Geskiedenis Podcasts

Yakama Indiese nasie

Yakama Indiese nasie

Die Gekonfedereerde Stamme en Bande van die Yakama-nasie is afstammelinge van 14 stamme en groepe wat federaal erken is onder die Yakama-verdrag van 1855. Die reservaat van 1,377,034 hektaar is geleë in die suidelike deel van Washington, langs die oostelike hange van die Cascade-bergreeks. Die spelling van "Yakama" is in 1994 deur die stam heringestel om terug te keer na die oorspronklike spelling. Hulle ekonomie was gebaseer op visvang, jag, versameling en handel tussen produkte soos visprodukte, mandjies, honde en perde*. Die seisoene het hulle na verskillende dele van die plato gelok. In die herfs het hulle die Cascadeberge ingegaan om bessies te pluk en te jag, terwyl hulle hul eetgoed vir die winter drooggemaak het. In ooreenstemming met 'n diepgaande verbondenheid wat die Yakama met hul omgewing gevoel het, het hulle dank vir hul voedsel deur middel van geestelike seremonies. In die 19de eeu het die Katolieke sendeling Charles Pandosy hulle aan die Christendom voorgestel. Die Yakama het die Lewis- en Clark -ekspedisie naby die samevloeiing van die riviere Yakima en Columbia in 1805 ondervind. Homesteaders, mynwerkers en ander sou in toenemende getalle volg. wit vraag na grond en hulpbronne, die territoriale goewerneur van Washington en die Indiese agent Isaac Stevens het op 9 Junie 1855 die Yakama -verdrag met die Yakama en 13 ander stamme en orkeste gesluit. .Die verdrag het twee jaar bepaal om die stamme en groepe toe te laat om na die nuwe reservaat te verhuis, maar goewerneur Stevens het minder as twee weke nadat die verdrag onderteken is, Indiese lande oopgemaak vir wit setlaars. In September 1858, tydens die Slag van Four Lakes naby Spokane, is die Indiane beslissend verslaan. Kamiakan het na Kanada ontsnap, maar twee dosyn ander leiers is aangekeer en tereggestel. Die meeste van die Yakama en ander stamme het daarna na die reservaat gegaan waar talle Sahaptin -dialekte, Chinookan, Salish en Engelse tale bymekaargekom het. Beperking van die reservaat het bygedra tot 'n sosiale ineenstorting, swak gesondheid, alkoholisme en ander probleme soos hoë kindersterftes. Agente het Indiërs ook gedwing om gewasse op die reservaat te verbou, maar hulle het sonder entoesiasme geboer. Besproeiingsprojekte het die salmloopbane van die Yakima-rivier vernietig en die plant- en dierlike habitat verwoes. In ooreenstemming met 'n nuwe federale beleid aan die einde van die 1800's, het regeringsagente die reservaat begin opdeel in toewysings van 80 hektaar vir individuele Indiërs, om bewerking aan te moedig. Teen 1914 het 4 506 stamlede 440 000 toegewysde hektare gehad, wat 780 000 hektaar in besit van die stam as geheel gelaat het. Blankes het deur amptelike kanale gesoek om die beweging van Yakama-mense op die Columbia-plato te beperk. In 1933 het die Yakama georganiseer as die Konfederasie-stamme van die Yakama-nasie. Die Yakama het sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gefokus op selfvoorsiening en ekonomiese onafhanklikheid. As gevolg van regsgevegte wat uitloop op die historiese Boldt-besluit van 1974, bevestig die federale regering Yakama-visregte en maak die stam 'n medebestuurder van visseryhulpbronne saam met die staat Washington.


*Na 1750.
Sien Indian Wars Time Table.
Sien ook die kaart van die inheemse Amerikaanse kultuurstreke.


Yakama -stam

Hierdie artikel bevat interessante feite, foto's en inligting oor die lewe van die Yakama Native American Indian Tribe, oftewel Yakima, van die Columbia River Plateau -streek.

Feite oor die Yakama Native Indian Tribe
Hierdie artikel bevat vinnige, prettige feite en interessante inligting oor die Yakama Indiane -stam.

Vind antwoorde op vrae soos waar die Yakama -stam gewoon het, watter klere hulle gedra het, wat hulle geëet het en wie die name van hul bekendste leiers was? Ontdek wat met die Yakama -stam gebeur het met feite oor hul oorloë en geskiedenis.

Watter taal het die Yakama -stam gepraat?
Die Yakama-stam het in 'n Sahaptiese dialek van die Penutiaanse taal gepraat en hulself Pakintlema genoem, wat beteken "mense van die gaping", of Waptailmim wat "mense-van-die-smal" beteken, wat die ligging van hul dorpe naby Union Gap aan die Yakimarivier weerspieël. Na die bekendstelling van die perd het die Yakama -mense op die Groot Vlakte buffels gejag en sommige van die lewenstylelemente van hierdie kultuurgroep aangeneem. Die Konfederasie -stamme en -bande van die Yakama -nasie, of bloot die Yakama -nasie (voorheen Yakima), was 'n konsolidasie van 14 bands, of stamme.

Waar het die Yakama -stam gewoon?
Die Yakama is mense van die inheemse Amerikaanse kultuurgroep Plateau. Die ligging van hul stamgebiede word op die kaart in die hedendaagse deelstaat Washington aangetoon. Die geografie van die streek waarin hulle gewoon het, het die lewenstyl en kultuur van die Yakama -stam bepaal.

Wat was die lewenstyl en kultuur van die Yakama -stam?
Die Yakama-stam het 'n semi-nomadiese leefstyl gelei om vis te vang, te jag of om wilde plante te versamel. Die Yakama-stam het in die winter in puthuise gewoon en in die somer tule-mat lodges of tepees. Die Lewis- en Clark -ekspedisie het die Plateau Yakama -stam teëgekom tydens hul verkennings in 1806. Die Yakama het baie van die idees van die Great Plains Indiane aangeneem, waaronder die gebruik van die tipi wat bedek was met buffelhuide en 'n paar kledingstukke ook gemaak van buffelvelle. .

Die Yakama -stam en die Lewis en Clark -ekspedisie
Lewis en Clark het die Yakama -stam in Oktober 1805 teëgekom en ontmoet hoofman Kamiakin, die oorlogsleier van die Yakama -nasie.

Waarin het die Yakama -stam gewoon?
Die Yakama was semi-nomadies en het skuilings nodig gehad wat maklik opgestel en verwyder kon word. Hulle het in een van drie skuilings gewoon, afhangende van die seisoen. Die tipe skuilings was 'n semi-ondergrondse puthuis, 'n tepee of 'n tule-mat lodge.

