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Is 'n legendariese juweel van 'n heilige Joodse borsplaat herontdek?

Is 'n legendariese juweel van 'n heilige Joodse borsplaat herontdek?

Nadat hy ongeveer duisend jaar lank van die geskiedenis van die geskiedenis verlore geraak het, vind 'n legendariese edelsteen moontlik sy weg terug huis toe. 'N Anonieme eienaar van 'n baie belangrike godsdienstige artefak is gereed om 'n gekoesterde erfenis af te staan ​​en terug te keer na sy vaderland. Daar word gesê dat die artefak 'n opwindende geskiedenis gehad het, en as dit in werklikheid werklik is, het dit ook 'n sterk betekenis in die Joodse geloof.

Sowel Breaking Israel News as die Daily Mail beweer dat die juweel ter sprake sy oorsprong kan hê in 'n heilige borsplaat wat deur die hoëpriester van Jerusalem gedra is. Voordat ek die geskiedenis van die juweel meer ondersoek, is dit interessant om die legende agter hierdie borswapen van nader te bekyk.

Volgens die Jewish Encyclopedia was die 'ḥoshen' (die naam vir die borstas) 'versier met edelgesteentes, gedra deur die hoëpriester op sy bors toe hy die name van die kinders van Israel in die heiligdom voorgehou het'. Die Temple Institute beskryf die hoëpriester se borswapen deur te sê:

'Hierdie kledingstuk word in Hebreeus choshen mishpat genoem, wat die' borswapen van oordeel 'of' beslissing 'beteken. Dit is vierkantig en oor die hart gedra, en dit is so genoem vanweë die unieke rol wat dit gespeel het om noodlottige besluite te neem. Volgens die Bybelse instruksies en rabbynse tradisies is die borsplaat 'n brokaat met 'n patroon soos die efod. Die drade van sy stof is goud, hemelsblou, donkerrooi en bloedrooi wol en gedraaide linne. Die kledingstuk self bestaan ​​uit vier rye klein vierkantige stene in gebreide of gevlegde goud. Elke ry bevat drie klippe van altesaam twaalf klippe, een klip wat elk van die twaalf stamme van Israel voorstel. Die naam van die ooreenstemmende stam was op elke klip gegraveer. ”

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Voorkant van die borsplaat aan die voorkant van die sentrale Sefardiese sinagoge in Ramat Gan. (Dr. Avishai Teicher Pikiwiki Israel/ CC BY 2.5 )

Daar word geglo dat die borswapen die hoëpriester in staat gestel het om direk met God te kommunikeer. Toe 'n belangrike vraag gevra is, kon die priester 'God se woord' lewer en die navraag beantwoord met behulp van die borsplaat en twee heilige klippe, genaamd die Urim en die Thummim. Terwyl die juweliersware borsplaat gedra en die twee klippe vasgehou het, het die hoëpriester voor 'n kandelaar naby die altaar gestaan. Toe hy die vraag stel, weerkaats die kers die lig van die Urim en die Thummin op die klippe van die borsplaat. Die webwerf Pheonix Masonry verduidelik hoe die antwoord gekom het:

'Hierdie ligflits het tot 24 kombinasies (2 x 12) voorsien. Aangesien daar 22 letters in die Hebreeuse alfabet is, kan die flitse van lig letters van letters veroorsaak. Daar word gesê dat God deur die wind asemhaal, wat weer veroorsaak dat die sluier beweeg, sodat 'n briesie die vlamme in die kandelaar laat flikker om die rigtinghoek van die lig op die Urim en Thummin, en vandaar na die borsplaat, te verander. . God kon dus direk, maar nie hoorbaar nie, met die hoëpriester kommunikeer en die navraag beantwoord. ”

Joodse hoëpriester wat 'n hoshen dra, en Leviete in eertydse Juda.

Daar word gesê dat die steen wat onlangs die nuus gehaal het, een van die twee sardonyx -juwele is wat goud op die borsplaat se skouers gesit is. Met bogenoemde legende in gedagte, is dit maklik om te sien waarom hierdie edelgesteente opskudding veroorsaak het. Maar hoe het dit in die hande van 'n bejaarde vrou in Suid -Afrika beland?

Die familietradisie van die eienaar verduidelik dat die sardonyx omstreeks 1189 aan haar voorvader, genaamd Croiz Arneet deTarn Auret, van die Hoëpriester gegee is in dankbaarheid omdat sy gehelp het om Jerusalem te bevry. Die Daily Mail voeg by die verhaal dat "dit aan 'n tempelridder gegee is en van die een geslag na die volgende deur die gesin oorgedra is."

Die sardonyx -klip in die papiruskis waarin dit gedra is. (Eienaar/ Daaglikse pos )

Nadat hulle die klip geslagte lank in die gesin se besit gehou het, het hulle in 2000 gevra om dit te laat beoordeel. Breaking Israel News sê dat dr. James Strange, professor in godsdienswetenskap en argeologie, die klip vir die gesin ontleed het. Dr Strange het aan Breaking Israel News voorgestel dat hy nie baie beïndruk was met die klip totdat hy twee letters in antieke Hebreeus gesien het nie. Hy het gesê: "Daar is geen moderne of antieke tegnologie aan my bekend waarmee 'n vakman die opskrif kan produseer nie, aangesien dit nie in die oppervlak van die klip gesny is nie." Dr Strange dateer die steen tot ongeveer die 5de eeu v.C. en waardeer die waarde van die klip op $ 175-$ 225 miljoen. Hy het toe die gemoloog Ian Campbell gevra om na die vreemde artefak te kyk. Campbell het bevestig dat die klip nie oopgekap is om die inskripsie te maak nie en het 'n waarde van $ 200 miljoen geraam.

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Later is 'n ander deskundige - M. Sharon van die Universiteit van Witwatersrand, gevra om die klip ook te ondersoek. Daily Mail haal sy verslag oor die artefak aan: "As gevolg van die duidelikheid van die letters en die fyn definisie daarvan, is dit ongelooflik as dit 'n toevallige natuurlike vorming in die klip is. Die gebrek aan 'n duidelike teken van inmenging met die oppervlak die bestaan ​​van die letters in die klip is 'n ware raaisel. " Daar word ook gesê dat hy die inskripsies beskryf het as 'n ou Hebreeuse skrif en 'die ekwivalent van ons' B 'en' K '. Die skrifstyl is gedateer tot 1000 v.C., gee 200-300 jaar.

Dit is interessant om daarop te let dat dit nie die eerste moderne vermelding van die klip is nie. Dit lyk asof die raaiselagtige artefak in 1991 die nuus gemaak het toe die eienaar (eerste?) Dit oorweeg het om dit te verkoop.

Nou blyk dit dat die sardonyx -klip weer op die mark is. Daily Mail berig dat die huidige eienaar van die edelsteen en 'n Suid -Afrikaanse sakeman spesifiek op soek is na beleggers wat belangstel om die klip te koop en na Israel te neem.

Die vraag na die egtheid van die klip bly egter onseker. Alhoewel dr Strange aan Breaking Israel News gesê het: "Ek het toe bereken dat as dit 'n bedrog was, een of meer baie soortgelyke ander binnekort op die internasionale mark sou verskyn, maar na my wete het niemand dit nie", het hy ook beklemtoon dat dit so moet wees weereens ondersoek. Hy het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom:

"Sedertdien het baie water onder die brug geloop. Ek dink hierdie voorwerp het 'n nuwe beoordeling nodig en soveel as moontlik wetenskaplike toetse om vas te stel of dit eg is. As dit 'n artefak is wat belangrik is vir die geskiedenis van die Joodse mense, dan is dit werklik wonderlik. As dit 'n meesterlike bedrog blyk te wees, sal ek seergemaak word dat ek bedrieg is. "


13/04/20 Verslag - Priesterlike steen uit belangrike godsdienstige artefakte (?). Groepdenke maak geskiedenis. Probleemoplossing.

Hier is meer van wat Ancient Origens sê oor die klip wat bo -aan die pos verskyn.

Nadat hy ongeveer duisend jaar lank van die geskiedenis van die geskiedenis verlore geraak het, vind 'n legendariese edelsteen moontlik sy weg terug huis toe. 'N Anonieme eienaar van 'n baie belangrike godsdienstige artefak is gereed om 'n gekoesterde erfenis af te staan ​​en terug te keer na sy vaderland. Daar word gesê dat die artefak 'n opwindende geskiedenis gehad het, en as dit in werklikheid werklik is, het dit ook 'n sterk betekenis in die Joodse geloof.

