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Waar kan ek 'n betroubare metode vind om Engels na Ancient Egyptian te vertaal?

Waar kan ek 'n betroubare metode vind om Engels na Ancient Egyptian te vertaal?

Omdat ek geen voorafkennis van die taal het nie, werk ek aan 'n projek wat my vereis om dinge te noem met tale soortgelyk aan antieke Egipties. Tot dusver gebruik ek hierdie webwerf:

http://karathutmose.tripod.com/dictionary/dictionary1.html#Aphia1]

Ek neem aan dat ek dinge nie net bymekaar kan maak nie, maar dat dit leesbaar is; maar waaraan ek werk is fiksie, en dit hoef dus nie 100% akkuraat te wees nie. Ek wil dit egter outentiek laat voel, en om dit te laat werk, moet ek dinge kan noem, sodat ek dit kan vertaal.

As 'n bonusvraag: Watter ander tale wat in Engels vertaal kan word, kenmerk die eienskappe van die ou Egiptiese uitspraak?


Ongelukkig is hierdie probleem nie spesifiek vir antieke Egipte nie, en outomatiese vertaling is oor die algemeen nie te verstane nie. Ou Egiptenaar het ook die probleem om 'n taal te wees waarvoor daar geen sagteware vir outomatiese vertaling bestaan ​​nie, sover ek weet (om dinge in die ou Egiptenaar te vertaal is nie regtig 'n algemene probleem nie).

As u 'n halfdadige vertaling van Engels in Ancient Egyptian wil hê, kan u verskeie dinge probeer:

  • Neem 'n Egiptiese handboek op en probeer die basiese grammatika verstaan ​​en probeer 'n sin daaruit bou. Ek glo dat 'Middle Egyptian' deur James Allen die algemeenste is. 'N Goeie Egiptiese woordeboek kan ook nuttig wees.
  • Kyk na Egiptiese tekste vir soortgelyke sinne, indien dit bestaan. Dit is 'n redelik goeie bron van Egiptiese tekste, hoewel transliterasie nie altyd verskaf word nie, maar u kan altyd probeer om een ​​te vind via die gegewe verwysings.
  • Vra iemand wat kundig is in die Egiptologie om u daarvoor te help.

Die Britse Museum het 'n antieke Egiptiese vertaling van Peter Rabbit gemaak

Die aantekeninge daaroor is baie handig om 'n paar van die algemene probleme met die vertaling van hedendaagse tekste in Egipties te sien, soos die gebrek aan woorde vir 'n verskeidenheid voorwerpe (sambrele, kruiwaens), plante en diere wat nie in Egipte bestaan ​​het nie. die tyd, sowel as woorde wat net onbekend is.

U moet ook besluit watter era van die ou Egipte u gebruik. Geskrewe Egiptenaars was meestal stabiel deur sy taamlik lang lewe, maar dit het verskeie tydperke ondergaan met nog verskillende grammatika. Die hooffases is Ou -Egipties, Midde -Egipties, Laat -Egipties, Demoties en Kopties.

As dit Egipties moet wees, onthou dan ook dat ons meestal nie weet hoe Egipties klink nie. Egiptenaar het nie die meeste vokale neergeskryf nie en klanke het deur sy geskiedenis sowel as met streke verander. Sommige woorde is ook eintlik nie neergeskryf nie en moes uit die konteks verstaan ​​word (byvoorbeeld word vermoed dat artikels "pa" en "ta" in spreektaal gebruik is, maar eers neergeskryf is).

Wat 'n taal soos Egipties aanbetref, is sy naaste familielid vandag Kopties, wat ongelukkig amper dood is. Kopties word deesdae slegs gebruik as 'n liturgiese taal vir die Koptiese kerk, en as sodanig het hulle moontlik nie 'n baie uitgebreide literatuur om in Engels te vertaal nie, maar u kan dit altyd kyk. Die naaste lewende familielede van Egiptenaars is die Afro-Asiatiese tale (soos Hebreeus en Arabies), maar hulle word deur amper 5000 jaar geskei.


Waar kan ek 'n betroubare metode vind om Engels na Ancient Egyptian te vertaal? - Geskiedenis

Antieke Egiptiese medisyne


Die medisyne van die ou Egiptenare is een van die oudste wat gedokumenteer is. Vanaf die begin van die beskawing in die c. In die 33ste eeu vC tot met die Persiese inval van 525 vC het die Egiptiese mediese praktyk grootliks onveranderd gebly en was dit hoogs gevorderd vir sy tyd, insluitend eenvoudige nie-indringende chirurgie, beenbene en 'n uitgebreide reeks farmakopee. Egiptiese mediese denke het latere tradisies beïnvloed, waaronder die Grieke.

Tot in die 19de eeu was die belangrikste bronne van inligting oor antieke Egiptiese medisyne geskrifte uit later in die oudheid. Homerus c. 800 vC het in die Odyssee opgemerk: "In Egipte is die manne meer bekwaam in die geneeskunde as enige van die menslike aard" en "die Egiptenare was meer vaardig in medisyne as enige ander kuns".

Die Griekse historikus Herodotus het Egipte omstreeks 440 vC besoek en uitgebrei geskryf oor sy waarnemings van hul medisinale praktyke. Plinius die Ouere het ook gunstig daarvan in historiese resensie geskryf. Hippokrates (die "vader van medisyne"), Herophilos, Erasistratus en later Galen studeer aan die tempel van Amenhotep en erken die bydrae van antieke Egiptiese medisyne tot Griekse medisyne.

In 1822 het die vertaling van die Rosetta -steen uiteindelik die vertaling van antieke Egiptiese hiërogliewe inskripsies en papirus moontlik gemaak, waaronder baie wat verband hou met mediese aangeleenthede (Egiptiese mediese papirus). Die gevolglike belangstelling in Egiptologie in die 19de eeu het gelei tot die ontdekking van verskeie stelle uitgebreide antieke mediese dokumente, waaronder die Ebers -papirus, die Edwin Smith Papyrus, die Hearst Papyrus, die London Medical Papyrus en ander wat tot 3000 vC dateer.

Die Edwin Smith Papyrus (sien hieronder) is 'n handboek oor chirurgie en bevat inligting oor anatomiese waarnemings en die 'ondersoek, diagnose, behandeling en prognose' van talle kwale. Dit is waarskynlik omstreeks 1600 vC geskryf, maar word beskou as 'n afskrif van verskeie vroeëre tekste . Mediese inligting daarin dateer van so vroeg as 3000 vC. Imhotep in die 3de dinastie word beskou as die oorspronklike outeur van die papirusteks en stigter van antieke Egiptiese medisyne. Die vroegste operasie is omstreeks 2750 vC in Egipte uitgevoer.

Die Ebers -papirus (sien hieronder) c. 1550 vC is vol beswerings en vuil toepassings wat bedoel is om demone wat siektes veroorsaak, af te weer, en bevat ook 877 voorskrifte. Dit kan ook die vroegste gedokumenteerde bewustheid van gewasse bevat, indien die swak verstaanbare ou mediese terminologie korrek geïnterpreteer is. Ander inligting kom uit die beelde wat dikwels die mure van Egiptiese grafte versier en die vertaling van die meegaande inskripsies.

Vooruitgang in moderne mediese tegnologie het ook bygedra tot die begrip van antieke Egiptiese medisyne. Paleopatoloë kon X-strale en later CAT-skanderings gebruik om die bene en organe van mummies te sien. Elektronmikroskope, massaspektrometrie en verskillende forensiese tegnieke het wetenskaplikes 4000 jaar gelede 'n unieke blik op die gesondheidstoestand in Egipte gegee.

Ander dokumente soos die Edwin Smith papirus (1550 vC), Hearst papyrus (1450 vC) en Berlynse papirus (1200 vC) bied ook waardevolle insig in antieke Egiptiese medisyne. Die Edwin Smith -papirus noem byvoorbeeld navorsingsmetodes, die diagnose van die pasiënt en die opstel van 'n behandeling. Dit word dus beskou as 'n leerhandleiding. Behandelings bestaan ​​uit siektes wat gemaak word van dierlike, groente- of vrugtestowwe of minerale.