  • Kuilhuise was winterskuilings wat met houtblokke gebou is en verseël is vir isolasie met grond (sooi) en grasse. Hulle is onder die grond gebou met 'n ingang en leer bo
  • Die somerskuilings was die tepee- en tule-mat-lodge, albei bo die grond.
  • Tepees was bedek met dierevelle, maar die tule-mat lodge was bedek met matte sterk, duursame tule riete (borsels).

Watter vervoer het die Yakama gebruik? Dugout kano's
Toe die stam die plato-gebied bewoon het, het hulle kano's gebou wat gemaak is uit die uitgeholde hout van groot bome. Die mans het stompe met 'n beheerde vuur wat die hout versag het, uitgehol sodat hulle hul kano kon sny en vorm tot 'n plat bodem met reguit sye. Die kano was 'n uitstekende vervoermiddel vir reis langs vinnige strome en vlak waters van die Columbia-, Wenatchee- en Yakima -riviere.

Watter kos het die Yakama -stam geëet?
Die kos van die Yakama -stam bevat salm en forel en 'n verskeidenheid vleis van die diere en voëls wat hulle gejag het. Hulle het hul proteïendieet aangevul met sade, wortels, neute en vrugte.

Watter klere het die Yakama gedra?
Die klere wat die Yakama -mans en -vroue van die stam gedra het, was soortgelyk aan die klere van die Nez Perce - raadpleeg hierdie artikel vir meer inligting.

Watter wapens het die Yakama gebruik?
Die wapens wat gebruik is, was spiese, lansies, knolle, messe en boë en pyle. Die Yakama het ook skilde vir verdedigingsdoeleindes gebruik.

Wie was die bondgenote en vyande van die Yakama -stam?
Die bondgenote van die Yakama -stam was baie van die ander inheemse Amerikaanse Indiane wat die Plateau -gebied bewoon het, waaronder die Cayuse, Walla Walla, Spokane, Coeur D'Alene, Payuse en die Nez Perce. Die belangrikste vyande van die Yakama -stam was die Great Basin -groepe in die suide, waaronder die Shoshone-, Northern Paiute- en die Bannock -stamme.

Wie was die beroemde hoofmanne van die Yakama -stam?
Die bekendste leiers en hoofmanne van die Yakama -stam was onder meer Chief Kamiakin, Chief Qualchan en Chief Leschi van die Nisqually Native American -stam.

Wat het met die Yakama -stam gebeur?
Die volgende tydlyn van die geskiedenis van Yakama bevat feite, datums en beroemde bakens en gevegte wat deur die Yakama -nasie gevoer is. Die tydlyn van die geskiedenis van Yakama verduidelik wat met die mense van hul stam gebeur het.


Vandag in inheemse geskiedenis: Bosgrond teruggekeer na die Yakama -nasie

Op 20 Mei 1972 onderteken president Richard Nixon 'n uitvoerende bevel wat 21 000 hektaar bosgrond aan die Yakama-nasie in Washington terugbesorg en 'n eeu lange geskil oor reservaatgrense besleg.

Die bevel het teruggekeer na stamgebied aan die oostekant van die berg Adams, 'n sneeubedekte piek van byna 10 000 voet wat een van die heilige berge van die Yakama-nasie is. Die Yakama -verdrag van 1855, wat die reservaat geskep het, het die berg verkeerdelik weggelaat.

Toe ons onderhandel oor die verdrag, het ons oudstes seker gemaak dat hulle Mount Adams binne die besprekingsgrense insluit, het Emily Washines, 'n woordvoerder van Yakama Nation Fisheries, gesê. Die verdrag het gelei tot die Yakama -gevegte wat tussen 1855 en 1859 plaasgevind het en uiteindelik is die verdrag bekragtig, maar op daardie stadium het hulle 'n opmetingsfout gemaak wat Mount Adams uit die reservaatgrense gesny het. ”

In 1897 het president Grover Cleveland die Mount Rainier Forest Reserve naby die westelike grens van die Yakama -reservaat geskep. Tien jaar later het president Theodore Roosevelt die grens van die woud uitgebrei tot 'n oppervlakte van 21 000 hektaar, wat dan aangeneem is as openbare grond.

In 1942 is 'n gedeelte van die kanaal aangewys as die Mount Adams Wild -gebied en tussen 1964 en 1972 word dit onder die Wilderness Act as openbare grond beskou. Toe Nixon die grond aan die Yakama terugbesorg het, was dit deel van 'n groter gebied wat bekend staan ​​as die Gifford Pinchot National Forest.

“ Hierdie optrede is 'n verkeerde reg om 65 jaar terug te gaan, het Nixon gesê toe hy die uitvoerende bevel onderteken het. Die Amerikaanse regering het die verdragskaart in sy eie lêers verloor en teen die tyd dat daar gevind is dat aksies geneem is wat die Indiërs per ongeluk uit hierdie land verplaas het. ”

Die uitvoerende bevel was 'n oorwinning vir die Yakama Nation, 'n konfederasie van 14 stamme en groepe in die suide van Washington, wat Mount Adams as 'n belangrike en legendariese baken vereer het. Die berg, ook bekend as Pahto, is een van vyf susters wat uit die vyf heilige berge van die Yakama -nasie bestaan.

Pahto was jaloers op Washxim, oftewel Simcoe -berg, omdat sy die eerste oggend die son was. Dus kap Pahto die kop van Waxshim af en verlaat die berg met 'n plat top. As straf het die Skepper 'n arend oor Pahto gesit. Ondanks Pahto se aggressiewe daad lewer die berg steeds helder bronwater en baie voedselbronne.

“Mount Adams is geestelik belangrik, maar dit is ook 'n bron van baie hulpbronne, het Washines gesê. “Lande kom af, diere woon daar en bessies word geoes. Ons het ook tradisioneel daar bymekaargekom as gesinne. ”

Onmiddellik nadat die berg Adams verloor het, het die stam begin werk om dit terug te kry. Voordat dit suksesvol was, moes dit egter 'n generasie vaardige leiers oprig.

As elke generasie grootgeword het, was een van die dinge wat die ouderlinge sou herhaal, dat dit 'n fout van die VSA was, dit was iets wat ons moes regmaak, het Washines gesê. Ons kinders is grootgemaak omdat hulle dit gehoor het. Ons het uiteindelik 'n generasie gehad wat die wette verstaan ​​en Engels gepraat het en die saak na die regering kon neem. ”

Die eerste oorwinning het in 1966 gekom toe die Indian Claims Commission bevind het dat die grond met reg deel was van die Yakama -reservaat. Maar die kommissie het slegs die bevoegdheid om die stam te vergoed vir verlore lande, nie om die fout reg te stel nie.