Ek voel nie so waarskynlik nie. Aaron se borswapen sou uit ongeveer 1300 vC wees, en Salomo se tempel is omstreeks 586 vC vernietig, en Herodes se tempel is in 70 HJ verwoes, om nie eers te praat van ander probleme nie.

As u 'n geskiedenisliefhebber is, kan u die ontleding van die besluitnemingsproses, wat tot groot gebeurtenisse in die 20ste eeu gelei het, geniet. Een ding wat 'n rol gespeel het in baie van die foute, volgens 'n verskeidenheid ontleders, is groepsdenke.

Volgens Briannica.com is groepsdenke 'n denkwyse waarin individuele lede van klein groepe geneig is om 'n standpunt of gevolgtrekking te aanvaar wat 'n waargenome groepskonsensus verteenwoordig, ongeag of die groeplede meen dat dit geldig, korrek of optimaal is. Groepdenke verminder die doeltreffendheid van kollektiewe probleemoplossing binne sulke groepe. (https://www.britannica.com/science/groupthink)

Kortom, groepdenke kom voor wanneer groepe nie uiteenlopende menings aanmoedig nie. Daar word bespreek dat die fenonomon lei tot 'n paar groot mislukkings in die openbare beleid, soos die inval van die Bay of Pigs. Soos ek onlangs genoem het, kan u skaars 'n sosiaal -wetenskaplike handboek lees sonder om te lees hoe groepdenke bygedra het tot die besluit van JFK om Kuba binne te val.

Hieronder is 'n bietjie daaroor uit Yale Alumni Magazine.

'N Ander onderwerp wat u moontlik relevant vind, is die van Milton Rokeach Oop en geslote verstand, 'n boek oor dogmatisme en outoritarisme.

Jare voordat ek metaalopsporing begin het, het ek 'n artikel in The Journal of Rational Living gepubliseer waarin een van die veranderlikes dogmatisme was. Snaaks hoe sommige dinge draai en elke paar jaar terugkom.

My eerste konferensievoorlegging was voor dit en was oor die kondisionering van 'n psigofisiologiese reaksie.

Ek sê dit net omdat hierdie tipe studies 'n aanduiding is van my benadering tot metaalopsporing en help om te verduidelik wie ek is en wat ek hier doen. Ek benader dinge baie op dieselfde manier as in die navorsingslaboratorium, hoewel dit nie met dieselfde strengheid of aandag aan detail is nie. Ek glo daaraan om baie versigtig te wees oor gevolgtrekkings, waarneming, operasionele definisies, data en bewyse, om elke alternatief vir die eerste aanloklike gevolgtrekking te oorweeg, en om te toets eerder as om te aanvaar.

Toe ek net gister praat oor die hakskeenbeen met 'n gat daarin, het ek gesê: 'Soos enige wetenskaplike analise gedoen het, het hierdie studie moontlike oorsake van die wond anders as kruisiging oorweeg, waarvan een die praktyk was om lyke vas te maak wat in 'n kis stilstaan, maar daar is geen kis in hierdie geval gebruik nie. "

Ek het gewaarsku teen die gevaar om gevolgtrekkings te maak sonder om alternatiewe verduidelikings te oorweeg. Volgens my ervaring en opinie moet 'n wetenskaplike of iemand wat die regte gevolgtrekking wil maak, alle alternatiewe verklarings ondersoek. Ek het baie keer daarop gewys dat die gevaar verband hou met die identifisering van gegrawe artefakte.

Persoonlik is dit die tipe ding wat metaalopsporing vir my interessant hou, en ek gebruik dieselfde tegnieke en dissipline, of ek nou stranddinamika bestudeer of effektiewe soekstrategieë.

As ek my gevolgtrekking lewer, gee ek altyd bewyse om dit te ondersteun, hulpbronne wat die leser kan raadpleeg, dikwels my vertrouensvlak of ander soortgelyke dinge, en ek vertrou die leser om alles te neem wat hy nuttig vind en doen wat hy wil sal daarmee saamgaan. Ek verwag of moedig u nie aan om my gevolgtrekking te aanvaar sonder om dit uit te toets of self te redeneer nie.

Dit is warm. Ek het net 'n bietjie opgespoor in 'n asblik en sweet baie. Nog nie gewoond aan die soort hitte nie.


Simboliek van die borsplaatstene

Let wel: ek het dit in 1988 geskryf en dit het waarskynlik 'n nuwe hersiening nodig. Maar vir diegene wat sulke onderwerpe interessant vind, hier is dit vir u plesier.

V. Wat was die soorte klippe wat in die borswapen van Aaron gebruik is? Wat was die redes waarom 'n bepaalde klip 'n spesifieke stam verteenwoordig het?

A. Ibn Ezra het in sy kommentaar op Exodus 28 opgemerk dat ons werklik geen manier het om die klippe wat in die borsplaat aangebring is, positief te identifiseer nie en dat Saadia hierdie klippe na goeddunke vertaal het en geen tradisie gehad het om op te vertrou nie. Die punt van Ibn Ezra is baie belangrik, want alles wat ons oor hierdie onderwerp sê, is niks meer as vermoedens nie. Die probleem word veral vererger as ons in ag neem dat daar geen ooreenkoms is oor watter stam ooreenstem met die korrekte klip nie. In die lig hiervan, laat ons deur hierdie troebel waters loop en kyk hoe hierdie klippe geïdentifiseer is. Sommige geleerdes het probeer om 'n verband te vestig tussen die 12 klippe in Aaron se borstas, die 12 maande van die jaar en die 12 tekens in die zodiac, maar daar is geen bewyse hiervan in die Skrif nie. Edelgesteentes word in figuurlike sin in die Skrif gebruik om waarde, skoonheid, duursaamheid aan te dui. Philo van Alexandrië het gevoel dat elke klip presies ooreenstem met die temperament van elke gegewe stam.

Die eerste klipry:

Odem − ‐Sardius, of, robyn. Eks 39:10. Die Hebreeuse odem, van adam, tot rooi, rooierig, dui op die robyn, net soos adam in Persies 'n pragtige juweel, met 'n fyn dieprooi kleur, met 'n mengsel van pers. Jb 28:18. Spr 3:15. 8:11. 20:15. 31:10. La 4: 7. Die Targum van Yonatan identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Rueben, sommige identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Juda. [Let daarop dat Juda bekend was vir sy passievolle aard, net soos Rueben]

Pitdah −- word voortdurend weergegee deur die LXX. topadzion, en Vulgate, topazius, waarmee Josefus saamstem. Die topaas is 'n edelgesteente, van 'n bleek, doodgroen, met 'n mengsel van geel, soms van 'n fyn geel en dus chrysoliet genoem deur die moderne, van sy goue kleur. Job 28:19. Volgens Saadia Gaon, Kimchi en Chizkuni is hierdie steen waarskynlik die smarag. Volgens die Septuagint word pitdah geïdentifiseer met die sardiaan - 'n diep oranje -rooi chalcedoon wat deur sommige as 'n verskeidenheid karneool beskou word. Die Midrash in Bamidbar Rabba 2: 7 identifiseer die Pitda met Simon, terwyl sommige sê dat dit die klip van Issaskar was.

Bareket - is moontlik 'n karbonkel, van die Hebreeuse woord Bareketh, van barak, (weerlig) tot ligter, glitter, 'n baie elegante juweel, met 'n dieprooi kleur, met 'n mengsel van skarlaken. Daar word voorgestel dat die borswandklip moontlik nie groen was nie, maar 'n blourooi kleur, in welke geval dit 'n amandien (granaat) was. Is 54:11, 12 .. Saadia merk op dat hierdie klip heel moontlik die geel topaas was, moontlik 'n sitrien. Die Midrash identifiseer hierdie klip met Gad, terwyl ander Bareket met Benjamin identifiseer

Die tweede klipry

Nofech - Eks 28:18. Die Targum, KJV en Bahya identifiseer dit as die smarag, ander sou beweer dat die smarag in die Mosaïese tyd onbekend was. Hierdie laaste mening is betwisbaar omdat smaragde onlangs in Bo -Egipte, op die berg Zabarah, herontdek is. en in Ciprus, en Ethiopië.

'N Ander alternatief kan turkoois wees, wat beslis tydens die Mosaïese tyd in Egipte ontgin is. Chizkuni identifiseer hierdie klip met die karbonkel, terwyl die Septuagint nofech as steenkool maak. Sommige identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Juda, terwyl ander dit met die stam van Rueben identifiseer.