Die Edwin Smith Papyrus


Die Edwin Smith Papyrus is 'n antieke Egiptiese mediese teks oor chirurgiese trauma. Dit dateer uit die dinastieë 16-17 van die tweede tussenperiode in die ou Egipte, ongeveer. 1600 vC. Die Edwin Smith -papirus is uniek onder die mediese papirusse wat vandag oorleef. Terwyl ander papirusse, soos die Ebers Papyrus en London Medical Papyrus, mediese tekste is wat in magie gebaseer is, bied die Edwin Smith Papyrus 'n rasionele en wetenskaplike benadering tot medisyne in Antieke Egipte.

Die Edwin Smith -papirus is 4,68 m lank, verdeel in 17 bladsye. Die recto, aan die voorkant, is 377 reëls lank, terwyl die verso, die agterkant, 92 reëls lank is. Afgesien van die fragmentariese eerste vel van die papirus, is die res van die papirus redelik ongeskonde.

Dit is geskryf in hiëratiese, die Egiptiese kursiewe vorm van hiërogliewe, in swart en rooi ink. Die oorgrote meerderheid van die papirus is gemoeid met trauma en chirurgie. Aan die regterkant is daar 48 gevalle van besering. Elke geval beskryf die tipe besering, ondersoek van die pasiënt, diagnose en prognose en behandeling. Die omgekeerde kant bestaan ​​uit agt towerkuns en vyf voorskrifte. Die spreuke van die omgekeerde kant en twee voorvalle in saak 8 en saak 9 is die uitsonderings op die praktiese aard van hierdie mediese teks.

Die outeur van die Edwin Smith -papirus word gedebatteer. Die meerderheid van die papirus is deur een skrifgeleerde geskryf, met slegs klein gedeeltes deur 'n tweede skrifgeleerde. Die papirus eindig skielik in die middel van 'n reël, sonder dat 'n skrywer dit insluit.

Daar word geglo dat die papirus gebaseer is op 'n vorige teks uit die Ou Koninkryk. Vorm en kommentaar in die papirus bevat bewys van die bestaan ​​van 'n vorige dokument. Die teks word deur sommige toegeskryf aan Imhotep, 'n argitek, hoëpriester en dokter van die Ou Koninkryk, 3000-2500 vC.

Die rasionele en praktiese aard van die papirus word in die 48 gevalle geïllustreer. Die papirus begin deur beserings aan die kop aan te spreek, en gaan voort met behandelings vir beserings aan nek, arms en bolyf. [9] Die titel van elke geval gee 'n uiteensetting van die aard van trauma, soos 'Oefeninge vir 'n gapende wond in sy kop wat tot in die been gedring het en die skedel gesplit het'.

Die ondersoek verskaf vervolgens verdere besonderhede van die trauma. Die diagnose en prognose volg op die ondersoek. Laastens word behandelingsopsies aangebied. In baie van die gevalle word verduidelikings van trauma ingesluit om verdere duidelikheid te bied.

Onder die behandelings is die sluit van wonde met hegtings (vir wonde van die lip, keel en skouer), voorkoming en genesing van infeksie met heuning, en die stop van bloeding met rou vleis. Immobilisasie word aanbeveel vir kop- en rugmurgbeserings, asook ander onderlyfbreuke. Die papirus beskryf ook anatomiese waarnemings. Dit bevat die eerste bekende beskrywings van die kraniale hegtings, die meninges, die eksterne oppervlak van die brein, die serebrospinale vloeistof en die intrakraniale pulsasies.

Die prosedures van hierdie papirus toon 'n Egiptiese kennis van medisyne wat die van Hippokrates, wat 1000 jaar later geleef het, oortref het. Vanweë die praktiese aard daarvan en die tipes trauma wat ondersoek is, word geglo dat die papirus as 'n handboek gedien het vir die trauma wat voortspruit uit militêre gevegte.

Die Edwin Smith-papirus dateer uit die dinastieë 16-17 van die tweede tussenperiode. Egipte is gedurende hierdie tyd uit Thebe regeer en die papirus het waarskynlik vandaar gekom. Edwin Smith gekoop in Luxor, Egipte in 1862, van 'n Egiptiese handelaar genaamd Mustafa Agha.

Die papirus was in besit van Smith tot sy dood toe sy dogter die papirus aan die New York Historical Society geskenk het. Van 1938 tot 1948 was die papirus in die Brooklyn Museum. In 1948 het die New York Historical Society en die Brooklyn Museum die papirus aan die New York Academy of Medicine oorhandig, waar dit vandag nog bly.

Die eerste vertaling van die papirus is deur James Henry Breasted, met die mediese advies van dr. Arno B Luckhardt, in 1930 het die vertaling van Breasted die begrip van die geskiedenis van medisyne verander. Dit toon aan dat Egiptiese mediese sorg nie beperk was tot die magiese genesingsmetodes wat in ander Egiptiese mediese bronne bewys word nie. Rasionele, wetenskaplike praktyke is gebruik, gekonstrueer deur waarneming en ondersoek.

Van 2005 tot 2006 was die Edwin Smith Papyrus in die Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York te sien. James P. Allen, kurator van Egiptiese kuns by die museum, publiseer 'n nuwe vertaling van die werk, wat saamval met die uitstalling. Dit was die eerste volledige Engelse vertaling sedert Breasted in 1930. Hierdie vertaling bied 'n meer moderne begrip van hiëratiese en medisyne.

Die Ebers Papirus

Die Ebers -papirus, ook bekend as Papirus Ebers, is 'n Egiptiese mediese papirus wat omstreeks 1550 vC dateer. Onder die oudste en belangrikste mediese papirus van antieke Egipte, is dit in die winter van 1873–74 deur Georg Ebers in Luxor (Thebe) gekoop. Dit word tans in die biblioteek van die Universiteit van Leipzig, in Duitsland, bewaar.

Die papirus is in ongeveer 1500 vC geskryf, maar dit is vermoedelik afgeskryf uit vroeëre tekste, wat moontlik tot so 3400 vC dateer. Ebers Papyrus is 'n boekrol van 110 bladsye, wat ongeveer 20 meter lank is.

Saam met die Kahun -ginekologiese papirus (omstreeks 1800 v.C.), die Edwin Smith -papirus (omstreeks 1600 v.C.), die papegaai van Hearst (omstreeks 1600 v.C.), die Brugsch -papirus (omstreeks 1300 v.C.), die Londense mediese papirus (omstreeks 1300 v.C.), die Ebers -papirus is een van die oudste bewaarde mediese dokumente. Die Brugsch Papyrus bied parallelle gedeeltes aan Ebers Papyrus, wat help om sekere gedeeltes van laasgenoemde duidelik te maak.

Die Ebers -papirus is in hiëratiese Egiptiese skrif geskryf en bewaar vir ons die mees omvangryke verslag van antieke Egiptiese medisyne wat bekend is. Die boekrol bevat ongeveer 700 magiese formules en middels. Dit bevat baie beswerings wat bedoel is om demone wat siektes veroorsaak, af te weer, en daar is ook bewyse van 'n lang tradisie van empiriese praktyk en waarneming.

Die papirus bevat 'n "verhandeling oor die hart". Dit merk op dat die hart die middelpunt van die bloedtoevoer is, met vate vasgemaak vir elke lid van die liggaam.

Dit lyk asof die Egiptenare min van die niere geweet het en die hart die ontmoetingspunt gemaak het van 'n aantal vate wat al die vloeistowwe van die liggaam vervoer - bloed, trane, urine en saad.

Geestesversteurings word uiteengesit in 'n hoofstuk van die papirus wat die Boek van harte genoem word. Versteurings soos depressie en demensie word gedek.

Die beskrywings van hierdie afwykings dui daarop dat Egiptenare op dieselfde manier geestelike en fisiese siektes opgedoen het. Die papirus bevat hoofstukke oor voorbehoeding, die diagnose van swangerskap en ander ginekologiese aangeleenthede, dermsiektes en parasiete, oog- en velprobleme, tandheelkunde en die chirurgiese behandeling van absesse en gewasse, beenvorming en brandwonde.

Voorbeelde van middels in die Ebers Papyrus sluit in:

    Asma: 'n mengsel van kruie wat op 'n baksteen verhit word sodat die lyer hul dampe kan inasem.

Buik: "Vir die ontruiming van die maag: Koeimelk 1 korrels 1 heuning 1 mash, sif, kook in vier porsies."

Ingewande: "Om die ingewande te genees: Melilot, 1 dadels, 1 kook in olie en salf 'n siek deel."

Kanker: met 'n 'gewas teen die god Xenus', word dit aanbeveel 'doen niks daarteen' nie.

Kleredrag: kan teen muise en rotte beskerm word deur katvet aan te bring.