Die stam werk toe saam met ander inheemse volke in soortgelyke omstandighede en trek die aandag van die nasionale media, sê Johnson Meninick, bestuurder van die kulturele hulpbronprogram vir die Yakama Nation. Meninick was 'n lid van die stamraad toe Nixon die grond terugbesorg het.

President Richard Nixon skud hande in 1972 met voorsitter Robert Jim.

Die oorspronklike landmeters was deurmekaar, en hy het gesê. Ons het altyd geweet die traktaat is uit die verdrag gelaat, maar ons moes jare lank kla voordat ons dit teruggekry het. Ons voorvaders het 50 jaar lank daarvoor gestry voordat dit uiteindelik deurgegaan het. ”


Godsdiens

Guardian Geeste

Die Yakama het as kinders op soek gegaan na 'n beskermingsgees. Kinders het alleen na 'n afgeleë plek gegaan en oornag of vir 'n paar dae gebly totdat hulle 'n gesig gehad het. Diegene wat 'n gees ontvang het, het nooit daaroor gepraat nie, maar sou later 'geestesongesteldheid' ondervind, en 'n twáti ('n dokter (sien 'genesingspraktyke')) sal verduidelik hoe om die krag te gebruik.

Yakama wat beskermgeeste gehad het, het deelgeneem aan wintergeesdanse of wáanpsha ("Medisyne sing"). Dit is geborg deur die familie van 'n persoon wat genees is. Wáanpsha het vyf dae geduur, en diegene met beskermgeeste het gesing en gedans, begelei deur tromspelers wat met stokke of kieries op planke geslaan het.

Langhuis -godsdiens

Die tradisionele Yakama -godsdiens het verskillende name gehad: Wáashat, langhuis of sewe tromgodsdiens, of inheemse Amerikaanse aanbidding. Wáashat kom van die Sahaptin -woord vir 'dans'. Dit is afgelei van idees van vroeë inheemse profete, en het gefokus op antieke rituele soos die First Foods Feast (sien “Feeste”).

Dienste is gehou in 'n langhuis waar deelnemers geskei is. Mannetjies het langs die noordelike muurwyfies gestaan, langs die suidelike een. Almal het aangetrek en hul gesigte rooi en geel geverf. Trommelaars, onder leiding van 'n klokkespeler, sit of staan ​​aan die westekant.

Deelnemers sing en dans in stelle van sewe ('n heilige getal) op 'n harde grondvloer. Aan die einde van elke liedjie het almal op hul plek gekom om van hul probleme ontslae te raak. Tussen die sangreekse het ouderlinge met die jongmense gepraat om hulle te herinner aan die leerstellings van hul grootouers. Kinders het soms uitgevoer met behulp van vinnige, springende stappe.

Water was belangrik vir die seremonie. Voor die rituele fees lui 'n klok, en almal sing 'n gebed. Die tweede keer dat dit lui, het hulle almal gesê koester (“Water”), en dan uit hul koppies gedrink. Hulle het dit aan die einde van die maaltyd herhaal.

Buite invloede

In 1847 het Pascal Richard en Eugene Casimir Chirouse die eerste Christelike sending gestig, maar hulle het dit dieselfde jaar tydens die Cayuse -oorlog laat vaar ('n konflik tussen die Cayuse -stam en die Amerikaanse regering) (1848–55). Ander denominasies het missies in die komende jare opgestel. In die vroeë een-en-twintigste eeu bied baie Katolieke en Protestantse kerke dienste op die reservaat.

Die Indian Shaker Church is ook 'n sterk invloed op die godsdienstige lewe van Yakama. Hierdie kombinasie van Christelike en inheemse Amerikaanse oortuigings, wat in 1881 deur John Slocum gestig is, is in 1890 aan die stam bekend gestel. Deelnemers gebruik gebel, voetstamp, skud en inheemse gebede om met God te kommunikeer en siektes te genees.

Yakama profete

Gedurende die 1850's het die Wanapum -profeet Smohalla (ongeveer 1815–1895) gevra om terug te keer na die inheemse Amerikaanse maniere. Hy het sy volgelinge aangesê om wit idees en goedere te vermy, om nooit hul vlegsels te sny nie, om tradisionele kos te eet en om visies te doen. Hy het ook 'n beroep op mense gedoen om nie na besprekings te gaan of om boere te word nie. Alhoewel hy geweldloosheid en vreedsame naasbestaan ​​met blankes verkondig het, was sy leerstellings van invloed op die organisering van die konfederasie van stamme wat die Yakima-oorloë geveg het.

Jake Hunt, 'n Klikitat, het Waptashi, of die Veer -godsdiens, in ongeveer 1904 begin. Terwyl tradisionele godsdienste God en Moeder Aarde eerbiedig het, het die Waptashi geglo dat die Arend die hoogste wese is. Boodskappe kom van die Eagle deur Jake Hunt. Hoewel hy op die Washani -manier grootgemaak is, het Hunt sy hare geknip en wit manneklere gedra.

Moderne godsdienstige oortuigings

In die moderne tyd aanbid die Yakama op verskillende maniere. Drie langhuise op die reservaat dien as tradisionele plekke van aanbidding. Sommige stamlede neem deel aan die Washani- of Feather -godsdienste. Ander woon Christelike kerke of die Indian Shaker Church by. Baie Yakama sien egter geen konflik in die kombinasie van beide inheemse en Christelike gebruike nie.


Yakama Indian Nation - Geskiedenis

Die Yakama -nasie is 'n inheemse stam van die Noordwes -Stille Oseaan wat in die staat Washington woon. Hier is 'n kort tydlyn van hul geskiedenis met Europeërs vanaf die 1750's tot die hede.

1750's: Die Yakama bekom die perd en hul leefstyl het verander toe hulle na die Great Plains kon reis om buffels te jag.

1805: Daar is kontak gemaak tussen die Yakama -stam en die Lewis en Clark -ekspedisie in Oktober 1805 naby die samevloeiing van die Yakima- en Columbia -riviere

1812: 'n Handelspos, bekend as Spokane House, is gebou naby die samevloeiing van Spokane en Little Spokane Rivers

1825: The Hudson's Bay Company stig Fort Vancouver as 'n handelspos

1836: Henry Marcus Whitman stig 'n Presbiteriaanse sending in Waiilatpu en maak kontak met die stam

1840 ’s: Luitenant Charles Wilkes, is deur die Amerikaanse regering gestuur om die Stille Oseaan -kus te verken.