Sapir − -Vulgate (Jerome ’s Latin Bible, 390- 405 C.E ..) vertaal hierdie klip as sapphirus Plinius beskryf sapphirus as 'n versadiging met vlekke soos goud. Dit is ook van 'n blou kleur, maar soms, maar selde, is dit pers, die beste soort wat van Media afkomstig is. Maar hierdie steen is in geen geval deursigtig nie.#8221 Daar is egter genoeg rede om te glo dat die saffiersteen van vandag werklik die korund is, 'n klip wat in die ou tyd nie bekend was nie. Plinius 37:39 en Theophrastos, 'n Griekse geleerde, was van mening dat die saffier van die ou tyd werklik die lapis lazuli was. Die Midrash identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Issaskar, terwyl ander hierdie klip met die stam van Dan identifiseer.

Yahalom −- Hierdie klip is geïdentifiseer as 'n rots kristalhelder en kleurlose juweel, 'n pêrel of 'n blouerige glas (in baie vroeë tye as waardevol beskou), of blou chalcedoon, of miskien selfs beryl. Ibn Ezra sê in sy kommentaar dat Yahalom waarskynlik 'n diamant is omdat dit die vermoë het om alle ander klippe op te breek. Die grondwoord daarvan is volgens Ibn Ezra afgelei van die Hebreeuse woord holem wat beteken “to smite ” (Vgl. Jes 41: 7). Sommige vertalings van die Bybel vertaal Yahalom as “diamond ”, wat verkeerd is vir die diamant, was nie bekend voor die Middeleeue nie. Boonop was 'n naam op die Bybelse klip gegraveer en die metode om 'n diamant te graveer, is eers uitgevind 2000 of 3000 jaar nadat die borsplaat gemaak is, en ook nie diamante nie, indien dit op daardie tydstip en plek in die geskiedenis bekend was. Die Midrash identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Zevulun, terwyl ander sê dat dit Naftali se klip was.

Die derde klipry:

Leshem−- Hierdie klip kan jasint, sirkon, ambergeel of oranje wees. Die Septuagint word as liguron weergegee. Ander geleerdes identifiseer dit met aventurien, 'n kwarts wat baie fyn kristalle van hematiet, limoniet of mika bevat, wat skitter as die lig hulle vang. Dit is ook geïdentifiseer as turkoois wat in juweliersware gebruik word. Hierdie klip was moontlik 'n toermalyn, of meer beslis die rooi variëteit bekend as rubelliet. Rubelliet is 'n harde klip en word as juweel gebruik, en word soms vir rooi saffier verkoop. Die Midrash assosieer hierdie klip met die stam Dan, omdat die stad Lesem in sy stam [Vgl. Josua 19:47].

Sy ’vohSwart -en -wit bont agaat Die Septuagint identifiseer hierdie steen as achatis. Hierdie identifikasie met agaat word deur alle geleerdes aanvaar. Witgrys agate is in Egipte gevind. Dit is 'n klip wat so 'n verskeidenheid kleure en voorkoms aanneem, dat dit sy naam kan ontleen aan die wortel shuv (heb 7725), om te draai, te verander en dit sy voorkoms sonder einde kan verander. Sommige identifiseer Midrashiese bronne identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Naftali, terwyl ander voorstel dat dit die steen van Asher of Menashe was.

Achlamah - wat die Septuaginta weergee ‘amethustos die Griekse woord vir sonder om dronk te wees ’ die Grieke het geglo dat hierdie klip veronderstel was om dronkenskap te voorkom. Hierdie juweel is gewoonlik pers of violet van kleur. Plinius sê dat dit rooi was, dat daar vier skakerings van die kleur was en dat dit deurskynend was. Ibn Ezra skryf dat die ametis soms as die droomsteen geïdentifiseer is, want dit kan drome veroorsaak by almal wat dit dra. [let op dat die woord achlamah verband hou met die Hebreeuse woord vir droom “cholem. ” Die Targum identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Gad of Issachar. As dit inderdaad die droomsteen is, is dit logies om hierdie klip met Josef te identifiseer.

Die vierde ry klippe

Tarsis ‑ -Beryl, 'n edelgesteen met 'n seegroen kleur. Emerald en aquamarine is twee soorte beryl. Dit kan ook sitrienkwarts of groen jaspis wees. Die Septuagint noem dit chrisolythos of berullion. In die Hellenistiese tydperk is hierdie naam toegepas op die topaas, 'n klip wat nie in die vroeëre periodes bekend was nie. Daar word geglo dat dit identies was met die pêrelmor. Vulgaat van Jerome vertaal dit as die hyacinthus. Beryl is 'n deursigtige juweel van 'n blougroen kleur wat in Oos -Indië [Saadia, Kimchi en die KJV] voorkom. Slegs die groen beryl was in Moses en#8217 tyd in Egipte bekend en gebruik, die aquamarine en die geel en wit beryls is nie bekend nie. Die naam Tarsis is ook die ou Bybelse naam vir Spanje, en as dit hier van toepassing is, kan ons aanvaar dat dit die geel rotskristal of sitrienkwarts is. bekend as “chrysolith ” volgens Plinius (Natural History, xxxvii. 43). Hierdie klip word geïdentifiseer met die stam van Sebulon wat by die see gewoon het (Bahya).

Shoham Onyx sardonyx bont rooi en wit Onyx is 'n lid van die agaatfamilie en word gekenmerk deur die ondeursigtigheid en parallelle lae van afwisselende kleure, soos rooi en wit, bruin en wit, swart en wit. Die Vulgaat vertaal dit as die sardonyx, 'n rooi en wit bont juweel. Nuwe Engelse Bybel maak shoham weer as “ (rooi) karneool. ”, wat gereeld in die woestyn voorkom. In die boek Job beskou Job die wysheid van God as 'n groter besitting as selfs duur oniks (Job 28:16). Die Targum identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam van Aser.

Yashfeh − ‐ Jasper jaspisgroen die jaspissteen is oorspronklik deur die Babiloniërs uitgekerf en was gewoonlik groen en soms selfs deursigtig. Die Griekse en Latynse jaspis, en is gevind in opgrawings in antieke Judea en in die buurlande. Hierdie klip kan moontlik die opaal of jade of groen kwarts wees. Die Midrash identifiseer hierdie klip met die stam Naftali of Benjamin.

Volgens Philo, Josephus, Maimonides, Rashi, was die vier rye volgens die volgorde van hul geboorte gerangskik, ander stel voor dat die rye ooreenstem met die wat hulle in die woestyn opgeslaan het (TB Yoma 73b, Saadia en die Abravanel). Volgens die Minchat Chinuch is die rye vertikaal gerangskik volgens die geboortevolgorde (vgl Kaplan ’s Living Torah vir meer besonderhede). Die doel van die choshen (borswapen) was om die hoëpriester daaraan te herinner dat hy die Joodse volk moes verteenwoordig waar hy ook al sou gaan, en dat hy te alle tye hul dienaar was.

Ek wil 'n paar slotopmerkings maak oor die doel van hierdie klippe en waarom hulle so belangrik was. Stene het 'n wye verskeidenheid betekenisse in die antieke wêreld. Hulle verteenwoordig onvernietigbaarheid, bestendigheid, die onwankelbare en oorheersing. Baie van die deursigtige blink klippe verteenwoordig simbolies die sintese van aardse materie wat verband hou met die glans van geestelike. Hierdie juwele verteenwoordig duidelikheid en lig, en is deur die Hoëpriester gebruik toe hy oor die Urim ve Tumim mediteer.

Aan die begin van hierdie artikel het ek daarop gewys dat die twaalf klippe ooreenstem met die twaalf tekens van die Zodiac. Daar is ook 'n klip vir elke maand, en dit word gereeld aangetref in borsspelde met sterretekens wat 'n mens se horoskoop uitbeeld. Volgens Eliade is klippe deur die ou mense aanbid omdat dit vermoedelik instrumente vir geestelike optrede en lewenskrag was. Baie mense het deur die geskiedenis geglo dat hierdie klippe die charisma van die son, die maan en die sewe planete dra. Geel en wit klippe dra die invloed van die son, blou klippe word verbind met die hemelse koninkryk [Vgl. die kleur van techeylet in die Tzitzit wat die hemel en die water simboliseer], rooi klippe dra die invloed van Mars en passie, Venus word verbind met groen klippe soos die smarag, Saturnus word gekenmerk deur swart klippe soos oniks ensovoorts. Hierdie klippe is ook gebruik as 'n wapen om die banale invloed van die bose oog af te weer.