Dood: 'n Halwe ui en die skuim bier word beskou as ''n heerlike middel teen die dood'.

Geneeskundige gebruik van okerklei: Een van die algemene middels wat in die papirus beskryf word, is oker of medisinale klei. Dit word byvoorbeeld voorgeskryf vir verskillende dermklagtes. Dit word ook voorgeskryf vir verskillende oogklagtes. Geel oker word ook beskryf as 'n middel vir urologiese klagtes.

Moderne geskiedenis van die papirus

Net soos die Edwin Smith -papirus, het die Ebers -papirus in 1862 in die besit van Edwin Smith gekom. Die bron van die papirus is onbekend, maar daar word gesê dat dit tussen die bene van 'n mummie in die Assassif -distrik van die Thebaanse nekropolis gevind is.

Die papirus het in die versameling van Edwin Smith gebly tot ten minste 1869 toe daar in die katalogus van 'n oudheidshandelaar 'n advertensie verskyn vir "'n groot mediese papirus in die besit van Edwin Smith, 'n Amerikaanse boer van Luxor". (Bors 1930)

Die papirus is in 1872 gekoop deur die Duitse egiptoloog en romanskrywer Georg Ebers (gebore in Berlyn, 1837), na wie dit vernoem is. In 1875 publiseer Ebers 'n faksimilee met 'n Engels-Latynse woordeskat en inleiding, maar dit is eers in 1890 deur H. Joachim vertaal.

Ebers het met pensioen uit sy leerstoel in Egiptologie in Leipzig getree en die papirus bly in die biblioteek van die Universiteit van Leipzig. 'N Engelse vertaling van die Papirus is deur Paul Ghalioungui gepubliseer. Die papirus is deur verskillende navorsers gepubliseer en vertaal (die waardevolste is die Duitse uitgawe Grundriss der Medizin der alten gypter, en gebaseer op hierdie Paul Ghalioungui -uitgawe).

Kahun ginekologiese papirus

Die Kahun -ginekologiese papirus (ook Kahun Papyrus, Kahun Medical Papyrus, of UC 32057) is die oudste bekende mediese teks van enige aard. Dit dateer uit ongeveer 1800 vC en handel oor vrouegesondheid, ginekologiese siektes, vrugbaarheid, swangerskap, voorbehoeding, ens.

Dit is gevind in El-Lahun deur Flinders Petrie in 1889 en die eerste keer vertaal deur F. Ll. Griffith in 1893 en gepubliseer in The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri van Kahun en Gurob. Die latere Berlynse Papirus en die Ramesseum Papyrus IV dek baie van dieselfde grond en gee dikwels identiese voorskrifte.

Die teks is verdeel in vier-en-dertig afdelings, elke afdeling handel oor 'n spesifieke probleem en bevat diagnose en behandeling, maar geen prognose word voorgestel nie. Behandelings is nie-chirurgies, wat bestaan ​​uit die toediening van medisyne op die aangetaste liggaamsdeel of deur dit te sluk. Die baarmoeder word soms gesien as die bron van klagtes wat in ander liggaamsdele manifesteer.

Die eerste sewentien dele het 'n algemene formaat wat begin met 'n titel en word gevolg deur 'n kort beskrywing van die simptome, gewoonlik, maar nie altyd nie, met die voortplantingsorgane. P> Die tweede afdeling begin op die derde bladsy en bestaan ​​uit agt paragrawe wat vanweë die toestand van die bestaande kopie en die taal byna onbegryplik is. Ten spyte hiervan is daar 'n paar paragrawe wat 'n voldoende duidelike taalvlak het, sowel as ongeskonde, wat verstaan ​​kan word.

Paragraaf 19 handel oor die erkenning van wie paragraaf 20 gaan baar, het betrekking op die berokingsprosedure wat veroorsaak dat bevrugting plaasvind en paragrawe 20-22 het betrekking op voorbehoeding. Onder die voorgeskrewe materiaal is krokodilmis, 45 ml heuning en suurmelk.

Die derde afdeling (paragrawe 26-32) handel oor die toets vir swangerskap. Ander metodes sluit in die plaas van 'n uiebol diep in die pasiënt se vlees, en die positiewe uitkoms word bepaal deur die reuk wat by die pasiënt se neus verskyn.

Die vierde en laaste afdeling bevat twee paragrawe wat nie in een van die vorige kategorieë val nie. Die eerste voorskryf behandeling vir tandpyn tydens swangerskap. Die tweede beskryf wat 'n fistel blyk te wees tussen blaas en vagina met inkontinensie van urine "op 'n lastige plek."

Speserye soos komyn, fenegriek en koljander is in antieke Egipte as medisyne gebruik.

Kruiemiddels

Voeding

By die oorweging van die gesondheid van enige kultuur moet voeding fundamenteel bespreek word. Die eertydse Egiptenare was ten minste gedeeltelik bewus van die belangrikheid van dieet, beide in balans en matigheid. As gevolg van Egipte se groot skenking van vrugbare grond, was voedselproduksie nooit 'n groot probleem nie, hoewel dit natuurlik ook nie so groot is hoe arm die land en hongersnood bestaan ​​nie.

Die belangrikste gewasse vir die grootste deel van die ou Egiptiese geskiedenis was koring en gars (sien dieet). Verbruik in die vorm van brode wat in verskillende soorte geproduseer word deur bak en fermentasie, met gis wat die voedingswaarde van die produk baie verryk, kan 'n gewas van een boer na raming twintig volwassenes ondersteun. Gars is ook in bier gebruik. Groente en vrugte van baie soorte is wyd verbou.

Olie is uit die lynplant geproduseer en daar was 'n beperkte keuse van speserye en kruie. Vleis (skape, bokke, varke, wilde wild) was gereeld beskikbaar vir ten minste die hoër klasse en vis is wyd verbruik, hoewel daar bewyse is van verbod gedurende sekere periodes teen sekere soorte diereprodukte wat Herodotus van die vark as 'onrein' beskryf het '.

Dokters en ander genesers

Die mediese professie van Antieke Egipte het sy eie hiërargie gehad. Bo was die hoof mediese beampte van Egipte. Onder hom was die superintendente en inspekteurs van dokters, en onder dan die dokters. Egiptiese dokters was baie gevorderd in hul kennis van kruiemiddels en chirurgiese tegnieke. Ook 'n deel van die Egiptiese medisyne was towerkuns, sjarme en towerkuns, wat slegs sielkundige effekte, indien enige, op 'n pasiënt gehad het.

Die ou Egiptiese woord vir dokter is "wabau". Hierdie titel het 'n lang geskiedenis. Die vroegste geneesheer ter wêreld, Hesy-Ra, wat in antieke Egipte beoefen is. Hy was die hoof van tandartse en dokters van koning Djoser, wat in die 27ste eeu vC regeer het. Die dame Peseshet (2400 v.C.) is moontlik die eerste aangetekende vroulike dokter: sy was moontlik die moeder van Akhethotep, en op 'n stela wat aan haar in sy graf gewy is, word na haar verwys as imy-r swnwt, wat vertaal is as "Lady Opsiener van die Lady Physicians. "

Daar was baie geledere en spesialisasies op die gebied van medisyne. Royalty het hul eie swnw gebruik, selfs hul eie spesialiste. Daar was inspekteurs van dokters, opsieners en hoofdokters. Bekende antieke Egiptiese spesialiste is oogarts, gastro -enteroloog, prokoloog, tandarts, 'dokter wat toesig hou oor slagters' en 'n ongespesifiseerde 'inspekteur van vloeistowwe'. Die ou Egiptiese term vir proctoloog, neru phuyt, vertaal letterlik as "herder van die anus".

Dit is bekend dat instellings, die sogenaamde lewenshuise, sedert die 1ste dinastie in antieke Egipte gestig is en moontlik mediese funksies gehad het, wat soms in opskrifte met dokters geassosieer word, soos Peftauawyneit en Wedjahorresnet wat in die middel van die eerste millennium woon. V.C. Teen die tyd van die 19de dinastie het hul werknemers voordele geniet soos mediese versekering, pensioene en siekteverlof.

Oefeninge

Mediese kennis in antieke Egipte het 'n uitstekende reputasie gehad, en heersers van ander ryke sou die Egiptiese farao vra om hulle beste geneesheer vir hulle te stuur. Egiptenare het 'n bietjie kennis van menslike anatomie gehad. Byvoorbeeld, in die klassieke mummifikasieproses, het mummifiers geweet hoe om 'n lang gehaakte werktuig deur 'n neusgat te steek, die dun been van die breinkas te breek en die brein te verwyder.