1843: Die eerste groot migrasie langs die Oregon -roete het plaasgevind, wat uiteindelik gelei het tot gewelddadige konflikte met die wit setlaars wat met wa -treine langs die Oregon -roete gereis het

1845: Die blanke setlaars het verskillende siektes na die Indiane gebring wat in die omliggende gebiede van die Oregon -roete gewoon het

1847: Baie van die Yakama -stam word uitgewis deur 'n verwoestende reeks masels en pokke -epidemies

1847: Die Whitman -bloedbad het gelei tot die uitbreek van die Cayuse -oorlog

1847: Die Yakama-stam het geveg met hul inheemse Indiese bondgenote in die Cayuse-oorlog (1847-1855)

1855: Isaac Stevens (25 Maart 1818 - 1 September 1862), goewerneur van die Washington -gebied, onderhandel 'n verdrag met die Yakama.

1855: Die Yakima -verdrag word op 9 Julie 1855 onderteken

1855: Goewerneur Stevens het inheemse Indiese lande oopgemaak vir blanke setlaars minder as twee weke nadat die verdrag onderteken is. Yakama -hoof, hoof Kamiakin, het die stamme versoek om die verklaring teë te staan.

1855: Die Yakima-oorlog (1855-1858) het uitgebreek

1855: Die Slag van Toppenish Creek in Yakima -vallei is op 5 Oktober 1855 gevoer en was 'n groot oorwinning vir hoofman Kamiakin en die Yakama -stam

1855: Die Slag by Union Gap is op 9 en 10 November 1855 gevoer.

1857: The Fraser Canyon gold Rush

1858: Die Yakima -oorlog eskaleer na die ander inheemse Indiese stamme

1858: Die Slag van Four Lakes op 1 September 1858 het die einde van die Yakima -oorlog beëindig

1858: Die gebeure by “Horse Slaughter Camp ” sluit die Coeur d ’Alene en Yakima Wars af.

1859: Die verdrag is verbreek, die VSA gee slegs die helfte van wat aan die Yakama -mense belowe is

1860: Die eerste regeringskool vir inheemse Amerikaanse Indiane is gestig in die Yakima -reservaat, Washington -gebied

1887: Dawes se algemene toewysingswet wat deur die kongres aangeneem word, lei tot die opbreek van die groot Indiese reservate en die verkoop van Indiese lande aan blanke setlaars

1933: Die Yakama -stam is georganiseer as die Konfederasie -stamme van die Yakama -nasie.

1994: die Yakima -nasie het die spelling van sy naam aangeneem as “Yakama, ”, wat volgens hulle die meer korrekte historiese spelling van hul naam is.


HistoryLink.org

Yakima is die tweede grootste distrik van Washington in die gebied, met 'n oppervlakte van 4,296 vierkante kilometer en is sewende in die bevolking met 222 581 inwoners wat in die 2000-sensus van 2000 getel is. Die stad Yakima is die setel. Yakima County beslaan die grootste deel van die Yakama Indian Reservation, en federale, staats- of stamregerings besit byna 200 miljoen hektaar grond in die graafskap. Die ligging van baie dorpe in die Yakima County is grootliks bepaal deur die Northern Pacific Railroad, langs wie se roete die plekke gekies, benoem, platgemaak en uiteindelik aan setlaars verkoop is. Die primêre nywerheid in die Yakima County is landbou, wat jaarliks ​​gemiddeld 300 dae sonskyn en vulkaniese grond wat ryk is aan voedingstowwe, versterk word en moontlik gemaak word deur besproeiingsprojekte in die Yakimarivier.

Politieke Aardrykskunde

Yakima County grens in die weste aan wildernisgebiede: die Norse Peak Wilderness en Pierce County in die noordweste, die William O. Douglas Wilderness/Snoqualmie National Forest/Goat Rocks Wilderness en Lewis County in die sentrale weste, en die Cascade Mountain Range/ Mt. Adams Wilderness en Skamania County in die suidweste. Kittitas County grens aan Yakima in die noorde en die twee provinsies deel die 260.000 hektaar groot Yakima Firing Center, die Amerikaanse militêre reservaat. Benton County grens aan Yakima in die ooste en Klickitat County in die suide. Die Yakama Indian Reservation beslaan 1,271,918 hektaar (1,573 vierkante myl) in die suidelike deel van Yakima County en strek tot in Klickitat County. Die reservaat behels verskeie dorpe, waaronder Parker, Wapato, Toppenish, Vessey Springs en White Swan, sowel as 'n deel van die Simcoe -bergreeks.

Die oostelike helfte van Mount Adams (12,276 voet), 'n aktiewe andesitiese stratovulkaan, strek tot in die suidwestelike hoek van Yakima County. Mount Adams is die derde hoogste piek in die Cascade Range en die tweede hoogste piek in Washington (na Mount Rainier). 'N Gedeelte van die berg strek tot in die Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Skamania County. Gifford Pinchot National Forest is in 1908 as die Columbia National Forest gestig en in 1949 herdoop om Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946), eerste hoof van die National Forest Service, te vereer.

Die bergagtige westelike topografie van Yakima County maak plek vir halfdroë voetheuwels en saggies in die sentrale deel van die graafskap. Die Yakima -rivier, 'n sytak van die Columbia, loop deur die Yakima -vallei en met sy sytakke voed die Naches- en Tieton -riviere ongeveer 2100 myl besproeiingskanale in die Yakima -vallei.

Die naam Yakima is vertaal na swart beer (van yah-kah, wat swart beer beteken, en die meervoudige einde ma), of weggeloop, met verwysing na die bruisende waters van die Yakima-rivier of na 'n stamlegende oor 'n weghol of gedeporteer dogter van 'n Yakama -hoof.

Die vroegste inwoners van die streek was die gekonfedereerde groepe en stamme van die Yakama Indian Nation wat kamas, bitterwortel en bessies versamel het, hertjies gejag het en salm uit die Yakima- en Columbia -riviere geoes het. Hierdie groepe was nomadies, veral nadat hulle iewers tussen 1730 en 1760 perde uit die noordelike grootbekkenstamme begin bekom het.

Euro-Amerikaanse skikking

Die vroegste Europese setlaars was lede van die Catholic Oblate Missionaries of Mary Immaculate. Op uitnodiging van Yakama-kapteins Ow-hi (omstreeks 1858) en Kamiakin (ca. 1800-1877) het die Oblates verskeie klein missies in die Yakima-vallei begin in 1848 en 'n groter missie, St. Joseph's Mission on the Ahtanum, in 1852. Die eerste besproeiingsloot in die toekomstige Yakima County is dieselfde jaar op die terrein van hierdie missie gegrawe.