Daar word geglo dat edelstene sekere genesende kragte het. Abraham het 'n kosbare klip gedra wat aan sy nek gehang het; elke siek persoon wat daarna gestaar het, is onmiddellik genees (Bava Bathra 16b) vgl. die pêrelsak wat gedra word deur diere wat 'n pêrel bevat vir medisinale doeleindes. (Vgl. Sanh. 68a en Rashi ad loc.). Daar word ook geglo dat hulle menslike passies en geneenthede bevorder. Volgens Josephus noem dat die Essene edelgesteentes vir genesingsdoeleindes gebruik het (oorloë 2: 136) Beryl gee hoop smaragde bring rykdom, karbonkel, energie en versekering en robyne en rooi agate hou verband met liefde.

Met betrekking tot die stamme en hul onderskeie klippe, vind ons in die Midrash

Daar was onderskeidende tekens vir elke prins wat elk 'n vlag en 'n ander kleur vir elke vlag gehad het, wat ooreenstem met die edelgesteentes op die bors van die klip van Aaron en Reuben odem en die kleur van sy vlag was rooi en daarop was geborduurde mandrakes. Simeon ’s was pitdah en sy vlag was van 'n geel (of groen) kleur bloot en die kleur van sy vlag was 'n derde wit, 'n derde swart en 'n derde rooi Juda ’s nofekh en die kleur van sy vlag was soos dié van die lug … Issachar ’s was sappier en die kleur van sy vlag was swart soos stibium … Zebulun ’s was yahalom en die kleur van sy vlag was wit … Dan ’s was leshem en die kleur van sy vlag was soortgelyk aan sappier… Gad ’s ahlamah en die kleur van sy vlag was nie wit of swart nie, maar 'n mengsel van swart en wit was Asher's tarsies en die kleur van sy vlag was soos die edelgesteentes waarmee vroue hulself versier. shoham en die kleur van sy vlag was gitswart, en Benjamin was ook yashfeh en die kleur van sy vlag was 'n kombinasie van al die 12 kleure. [Hierdie Midrash is aangepas uit die Encyclopedia Judaica]


VERWANTE ARTIKELS

Dr James Strange, 'n professor in godsdiensstudies en argeologie aan die Samford Universiteit in Alabama, het in 2000 na Suid -Afrika gereis om op versoek van 'n vriend 'n interessante edelsteen te beoordeel. Wat hy gevind het, het hom laat wonder.

DIE SARDONYX -juweel

Kenners glo dat die klip uit 1000 vC dateer, aangesien daar antieke Hebreeus in die middel daarvan ingeskryf is.

Die draaiboek is die ekwivalent van ons 'B' en 'K'.

Die letters in die klip lyk soortgelyk aan dié wat op argeologiese vondste van 1300 tot 300 vC gevind is.

Wat hierdie saak so uniek maak, is dat daar geen merke op die oppervlak van die klip is nie, wat beteken dat die klip nie oopgesny is om die twee letters by te voeg nie.

Kenners stel voor dat die sardonyx óf in 'n groot bord óf in 'n borsbord gesit is, en dateer ook die skepping daarvan tot die 5de eeu v.C.

Nou het hy aan Breaking Israel News aan Adam Eliyahu Berkowitz gesê: 'Ek dink hierdie voorwerp benodig 'n nuwe beoordeling en soveel as moontlik wetenskaplike toetse om vas te stel of dit eg is.

'As dit 'n artefak is wat belangrik is vir die geskiedenis van die Joodse volk, dan is dit werklik wonderlik.

'As dit 'n meesterlike bedrogspul blyk te wees, sal ek seergemaak word dat ek bedrieg is.'

Hy het oor sy reis in 2000 gesê: 'Ek was nie bewus daarvan dat iemand in die laat Middeleeue oor die tegnologie beskik om 'n halfrond in so 'n medium te sny nie, en ek het alle ander verduidelikings probeer uitput.

'Daar is geen moderne of antieke tegnologie aan my bekend waarmee 'n vakman die opskrif kan produseer nie, aangesien dit nie in die oppervlak van die klip gesny is nie.'

Met geen sigbare merke op die oppervlak nie, het Dr Strange die idee uitgesluit dat die klip oopgesny is.

Na sy ondersoek het dr.Strange tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die sardonyx óf in 'n groot bord of in 'n borsplaat gesit is, en dateer ook die skepping daarvan uit die 5de eeu v.C.

Wat die sardonyx so uniek maak, is 'n klein opskrif (op die foto 'n tekening van die teks) in die hart van die klip, wat vermoedelik 'n ou skrif is wat dateer uit 1000 vC. M. Kenners sê die draaiboek is die ekwivalent van ons 'B' en 'K'

Op die foto is 'n konseptekening van die borsplaat, wat met edelstene besaai was en sou verskyn om antwoorde uit te spel wanneer vrae daaraan gestel word

Omdat hierdie klip enig in sy soort was, het hy die waarde daarvan tussen $ 175 miljoen en $ 225 miljoen beoordeel.

Ian Campbell, direkteur van die Independent Coloured Stones Laboratory in Johannesburg en 'n toonaangewende Suid -Afrikaanse gemoloog, het ook bevestig dat die klip nie oopgesny is om die opskrif by te voeg nie.

'Hoe gaan 'n mens logies daaraan toe om 'n waarde te heg aan iets soos 'n bewese godsdienstige artefak wat 'n' een van 'artikel is?'

Hy beraam dat $ 200 miljoen 'n 'eerlike beginpunt' was.

Die bewerings van 2000 is nou bevestig deur Breaking Israel News wat met Campbell se leerling, Jeremy Rothon, gepraat het.

Dr Strange onthou egter nog steeds die klip asof dit nog in sy hand sit.

Hy het opgemerk dat as dit 'n nep was, 'n ander soortgelyke steen teen hierdie tyd sou verskyn het, en hy versoek 'n nuwe beoordeling.

Die huidige eienaar is in kontrak met 'n Suid -Afrikaanse sakeman wat nou op soek is na beleggers wat bereid is om die klip te koop en terug te neem na Israel - albei partye wil anoniem bly.

Toe die sakeman hierdie klein klippie sien, besef hy dadelik dat die sardonyx 'n belangrike deel van die Joodse geskiedenis is en is vasbeslote om dit huis toe te bring.

DIE STORIE VAN DIE STEEN IN BYBELSE TEKS

Die klippe van die choshen mishpat, die borswapen van die hoëpriester, word in die Bybel genoem die urim v'tummim, of Urim and the Thummim, 'n frase wat nog nie gedefinieer moet word nie.

Volgens die legende is dit 1000 jaar gelede aan 'n tempelridder gegee en van die een geslag na die volgende deur die gesin oorgedra.

Met geen sigbare merke op die oppervlak nie, het dr. James Strange die idee uitgesluit dat die klip (op die foto) aanvanklik oopgesny is. Na sy ondersoek het hy gesê dat dit óf in 'n groot bord óf in 'n borsplaat gesit is, en dateer ook dat dit tot die 5de eeu v.C.

'En jy moet die Urim en die Tummim in die borstas van die oordeel sit, en dit sal op Aharon se hart wees'. Eksodus 28:30

Die Joodse teks, Talmund, onthul dat vrae na die borswapen gebring sou word en die klippe sou brand om die vrae te spel - elke klip het verskillende letters in die middel.

Hierdie teks sê dat die klippe in Jerusalem verlore geraak het deur die Babiloniërs.

In die boek Samuel lees u dat die urim v'tummim een ​​van die drie vorme van goddelike kommunikasie is: drome, profete en die urim v'tummim.

En toe Shaul by Hashem navraag doen, antwoord Hashem hom nie deur drome of deur Urim of deur profete nie. I Samuel 28: 6


Geredigeer deur Rabbi Michael Leo Samuel

Gegee deur Rabbi Ari D. Kahn, Eggo's van Eden op die Pentateug

'N Baie nuwe, baie ou boek is onlangs gepubliseer. Rabbi Michael Leo Samuel het die taak uitgevoer om die kommentaar van Philo van Alexandrië oor die boek Genesis in gladde, leesbare Engels te vertaal in die volgorde van die verse en hoofstukke van die Torah. Hierdie bundel is die eerste in 'n geprojekteerde reeks oor al vyf die boeke van die Pentateug.

Aan die begin moet ek dit duidelik maak dat my beperkte kennis van Philo se filosofiese milieu beperk my vermoë om 'n uitgebreide resensie van Torah uit Alexandrië te skryf. Ek laat dit oor aan geleerdes wat goed vertroud is met die Hellenistiese Romeinse en Egiptiese filosofiese tradisies om die pogings van Rabbi Samuel te ondersoek om die kommentaar van Philo te vergelyk en te kontrasteer met die filosofiese tendense van sy ouderdom. In plaas daarvan het ek die materiaal benader in die hoop om die Torah -insigte van 'n ou Joodse filosoof te ontdek en hierdie insigte in hul historiese en masoretiese konteks te oorweeg.

