Geskiedenis Podcasts

George Stephenson

George Stephenson

George Stephenson, die seun van 'n brandweerman, is op 9 Junie 1781 in Wylam, agt kilometer van Newcastle-upon-Tyne, gebore. Die huisie waar die Stephenson-gesin gewoon het, was langs die Wylam Wagonway, en George het grootgeword met 'n groot belangstelling in masjiene. (1)

George se eerste werk was om koeie te oppas, maar toe hy veertien was, het hy by sy pa by die Dewley Colliery aangesluit. George was 'n ambisieuse seuntjie en op agtienjarige ouderdom begin hy aandklasse bywoon waar hy leer lees en skryf. (2)

Volgens Maurice W. Kirby: "Stephenson het ook onderrig in rekenkunde gekry, 'n vak wat hy vinnig onder die knie gekry het, alhoewel teoretiese berekening buite sy vermoë gebly het. Ook skryf was 'n aanhoudende probleem, en in die latere lewe was hy verplig om te werk 'n sekretaris om vir hom te skryf ". (3)

Stephenson trou op 28 November 1802 met Frances Henderson, die dogter van 'n arm boer. Sy enigste seun, Robert Stephenson, is die volgende jaar gebore. Soos baie kolwerywerkers, het hy 'n verskeidenheid vryskutwerk aangeneem, veral klokherstel. Samuel Smiles het daarop gewys: "Hy het homself ook ywerig bestudeer om die beginsels van meganika te bestudeer en die wette waarvolgens die enjin werk te bemeester. Vir 'n werksman was hy destyds selfs meer as gewoonlik spekulatief, en het hy dikwels vreemde teorieë aangeneem. , en probeer om die waarheid wat daarin was, uit te sif. ” (4)

Francis Stephenson, wat twaalf jaar ouer as haar man was, is in Mei 1806 aan die verbruik dood, kort nadat hy 'n dogter gebore het wat ook gesterf het. Hy het sy jong seun Robert in die sorg van familie gelaat en na Skotland gegaan op soek na beter betaalde werk, maar hy moes terugkeer toe sy pa in 'n mynongeluk verblind was. (5)

In 1808 kry hy werk as motorwerker by Killingworth Colliery. Elke Saterdag het hy die enjins stukkend geslaan om te verstaan ​​hoe dit gebou is. Dit sluit masjiene in wat deur Thomas Newcomen en James Watt vervaardig is. Teen 1812 het Stephenson se kennis van enjins daartoe gelei dat hy as motorwerker van die kolwery aangestel is. Die jaar daarna het die myn-eienaars vir Stephenson gevra om 'n stoomenjin te bou. (6)

In 1813 word Stephenson bewus van pogings deur William Hedley en Timothy Hackworth by Wylam Colliery om 'n lokomotief te ontwikkel. Stephenson het sy bestuurder, Nicholas Wood, suksesvol daarvan oortuig om hom toe te laat om 'n stoommasjien te vervaardig. Teen 1814 het hy 'n lokomotief gebou wat dertig ton teen 4 km / h teen 'n heuwel kon trek. Stephenson het sy lokomotief, die Blucheren net soos ander masjiene wat op die oomblik vervaardig is, is daar twee vertikale silinders in die ketel ingelaat, van die suiers waarvan die stawe die ratte aangedryf het. (7)

Waar Stephenson se lokomotief verskil van die wat deur John Blenkinsop, Hedley en Hackworth vervaardig is, was dat die ratte nie die tandwiele aangedryf het nie, maar die flenswiele. Die Blucher was die eerste suksesvolle hechtingslokomotief met flenswiele. Stephenson het voortgegaan om sy lokomotief te probeer verbeter en in 1815 het hy die ontwerp so verander dat die verbindingsstawe die wiele direk aandryf. Hierdie wiele is deur 'n ketting aan mekaar gekoppel. Gedurende die volgende vyf jaar het Stephenson sestien enjins by Killingworth gebou. Die meeste hiervan is plaaslik gebruik, maar sommige is vervaardig vir die hertog van Portland se wa van Kilmarnock na Troon. (8)

Roger Osborne, die skrywer van Yster, stoom en geld: die maak van die industriële revolusie (2013) het aangevoer: "Stephenson was 'n briljante bouer van lokomotiewe, sy grootste bydrae was om enjins en spoorweë bymekaar te bring. Hy het die spore verbeter, wat steeds kon buig of breek, selfs al was dit van gietyster, en werk om die gewig van die enjins deur meer asse te versprei. " (9)

By 'n kolwery was George Stephenson ten volle bewus van die groot aantal ongelukke wat deur plofbare gasse veroorsaak is. In sy vrye tyd het Stephenson begin werk aan 'n veiligheidslamp vir mynwerkers. Teen 1815 het hy 'n lamp ontwikkel wat selfs in dele van die put vol ontvlambare gasse nie ontploffings veroorsaak het nie. Onbekend aan Stephenson, was Humphry Davy besig om sy eie veiligheidslamp te vervaardig. (10)

Die eienaars van die kolwery was beïndruk met die prestasies van Stephenson en in 1819 het hy die taak gekry om 'n spoorlyn van 8 myl van Hetton na die River Wear by Sunderland te bou. Terwyl hy hieraan besig was, het Stephenson oortuig geraak dat stoomspoorweë so gelyk as moontlik deur siviele ingenieurswerke gemaak moet word om suksesvol te wees. Die baan is in gedeeltes uiteengesit. Die eerste deel is deur lokomotiewe gewerk, gevolg deur vaste enjins en kabels. Nadat die treinspoor 250 voet bo seespieël bereik het, het die steenkoolwaens meer as 2 myl selfwerkende skuins vliegtuig afgelê. Daarna is nog 2 myl lokomotief vervoer. George Stephenson het slegs vaste enjins en lokomotiewe gebruik en het dus die eerste spoorlyn wat heeltemal onafhanklik van dierekrag was, vervaardig. (11)