Hulle moes ook 'n algemene idee gehad het van die ligging in die liggaamsholte van die binneste organe, wat hulle deur 'n klein insnyding in die linker lies verwyder het. Maar of hierdie kennis aan die beoefenaars van medisyne oorgedra is, is onbekend en het blykbaar geen invloed op hul mediese teorieë nie.

Egiptiese dokters was bewus van die bestaan ​​van die pols en van 'n verband tussen pols en hart. Die skrywer van die Smith Papyrus het selfs 'n vae idee gehad van 'n hartstelsel, hoewel dit nie die bloedsomloop was nie, en hy was nie in staat om dit te onderskei tussen bloedvate, senings en senuwees nie. Hulle het hul teorie ontwikkel oor 'kanale' wat lug, water en bloed na die liggaam vervoer, na analogie van die Nyl as dit geblokkeer word, gewasse ongesond word en hierdie beginsel op die liggaam toegepas word: as 'n persoon ongesteld was, sou hy lakseermiddels om die 'kanale' te blokkeer.

'N Paar mediese praktyke was effektief, soos baie van die chirurgiese prosedures wat in die Edwin Smith -papirus gegee word. Die advies van die dokters om gesond te bly, was meestal om die liggaam te was en onder die arms te skeer, en dit het moontlik infeksies voorkom. Hulle het pasiënte ook aangeraai om na hul dieet om te sien en voedsel soos rou vis of ander diere wat as onrein beskou word, te vermy.

Mediese kit

1) messe (2) boor (3) saag (4) tang of tang (5) wierookbak (6) hake (7) sakke vasgemaak met tou (8, 10) bekervat (11) vaas met brandende wierook (12) Horus oë (13) skubbe (14) pot met blomme van Bo- en Benede -Egipte (15) pot op voetstuk (16) gegote el of papirusrol sonder syknoop (of 'n kas met rietskedel) (17) skêr (18) lepels.

Chirurgie

Chirurgie was 'n algemene praktyk onder dokters as behandeling vir fisiese beserings. Die Egiptiese dokters herken drie kategorieë beserings wat behandelbaar, bestrybaar en onbehandelbaar is. Die behandelbare kwale sou die chirurge vinnig regstel. Betwisbare siektes was die waar die slagoffer vermoedelik sonder behandeling kon oorleef, sodat pasiënte wat in hierdie kategorie was, waargeneem is en as hulle dit oorleef, kan chirurgiese pogings aangewend word om dit reg te stel. Chirurgiese gereedskap wat op argeologiese terreine ontdek is, het messe, hake, bore, tang en knippies, weegskaal, lepels, saag en 'n vaas met brandende wierook ingesluit.

Besnydenis van die mans was waarskynlik die norm, hoewel daar min bewyse is. Alhoewel die prestasie daarvan as 'n prosedure selde genoem word, word die onbesneden aard van ander kulture gereeld opgemerk, die onbesneden aard van die Liberiërs word gereeld verwys en militêre veldtogte het onbesneden phalli as trofeë teruggebring, wat op nuwigheid dui.

Alhoewel ander rekords die ingewydes in die godsdienstige ordes beskryf as besnydenis, wat sou beteken dat die praktyk spesiaal en nie wydverspreid was nie. Die enigste bekende uitbeelding van die prosedure, in die graf van die dokter, begraafplaas van Ankh-Mahor in Saqquarra, toon adolessente of volwassenes, nie babas nie. Besnydenis van vroue is moontlik beoefen, hoewel die enkele verwysing daarna in antieke tekste 'n verkeerde vertaling kan wees.

Prostetika, soos kuns tone en oogballe, is ook tipies gebruik; dit het weinig meer as dekoratiewe doeleindes gedien. Ter voorbereiding vir die begrafnis sou ontbrekende liggaamsdele voor die dood vervang word (maar dit lyk nie asof dit nuttig of selfs aanhegbaar sou gewees het nie).

Die uitgebreide gebruik van chirurgie, mummifikasiepraktyke en lykskouing as 'n godsdienstige oefening het Egiptenare 'n uitgebreide kennis van die liggaam se morfologie en selfs 'n aansienlike begrip van orgaanfunksies gegee. Die funksie van die meeste groot organe is korrek veronderstel - byvoorbeeld, bloed is korrek aangeneem as 'n transpirasiemedium vir lewenskragtigheid en afval, wat nie ver weg is van die werklike rol daarvan om suurstof te vervoer en koolstofdioksied te verwyder nie - met die uitsondering van die hart en brein waarvan die funksies verander is.

Tandheelkunde

Tandheelkunde was 'n belangrike vakgebied, aangesien dit as 'n onafhanklike professie uit die vroeë derde millennium vC dateer, hoewel dit moontlik nog nooit prominent was nie. Die Egiptiese dieet was hoog op skuurmiddels, soos sand wat oorgebly het na die maal van graan) en die toestand van hul tande was redelik swak, hoewel argeoloë 'n konstante afname in erns en voorkoms gedurende 4000 vC tot 1000 nC gevind het, waarskynlik as gevolg van verbeterde graanslyp tegnieke.

Alle Egiptiese oorskot het tande in baie swak state. Tandheelkundige siektes kan selfs dodelik wees, soos vir Djedmaatesankh, 'n musikant uit Thebe wat ongeveer vyf en dertig jaar oud is as gevolg van uitgebreide tandheelkundige siektes en 'n groot besmette siste. As 'n persoon se tande ontsnap het, was holtes skaars as gevolg van die skaarsheid van versoeters.

Tandheelkundige behandeling was aansteeklik en die beste lyers kon hoop op die vinnige verlies van 'n besmette tand. Die instruksie van Ankhsheshonq bevat die maksimum "Daar is nog geen tand wat vrot bly nie". Daar is geen rekords wat die bespoediging van hierdie proses bevorder nie, en geen gereedskap wat geskik is vir die trek van tande is gevind nie, maar sommige oorblyfsels toon 'n teken van gedwonge tandverwydering. Daar is gevind dat vervangingstande bestaan, alhoewel dit nie duidelik is of dit slegs nadoodse skoonheidsmiddels is nie. Uiterste pyn kan moontlik met opium behandel word.

Bakteriële en virale infeksies

Tuberkulose (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

Ruffer (1910) meld die teenwoordigheid van tuberkulose van die ruggraat in Nesparehan, 'n priester van Amun van die 21ste Dinastie. Dit toon die tipiese kenmerke van Pott se siekte met die ineenstorting van die torakale werwel, wat die hoekige kyfose (bultrug) veroorsaak. 'N Bekende komplikasie van Pott se siekte is die tuberkulêre suppurasie wat onder die psoas -hoofspier afwaarts beweeg, na die regter iliacale fossa, wat 'n baie groot psoas -abses vorm. (Nunn 1996: 64)

Ruffer se verslag is steeds die beste geval van spinale tuberkulose uit die ou Egipte. Alle moontlike bekende gevalle, wat wissel van die predynastiese tot die 21ste dinastie, is hersien deur Morse, Brockwell en Ucko (1964) sowel as deur Buikstra, Baker en Cook. (1993) Dit sluit in predynastiese eksemplare wat by Petra en Quibell in Naqada versamel is 1895 sowel as nege Nubiese monsters van die Royal College of Surgeons of England. Beide beoordelaars was dit eens dat daar min twyfel bestaan ​​dat tuberkulose in die meeste gevalle, maar nie in alle gevalle nie, die oorsaak van patologie is. In sommige gevalle was dit nie moontlik om kompressiefrakture, osteomiëlitis of been siste uit te sluit as oorsake van dood nie.

Die talle artistieke voorstelling van bultrug-individue is uitlokkend, maar nie afdoende nie. Die drie vroegste voorbeelde is ongetwyfeld van predynastiese oorsprong. Die eerste is 'n keramiekbeeldjie wat deur Bedu in die Aswan -distrik gevind is. Dit verteenwoordig 'n uitgeteerde mens met 'n hoekige kyfose van die torakale rug wat in 'n kleivatjie hurk. ​​(Schrumph-Pierron 1933) Die tweede moontlike predinastiese voorstelling met spinale misvorming wat dui op tuberkulose, is 'n klein staande ivoorbeeld van 'n mens met arms langs die sye van die liggaam wat by die elmboë gebuig is.