Ek was nie teleurgesteld nie. Benewens die vertaling van Philo se geskrifte, verduidelik Rabbi Samuel die tekste indien nodig, dikwels met behulp van verwysings en aantekeninge, sodat die moderne leser toegang tot die interpretasie van die Torah van Philo kan kry en verstaan. Nog belangriker, deur Torah uit Alexandrië kan ons die onderliggende eksegetiese benadering openbaar waarmee Philo die Torah aan lesers van sy eie generasie verduidelik het. Die relevansie van sy benadering tot ons eie generasie is opvallend.

In onlangse jare was studente van Tanach, veral onder die godsdienstige Sionistiese gemeenskap in Israel, besig met 'n debat (sommige kan dit as 'n geveg beskryf) oor outentieke en wettige interpretasie van die heilige Bybelse teks. The debate centers around two related points: First, to what extent is fidelity to classical rabbinic commentary requisite (or even desirable) and second, to what extent is it legitimate to interpret the text in a manner that implies that the heroes of the biblical narrative were less than perfect? This debate has come to be known as interpretation b’govah ha- einayim – looking biblical heroes in the eye, as opposed to gazing up at them as a mere mortal would view a titan.

One maverick in the new school of Israeli interpretation, the late Rav Mordechai Breuer, was fond of saying that he reads the text just as the sages of old did — without the commentary of the sages. In other words, Rav Breuer’s insights were based upon an unfettered reading of the text itself, stripped of the layers of traditional rabbinic exegesis. Opponents of this approach decry the deconstruction of our spiritual forebears, denounce the abandonment of our traditional view of the forefathers and our accepted understanding of their behavior. According to the more traditional approach, looking biblical characters in the eye borders on heresy and undermines the very foundations of Jewish spirituality. According to this approach, deconstructing our spiritual heroes diminishes us all, and leaves us empty and bereft of role models. At the same time, discarding traditional rabbinic explanations of the biblical text casts a shadow on our masorah, subtly calling into question the centrality of teachings attributed all the way back to Moses and passed down to the sages of each subsequent generation.

With the help of Rabbi Samuel, we are now able to look back to the exegetical method used by Philo in Alexandria some two thousand years ago, and what we find may have important ramifications for our current debate. In Torah from Alexandria , we find a biblical commentator whose work is remarkably in sync with rabbinic tradition — which is no small feat given that a good number of the interpretations he offers are found only in much later rabbinic writings. We must therefore assume that Philo, like the authors of those later rabbinic texts, recorded ideas and exegetical traditions that had previously been transmitted orally (or, alternatively, that these rabbinic interpretations originated in Alexandria). Die masorah’s centrality and antiquity are clearly reinforced.

Even more fascinating is the impact Philo’s approach should have on the govah ha’einayim debat. Philo proves to be a staunch supporter of the classical approach to biblical characters, immediately and unequivocally defending them and dispelling any possible negative interpretation of their behavior. In situations where such “mainstream” commentaries as Nachmanides or Rabbi S.R. Hirsch find fault in the behavior of the matriarchs or patriarchs, Philo is quick to defend in fact, there are many instances in which he inserts a virtuous spin on seemingly neutral situations .

  • · Abraham could have resolved the problem with Lot by force, but did not wish to humiliate him, and sought a peaceful resolution. (p. 156)
  • · When Abraham seems to complain to God that he has no children, Philo reads it as a virtue: “A servant must be direct and honest with his superior.” (p. 164)
  • · While Lot’s daughters’ behavior is “unlawful,” their intentions were “not without some merit.” (p. 199)
  • · Sarah suggested that Abraham have a child with Hagar her motivations were “selfless and altruistic.” (p. 171)
  • · Sarah’s treatment of Hagar was “disciplinary, and not abusive, in nature.” (p. 174)
  • · Philo turns Abraham’s false claim that Sarah is his sister into a virtue, explaining that a person who speaks only the truth in all situations is “unphilosophical as well as an ignoramus.” (p. 154)
  • · Sarah’s demand that Hagar and Yishmael be banished was not motivated by spite or jealousy. It was a well-earned response to their having spread malicious rumors that Isaac was illegitimate child. (p. 206)
  • · Abraham acquiesces to his wife’s demand this behavior always has “the best and happiest kind of outcome.” (p. 206)
  • · The expulsion of Yishmael is compared to the expulsion of Adam from the Garden of Eden: “Once the mind contracts folly, it becomes almost an incurable disease…their penchant for superficiality and mediocrity.” (p. 207)
  • · “The animus against Abraham stems from an envy and hatred of everything that is good.” (p. 209)
  • · The sacrifice of Isaac (whose name connotes joy) teaches us that “even joy must be subordinated to God.” (p. 210)
  • · Isaac was not misguided or mistaken in his love for Esau. Isaac’s love for Esau was compartmentalized or limited, conditional he was attracted to Esau’s skill as a hunter, because Isaac himself sought to “hunt down his passions and keep them at bay.” (p. 233)
  • · Esau had always been a slave, and was destined to remain enslaved for all time – with or without the blessing Jacob took. By selling the birthright, Esau proved that he was a slave to his “belly’s pleasures.” (p. 233)
  • · When Jacob buys the birthright from Esau, it is an act of virtue intended to save his brother from rampant materialism that would bring about Esau’s downfall. (p. 234)
  • · Isaac wants to bless Esau because he sees that Esau is limited and lacking, while Jacob is perfect and does not need his blessing. (p. 240)
  • · Jacob should be admired for respecting both his parents and carrying out his mother’s instructions to the letter, rather than being vilified for taking Esau’s blessings through subterfuge. (p. 242)
  • · “Malicious people never tire of accusing Scripture of excusing Jacob’s deceit and fraud… subterfuge and maneuvering have their place in life…sometimes a general will make a threat of war, while he is actually working in the interest of peace.” (p. 243) “A good man may do something that appears wrong, but [he] acts with noble intention.” (p. 245 also see p. 248)
  • · Simeon and Levy “acted as a vanguard of justice and fought to protect their family’s purity.” (bl. 272)
  • · Joseph treats the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah as equals, hence drawing the ire of his other brothers. (bl. 275)
  • · Jacob’s love for Joseph was not arbitrary favoritism. Rather, he loved Joseph because of his skills, his virtue, and his nobility. (bl. 275)
  • · Regarding Tamar: “Virtue is subtle –sometimes she veils her face like Tamar.” (p. 284)
  • · Joseph was physically assaulted by Madame Potiphar, but never succumbed to her advances. (p. 287)
  • · Joseph does not seek revenge he wants to see how the brothers will treat Benjamin, another son of Rachel. (p. 301) Joseph sees the entire episode as divine providence (p. 313).
  • · Even in prison, Joseph behaves virtuously toward all the other prisoners. (p. 288)
  • · Joseph does not gain personally from any of the wealth accrued in Egypt rather, he is a dedicated civil servant. (p. 318f)
  • · Joseph completely forgave his brothers and never sought vengeance, not only out of respect for their father, but because of his love for his brothers. (p. 326)
  • · Jacob enters the palace and all those present are aware of his dignity. (p. 318)

Philo proves to be a sensitive reader of the text – sensitive to the underlying philosophical issues as well as a staunch defender of Judaism. Perhaps because he lived among non-Jews, within the general society, he intuited that attacks on Abraham and Sarah are tantamount to attacks on the underpinnings of Judaism and, through a subtle process of anti-Semitism, on every Jew. Alternatively, he may simply have seen the patriarchs and matriarchs as spiritual giants – people whose thoughts and actions were far more elevated than those of common men, people who were far above the petty jealousies and foolish mistakes more cynical readers ascribe to them, people who actually were “larger than life.” Philo teaches us that in order to look at them at all, to see and understand them, to learn from them – we must look up.

Rabbi Leo Samuel has done an outstanding service, both to Philo and to modern readers. In Torah from Alexandria , Philo’s ancient Torah commentary becomes readable and meaningful, exciting and contemporary. I look forward to future volumes.


