greater potential usefulness, Scheele found that ammonia dissolved the silver chloride, but not the dark particles. This discovery could have been used to stabilize or "fix" a camera image captured with silver chloride, but was not picked up by the earliest photography experimenters. [18]

Scheele also noted that red light did not have much effect on silver chloride, a phenomenon that would later be applied in photographic darkrooms as a method of seeing black-and-white prints without harming their development. [19]

Although Thomas Wedgwood felt inspired by Scheele's writings in general, he must have missed or forgotten these experiments he found no method to fix the photogram and shadow images he managed to capture around 1800 (see below). [19]

Thomas Wedgwood and Humphry Davy: Fleeting detailed photograms (1790?–1802) Edit

English photographer and inventor Thomas Wedgwood is believed to have been the first person to have thought of creating permanent pictures by capturing camera images on material coated with a light-sensitive chemical. He originally wanted to capture the images of a camera obscura, but found they were too faint to have an effect upon the silver nitrate solution that was recommended to him as a light-sensitive substance. Wedgwood did manage to copy painted glass plates and captured shadows on white leather, as well as on paper moistened with a silver nitrate solution. Attempts to preserve the results with their "distinct tints of brown or black, sensibly differing in intensity" failed. It is unclear when Wedgwood's experiments took place. He may have started before 1790 James Watt wrote a letter to Thomas Wedgwood's father Josiah Wedgwood to thank him "for your instructions as to the Silver Pictures, about which, when at home, I will make some experiments". This letter (now lost) is believed to have been written in 1790, 1791 or 1799. In 1802, an account by Humphry Davy detailing Wedgwood's experiments was published in an early journal of the Royal Institution with the title An Account of a Method of Copying Paintings upon Glass, and of Making Profiles, by the Agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver. Davy added that the method could be used for objects that are partly opaque and partly transparent to create accurate representations of, for instance, "the woody fibres of leaves and the wings of insects". He also found that solar microscope images of small objects were easily captured on prepared paper. Davy, apparently unaware or forgetful of Scheele's discovery, concluded that substances should be found to eliminate (or deactivate) the unexposed particles in silver nitrate or silver chloride "to render the process as useful as it is elegant". [19] Wedgwood may have prematurely abandoned his experiments because of his frail and failing health. He died at age 34 in 1805.

Davy seems not to have continued the experiments. Although the journal of the nascent Royal Institution probably reached its very small group of members, the article must have been read eventually by many more people. It was reviewed by David Brewster in the Edinburgh Magazine in December 1802, appeared in chemistry textbooks as early as 1803, was translated into French and was published in German in 1811. Readers of the article may have been discouraged to find a fixer, because the highly acclaimed scientist Davy had already tried and failed. Apparently the article was not noted by Niépce or Daguerre, and by Talbot only after he had developed his own processes. [19] [20]

Jacques Charles: Fleeting silhouette photograms (circa 1801?) Edit

French balloonist, professor and inventor Jacques Charles is believed to have captured fleeting negative photograms of silhouettes on light-sensitive paper at the start of the 19th century, prior to Wedgwood. Charles died in 1823 without having documented the process, but purportedly demonstrated it in his lectures at the Louvre. It was not publicized until François Arago mentioned it at his introduction of the details of the daguerreotype to the world in 1839. He later wrote that the first idea of fixing the images of the camera obscura or the solar microscope with chemical substances belonged to Charles. Later historians probably only built on Arago's information, and, much later, the unsupported year 1780 was attached to it. [21] As Arago indicated the first years of the 19th century and a date prior to the 1802 publication of Wedgwood's process, this would mean that Charles' demonstrations took place in 1800 or 1801, assuming that Arago was this accurate almost 40 years later.


The birth of photography

Photography is so omnipresent today -whether in science, advertising, current events media, propaganda, or just our own snaps – it is hard to imagine a world without it. And yet 200 years ago it didn’t exist. In the period between the two Napoleons experiments were underway both in France and in England, and by the time Napoleon’s nephew Louis-Napoleon became Emperor of France in 1852, photography was creating its own small revolution.

What is photography?

The word “photography” literally means “drawing with light”. The word was supposedly first coined by the British scientist Sir John Herschel in 1839 from the Greek words phos, (genitive: phōtós) meaning “light”, and graphê meaning “drawing or writing”. The technology which led to the invention of photography essentially combines two distinct sciences: optics – the convergence of light rays to form an image inside a camera – and chemistry, to enable that image to be captured and recorded permanently onto a photosensitive (light-sensitive) surface.