Die kop is gemodelleer met gelaatstrekke wat noukeurig aangedui is. Die figuur word getoon met 'n uitsteeksel van die rug en op die bors. (Morse 1967: 261) Die laaste Predinastiese voorbeeld is 'n houtbeeld in die Brusselse Museum. Die figuur word beskryf as 'n bebaarde mannetjie met ingewikkelde gelaatstrekke, en het 'n groot afgeronde geboë rug en 'n hoekige uitsteeksel van die borsbeen. (Jonckheere 1948: 25)

Daar is ook verskeie historiese Egiptiese voorstellings wat dui op die moontlikheid van tuberkulose misvorming. Een van die mees suggestiewe in die graf van die ou koninkryk van die 4de dinastie, is van 'n basiese meisie wat gelokaliseerde hoekige kyfose vertoon. 'N Tweede uitdagende voorbeeld het sy oorsprong in die Middelryk. Die voorstelling is 'n grafskildery by Beni Hasan en toon 'n tuinier met 'n gelokaliseerde hoekvervorming van die servikale-torakale ruggraat. (Morse 1967: 263)

'N Virale infeksie van die anterior horingselle van die rugmurg, die teenwoordigheid van poliomyelitis kan slegs opgespoor word by diegene wat die akute stadium oorleef. Mitchell (Sandison 1980: 32) het kennis geneem van die verkorting van die linkerbeen, wat hy as poliomyelitis geïnterpreteer het, in die vroeë Egiptiese mummie van Deshasheh. Die klubvoet van die Farao Siptah sowel as misvormings in die 12de Dinastie-mummie van Khnumu-Nekht is waarskynlik die mees toeskryfbare gevalle van poliomyelitis.

'N Begrafnisstaal uit die 18de of 19de dinastie wys die deurwagter Roma met 'n erg vermorsde en verkorte been vergesel van 'n equinus -misvorming van die voet. Die presiese aard van hierdie misvorming word egter in die mediese gemeenskap bespreek.

Sommiges is van mening dat dit 'n geval is van poliomyelitis wat in die kinderjare opgedoen is voordat die skeletgroei voltooi is. Die equinus -misvorming sou dus 'n vergoeding wees waarmee Roma op die verkorte been kan loop. Alternatively, the deformity could be the result of a specific variety of club foot with a secondary wasting and shortening of the leg.(Nunn 1996: 77)

Deformities

Dasen (1993) lists 207 known representations of dwarfism. Of the types described, the majority are achondroplastic, a form resulting in a head and trunk of normal size with shortened limbs. The statue of Seneb is perhaps the most classic example. A tomb statue of the dwarf Seneb and his family, all of normal size, goes a long way to indicate that dwarfs were accepted members in Egyptian society. Other examples called attention to by Ruffer (1911) include the 5th Dynasty statuette of Chnoum-hotep from Saqqara, a Predynastic drawing of the "dwarf Zer" from Abydos, and a 5th Dynasty drawing of a dwarf from the tomb of Deshasheh.

Skeletal evidence, while not supporting the social status of dwarfs in Egyptian society, does corroborate the presence of the deformity. Jones described a fragmentary Predynastic skeleton from the cemetery at Badari with a normal shaped cranium both in size in shape. In contrast to this, however, the radii and ulna are short and robust, a characteristic of achondroplasia. A second case outlined by Jones consisted of a Predynastic femur and tibia, both with typical short shafts and relatively large articular ends.

Breasted, J.H. The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus

Magic and Religion

Magic and religion were an integral part of everyday life in ancient Egypt. Evil gods and demons were thought to be responsible for many ailments, so often the treatments involved a supernatural element, such as beginning treatment with an appeal to a deity. There does not appear to have existed a clear distinction between what nowadays one would consider the very distinct callings of priest and physician. The healers, many of them priests of Sekhmet, often used incantations and magic as part of treatment.

The widespread belief in magic and religion may have resulted in a powerful placebo effect that is, the perceived validity of the cure may have contributed to its effectiveness. The impact of the emphasis on magic is seen in the selection of remedies or ingredients for them. Ingredients were sometimes selected seemingly because they were derived from a substance, plant or animal that had characteristics which in some way corresponded to the symptoms of the patient. This is known as the principle of simila similibus ("similar with similar") and is found throughout the history of medicine up to the modern practice of homeopathy. Thus an ostrich egg is included in the treatment of a broken skull, and an amulet portraying a hedgehog might be used against baldness.

Amulets in general were very popular, being worn for many magical purposes. Health related amulets are classified as homeopoetic, phylactic and theophoric. Homeopoetic amulets portray an animal or part of an animal, from which the wearer hopes to gain positive attributes like strength or speed. Phylactic amulets protected against harmful gods and demons. The famous Eye of Horus was often used on a phylactic amulet. Theophoric amulets represented Egyptian gods one represented the girdle of Isis and was intended to stem the flow of blood at miscarriage. They were often made of bone, hanging from a leather strap.

In the News .


Egyptian Papyrus Reveals Rare Details of Ancient Medical Practices Live Science - August 17, 2018
Ancient manuscripts that were previously untranslated have revealed a rare and fascinating glimpse of scientific and medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago. Experts working with the texts recently discovered that the papyrus scrolls included the oldest known medical discussion of the kidneys, as well as notes on treatments for eye diseases and a description of a pregnancy test, the science news site ScienceNordic reported. The manuscripts are part of the Papyrus Carlsberg Collection, housed at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, where an international team of researchers is collaborating to interpret the unpublished documents


Remains of 'End of the World' Epidemic Found in Ancient Egypt Live Science - June 16, 2014

Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of an epidemic in Egypt so terrible that one ancient writer believed the world was coming to an end. Working at the Funerary Complex of Harwa and Akhimenru in the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes (modern-day Luxor) in Egypt, the team of the Italian Archaeological Mission to Luxor (MAIL) found bodies covered with a thick layer of lime (historically used as a disinfectant). The researchers also found three kilns where the lime was produced, as well as a giant bonfire containing human remains, where many of the plague victims were incinerated. Pottery remains found in the kilns allowed researchers to date the grisly operation to the third century A.D., a time when a series of epidemics now dubbed the "Plague of Cyprian" ravaged the Roman Empire, which included Egypt. Saint Cyprian was a bishop of Carthage (a city in Tunisia) who described the plague as signaling the end of the world.


13 Photos: Ancient Egyptian Skeleton Reveals Earliest Metastatic Cancer Live Science - March 22, 2014

A 3,000-year-old skeleton from a conquered territory of ancient Egypt is now the earliest known complete example of a person with malignant cancer spreading from an organ, findings that could help reveal insights on the evolution of the disease, researchers say. Here, the skeleton (called Skeleton Sk244-8) in its original burial position in a tomb in northern Sudan in northeastern Africa, with a blue-glazed amulet (inset) found buried alongside him the amulet shows the Egyptian god Bes depicted on the reverse side.


Magic, Medicine Eased Ancient Egyptian Headaches -- Reuters - January 6, 2002

Can't beat that headache? Why not try an incantation to falcon-headed Horus, or a soothing poultice of "Ass's grease"? According to researchers, 3,500-year-old papyri show ancient Egyptians turning to both their gods and medicine to banish headache pain. "The border between magic and medicine is a modern invention such distinctions did not exist for ancient healers," explain Dr. Axel Karenberg, a medical historian, and Dr. C. Leitz, an Egyptologist, both of the University of Cologne, Germany.

In a recent issue of the journal Cephalalgia, the researchers report on their study of papyrus scrolls dating from the early New Kingdom period of Egyptian history, about 1550 BC. Ancient Egyptian healers had only the barest understanding of anatomy or medicine. Indeed, while the head was considered the "leader" of the body, the brain itself was considered relatively unimportant--as evidenced by the fact that it was usually discarded during the mummification process.

Headache, that timeless bane of humanity, was usually ascribed to the activity of "demons," the German researchers write, although over time Egyptian physicians began to speculate that problems originating within the body, such as the incomplete digestion of food, might also be to blame.

Once beset with a headache, those living under the pharaohs turned to their gods for help. One incantation sought to evoke the gods' empathy, imagining that even immortals suffered headache pain. "'My head! My head!' said Horus," reads one papyrus. "'The side of my head!' said Thoth. 'Ache of my forehead,' said Horus. 'Upper part of my forehead!' said Thoth." In this way, Karenberg and Leitz write, "the patient is identified with (the gods) Horus and Thoth," the latter being the god of magicians and wise men. The incantation continues with the sun god Ra ordering the patient to recover "up to your temples," while the patient threatens his "headache demons" with terrible punishments ("the trunk of your body will be cut off").