Washington -gebied is op 2 Maart 1853 gestig, en die nuut aangestelde territoriale goewerneur Isaac Stevens het vinnig besluit om die Indiese aanspraak op die land uit te wis en wit nedersetting aan te moedig. Op 9 Junie 1855 het 14 stamleiers die Verdrag van Yakima onderteken en 10,828,800 hektaar van hul voorvaderlande afgestaan ​​aan die Amerikaanse regering.

Die Yakama -nasie

Die stamleier van Yakama, Kamiakin, was 'n huiwerige ondertekenaar. Die byna onmiddellike versuim van Stevens om dele van die ooreenkoms af te dwing wat sekere Yakama -regte beskerm het, het daartoe gelei dat Kamiakin sy toestemming tot die verdrag teruggetrek het. Op 5 Oktober 1855 het 'n geweervuur ​​ontstaan ​​tussen die manne van Kamiakin en die troepe van majoor Granville Haller by Toppenish Creek, wat die begin van die Yakama Indiese oorloë was.

Die Amerikaanse regering het Fort Simcoe in 1856 gestig en teen 1858 is die opstand onderdruk deur die slagting en verhongering van baie lede van die stam. Baie oorblywende lede het hulle op reservaatgrond gevestig, moeilike oorgangsjare oorleef en voortdurend vir hul grondregte geveg.

In 1994 verander die stam die spelling van hul naam na Yakama. Die Yakama -nasie beheer byna 1,3 miljoen hektaar, die grootste landmassa wat beheer word deur enige van die 29 federaal erkende stamme in die staat. Die stam het 9 600 ingeskrewe stamlede, meer as enige ander Washington -stam. Drie taalfamilies was inheems aan die 14 bands en stamme wat die Yakama -nasie uitmaak: Sahaptian, Salishan en Chinookan. Die 14 groepe en stamme is die Palouse, Pisquouse, Yakama, Wenatchapam, Klinquit, Oche Chotes, Kow was wayee, Sk'in-pah, Kah-miltpah, Klickitat, Wish ham, See ap Cat, Li ay was en Shyiks.

Beeste in die Yakima -vallei

Die Indiane het kuddes beeste in die Yakima-vallei oorwinter sedert Kamiakin die eerste kudde in 1840 na die gebied gebring het. In 1859 het die legendariese beesman Ben Snipes (1835-1906) sy eerste trop beeste deur die Yakima-vallei na die goudvelde van die Fraserrivier in Kanada. John Jeffries, majoor John Thorp en vele ander veeteienaars het gevolg. Sommige voorraad is ook per stoomboot na Portland of Kalama gestuur en dan per spoor na Puget Sound. Lang beesritte deur die gebied was algemeen tot by die aankoms van die Northern Pacific Railroad, waarna beeste na spoorstasies gery en per spoor na die mark gestuur is.

Mortimer Thorp (1822-1893) en Margaret Bounds Thorp (1822-1888) met hul nege kinders was die eerste nie-Indiese, nie-missionêre setlaars in die Yakima-vallei, wat in 1861 by die toekomstige plek van Moxee aangekom het om by die 250 hoof aan te sluit van die beeste wat Thorp die jaar tevore daarheen gery het om te wei. Die Alfred Henson-gesin en die weduwee Nancy McHaney Splawn Bond (1812-1905) met haar vyf seuns, Charles, William, George, Moses en Andrew J., verhuis kort daarna na die Yakima-vallei. Other settlers followed, many of them young men associated with the area's increasing cattle culture. W. D. Lyman's History of the Yakima Valley Washington (Vol. 1), published in 1919, quotes Leonard Thorp's description of what he called a cattleman's paradise:

Present-day Yakima County was briefly (from January 1863 to January 1865) part of a large county called Ferguson County. When Ferguson was dissolved after only two years, the County of Yakima, including more or less present-day Yakima and Kittitas Counties, was established on January 21, 1865. On November 24, 1883, Kittitas County was divided from Yakima, leaving the county boundaries approximately as they remain.

Towns and Trains

The first town in the county was Yakima City, established in 1861 and incorporated in 1883. In 1884 the Northern Pacific Railroad located its station four miles north of Yakima City and the townspeople moved most of the town's buildings north to the station. Incorporated in 1886 and initially called North Yakima, in 1918 the new town became simply Yakima. The old town was then renamed Union Gap.

Moxee was founded in 1867. Over the next four decades other Yakima County towns were established, although some were little more than names for their first few years and were not officially incorporated for many more: Mabton (incorporated 1905), Toppenish (incorporated 1907), and Wapato (incorporated 1908) were founded in 1885. Zillah was established in 1892 and incorporated in 1911, Sunnyside was established in 1893 and incorporated in 1902. Granger, established in 1902, and Grandview, established in 1906, both incorporated in 1909. Selah was founded in 1907 and incorporated in 1919, Naches was established in 1908 and incorporated in 1921. Tieton incorporated in 1942 and Harrah in 1946.

The River and the Railroad

Two overwhelming forces shaped Yakima County's development: the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Yakima River. Snaking through the Yakima Valley, the Northern Pacific tracks linked the valley with Puget Sound through the Stampede Pass Tunnel. The first train rolled through Stampede Pass on May 27, 1888, replacing a slightly earlier series of track switchbacks that had been the only way across the Cascades.

The Northern Pacific owned a vast tract of land along the railroad right-of-way between Lake Superior and Puget Sound, courtesy of the May 23, 1864, Northern Pacific Land Grant. This grant deeded to the railroad alternating square miles of public land adjacent to the track right-of-way in a band 40 miles wide in states and 80 miles wide in territories in exchange for construction of a northern transcontinental line. The Northern Pacific was able to sell irrigated land for as much as $40 to $50 per acre as compared with $2.60 per acre for dry land, a powerful inducement for the railroad to fund irrigation. The Yakima River was the means to irrigate, populate, and make this land productive.

Walter Granger (1855-1930) was an irrigation engineer without whose diligence and determination Yakima County might not have attained its global reputation as an agricultural cornucopia and the fruit basket of the nation. Hired by Northern Pacific president Thomas Oakes (1843-1919) in 1889, Granger organized and managed the Yakima Canal and Land Company (in partnership with the Northern Pacific Railroad under the name Northern Pacific, Yakima, and Kittitas Irrigation Project) and the Washington Irrigation Company.

Charged with building irrigation systems and deciding where town sites and stations would be established along the railroad's Yakima Valley route, Granger and Northern Pacific employees took frequent scouting trips, often accompanied by the press or railroad VIPs. Granger determined the locations and names of Zillah, Granger, Sunnyside, and possibly other towns in the county and built the Sunnyside Canal, the largest irrigation canal in the Northwest at the time.

Irrigating the Valley

Most of Yakima County's population is centered along the Yakima River. Irrigation for farming was crucial to the success of these communities, and individual farmers had created small canals from the time of non-Indian settlement. The Sunnyside Canal began operation in 1892 and other private irrigation canals followed. These unregulated projects over-appropriated Yakima River supplies.