The first camera?

Already during the Renaissance (several centuries earlier) artists had begun to use a sort of primitive “camera” called a camera obscura (a latin term meaning literally “dark room” from which is derived our modern word “camera”) to more accurately copy nature by means of drawing. This naturally-occurring optical phenomenon had already been observed for hundreds (even thousands) of years: If a brightly lit scene or object is placed opposite a hole cut into the side of a darkened space (room or container), the rays of light reflected off that object, passing through the hole, converge into an upside-down image which can be seen to be “projected” onto the surface inside the container. Maar die camera obscura only allowed for the viewing of that image in real time. In order to record it permanently, artists still had to trace the image by hand inside the camera.

Early photographic experiments

Around 1800, in England, Thomas Wedgwood (son of Josiah Wedgwood, the famous potter) managed to produce inside a camera obscura a black and white negative image on paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate, a white chemical which was known to darken when exposed to light. However, he was not able to fix the image permanently because the lighter parts of the image also became dark when looked at in the light for more than a few minutes. His discovery was reported in a scholarly journal in 1802 by a chemist Humphry Davy and translated into French.

The first photograph

Enhanced version of the image Nicéphore Niépce obtained from the window in Le Gras 1826/7 (See the original plate here)

Then, in 1816, (when Napoleon had just arrived on St Helena), a Frenchman, Nicéphore Nièpce, succeeded in capturing small camera images on paper treated with silver chloride (another chemical sensitive to light). However, like Wedgwood, he was not yet able to fix and preserve these images.

So, he began experimenting with other light-sensitive substances, and in 1822, Nièpce invented a process he named “heliography” (again, using Greek words, this time meaning “sun drawing”, from helios en graphê). And in 1826/7, Nièpce succeeded in making the earliest surviving camera photograph. It represented a view from a window at Le Gras (his hometown in Burgundy, France), captured on a pewter plate coated in bitumen diluted in lavender oil. The exposure time was probably several days.

The daguerreotype – the first commercial success

Daguerreotype of Louis Daguerre in 1844 by Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot

A few years later, Nièpce went into partnership with Louis Daguerre, and together they improved the heliograph process, substituting a more light-sensitive resin and improving post-exposure treatment. After Nièpce died in 1833, Daguerre developed a technique in which a silver-coated copper plate fumed with iodine vapour formed silver iodide when exposed to light in the camera. He made a major breakthrough when he found that a “latent” (almost invisible) image obtained from a brief exposure could be further developed and made visible by exposing it to mercury fumes: in this way exposure times (which previously were several hours) could be reduced to a few minutes . On 7 January 1839, Daguerre’s discovery was presented at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and due to the importance of the discovery, the French government decided to give Daguerre a life-time stipend (salary) in exchange for making the method freely available to whoever wanted to use it, instead of patenting it.

The daguerreotype, as Daguerre’s invention was named, was an immediate success, providing a relatively inexpensive and accurate way of representing scenes and faces which previously had to be drawn or painted by hand. Within a few years, photographic studios had popped up all over Paris and indeed across the world, as the up-and-coming middle classes all wanted to have their portraits taken. It is said that photographic apparatus was taken to St Helena to photograph Napoleon I’s body when it was exhumed in 1840, but that the material was damaged and did not work.

Reproductibility

At the same time that Daguerre was perfecting his process, an Englishman, William Fox Talbot, had in 1835 succeeded in producing negative photographic images using a technique similar to Nièpce’s early experiments, and which required a long exposure time (at least an hour). After reading about Daguerre’s discovery, Talbot perfected a method whereby a paper negative could be exposed for only a minute or two, producing a “latent” image which could then be chemically “developed out” and made visible. The resulting translucent negative, despite being less detailed than the daguerreotype, had the advantage that it could be used to make multiple positive copies. Talbot published his results, which became known as a “talbotype” or more usually “calotype” (from the Greek kalos, meaning “beautiful” and tupos meaning “impression”) in 1841, and this became the prototype for the negative-positive printing process which would remain the basis of analog photographic reproduction throughout the 19 th and 20 th centuries until the invention of digital photography.

Have a look at a video of the calotype process.