Still, the gods may have ignored the pleas of many patients, who also turned to medicine for relief. According to one ancient text, these included a poultice made of "skull of catfish," with the patient's head being "rubbed therewith for four days." Other prescriptions included stag's horn, lotus, frankincense and a concoction made from donkey called "Ass's grease." Even these remedies could be divinely inspired, however. On one 4,000-year-old scroll, a boastful druggist claims that his headache cure is prepared by the goddess Isis herself.


Egyptian mythology is definitely not the easiest topic to learn and understand. Many questions have been asked about the topic that can not be answered anywhere else other than in this medium. At the end, there will also be answers to questions about this web site.

Q: Why are there so many different spellings of the gods' and goddesses' names?

A: The Egyptian language has no written vowels, much as written Hebrew does not. Therefore, when an Egyptologist attempts to translate an Egyptian word he comes across various difficulties. For example, if English had no vowels and you came across the word: BT. How would you translate it? BAT, BUT, ABOUT, BIT, BOAT? Fortunately for those who do translate hieroglyphics, the Egyptians would include what is known as a "determinative". This is a hieroglyphic that is strictly visual and helps the reader to decide among various choices as to what a series of symbols means. Therefore the translator can generally pick out the meaning of the word. This is good for those words that have an English counterpart. For words, such as names, that have no such equivalent the spelling (and pronunciation) is limited by the translator's own creativity. One example is Sir E. A. Wallis Budge who translated the earth god Geb's name as "Seb", "Keb" and "Qeb". It is generally agreed that none of these is correct.


= h+n+w = Liquid measure?
= Rejoicing?
= Neighbors?

= h+n+w+
beer pot det.
= Liquid measure

= h+n+w+
jubilation det.
= Rejoicing

= h+n+w+
people det.
= Neighbors

Because so many hieroglyphic words could be read as homonyms or near-homonyms (i.e., like sounding words, such as the English wait, weight and wade) Egyptian scribes made liberal use of determinative symbols to be sure their readers grasped the correct meaning. The letters hnw, at top right, could be pronounced as anything from hinew aan ohanow and could have a number of different meanings. Therefore the word is never seen without one of several determinatives: a beer jug to indicate the word for a liquid measure a man giving the ritual sign of jubilation to show the word for rejoicing and the figures of a man and woman over a plural symbol (three parallel strokes) to illustrate the word for neighbors or associates, By this system, the Egyptians could use the same grouping of letters to indicate as many as 10 completely different words.

Another reason that there are so many different spellings of the names of Egyptian gods and goddesses is that many of the names of the most familiar deities are really Greek corruptions of the Egyptian originals. Below is a list of the common Greek name and the Egyptian (as best translated) original. Please note that the names of the gods used in this web site are those that are believed to be the most familiar to visitors. Most people probably would not recognize the name, Yinepu, while they would know a little bit about Anubis.

Greek/Roman Egipties
Anubis . Yinepu
Anukis . Anqet
Bastet . Bast
Hathor . Hethert
Horus . Heru
Isis . Aset
Mayet . Ma'at
Neith . Nit
Nephthys . Nebt-het
Osiris . Wesir
Sachmis . Sekhmet
Satis . Satet
Seth . Stel
Suchos . Sobek
Thoth . Djehuty

Q: You have the god "Ra" listed as "Re"! What's up with that??

A: First, read the explanation on why the names of the gods and goddesses are spelled so many different ways, then come back.

Done? Okay. do you remember the part about how ancient Egyptian was not written with vowels? That means that Egyptologists don't really weet how the name was pronounced and therefore do not know really how to spell it. The best educated guess for this particular god is that the name was pronounced "Ray". Therefore, this site uses the spelling "Re". However, you will notice that on the page about Re, a given alternate spelling is "Ra".

Q: Why are there so many different myths or versions of myths to explain the same phenomenon?

A: Unlike the famous Greek myths that would consist of a single story to explain a certain event (for example, the kidnapping of Persephone resulting in the season of winter) the Egyptians' stories of how things came to be rarely were so homogenous. There are various myths of creation. Within the individual myths, there are conflicting details.

A reason for this is that each community of Egypt had their own principal gods and goddesses which they revered above all others (for examples of various community cosmogonies, please visit "the Land" section). Yet each group of people would have myths to explain the same common phenomenon: The creation of the earth, the sun's daily travels, life after death. Thus multiple myths developed in Egypt explaining the same thing. As noted above, the Egyptians were very tolerant of other explanations and not too picky about plot details. To them, multiple explanations were not conflicting in their eyes, but rather enhanced the story of the phenomenon by adding another aspect or additional details to it.

Q: What race or ethnic background were the ancient Egyptians?

A: This is a very popular question, and unfortunately, there is no simple answer. However, it is an important one to address due to the racial divide the exists in many countries today, especially the United States. An ancient history professor once related the anecdote of how in one of his classes, a student wanted to know why Africa didn't have any civilizations in ancient times. When asked where he was when the class covered ancient Egypt, the student became visibly exasperated and said, "Yah. but hulle don't count!" His explanation for this statement was that the Egyptians were not negroes, and thus not really "African".

In a way, the student was right. The ancient Egyptians were not "black". However, they were not "white" or any other so-called "race." This does not mean that they were not African though. A simple matter of geography forces them into that classification. Ancient Egypt was the most successful and longest lasting civilization on Earth, and it was African.

So how does one determine what "race" a people are? Sociologists and historians use various yardsticks to determine this, such as physical characteristics of the people, what language they spoke, or what religion they believed in, etc.

Seated at the juncture of three continents, the Egyptians showed the physical characteristics of Caucasians, Negroes, and Asians. With the migration of various peoples into the Nile Valley throughout the thousands of years in which the Egyptian culture flourished, it is nearly impossible to avoid a racial mixture of the population. Therefore, the most heated debate centers around what race the Predynastic or earliest Egyptians were, the "original" Egyptians, if you will. Yet again, skeletal remains indicate that they shared the characteristics of Caucasians, Asians and Negroes.

Linguistically, Egyptians spoke and wrote a language that held Semetic and sub-Saharan African properties. Their language fell into the language group that linguists call, "Afro-Asiatic". Language is not necessarily the best yardstick to use concerning racial background though. One must remember that languages can be spoken by vastly different ethnicities, just as Spanish is spoken today by both Spaniards and South American Indians.

In terms of religion, the Egyptians appeared to have a mostly indigenous belief system. That is, they thought it up for themselves. It is most original among the ancient peoples of the world. It many ways it was a "monolatry". A monolatry is a religion where one god's many personalities are seen as somewhat separate deities. For instance, the sun god Re, his other aspects or personalities were known as Atum, Khepera and Horus. When the Egyptians wished to empha that the god they were referring to was expressing more than one personality, they would hyphenate the name, "Re-Atum", etc.

At one point, each of these personalities were probably separate deities (which is how they are treated in this website). As Egypt grew to encompass the entire Nile Valley from the Delta to the Cataracts, the individual communities learned more about the belief systems and deities of their neighbors and incorporated these new gods which were similar to their into their religion.

However, it must be noted that several "Egyptian" gods probably originated in other countries. for instance, Bes probably came from Sub-Saharan Africa. Qetesh was a Semetic (Middle Eastern) goddess, and Serapis was Greek.

Perhaps the most important question to answer is: What race did the Egyptians believe they belonged to? The ancient Egyptians saw themselves as being ethnically distinctive from both the Asiatics to the north and the Negros to the south. The tiles from a palace shown here depict a negro and an Asiatic captive. They look distinctly different from the Egyptian priest shown above. Both in art and in literature, it was clear that they saw themselves as being different from their neighbors. The Egyptians believed that they were of the "Egyptian" race.

Q. Hey! I want to know about the phoenix!

A: For some reason no one seems to be able to find the phoenix though it has been on the site for quite a long while now. The phoenix is located under the Symbols section, as the bird was really a symbol of the sun and Osiris. Or you could just go there now.

Q. Many descriptions I read of the gods and goddesses say that the information was originally found in the "Pyramid Texts" or the "Coffin Texts". What are these texts?

A: You can find your answer in Funerary Texts which is part of the Land section.

Q: I would like to use this web site as a reference in my school report. How do I do that?

A: Any of the three below is correct. If you are submitting college-level work, you should find out if the APA method or the MLA is the one your professor expects.