The United States Congress passed the Reclamation Act on June 17, 1902, paving the way for federally funded dam and irrigation construction projects throughout the arid West. The Act required that water users repay construction costs of the irrigation projects from which they received benefits. The Yakima Project, authorized on December 12, 1905, was one of the first and largest efforts of the Federal Bureau of Reclamation, and has irrigated the Yakima Valley since 1910. The government purchased many of the earlier canals and incorporated them into the Yakima Project. Water from the Keechulus, Kachess, and Lake Cle Elum reservoirs feed the Yakima River, while the Tieton and Bumping Lake Reservoirs feed the Yakima's tributaries, the Naches and Tieton Rivers. These rivers in turn supply the Yakima Valley's nearly 2,100 miles of irrigation canals.

Planting and Growing

On March 15, 1893 the Washington State Legislature passed the State Fair Act designating North Yakima in Yakima County the site for an annual State Agricultural Fair. Yakima got the event as a consolation prize after losing (to Olympia) the race to have Yakima City proclaimed state capital. With the exception of 1895, the Washington State Fair was held annually from 1894 until 1930, when the state legislature declined to fund a budget. From 1932 to 1936, scaled down versions of the fair occurred but were not considered successful. In 1939 the Central Washington State Fair was founded, using the old State Fairgrounds. The Central Washington State Fair is held annually in September.

The first wine grapes in the Yakima Valley were planted in 1869, the first hops in 1872, and the first commercial fruit orchard in 1887. All of these crops would eventually become major parts of Yakima County's primary industry, agriculture. Once the land was pegged for commercial fruit production, the transformation from sagebrush to cultivated acreage was accomplished briskly. In the Selah Valley, for example, 36,000 fruit trees were reportedly set out in one year alone. The Northern Pacific Railroad provided a ready way for farmers to ship their produce to market, and processing plants and fruit storage facilities soon flourished near railroad stations.

Migrant Labor in the Valley

Commercial farming was dependant on migratory harvesters. Indian pickers harvested hops each fall. During the Great Depression of the 1930s Yakima County's laden trees and fields provided much-needed employment for the thousands of families from across the country seeking work, and migrant campsites dotted the region. Conditions at these migrant camps varied, but many lacked basic sanitary facilities. By the early 1940s many families of Japanese origin were farming in Yakima County. These families, more than 1,000 individuals, were forced to abandon their farms and enter internment camps under Executive Order 9066.

Increased farm production to aid the war effort and labor shortages caused by internment and the exodus of men into the military during World War II led to the creation of the Bracero Program, a federal program that brought Mexican and Mexican American migrant workers into Washington and other states to harvest crops. After the Bracero Program was discontinued in 1964 Mexican and Mexican American workers continued to provide a substantial portion of the farm labor in Yakima County. In recent years a federal guest worker program has brought Thais to Yakima County to harvest field and tree fruit crops.

Today (2006) 558,000 acres of private land in Yakima County are used for agriculture. Manufacturing (especially of food-related products) and fruit warehousing are other major industries in the county. Forestry and livestock are significant industries. Yakima County is a leading global producer of apples, hops, mint, and asparagus, and the county's wine industry continues to expand and flourish.

The State of Washington
Washington State Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation


HistoryLink.org

The Treaty with the Yakama was signed on June 9, 1855, by Isaac Stevens (1818-1862), Governor of Washington Territory, and by Chief Kamiakin (spelled "Kamaiakun" in the treaty) and other tribal leaders and delegates. (Note that while the Tribe's name is spelled "Yakama" in the treaty, the spelling "Yakima" later became common, and is still used in the names of the river, county, and city derived from the tribal name, but in 1994 the Yakima Tribe changed the spelling of its name back to the original Yakama Tribe.) The complete text of the treaty follows.

The Yakama Treaty

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the treaty-ground, Camp Stevens, Walla-Walla Valley, this ninth day of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory of Washington, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned head chiefs, chiefs,. head-men, and delegates of the Yakama, Palouse, Pisquouse, Wenatshapam,, Klikatat, Klinquit, Kaw-was-say-ee, Li-ay-was, Skin-pah,, Wish-ham, Shyiks, Ochechotes, Kah-milt-pah,, and Se-ap-cat, confederated tribes and bands of Indians, occupying lands hereinafter bounded and described and lying in Washington Territory, who for the purposes of this treaty are to be considered as one nation, under the name of "Yakama," with Kamaiakun as its head chief, on behalf of and acting for said tribes and bands, and being duly authorized thereto by them.

ARTIKEL 1. The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the lands and country occupied and claimed by them, and bounded and described as follows, to wit:

Commencing at Mount Ranier, thence northerly along the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains to the point, where the northern tributaries of Lake Che-lan and the southern tributaries of the Methow River have their rise thence southeasterly on the divide between the waters of Lake Che-lan and the Methow River to the Columbia River thence, crossing the Columbia on a true east course, toil, point whose longitude is one hundred and nineteen degrees and ten minutes, (119° 10',) which two latter lines separate the above confederated tribes and bands from the Oakinakane tribe of Indians thence in a true south course to the forty-seventh (47°) parallel of latitude thence east on said parallel to the main Palouse River, which two latter lines of boundary separate the above confederated tribes and hands from the Spokanes thence down the Palouse River to its junction with the Moh-hah-ne-she, or southern tributary of the same thence in a southesterly[sic] direction, to the Snake River, at the mouth of the Tucannon River, separating the above confederated tribes from the Nez Percé tribe of Indians thence down the Snake River to its junction with the Columbia River thence up the Columbia River to the "White Banks" below the Priest's Rapids thence westerly to a lake called "La Lac" thence southerly to a point on the Yakama River called Toh-mah-luke thence, in a southwesterly direction, to the Columbia River, at the western extremity of the "Big Island," between the mouths of the Umatilla River and Butler Creek all which latter boundaries separate the above confederated tribes and bands from the Walla-Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla tribes and bands of Indians thence down the Columbia River to midway between the mouths Of White Salmon and Wind Rivers thence along the divide between said rivers to the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains and thence along said ridge to the place of beginning.

ARTIKEL 2. There is, however, reserved, from the lands above ceded for the use and occupation of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians, the tract of land included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing on the Yakama River, at the mouth of the Attah-nam River thence westerly along said Attah-nam River to the forks thence along the southern tributary to the Cascade Mountains thence southerly along the main ridge of said mountains, passing south and east of Mount Adams, to the spur whence flows the waters of the Klickatat and Pisco Rivers thence down said spur to the divide 'between the waters of said rivers thence along said aivide to the divide separating the waters of the Satass River from those flowing into the Columbia River thence along said divide to the main Yakama, eight miles below the mouth of the Satass River and thence up the Yakama River to the place of beginning.