Criticism of the new medium

Honoré Daumier: the most practical position to achieve a nice portrait with a daguérreotype, 1847

Back in France there was however some resistance to the new technology, especially from artists who may have feared that photographers would put them out of business! Some of them, such as the satirical cartoonist Honoré Daumier, didn’t hesitate to ridicule the most successful photographers and their clients. The poet and art critic Baudelaire saw in photography the gratification of modern society’s innate materialistic and narcissistic tendencies (he would have hated the selfie!): “The foul society rushed like a single Narcissus to contemplate its trivial image on the metal [plate]”.

Artist-photographers and innovators

However, some artists, seeing the new medium’s potential for creativity, actually turned to photography themselves. One of them was Gustave Le Gray, a painter who set up his own portrait studios where he not only photographed friends, family and notable clients he also taught photographic technique to other photographers and even invented new techniques. In 1848, he realised that applying wax to paper negatives made them more receptive to detail. Then in 1850 he invented a glass negative process known as “wet collodion” (which was perfected by Frederick Scott Archer). This method, which provided more detailed images than the calotype but could be reproduced unlike the Daguerreotype, seemed to combine the best of both worlds.

Imperial patronage of the new medium

Gustave Le Gray, Prince-President Louis-Napoleon, 1852

It was Gustave Le Gray who was the first official photographer to a French head of state – Prince-President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, (nephew of Napoleon I) who went on to become Emperor in 1852. Like other monarchs, such as Queen Victoria, Louis-Napoleon quickly realised that photography provided the means to present himself and his family to his subjects as real human beings. Photographs could be reproduced in large numbers and in various formats (from pocket-sized “visiting cards” to special-edition framed prints which imitated traditional painted portraits).

Scientific missions

But the new medium was not limited to the lucrative activity of portraiture. Photographers were soon in demand for documenting all kinds of subjects for scientific purposes. Napoleon III himself initiated several of these commissions such as making accurate documentary images of historic buildings all over France that were in need of restoration (known as the “Mission Héliographique”) or reporting on the new military camp ordered by Napoleon III at Chalôns. The Crimean War of 1853-1856 which the Russian Empire lost against an alliance between France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia was the first to be documented photographically.

The beginning of press photography

Thibault, The Barricade in rue Saint-Maur-Popincourt before the attack by General Lamoricière’s troops, 1848

Before the invention of photography, current events and news were reported principally via the written word or occasionally by engraved copies of drawings or paintings. It was not until 1848 that a photograph of a current event – the barricade of the Rue Saint Maur (25-26 June), part of the ongoing tensions following the 1848 Revolution and the declaration of the Second French Republic – was reproduced (about two weeks after the event!) as an engraving in an illustrated magazine. After 1860, magazines would explicitly mention when an engraving was made from a photograph, and, by implication, lend weight to the supposed authenticity of the scene represented.

Photographic insight into history

The realism of photography adds a unique visual dimension to our understanding of the Second French Empire. We can look into the faces of the protagonists, the Imperial family, other personalities. We can also notice what they chose to show and what they chose not to, just as Napoleon I had carefully organised his public image when commissioning artists to make paintings of himself and his exploits.

Why not have a look at some painted portraits of Napoleon I and compare then with those official photographic representations of his nephew, Napoleon III…


The Evolution of the Camera

Afterward, cameras that can work and store images on a screen, developed.

  • The Kodak Camera: The Kodak Camera, which was one of the earliest camera models, developed by George Eastman at 1888 and released for sale.

The name is remembered because it successfully introduced the usage of films on camera. Although, it was a pretty simple design along with fixed shutter speed and fixed focal length.

  • Lucia- The First Compact Camera:
  • At the year of 1913, Oskar Barnack, a German optical engineer, presented a model prototype of compact camera called Lucia. It contained a 35mm lens and later on, it put into mass production in the year of 1925.
  • Reflex Camera: Reflex cameras designed and developed massively at the years of the 1920s and 1930s.
  • First SLR(Single Lens Reflex) Camera: The concept of seeing the image before capturing it introduced by SLR(Single Lens Reflex) cameras. It was in the year around the 1930s. To visualize the image that will be captured, the designer used a prism and afterward it turned to be the key concept of modern DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras.
  • Polaroid Camera: Polaroid cameras was an evolution of the industry because, for the first time in photography technology, it allows the cameraman to take and print the pictures instantly. A special chemical process used then in Polaroid cameras to print the image captures within almost one minute.