In all cases, you would replace the date with whatever date you visited the site. For APA and MLA methods, Ancient Egypt: the Mythology does not have an edition date, so 'No date' or 'N.D.', respectively, should be used. In all the examples below the citation is for the document the Udjat, visited on December 6, 1997

Standard citation:
McDevitt, April. "Name of Document" Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/(filename). date of visit.

Voorbeeld:
McDevitt, April. "the Udjat" Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/udjat.htm. December 6, 1997

APA method:
McDevitt, A. (No date). Name of Document. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/(file name). (date of visit).

Voorbeeld:
McDevitt, A. (N.D.) the Udjat. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/udjat.htm (6 Dec. 1997).

MLA method:
McDevitt, April. "Name of Document" Ancient Egypt: the Mythology. N.D.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/(file name) (date of visit).

Voorbeeld:
McDevitt, April. "the Udjat" Anciet Egypt: the Mythology N.D.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/udjat.htm (6 Dec. 1997)

Q: Could you please send me more information about ?

A: In general, all the available information on each deity is posted online, although it may be summarized. Therefore, there is nothing additional to send or provide for you. Please visit your local library for anything else you need, or review the books in the Bookstore. As jy egter doen have a specific question regarding a deity that is not on the web site yet, please feel free to ask.

Q: What references were used in the creation of this web site?

A: All of the books found in AE:tM's bookstore were used as references for the information on this site. Usually at least three or more books found in the bookstore have been consulted for each article on this site.

Q: Where can I find more information about this web site?

Alle inhoud en beelde en kopieer Egiptiese mites, 1997-2014, alle regte voorbehou


Boeke

You can purchase online
Internet Sacred Text Archive CD-ROM
by John B. Hare

The Internet Sacred Text Archive has the full text of over 500 ebooks on Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Traditions and the Esoteric. It includes all major religions’ scriptures in English and the original languages, and hundreds of other books. Includes many texts scanned from rare books no longer in print. Ideal for schools, libraries and students. Books include: the Bible in English, Hebrew, Greek and Latin, the Qur’an in English and Arabic, the Vedas and Upanishads, Homer, Virgil, Dante, the Eddas, the Kalavala and even the complete works of Shakespeare. Topics include the Bible, Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Mormonism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Shinto, I Ching, Taoism, Confucianism, Jainism, Sikhism, Shamanism, Traditions of Australia, Polynesia, Africa and Native America Ancient Near East, Egypt, Classics of Rome and Greece, Sagas and Legends, Wicca, Grimoires, Alchemy, Atlantis, Tarot, Atheism, Philosophy and much more.

Plato (c. 427-347 b.c.) founded the Academy in Athens, the prototype of all Western universities, and wrote more than twenty philosophical dialogues.

Book Description
The central work of one of the West’s greatest philosophers, The Republic of Plato is a masterpiece of insight and feeling, the finest of the Socratic dialogues, and one of the great books of Western culture. Now Robin Waterfield offers a new translation of The Republic, one that captures the dramatic realism, poetic beauty, intellectual vitality, and emotional power of Plato at his height. Deftly weaving three main strands of argument into an artistic whole–the ethical and political, the aesthetic and mystical, and the metaphysical–Plato explores in The Republic the elements of the ideal community, where morality can be achieved in a balance of wisdom, courage, and restraint. But of course the dialogue is as much about our internal life as about social morality, for these vital elements must likewise work together to create harmonious human beings. Equally important, Plato achieves more than a philosophical dialogue of lasting fame and importance: The Republic is a literary masterpiece as well, presenting the philosophy with poetic power, with strikingly memorable images (the simile of the cave being the best known of Plato’s unforgettable images of the human condition), carrying the reader along by the wit and intensity of the language. BOX “Waterfield’s is certainly the best translation of the Republic available. It is accurate and informed by deep philosophical understanding of the text unlike other translations it combines these virtues with an impressive ability to render Plato into English that is an varied and expressive as is Plato’s Greek.”NOTE: “The Republic” by Plato contains much more than most critics are able to see…

Roger Bacon’s Philosophy of Nature- A Critical Edition, With English Translation, Introduction, and Notes, of De Multiplicatione Specierum and De Speculis Comburentibus

“The name David Lindberg is certainly not new to the study of medieval science in general or of medieval optics in particular. . . . But without any doubt we have in hand now the man’s masterwork, a truly first-rate book, done with consummate skill, complete in every detail. . . .
“The translations . . . are the best ever for the two Latin works . . . . And to continue with what may seem to be an advertising blurb, the notes, which are appended at the end of the explanations to the translations, are everything that one could expect from good historical study. . . .

“This is truly a beautiful book, carefully wrought to the last detail. Even the printing is exquisite. The ultimate test, to my way of thinking, for this kind of book is how parallel the Latin and English facing pages are. The English translation, in fact, is never behind the Latin text as one turns the page by more than half a line. That is perfection itself.”

George March, O.F.M., Speculum

A new translation of the great esoteric masterpiece that includes the first English translation of the recently rediscovered Definitions of Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius.

* The Definitions of Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius provides new insights into the actual workings of the gnostic spiritual path.

* Will be of great interest to scholars and religious seekers alike.

The Corpus Hermeticum, a powerful fusion of Greek and Egyptian thought, is one of the cornerstones of the Western esoteric tradition. A collection of short philosophical treatises, it was written in Greek between the first and third centuries a.d. and translated into Latin during the Renaissance by the great scholar and philosopher Marsilio Ficino. These writings, believed to be the writings of Hermes Trismegistus, were central to the spiritual work of Hermetic societies in late antique Alexandria, aiming to awaken gnosis, the direct realization of the unity of the individual and the Supreme. They are still read as important, inspirational spiritual writings today.

In addition to this new translation of The Corpus Hermeticum, which seeks to reflect the inspirational intent of the original, The Way of Hermes includes the first English translation of the recently rediscovered manuscript of The Definitions of Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius, a collection of aphorisms, closely related to parts of The Corpus Hermeticum, used by the hermetic student to strengthen his mind in meditation. With the proper mental orientation, one could achieve a state of pure perception in which the true face of God appears. This document is of enormous value to the contemporary student of gnostic studies for its insights into the actual workings of this spiritual path.

The Hermetica: The Lost Wisdom of the Pharohs
by Timothy Freke

Religious and philosophic teachings ascribed to the Egyptian sage (god) Hermes Trismegistus.

This is a book to own and meditate on the deeper meanings of its contents.

The Hermetica is an ancient Egyptian wisdom, and not Greek.
Hermes is a Greek god equated to Tehuti: Tehuti (Egyptian) is the author of the “Hermetica”, who is also called Thoth, or Hermes.

The works of Hermes were collated in the city of Alexandria in Egypt during the second and third centuries CE. The main idea in Hermes’ teaching is God as Cosmic Consciousness. Similar ideas seems to me to be in other mystic outlooks of other religions.

This is a great little book for a person who has an interest in all religions and spiritual writings and traditions You can take this book and read just a few pages a day and ponder its meaning on different chapters. Over time, your understanding will increase and deepen.

More Hermetica related books:

    by Baird T. Spalding (Paperback) US orders by Walter, Sir Scott (Paperback) by Frances Amelia Yates (Paperback) by Antoine Faivre, Joscelyn Godwin (Translator) (Paperback) by Clement Salaman (Translator), et al (Hardcover)
  • Hermetica – The Ancient Greek and Latin WritingsWhich Contain Religious or Philosophic Teachings Ascribed to Hermes Trismegistus by Walter, Sir Scott (Editor) today!


The History of Letters and Writing

As we start our formal schooling (and sometimes earlier for some children), we’re taught how to write. For translators, it’s fascinating learning about letters and where they and other forms of writing originated. Of course to be a successful translator it’s not required that you understand the history of writing, but most translators love words and language itself, so perhaps you may find some of the following information interesting.

Today’s Alphabet

If you do some research on the subject of the history of letters and writing you’ll discover that the alphabet we use today is actually a Latin alphabet. It’s used in both Spanish and English languages: it was based on the Greek alphabet and comes from Phoenician. This in turn has its origins in the Coptic Egyptian language, which is a cursive form of hieroglyphs.

Who Invented Writing?

Thousands of years ago the ancient Egyptians used papyrus to write hieroglyphics on scrolls, but even before this the Sumerians were already writing on a form of paper which was entirely their own invention. It’s impossible to determine precisely who invented writing because it’s an art that’s evolved since the beginning of time. Markings used as counters have been found in prehistoric caves, and this is indeed a form of writing.