Inhoud

Gems were mostly cut by using abrasive powder from harder stones in conjunction with a hand-drill, probably often set in a lathe. Emery has been mined for abrasive powder on Naxos since antiquity. Some early types of seal were cut by hand, rather than a drill, which does not allow fine detail. There is no evidence that magnifying lenses were used by gem cutters in antiquity. A medieval guide to gem-carving techniques survives from Theophilus Presbyter. Byzantine cutters used a flat-edged wheel on a drill for intaglio work, while Carolingian ones used round-tipped drills it is unclear where they learnt this technique from. In intaglio gems at least, the recessed cut surface is usually very well preserved, and microscopic examination is revealing of the technique used. [3] The colour of several gemstones can be enhanced by a number of artificial methods, using heat, sugar and dyes. Many of these can be shown to have been used since antiquity – since the 7th millennium BC in the case of heating. [4]

The technique has an ancient tradition in the Near East, and is represented in all or most early cultures from the area, and the Indus Valley civilization. The cylinder seal, whose design only appears when rolled over damp clay, from which the flat ring type developed, was the usual form in Mesopotamia, Assyria and other cultures, and spread to the Aegean and Minoan world, including parts of Greece and Cyprus. These were made in various types of stone, not all hardstone, and gold rings were a related development in Minoan seals, which are often very fine. The Greek tradition emerged in Ancient Greek art under Minoan influence on mainland Helladic culture, and reached an apogee of subtlety and refinement in the Hellenistic period. Pre-Hellenic Ancient Egyptian seals tend to have inscriptions in hieroglyphs rather than images. The Biblical Book of Exodus describes the form of the hoshen, a ceremonial breastplate worn by the High Priest, bearing twelve gems engraved with the names of the Twelve tribes of Israel.

Round or oval Greek gems (along with similar objects in bone and ivory) are found from the 8th and 7th centuries BC, usually with animals in energetic geometric poses, often with a border marked by dots or a rim. [5] Early examples are mostly in softer stones. Gems of the 6th century are more often oval, [6] with a scarab back (in the past this type was called a "scarabaeus"), and human or divine figures as well as animals the scarab form was apparently adopted from Phoenicia. [7] The forms are sophisticated for the period, despite the usually small size of the gems. [8] In the 5th century gems became somewhat larger, but still only 2-3 centimetres tall. Despite this, very fine detail is shown, including the eyelashes on one male head, perhaps a portrait. Four gems signed by Dexamenos of Chios are the finest of the period, two showing herons. [9]

Relief carving became common in 5th century BC Greece, and gradually most of the spectacular carved gems in the Western tradition were in relief, although the Sassanian and other traditions remained faithful to the intaglio form. Generally a relief image is more impressive than an intaglio one in the earlier form the recipient of a document saw this in the impressed sealing wax, while in the later reliefs it was the owner of the seal who kept it for himself, probably marking the emergence of gems meant to be collected or worn as jewellery pendants in necklaces and the like, rather than used as seals – later ones are sometimes rather large to use to seal letters. However inscriptions are usually still in reverse ("mirror-writing") so they only read correctly on impressions (or by viewing from behind with transparent stones). This aspect also partly explains the collecting of impressions in plaster or wax from gems, which may be easier to appreciate than the original.

The cameo, which is rare in intaglio form, seems to have reached Greece around the 3rd century the Farnese Tazza is the only major surviving Hellenistic example (depending on the date assigned to the Gonzaga Cameo – see below), but other glass-paste imitations with portraits suggest that gem-type cameos were made in this period. [10] The conquests of Alexander the Great had opened up new trade routes to the Greek world and increased the range of gemstones available. [11] Roman gems generally continued Hellenistic styles, and can be hard to date, until their quality sharply declines at the end of the 2nd century AD. Philosophers are sometimes shown Cicero refers to people having portraits of their favourite on their cups and rings. [12] The Romans invented cameo glass, best known from the Portland Vase, as a cheaper material for cameos, and one that allowed consistent and predictable layers on even round objects.

During the European Middle Ages antique engraved gems were one classical art form which was always highly valued, and a large but unknown number of ancient gems have (unlike most surviving classical works of art) never been buried and then excavated. Gems were used to decorate elaborate pieces of goldsmith work such as votive crowns, book-covers and crosses, sometimes very inappropriately given their subject matter. Matthew Paris illustrated a number of gems owned by St Albans Abbey, including one large Late Roman imperial cameo (now lost) called Kaadmau which was used to induce overdue childbirths – it was slowly lowered, with a prayer to St Alban, on its chain down the woman's cleavage, as it was believed that the infant would flee downwards to escape it, [13] a belief in accordance with the views of the "father of mineralogy", Georgius Agricola (1494–1555) on jasper. [14] Some gems were engraved, mostly with religious scenes in intaglio, during the period both in Byzantium and Europe. [15]

In the West production revived from the Carolingian period, when rock crystal was the commonest material. The Lothair Crystal (or Suzanna Crystal, British Museum, 11.5 cm diameter), clearly not designed for use as a seal, is the best known of 20 surviving Carolingian large intaglio gems with complex figural scenes, although most were used for seals. [16] Several crystals were designed, like the Susanna Crystal, to be viewed through the gem from the unengraved side, so their inscriptions were reversed like the seals. In wills and inventories, engraved gems were often given pride of place at the head of a list of treasures. [17]

Some gems in a remarkably effective evocation of classical style were made in Southern Italy for the court of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in the first half of the 13th century, several in the Cabinet des Médailles in Paris. Meanwhile, the church led the development of large, often double-sided, metal seal matrices for wax seals that were left permanently attached to charters and similar legal documents, dangling by a cord, though smaller ring seals that were broken when a letter was opened remained in use. It is not clear to what extent this also continued practices in the ancient world.

The late medieval French and Burgundian courts collected and commissioned gems, and began to use them for portraits. The British Museum has what is probably a seated portrait of John, Duke of Berry in intaglio on a sapphire, and the Hermitage has a cameo head of Charles VII of France. [18]

Interest had also revived in Early Renaissance Italy, where Venice soon became a particular centre of production. Along with the Roman statues and sarcophagi being newly excavated, antique gems were prime sources for artists eager to regain a classical figurative vocabulary. Cast bronze copies of gems were made, which circulated around Italy, and later Europe. [19] Among very many examples of borrowings that can be traced confidently, the Felix of Diomedes gem owned by Lorenzo de' Medici (see below), with an unusual pose, was copied by Leonardo da Vinci and may well have provided the "starting point" for one of Michelangelo's ignudi on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. [20] Another of Lorenzo's gems supplied, probably via a drawing by Perugino, a pose used by Raphael. [21]

By the 16th century carved and engraved gems were keenly collected across Europe for dedicated sections of a cabinet of curiosities, and their production revived, in classical styles 16th-century gem-cutters working with the same types of sardonyx and other hardstones and using virtually the same techniques, produced classicizing works of glyptic art, often intended as forgeries, in such quantity that they compromised the market for them, as Gisela Richter observed in 1922. [22] Even today, Sir John Boardman admits that "We are sometimes at a loss to know whether what we are looking at belongs to the 1st or the 15th century AD, a sad confession for any art-historian." [23] Other Renaissance gems reveal their date by showing mythological scenes derived from literature that were not part of the visual repertoire in classical times, or borrowing compositions from Renaissance paintings, and using "compositions with rather more figures than any ancient engraver would have tolerated or attempted". [23] Among artists, the wealthy Rubens was a notable collector. [24]

Engraved gems occur in the Bible, especially when the hoshen and ephod worn by the High Priest are described though these were inscribed with the names of the tribes of Israel in letters, rather than any images. A few identifiably Jewish gems survive from the classical world, including Persia, mostly with the owner's name in Hebrew, but some with symbols such as the menorah. [25] Many gems are inscribed in the Islamic world, typically with verses from the Koran, and sometimes gems in the Western tradition just contain inscriptions.

Many Asian and Middle Eastern cultures have their own traditions, although for example the important Chinese tradition of carved gemstones and hardstones, especially jade carving, is broader than the European one of concentration on a flattish faced stone that might fit into a ring. Seal engraving covers the inscription that is printed by stamping, which nearly always only contains script rather than images. Other decoration of the seal itself was not intended to be reproduced.

The iconography of gems is similar to that of coins, though more varied. Early gems mostly show animals. Gods, satyrs, and mythological scenes were common, and famous statues often represented – much modern knowledge of the poses of lost Greek cult statues such as Athena Promachos comes from the study of gems, which often have clearer images than coins. [26] A 6th(?) century BC Greek gem already shows Ajax committing suicide, with his name inscribed. [27] The story of Heracles was, as in other arts, the most common source of narrative subjects. A scene may be intended as the subject of an early Archaic gem, and certainly appears on 6th century examples from the later Archaic period. [28]

Portraits of monarchs are found from the Hellenistic period onwards, although as they do not usually have identifying inscriptions, many fine ones cannot be identified with a subject. In the Roman Imperial period, portraits of the imperial family were often produced for the court circle, and many of these have survived, especially a number of spectacular cameos from the time of Augustus. As private objects, produced no doubt by artists trained in the tradition of Hellenistic monarchies, their iconography is less inhibited than the public state art of the period about showing divine attributes as well as sexual matters. [29] The identity and interpretation of figures in the Gemma Augustea remains unclear. A number of gems from the same period contain scenes apparently from the lost epic on the Sack of Troy, of which the finest is by Dioskurides (Chatsworth House). [30]

Renaissance and later gems remain dominated by the Hellenistic repertoire of subjects, though portraits in contemporary styles were also produced.