Although, the popularity of these models took off when another model of cameras,named as Polaroid Model 20 Swinger introduced at 1965. This version of Polaroid camera made history by being one of the most selling cameras of all time.

  • Disposable Cameras The next addition of camera technology bumped up with disposable cameras. Although the concept of disposable cameras was around during 1949, it actually showed up in the 1990s.

By then, the Kodak model cameras gained much popularity. Kodak cameras were so much popular because of their cheap rate and they perfect for event-based photo sessions like birthdays, weddings, etc.

Cameras With Digital Image Sensors: A real revolution in history was the introduction of digital image sensors in the cameras.

This tech-first promoted and invented by Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith at the year of 1969. In fact, because of the significant role of their invention, the scientist’s pair awarded the Nobel prize recently (2009).

First Commercial DSLR(Digital Single Lens Reflex) Camera: The most popular digital camera of the current age, named DSLR first introduced commercially by Kodak at the year of 1991.

Afterward, with a little evolution to the technology, photos and videos developed to be stored in SD memory cards as JPEG format.

Modern DSLR Cameras With a lot of improvements of DSLR cameras, it had turned into the magical device to take pictures of much higher resolution and pixels.

The popularity of digital cameras started to explode at around the 2000s as photography become so smarter and the photography costs decreased. Modern technology with digital cameras is being improved day by day with the introduction of electric viewfinders and touch-pads.

Brief History Of Photography: Infographic

Photography History Timeline

Names To Remember in Photography History

The invention of photography is considered to be a scientific achievement and a great addition to the industrial world. Apart from the scientific and business perspective, it contains a great art value that represents day to day life in a frame. The artistic concept of photography was first introduced by this man named Alfred Stieglitz.

Alfred Stieglitz

An American photographer and modern art promoter, he was instrumental in making photography an accepted art form. He is also known for his well-known art galleries where he worked to introduce many Avant-grade European artists to the USA. Alfred stressed that, apart from the painters, photographers are also and should be considered as artists.

Alfred Stieglitz (Source: https://www.wikiart.org/ )

Contribution of Alfred Stieglitz

The greatest contribution of Alfred into the history of the digital camera is the representation of day to day life into a still frame. Besides photography, Alfred, interested in Avant-garde. He owned a few famous art galleries in New York and through these, he introduced some great event-grade artists to the nation.

Alfred pointed out that, apart from the painters, the world considered photographers as artists. He demonstrated that the quality of photographs not only depends on the content of the picture only. It also depends on the conceptual representation of the photographer himself.

The photographer himself can manipulate a lot with the contents present in from the lens. Eventually, due to his restless efforts, photographs of different exhibitions started to be in judgment by photographers apart from artists.

Felix Nadar

Felix Nadar is a French caricaturist and journalist in his early life. Later when the era of photography started on, become a photographer. He is especially remembered for contributing an important factor into photography- using artificial lights in photography. An interesting fact is, Nadar was a friend of famous fiction writer Joules Verne, and thus two friends were inspired by each other.

Felix Nadar (source: wikimedia.org)

Contribution of Felix Nadar

Apart from the successful application of artificial light, Nadar was also famous for another great concept. Portrait photography, which is one of the most populated sectors of the modern photographic industry- was firstly introduced by Nadar. By that time, Nadar was known as close friends of many famous personalities like Joule Verne, peter Kropotkin, Alexander Dumas and George Sands.

Nadar introduced portrait photography with these sorts of famous personalities, and eventually, the concept of portrait photography spread out like wildfire.

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce

Who invented photography? We can say the name “Joseph Nicéphore Niépce”.

Considered as one of the fathers of photography, this French inventor is considered as a pioneer in the field.

He achieved the first successful fixation of an image produced with one camera obscura.

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (source: wikimedia.org )

Contribution of Joseph Nicéphore Niépce

  • Niépce is remembered for developing a technique called ‘Heliography’ meaning ‘Sun Drawing’
  • He developed the first photograph
  • Developed a technique used to create the world’s oldest surviving product of a photographic procedure,
  • Know to create a print made from the photoengraved printing plate.
  • In late years, he even used a primitive camera to develop the oldest surviving photo of a real-world scene.

Henry Cartier-Bresson

Photojournalism is one of the most studied subjects in the world of media and fine arts. But many of us don’t know who is the actual behind the scene person is. Henry Cartier, A French photographer was the first person to bring photojournalism into daylight. Personally, he has gathered photographic experience from around the globe.