All which tract shall be set apart and, so far as necessary, surveyed and marked out, for the exclusive use and benefit of said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as an Indian reservation nor shall any white man, excepting those in the employment of the Indian Department, be permitted to reside upon the said reservation without permission of the tribe and the superintendent and agent. And the said confederated tribes and bands agree to remove to, and settle upon, the same, within one year after the ratification of this treaty. In the mean time it shall be lawful for them to reside upon any ground not in the actual claim and occupation of citizens of the United States and upon any ground claimed or occupied, if with the permission of the owner or claimant.

Guaranteeing, however, the right to all citizens of the United States to enter upon and occupy as settlers any lands not actually occupied and cultivated by said Indians at this time, and not included in the reservation above named.

And provided, That any substantial improvements heretofore made by any Indian, such as fields enclosed and cultivated, and houses erected upon the lands hereby ceded, and which he may be compelled to abandon in consequence of this treaty, shall be valued, under the direction of the President of the United States, and payment made therefore[sic] in money or improvements of an equal value made for said Indian upon the reservation. And no Indian will be required to abandon the improvements aforesaid, now occupied by him, until their value in money, or improvements of an equal value shall be furnished him as aforesaid.

ARTIKEL 3. And provided, That, if necessary for the public convenience, roads may be run through the said reservation and on the other hand, the right of way, with free access from the same to the nearest public highway, is secured to them as "also the right, in common with citizens of the United States, to travel upon all public highways.

The exclusive right of taking fish in all the streams, where running through or bordering said reservation, is further secured to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as also the right of taking fish at all usual and accustomed places, in common with the citizens of the Territory, and of erecting temporary buildings for curing them:

ARTIKEL 4. In consideration of the above cession, the United States agree to pay to the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, in addition to the goods and provisions distributed to them at the time of signing this treaty, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, in the following manner, that is to say: Sixty thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the President of the United States, the first year after the ratification of this treaty, in providing for their removal to the reservation, breaking up and fencing farms, building houses for them, supplying 'them with provisions and a suitable outfit, and for such other objects as he may deem necessary, and the remainder in annuities, as follows: For the first five years after the ratification of the treaty, ten thousand-dollars each year, commencing September first, 1856 for the next five years, eight thousand dollars each year for the next five years, Six thousand dollars per year and for the next five years, four thousand dollars per year.

All which sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit of said Indians, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time determine, at his discretion, upon what beneficial objects to expend the same for them. And the superintendent of Indian affairs, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of the Indians in relation thereto.

ARTIKEL 5. The United States further agree to establish at suitable points within said reservation, within one year after the ratification hereof, two schools, erecting the necessary buildings, keeping them in repair, and providing them with furniture, books, and stationery, one of which shall be an agricultural and industrial school, to be located at the agency, and to be free to the children of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, and to employ one superintendent of teaching and two teachers to build two blacksmiths' shops, to one of which shall be attached a tin-shop, and to the other a gunsmith's shop one carpenter's shop, one wagon and plough maker's shop, and to keep the same in repair and furnished with the necessary tools to employ one superintendent of farming and two farmers, two blacksmiths, one tinner, one gunsmith, one carpenter, one wagon and plough maker, for the instruction of the Indians in trades and to assist them in the same to erect one saw-mill and one flouring-Mill, keeping the same in repair and furnished with the necessary tools and fixtures to erect a hospital, keeping the same in repair and provided with the necessary medicines and furniture, and to employ a physician and to erect, keep in repair, and provided with the necessary furniture, the building required for the accommodation of the said employees. The said buildings and establishments to be maintained and kept in repair as aforesaid, and the employees to be kept in service for the period of twenty years.

And in view of the fact that the head chief of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians is expected, and will be called upon to perform many services of a public character, occupying much of his time, the United States further agree to pay to the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians five hundred dollars per year, for the term of twenty years after the ratification hereof, as a salary for such person as the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians may select to be their head chief, to build for him at a suitable point on the reservation a comfortable house, and properly furnish the same, and to plough and fence ten acres of land. The said salary to be paid to, and the said house to be occupied by, such head chief so long as he may continue to hold that office.

And it is distinctly understood and agreed that at the time of the conclusion of this treaty Kamaiakun is the duly elected and authorized head chief of the confederated tribes and bands aforesaid, styled the Yakama Nation, and is recognized as such by them and by the commissioners on the part of the United States holding this treaty and all the expenditures and expenses contemplated in this article of this treaty shall be defrayed by the United States, and shall not be deducted from the annuities agreed to be paid to said confederated tribes and band of Indians. Nor shall the cost of transporting the goods for the annuity payments be a charge upon the annuities, but shall be defrayed by the United States.

ARTIKEL 6. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or such portions of such reservation as he may think proper, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to such individuals or families of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be applicable.

ARTIKEL 7. The annuities of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.

ARTIKEL 8. The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians acknowledge their dependence upon the Government of the United States, and promise to be friendly with all citizens thereof, and pledge themselves to commit no depredations upon the property of such citizens.

And should any one or more of them violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proved before the agent, the property taken shall be returned,'or in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the Government out of the annuities.

Nor will they make war upon any other tribe, except in self-defence, but will submit all matters of difference between them and other Indians to the Government of the United States or its agent for decision, and abide thereby. And if any of the said Indians commit depredations on any other Indians within the Territory of Washington or Oregon, the same rule shall prevail as that provided in this article in case of depredations against citizens. And the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians agree not to shelter or conceal offenders against the laws of the United States, but to deliver them up to the authorities for trial.

ARTIKEL 9. The said confederated tribes and bands of Indians desire to exclude from their reservation the use of ardent spirits, and to prevent their people from drinking the same, and, therefore, it is provided that any Indian belonging to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, who is guilty of bringing liquor into said reservation, or who drinks liquor, may have his or her annuities withheld from him or her for such time as the President may determine.

ARTIKEL 10. And provided, That there is also reserved and set apart from the lands ceded by this treaty, for the use and benefit of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands, a tract of land not exceeding in quantity one township of six miles square, situated at the forks of the Pisquouse or Wenatshapam River, and known as the " Wenatshapam Fishery," which said reservation shall be surveyed and marked out whenever the President may direct, and be subject to the same provisions and restrictions as other Indian reservations.

ARTIKEL 11. This treaty shall be obligatory upon the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.

In testimony whereof, the said Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory, of Washington, and the undersigned head chief, chiefs, headmen, and delegates-of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the place and on the day and year herein before written.