A fundamental part of the history of civilization itself is the history of writing utensils used by humans to record and convey their feelings and thoughts over the centuries. Because of these methods of communication, like drawings, words, and signs recorded by our predecessors, we’re now able to research more about our history.

One of the caveman’s first inventions was a stone, sharpened by hand, which became a hunting tool. Besides being a lethal weapon, this stone was also used as the first writing utensil. Using this tool the cavemen found ways to create drawings and images on the walls of their caves. These drawings in the caves depict everyday events, like successful hunts and the planting of crops.

The First Modern Writing Utensils

It was the Greeks who developed the first writing utensils that resemble the pen and paper we know today. They made a pen from bone, metal, or ivory and used it to place marks on a type of waxed table so it was in Greece where we see the first examples of handwriting. Then writing started moving beyond markings on wet clay or drawings and images on stone. In India, the Chinese philosopher, Tien-Lcheu, invented India Ink: this was a mixture of soot from oil lamps and smoked pine, and by 1200 BCE the ink had become a very common writing tool.

Other Eastern cultures later developed inks using natural colors and dyes derived from plants, berries and minerals. It’s interesting to note that different colored inks had different meanings associated with them in early writings.

The Alphabet

The letters of the alphabet in use today originated from ancient Egypt, at least a thousand years after the start of writing’s history. We see the first formal alphabet being introduced in 2000 BCE: the purpose of this language was to represent the language of Semitic-speaking people and today’s languages of the modern world, including Latin and Greek alphabets, are rooted there.

It’s thought that by 2700 BCE the ancient Egyptians had already created a minimum of 22 hieroglyphs as representatives of consonants in their language plus a different symbol representing what we now call vowels.


Sept. 27, 1822: Deciphering the Rosetta Stone Unlocks Egyptian History

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

__1822: __Jean-François Champollion shows a draft translation of the mysterious Rosetta stone and demonstrates to the world how to read the voluminous hieroglyphics left behind by the scribes of ancient Egypt.

The story of the Rosetta stone is one of coruscating intellects and petty rivalries, of ancient mysteries and quite modern imperial politics. The stone dates to 196 B.C., and was recovered in 1799 by a French soldier in Rosetta, aka Rashid, a port on Egypt's Mediterranean coast. Discover is a noble word -- the stone was part of a wall in a fort!

Despite being an Egyptian artifact, and despite the fact that it was recovered and ultimately translated by the French, the Rosetta stone currently resides in the British Museum, as it has done since 1802.

The importance of the Rosetta stone can't be overstated: It enabled the translation of Egyptian hieroglyphics, a skill which had been lost for more than a thousand years. It is a stele, or commemorative slab, announcing a cult of Ptolemy V, who was to be seen as divine.

Such an announcement would have been politically necessary for the 13-year-old Ptolemy, who had already been ruler for 8 years following the death of his parents at the hand of his father's mistress. The child-king oversaw a land plagued with enemies without and within, and the decree was an attempt on the part of priests and the king to restore stability.

What was so helpful, from a translator's perspective, about the Rosetta stone was the fact that the decree was written on the stele three times: in hieroglyphics (the formal communication medium of the priests), Egyptian demotic script (the everyday notation used by most of those who could read and write), and Greek (used by the administrative apparatus of Egypt during the Ptolemaic dynasty).

There were, in effect, two key breakthroughs in the translation of the Rosetta stone. The first was by an English polymath, Thomas "Phenomenon" Young (1773-1829), famous for such other discoveries as the wave properties of light, Young's modulus, and numerous other researches in optics, engineering and medicine.

Young was able to discover inaccuracies in the late-18th-century understanding of demotic script, and, by 1814, to translate the demotic portion of the Rosetta stone. His most critical contribution, however, was to discover cartouches containing the phonetic representation of Greek names -- notably the name of Ptolemy himself.

Young set aside his study. He was distracted by other research, and by his assent to the prevailing belief that hieroglyphics were exclusively logograms, or units of meaning rather than units of sound.

That left the second breakthrough to Champollion (1790-1832), a French linguist who had been obsessed with hieroglyphics from a very young age. Champollion continued Young's research into cartouches, aided by his own extensive knowledge of Coptic, a form of Egyptian that uses the the Greek alphabet plus a few other signs to capture Egyptian sounds not otherwise represented in Greek.

Young had been waylaid by his belief that when cartouches were phonetic only when they represented foreign names, such as Ptolemy. In 1822, Champollion discovered conventional Egipties names in cartouches from other documents, each with phonetic spellings, and he took up the Rosetta stone again.

Champollion focused on a cartouche containing just four hieroglyphs: The first two symbols were unknown, but the repeated pair at the end signified 's-s'. This meant that the cartouche represented ?-?-s-s.

Champollion wondered if the first hieroglyph in the cartouche, the disc, might represent the sun, and then he assumed its sound value to be that of the Coptic word for sun, ra. This gave him the sequence ra-?-s-s. Only one pharaonic name seemed to fit. Allowing for the omission of vowels and the unknown letter, surely this was Ramses.


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Upper and Lower Egypt

Ancient Egypt was divided into Ta Shemau (Upper Egypt) and Ta Mehu (Lower Egypt). Click on the hieroglyphs to view a map of Upper Egypt or Lower Egypt.

The division between upper and lower Egypt was retained after the unification of the kingdom in the Pre-dynastic Period and the pharaoh was often known as the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. This concept of duality is a constantly reoccurring feature of the Egyptian civilisation and was echoed in the pairing of different gods and goddesses to represent upper and lower Egypt.


Who are the translators of the New Living Translation?

All of the Bible scholars and stylists involved in this work are Christians who accept the Bible as the inspired Word of God. Most of the translators are professors in seminaries or universities, and all of the translators have written books and/or scholarly articles regarding the specific books of the Bible for which they did their translation work. They represent a rich variety of theological and denominational backgrounds, united by the common conviction that the Bible is God’s Word and that all people should have a translation of Scripture that they can really understand. Meet the New Living Translation scholars.


What is the Best Way to Learn Latin?

Everyone knows that Latin is difficult, cold, and inaccessible. Besides being a (sorta) dead language, it’s also associated with towering intellects and complicated poetry and prose. Normal people, we all know, aren’t smart enough to master Latin.

Lucky for you, everyone is wrong.

First of all, when people think about learning Latin, they often think of memorizing tedious charts and vocabulary lists and then spending hours trying to decipher small portions of text. If learning Latin this way sounds impossible, that’s because it is.

What if you could learn grammar and vocabulary in a more intuitive and permanent way, instead of putting your brain to sleep while chanting declension patterns or verb conjugations?

What if you could read and understand Latin from Day One?

That’s what the Ancient Language Institute exists to do – help students read and understand Latin from Day One. More on that below.

Here’s a second reason Latin is easier to learn than everybody tells you: Latin grammar is highly regular.

You probably remember learning all the grammatical “exceptions” in French or Spanish class. Latin has a lot fewer. This means that you’ll start recognizing and understanding grammatical patterns a lot faster than you did in high school Spanish.

En a third reason: Latin is especially easy to learn for English speakers.

Hoekom? Well, English derives much of its vocabulary from Latin (just take a look at these Latin words and see if you can guess their meaning: fama, fortuna, canis, nauta, aqua, femina).

So if your native language is English, when you read Latin, you get to do a lot of informed guesswork.

Hoekom Doen People Hate Learning Latin?

Still, we have to admit that Latin has a reputation for being difficult. It’s been claimed – in the pages of Die New York Times no less – that “the chief virtue of Latin is in its instilling a virtue long dormant in our society: patience under drudgery.”

But it doesn’t have to be that way.

Latin has been taught and is still taught in ways that require a lot of work and result in very little success. But that’s not because of the language – it’s because of the common methods used to teach a new language.

What are those methods? They usually go something like this:

1) You memorize a long list of Latin terms and their English translation.

2) You read an article about Latin grammar.

3) You work on grammar exercises such as drilling declension or conjugation paradigms.

4) You (try to) translate Latin texts that include both vocabulary terms and grammar concepts you have never encountered before.

This method, the so-called “Grammar-Translation Method,” certainly teaches patience under drudgery. But it doesn’t actually teach Latin very well. Instead, this theoretical and memorization-focused way of teaching trains you to treat Latin as a clunky and codified version of English. This is no way to learn Latin – or any other language.


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