Contribution of Henry Cartier-Bresson into the History of Photography

We are thankful to Henry for many reasons. He is the first person to tell the world that photography can be a solution to fix the eternity. When his first exhibition on portrait photographs took place at NY, the portrait pictures caught the attention of the world because being captured with a new dimension. Since then, people had been trying different versions of portrait photography.

Evolution of Photo Development Technology

Photographers use cameras to capture lights that come from the object that we photograph. But after clicking a photo on the camera, the next task is to develop and print the photo on paper. A lot of consequences had been noticed in this photo development technology. From an early age of black and white photo printing to modern color photography- it has been an enormous journey.

Here in this section, we will overlook at the evolution of the photography history timeline that we use to develop the photos after taking them.

Negative to Positive Process

Technologies of printing positive photos from negatives invented many years after the first photographs taken. The creation and invention of negative prints of photos from where multiple positive photos, captured by Henry Fox Talbot who was an English botanist and also a mathematician of contemporary Daguerre.

Talbot used a silver and salt solution to make it sensitive to light exposure and intensity. After putting the chemical on a paper, he exposed the paper to light. The background became black and the subject line subdivided into many shades of gray.

From the negative image, Talbot made several contact points that reversed the lights and intensities to create an original and detailed picture. In 1841, he successfully developed a model of negative to positive image printing and thus he called it

TintypesAfter Calotype, there was another technology which appeared in photography history. Though the patent was taken in 1856, the evolution took place after Calotype had already familiar. There was another medium of tin or iron based materials.

A layer of light-sensitive material provided on the metal sheet and yield the image based on the light intensity and exposure. Unless the material type, the working process was almost same like Calotype. So, both of these technologies were competitors of each other back then.

Wet Plate NegativesIn 1851, an English Sculptor Frederick Scoff Archer introduced another sort of technology for fast and accurate photo development. It called wet plate technology. There in this process, a viscous solution of collodion was used along with coated glass. Silver salts used as the light-sensitive material.

The model develops a perfect negative because it was glass instead of paper. From this invention, photographic development had been taken to the advanced level as the light-sensitive metal could be coated on glass sheets instead of papers. However, there were several disadvantages of the wet plate negatives.

They had to be developed so quickly so that the image can be printed before the emulsion dried. So, in the field, photographers had to carry a portable darkroom with them.

Dry Plate Negatives (With Hand Held Cameras)In the year of 1879, the invention of the dry plate has revolutionized the photographic concept and decreased the cost to a minimum. In fact, it was a glass plate along with gelatin emulsion.

Dry plates one can store for a particular period of time. So after the invention of dry plates, photographers didn’t need to carry the portable darkroom anymore. Hiring technicians to develop images instead of working in person was also a common trend of photographers of this age. In the dry chemical process, it absorbed the light so quickly. So the practice of carrying hand-held cameras started in this age. Overall, the invention of the dry plate was a significant milestone in modern photography.

Flexible Roll FilmUnlike the dry plate and wet plate films, a new version of photographic films introduced in 1889. The major benefit of those films as they were flexible and can roll up. The design implemented by considering the benefit that, it can hold more than 100 images at a time in a very tiny film slot in the camera. With this evolution, allotting a special place for camera films in the camera stopped and films were able to embed into the camera. The designer of this model was George East man. Cellulose nitrate was the chemical that was used in it. The age of box the camera began from this invention.

At the end of the black and white era, color photography was the next step. In was in early 1940s when commercially viable films that can contain multiple colors on it started. An exception was Coda chrome, which launched earlier in 1935. A technology of dye-coupled color was the chemical energy that photographers used in it. Eventually, an apparent color image got produced from this kind of camera. And not to mention that modern photography started with the concept of color photography.

Digital Photographyfinally, we are up to the latest era of photography, which we know as digital photography.

The storyline began when a team by Russell A, Kirsch developed a technology, an advanced version of the binary digital version of the existing technology. A device called the wire photo drum scanner was there to convert the alphanumeric characters, photographs, diagrams etc into binary signals for computers. The first digital photograph was of the infant son of Kirsch himself. The image resolution was 176 x 176 pixels and the pixel density was only one byte per pixel.


Kyk die video: Marc Boone: De Slag bij Gavere is de belangrijkste historische gebeurtenis van Vlaanderen (Oktober 2021).