Yakama Tribe

This article contains interesting facts, pictures and information about the life of the Yakama Native American Indian Tribe, aka Yakima, of the Columbia River Plateau region.

Facts about the Yakama Native Indian Tribe
This article contains fast, fun facts and interesting information about the Yakama Native American Indian tribe.

Find answers to questions like where did the Yakama tribe live, what clothes did they wear, what did they eat and who were the names of their most famous leaders? Discover what happened to the Yakama tribe with facts about their wars and history.

What language did the Yakama tribe speak?
The Yakama tribe spoke in a Sahaptian dialect of the Penutian language and called themselves Pakintlema meaning "people of the gap," or Waptailmim meaning "people-of-the-narrows," reflecting the location of their villages near Union Gap on the Yakima River. After the introduction of the horse the Yakama people hunted buffalo on the Great Plains and adopted the some of the lifestyle elements of this cultural group. The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, or simply the Yakama Nation (formerly Yakima), was a consolidation of 14 bands, or tribes.

Where did the Yakama tribe live?
The Yakama are people of the Plateau Native American cultural group. The location of their tribal homelands are shown on the map in the modern day state of Washington. The geography of the region in which they lived dictated the lifestyle and culture of the Yakama tribe.

What was the lifestyle and culture of the Yakama tribe?
The Yakama tribe lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle fishing, hunting, or gathering wild plants for food. The Yakama tribe lived in pit houses in the winter and tule-mat lodges or tepees in the summer. The Lewis and Clark expedition encountered the Plateau Yakama tribe during their explorations in 1806. The Yakama adopted many of the ideas of the Great Plains Indians including the use of the tepee which were covered with buffalo hides and some items of clothing also made from buffalo hides.

The Yakama tribe and the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark encountered the Yakama tribe in October 1805 and met Chief Kamiakin, the war leader of the Yakama Nation.

What did the Yakama tribe live in?
The Yakama were semi-nomadic and needed shelters that were easy to set up and take down. They lived in one of three shelters, depending on the season. The types of shelters were a semi-subterranean pit house, a tepee or a tule-mat lodge.

  • Pit houses were winter shelters that were built with logs and sealed for insulation with earth (sod) and grasses. They were built below ground with an entrance and ladder at the top
  • The summer shelters were the tepee and tule-mat lodge, both above ground.
  • Tepees were covered with animal skins but the tule-mat lodge was covered with mats of strong, durable, tule reeds (bulrushes).

What transportation did the Yakama use? Dugout Canoes
When the tribe inhabited the Plateau region they built dugout canoes made from the hollowed-out logs of large trees. The men hollowed logs with controlled fire that softened the timber so they could carve and shape their canoe to have a flat bottom with straight sides. The canoe was perfect means of transportation for travel along fast streams and shallow waters of the Columbia, Wenatchee and Yakima Rivers.

What food did the Yakama tribe eat?
The food of the Yakama tribe included salmon and trout and a variety of meats from the animals and birds they hunted. They supplemented their protein diet with seeds, roots, nuts and fruits.

What clothes did the Yakama wear?
The clothes worn by the Yakama men and women of the tribe were similar to the clothing of the Nez Perce - please refer to this article for details.

What weapons did the Yakama use?
The weapons used were spears, lances, clubs, knives and bows and arrows. The Yakama also used shields for defensive purposes.

Who were the allies and enemies of the Yakama tribe?
The allies of the Yakama tribe were many of the other Native American Indians who inhabited the Plateau region including the Cayuse, Walla Walla, Spokane, Coeur D'Alene, Payuse and the Nez Perce. The main enemies of the Yakama tribe were the Great Basin groups to the south, including the Shoshone, Northern Paiute, and the Bannock tribes.

Who were the famous chiefs of the Yakama tribe?
The most famous leaders and chiefs of the Yakama tribe included Chief Kamiakin, Chief Qualchan and Chief Leschi of the Nisqually Native American tribe.

What happened to the Yakama tribe?
The following Yakama history timeline details facts, dates and famous landmarks and battles fought by the Yakama Nation. The Yakama history timeline explains what happened to the people of their tribe.


Yakama

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Yakama, formerly spelled Yakima, self-name Waptailmim (“People of the Narrow River”), tenvolle Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, North American Indian tribe that lived along the Columbia, Yakima, and Wenatchee rivers in what is now the south-central region of the U.S. state of Washington. As with many other Sahaptin-speaking Plateau Indians, the Yakama were primarily salmon fishers before colonization. In the early 21st century they continued to be involved in wildlife management and fisheries.

The Yakama acquired historical distinction in the Yakama Indian Wars (1855–58), an attempt by the tribe to resist U.S. forces intent upon clearing the Washington Territory for prospectors and settlers. The conflict stemmed from a treaty that had been negotiated in 1855, according to which the Yakama and 13 other tribes (identified in the treaty as Kah-milt-pah, Klikatat, Klinquit, Kow-was-say-ee, Li-ay-was, Oche-chotes, Palouse, Pisquose, Se-ap-cat, Shyiks, Skin-pah, Wenatshapam, and Wish-ham) were to be placed on a reservation and confederated as the Yakama Nation. Before the treaty could be ratified, however, a force united under the leadership of Yakama chief Kamaiakan, who declared his intention to drive all nonnatives from the region. After initial Yakama successes, the uprising spread to other tribes in Washington and Oregon. Three years of raids, ambushes, and engagements followed until September 1858, when the Native American forces were decisively defeated at the Battle of Four Lakes on a tributary of the Spokane River.

In 1859 the treaty of 1855 was effected, with the Yakama and most of the other tribes confined to reservations and their fertile ancestral lands opened to colonial appropriation. Since that time, all the residents of the Yakama Reservation have been considered members of the Yakama Nation. Several tribes in the region, notably the Palouse, refused to acknowledge the treaty and would not enter the reservation.

Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 11,000 individuals of Yakama Nation ancestry.


Video

On January 2019, there was an MMIW event.

I spoke along with Yakama Nation Elected Officials, a Washington State Elected Official, and the Yakima County Sheriff. This Presentation was hosted by CWU Department of Law and Justice & Museum of Culture and Environment.

About Native Friends

Native Friends was founded by Emily Washines, MPA and scholar. She is an enrolled Yakama Nation tribal member with Cree and Skokomish lineage. This company is a Native lifestyle empowerment brand with a focus on history and culture. Building understanding and support for Native Americans is evident in her films, writing, speaking, and exhibits. Emily speaks Ichiskiin (Yakama language) and other Native languages. Yakima Herald-Republic lists her as Top 39 under 39. She lives on the Yakama reservation with her husband and three children.