Famous collectors begin with King Mithridates VI of Pontus (d. 63 BC), whose collection was part of the booty of Pompey the Great, who donated it to the Temple of Jupiter in Rome. [31] Julius Caesar was determined to excel Pompey in this as in other areas, and later gave six collections to his own Temple of Venus Genetrix according to Suetonius gems were among his varied collecting passions. [32] Many later emperors also collected gems. Chapters 4-6 of Book 37 of the Natural History of Pliny the Elder give a summary art history of the Greek and Roman tradition, and of Roman collecting. According to Pliny Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) was the first Roman collector. [33]

As in later periods objects carved in the round from semi-precious stone were regarded as a similar category of object these are also known as hardstone carvings. One of the largest, the Coupe des Ptolémées was probably donated to the Basilica of Saint-Denis, near Paris, by Charles the Bald, as the inscription on its former gem-studded gold Carolingian mounting stated it may have belonged to Charlemagne. One of the best collections of such vessels, though mostly plain without carved decoration, was looted from Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, and is in the Treasury of the Basilica of San Marco in Venice. Many of these retain the medieval mounts which adapted them for liturgical use. [34] Like the Coupe des Ptolémées, most objects in European museums lost these when they became objects of classicist interest from the Renaissance onwards, or when the mounts were removed for the value of the materials, as happened to many in the French Revolution.

The collection of 827 engraved gems of Pope Paul II, [35] which included the "Felix gem" of Diomedes with the Palladium, [36] was acquired by Lorenzo il Magnifico the Medici collection included many other gems and was legendary, valued in inventories much higher than his Botticellis. Somewhat like Chinese collectors, Lorenzo had all his gems inscribed with his name. [37]

The Gonzaga Cameo passed through a series of famous collections before coming to rest in the Hermitage. First known in the collection of Isabella d'Este, it passed to the Gonzaga Dukes of Mantua, Emperor Rudolf II, Queen Christina of Sweden, Cardinal Decio Azzolini, Livio Odescalchi, Duke of Bracciano, and Pope Pius VI before Napoleon carried it off to Paris, where his Empress Joséphine gave it to Alexander I of Russia after Napoleon's downfall, as a token of goodwill. [38] It remains disputed whether the cameo is Alexandrian work of the 3rd century BC, or a Julio-Claudian imitation of the style from the 1st century AD. [39]

Three of the largest cameo gems from antiquity were created for members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and seem to have survived above ground since antiquity. The large Gemma Augustea appeared in 1246 in the treasury of the Basilique St-Sernin, Toulouse. In 1533, King François I appropriated it and moved it to Paris, where it soon disappeared around 1590. Not long thereafter it was fenced for 12,000 gold pieces to Emperor Rudolph II it remains in Vienna, alongside the Gemma Claudia. The largest flat engraved gem known from antiquity is the Great Cameo of France, which entered (or re-entered) the French royal collection in 1791 from the treasury of Sainte-Chapelle, where it had been since at least 1291.

In England, a false dawn of gem collecting was represented by Henry, Prince of Wales' purchase of the cabinet of the Flemish antiquary Abraham Gorlaeus in 1609, [40] and engraved gems featured among the antiquities assembled by Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel. Later in the century William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire, formed a collection of gems that is still conserved at Chatsworth. [41] In the eighteenth century a more discerning cabinet of gems was assembled by Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle, acting upon the advice of Francesco Maria Zanetti and Francesco Ficoroni 170 of the Carlisle gems, both Classical and post-Classical, were purchased in 1890 for the British Museum.

By the mid-eighteenth century prices had reached such a level that major collections could only be formed by the very wealthy lesser collectors had to make do with collecting plaster casts, [42] which was also very popular, or buying one of many sumptuously illustrated catalogues of collections that were published. [43] Catherine the Great's collection is in the Hermitage Museum one large collection she had bought was the gems from the Orléans Collection. [44] Louis XV of France hired Dominique Vivant to assemble a collection for Madame de Pompadour.

In the eighteenth century British aristocrats were able to outcompete even the agents for royal and princely collectors on the Continent, aided by connoisseur-dealers like Count Antonio Maria Zanetti and Philipp von Stosch. Zanetti travelled Europe in pursuit of gems hidden in private collections for the British aristocrats he tutored in connoisseurship [45] his own collection was described in A.F. Gori, Le gemme antiche di Anton Maria Zanetti (Venice, 1750), illustrated with eighty plates of engravings from his own drawings. Baron Philipp von Stosch (1691–1757), a Prussian who lived in Rome and then Florence, was a major collector, as well as a dealer in engraved gems: "busy, unscrupulous, and in his spare time a spy for England in Italy". [23] Among his contemporaries, Stosch made his lasting impression with Gemmæ Antiquæ Cælatæ (Pierres antiques graveés) (1724), in which Bernard Picart's engravings reproduced seventy antique carved hardstones like onyx, jasper and carnelian from European collections. He also encouraged Johann Lorenz Natter (1705–1763) whom Stosch set to copying ancient carved gems in Florence. Frederick the Great of Prussia bought Stosch's collection in 1765 and built the Antique Temple in the park of the Sanssouci Palace to house his collections of ancient sculpture, coins and over 4,000 gems – the two were naturally often grouped together. The gems are now in the Antikensammlung Berlin.

The collection of Joseph Smith, British consul in Venice was bought by King George III of Great Britain and remains in the Royal Collection. The collections of Charles Towneley, Richard Payne Knight and Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode were bought by or bequeathed to the British Museum, founding their very important collection. [46]

But the most famous English collection was that formed by the 4th Duke of Marlborough (1739–1817), "which the Duke kept in his bedroom and resorted to as a relief from his ambitious wife, his busy sister and his many children". [47] This included collections formerly owned by the Gonzagas of Mantua (later owned by Lord Arundel), the 2nd Earl of Bessborough, and the brother of Lord Chesterfield, who himself warned his son in one of his Letters against "days lost in poring upon imperceptible intaglios and cameos". [48] The collection, including its single most famous cameo, die "Marlborough gem" depicting an initiation of Cupid and Psyche, was dispersed after a sale in 1899, fortunately timed for the new American museums and provided the core of the collection of the Metropolitan in New York and elsewhere, [19] with the largest group still together being about 100 in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. [48] ​​[49]

Prince Stanisław Poniatowski (1754–1833) "commissioned about 2500 gems and encouraged the belief that they were, in fact, ancient." He presented a set of 419 plaster impressions of his collection to the King of Prussia which now form the Daktyliothek Poniatowski in Berlin, where they were recognised as modern in 1832, mainly because the signatures of ancient artists from very different times were found on gems in too consistent a style. [50]

As in other fields, not many ancient artists' names are known from literary sources, although some gems are signed. According to Pliny, Pyrgoteles was the only artist allowed to carve gems for the seal rings of Alexander the Great. Most of the most famous Roman artists were Greeks, like Dioskurides, who is thought to have produced the Gemma Augustea, and is recorded as the artist of the matching signet rings of Augustus – very carefully controlled, they allowed orders to be issued in his name by his most trusted associates. Other works survive signed by him (rather more than are all likely to be genuine), and his son Hyllos was also a gem engraver. [51]

The Anichini family were leading artists in Venice and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries. Many Renaissance artists no doubt kept their activities quiet, as they were passing their products off as antique. Other specialist carvers included Giovanni Bernardi (1494–1553), Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio (c. 1500–1565), Giuseppe Antonio Torricelli (1662–1719), the German-Italian Anton Pichler (1697–1779) and his sons Giovanni and Luigi, Charles Christian Reisen (Anglo-Norwegian, 1680–1725). Other sculptors also carved gems, or had someone in their workshop who did. Leone Leoni said he personally spent two months on a double-sided cameo gem with portraits of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife and son. [52]

The Scot James Tassie (1735–1799), and his nephew William (1777–1860) developed methods for taking hard impressions from old gems, and also for casting new designs from carved wax in enamel, enabling a huge production of what are really imitation engraved gems. The fullest catalogue of his impressions ("Tassie gems") was published in 1791, with 15,800 items. [53] There are complete sets of the impressions in the Hermitage, the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, and in Edinburgh. [54] Other types of imitation became fashionable for ladies' brooches, such as ceramic cameos by Josiah Wedgwood in jasperware. The engraved gem fell permanently out of fashion from about the 1860s, [19] perhaps partly as a growing realization of the number of gems that were not what they seemed to be scared collectors. Among the last practitioners was James Robertson, who sensibly moved into the new art of photography. Perhaps the best known gem engraver of the 20th century, working in a contemporary idiom, is the British artist Ronald Pennell, [55] whose work is held in the British Crafts Council Collection among many others.

Cameo glass was invented by the Romans in about 30BC to imitate engraved hardstone cameos, with the advantage that consistent layering could be achieved even on round vessels – impossible with natural gemstones. It was however very difficult to manufacture and surviving pieces, mostly famously the Portland Vase, are actually much rarer than Roman gemstone cameos. [56] The technique was revived in the 18th and especially 19th centuries in England and elsewhere, [57] and was most effectively used in French Art Nouveau glass that made no attempt to follow classical styles.

The Middle Ages, which lived by charters and other sealed documents, were at least as keen on using seals as the ancient world, now creating them for towns and church institutions, but they normally used metal matrices and signet rings. However some objects, like a 13th-century Venetian Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, mimicked the engraved gem. [58]

Another offshoot of the mania for engraved gems is the fine-grained slightly translucent stoneware called jasperware that was developed by Josiah Wedgwood and perfected in 1775. [59] Though white-on-blue matte jasperware is the most familiar Wedgwood ceramic line, still in production today and widely imitated since the mid-19th century, white-on-black was also produced. Wedgwood made notable jasperware copies of the Portland Vase and the Marlborough gem, a famous head of Antinous, [60] and interpreted in jasperware casts from antique gems by James Tassie. John Flaxman's neoclassical designs for jasperware were carried out in the extremely low relief typical of cameo production. Some other porcelain imitated three-layer cameos purely by paint, even in implausible objects like a flat Sèvres tea-tray of 1840. [61]

Gems were a favourite topic for antiquaries from the Renaissance onwards, culminating in the work of Philipp von Stosch, described above. Major progress in understanding Greek gems was made in the work of Adolf Furtwängler (1853–1907, father of the conductor, Wilhelm). Among recent scholars Sir John Boardman (b. 1927) has made a special contribution, again concentrating on Greek gems. Gertrud Seidmann (1919–2013) moved into the subject, having previously been a German teacher.


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Meaning of High Priest Breastplate Gems

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  • This article in our series on precious stones in the Bible will discuss the exact placement of gems binne die High Priest's breastplate
  • We will also explore the linkage between the stones and the twelve tribes of Israel.
  • Foreshadowing the ministry of Jesus Christ (Hebrews 2:17, 4:14 to 7:28, 9, 10), the High Priest

High Priest's Breastplate Gems in the Bible and Torah

  • Sacred Stones: High Priest's Breastplate Gems in the Bible and Torah Crystal Gemstones Used for Miraculous Guidance and Symbolism
  • Share Flipboard Email Print The priest's breastplate

The High Priest’s Breastplate (Choshen)

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  • Die breastplate (choshen) was one of the eight priestly garments worn by the high priest (kohen gadol) when serving in the Holy Temple.It featured twelve precious stones, corresponding to the 12 tribes of Israel, and served as a medium through which G‑d provided direction to the Jewish nation.

The significance of the high priest's breastplate » Kehila

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  • The second focal point of the breastplate were the 12 gemstones of Exodus 28:17-21 that were on the front, which lay over the heart of the High Priest
  • Anders as die gems on the shoulder piece, these stones were different one from another.

What Were the Gemstones of the Breastplate of Aaron

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  • I’d love to have some feedback on the identity of the gemstones of the breastplate of Aaron.In Exodus 28:15-21, the breastplate of Aaron is described in great detail.In the Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible, a different gemstone is listed for each of the twelve tribes of Israel.They are, in the 1 st row, carnelian, chrysolite, and emerald in the 2 nd row, turquoise, sapphire, and amethyst

E39-1: The prophetic significance of the 12 stones on the

E39-2: What was the purpose of the bells attached to the hem of the High Priest's robe? E39-1: The prophetic significance of the 12 stones on the High Priest's breastplate E38-2: During the times of Moses and King David the SHEKEL was just a unit of weight E38-1: The Tabernacle is the perfect example of giving ONE'S BEST to the Lord

The Gems in the High Priest’s Breastplate: A Pragmatic Review

  • Die breastplate was to be at-tached to the Ephod worn by the High Priest by gold chains held by gold rings on the shoulder straps
  • Die gems contributed by the ancient Israelites in the wilderness were used in the Tabernacle as described in Ex
  • The identity of the gems has remained ambivalent throughout history.

The Gems on the High Priest's Breastplate

  • Die Gems op die High Priest's Breastplgeëet
  • Graphic Design by Rusty Russell
  • For best viewing set your display settings to Hoog-Color 800x600 or better in control panel
  • These are actual gems in modern times and the name of each tribe is inscribed on the stone
  • Each transparency contains a full size and full color image of each gem.

Gems In The Bible

The High Priest’s Breastplate – All

    GEMS IN THE BIBLE

Biblical Aaron Wore a Golden Breastplate Fashioned With 12

  • The biblical Aaron may have been the original King of Bling
  • More than 3,300 years ago, the first high priest of the Hebrews (and older brother of Moses) dazzled his followers with a gleaming breastplate fashioned with gemstones representing the 12 tribes of Israel
  • The inscribed gems — which included emerald, sapphire, amethyst and topaz…

Amazon.com: high priest breastplate

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  • Healing Crystals Kabbalah Jewelry Hoshen, Avnei Choshen, 12 Tribes of Israel Necklace Gift, High Priest Breastplate Precious and Semi-Precious Gemstones Jewels, 14k Gold-Filled 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 $159.00 $ 159

The Breastplate Of Judgment: Part 4 of 6- High Priest’s

  • Die Breastplate Of Judgment: Part 4 of 6- High Priest’s Garments Series
  • 29 “So Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel on the breastplate of judgment over his heart, when he goes into the holy place, as a memorial before the LORD continually.”
  • As you read in part 3, the Breastplate of Judgment is the most expensive part of the

A History of Birthstones and the Breastplate of Aaron

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  • Described in Exodus is the Breastplate of Aaron, a sacred object worn by the High Priest of the Israelites in order to communicate with God
  • Worn over the Priest’s sacred vestments, it was attached by shoulder straps at the corners and contained twelve gemstones
  • The first academic research of the Breastplate was carried out by Roman scholar

THE STONES OF The Twelve Tribes of Israel — One Yahweh

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  • Created by pastorbuddy on 3/11/2009
  • High Priest Breastplate Gemstones
  • Baie gem scholars agree that the tradition of birthstones arose from the Breastplate of Aaron: a ceremonial religious garment set with twelve gemstones that represented the twelve tribes of Israel and also corresponded with the twelve signs of the zodiac and the twelve months of the year.

BREASTPLATE STONES sapphirethroneministries

  • Op die High Priest’s Breastplate were 12 stones with the 12 tribes of the sons of Israel written on them
  • A common question I am hearing these days is: What about those stones on the Breastplate? There’s a reason you don’t hear a lot about those Breastplate stones
  • The details surrounding them are quite enigmatic.…

The High Priest’s Breastplate Guide To The Bible

  • Die High Priest’s Breastplate
  • The Bible tells us in Exodus 28 that a breastplate with twelve precious and semi-precious stones was made for Aaron the High Priest
  • This study will hopefully reveal where these stones came from and where they could be today, with the view that they could be all found and once again used in the next High Priest

Identifying the Twelve Stones in the Breastplate of the

The origin of our twelve birthstones and their colors is rooted in the twelve colored stones in the breastplate van die high priest of ancient Israel.The fact that our birthstones are not only associated with different tribes, but also with different months, shows that there was a strong tradition that each of the twelve sons of Jacob was born at a distinct time of year.

The Gemstones In The Breastplate

  • Bible scholars have long been fascinated by the Breastplate worn by the High Priest of Israel
  • Set in precious stones it occupied an important place in Israelitish worship for it contained the instruments by which God revealed His Divine will to His chosen people
  • Die gem stones are significant in that each stone is engraved with the name of a

Onyx stone thought to be a gem from the breastplate of a

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The stones of the choshen mishpat, the High Priest's breastplate, were referred to in the Bible as the urim v'tummim, or Urim and the Thummim, a phrase that has yet to be defined.