Op 19 April 1821 word 'n parlementswet goedgekeur wat 'n maatskappy in besit van Edward Pearse gemagtig het om 'n perdespoorweg te bou wat die kolwerye in West Durham, Darlington en die River Tees in Stockton verbind. Stephenson het 'n ontmoeting met Pease gereël en voorgestel dat hy moet oorweeg om 'n lokomotief te bou. Stephenson het aan Pease gesê dat ''n perd op 'n ysterpad tien ton vir een ton op 'n gemeenskaplike pad sou trek'. Stephenson het bygevoeg dat die Blutcher lokomotief wat hy in Killingworth gebou het, was 'vyftig perde werd'. (12)

Die somer het Edward Pease Stephenson se uitnodiging aangeneem om Killingworth Colliery te besoek. Toe Pease die Blutcher by die werk het hy besef George Stephenson het reg en het hom die pos aangebied as die hoofingenieur van die Stockton & Darlington -onderneming. Dit was nou nodig dat Pease aansoek sou doen vir 'n verdere parlementswet. Hierdie keer is 'n klousule bygevoeg wat lui dat die parlement toestemming verleen het dat die maatskappy "lokomotiewe of beweegbare enjins kan maak en oprig". Stephenson het aan Pease geskryf: "Ek is bly om te verneem dat die parlementswetsontwerp vir die Darlington -spoorweg goedgekeur is. Ek is baie verplig deur die gunstige sentimente wat u teenoor my uitspreek, en sal bly wees as ek u kan help met die uitvoering. jou planne ". (13)

Stephenson het begin werk saam met William Losh, wat 'n ysterfabriek in Newcastle besit het. Saam het hulle hul eie vervaardiging van gietysterrails gepatenteer. In 1821 het John Birkinshaw, 'n ingenieur by Bedlington Ironworks, 'n nuwe metode ontwikkel om ysterrails in 'n lengte van vyftien voet te rol. Stephenson gaan kyk na hierdie buigbare rails en besluit dat hulle beter is as dié wat hy met Losh gemaak het. Alhoewel dit hom 'n aansienlike bedrag gekos het, het Stephenson besluit om Birkinshaw se relings te gebruik, eerder as die wat hy met Losh gemaak het, op die Stockton & Darlington -lyn.

In 1823 het Edward Pease saam met Michael Longdridge, George Stephenson en sy seun Robert Stephenson, 'n onderneming begin om die lokomotiewe te maak. Die Robert Stephenson & Company, in Forthstraat, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, het die eerste lokomotiefbouer ter wêreld geword. Stephenson het Timothy Hackworth gewerf, een van die ingenieurs wat William Hedley gehelp het om te vervaardig Pof Billy, om vir die onderneming te werk. Die eerste spoorlokomotief, Beweging, is klaar in September 1825. Die lokomotief was soortgelyk aan dié wat Stephenson by die kolwerye in Killingworth en Heaton vervaardig het. (14)

Die werk aan die baan het in 1822 begin. George Stephenson gebruik smeulbare ysterrails wat op gietysterstoele gedra is. Hierdie relings is 12 myl tussen Stockton en Darlington op houtblokke gelê. Die 15 myl baan van die kolwerye en Darlington is op klipblokke gelê. By die bou van hierdie spoorlyn het Stephenson ontdek dat op 'n gladde, gelyk spoor 'n trekkrag van tien pond 'n ton gewig sou beweeg. Toe daar egter 'n helling van 1 op 200 was, is die trekkrag van 'n lokomotief met 50 persent verminder. Stephenson het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat spoorweë spesiaal ontwerp moet word met die doel om soveel as moontlik veranderinge in helling te vermy. Dit het beteken dat baie tyd aan steggies, tonnels en walle bestee moes word. (15)

Die Stockton & Darlington -lyn is op 27 September 1825 geopen. Groot menigtes het George Stephenson by die kontroles van die Beweging terwyl hy 36 waens gevul het met sakke steenkool en meel. Die aanvanklike reis van net minder as 9 myl het twee uur geneem. Tydens die laaste afdraande na die Stockton -eindpunt is die snelheid van 24 km / h bereik.

Die adverteerder van Durham County berig: "Die uur van tien het aangebreek voordat alles gereed was om te begin. Omtrent hierdie tyd gee die lokomotief, of stoomperd, soos dit meer algemeen genoem word, kennis van voorbereiding. Die toneel, tydens die beweging van die enjin, gee 'n beskrywing Verbasing was nie beperk tot die menslike spesie nie, want die velddiere en die voëls van die lug het met verwondering en ontsag die masjien gesien wat nou teen 'n snelheid van 10 tot 12 km / h met 'n gewig van nie minder nie as 80 ton daaraan verbonde ... Die hele bevolking van die dorpe en dorpe binne 'n paar kilometer van die spoorlyn blyk te wees, en ons glo dat ons binne die perke van die waarheid praat as ons sê dat dit nie minder nie as 40 of 50 000 mense het vergader om die verrigtinge van die dag te sien. ” (16)

Die Stockton & Darlington -lyn het die koste van die vervoer van steenkool suksesvol verlaag. Teen 1825 het lokomotiewe op die spoor treine van tot tagtig ton met 'n snelheid van vyftien kilometer per uur gehaal. Die verlaging van sy vervoerkoste het Pearse in staat gestel om die prys van sy steenkool vanaf 18's te verlaag. tot 8s. 6d. 'n ton. Een koerant het berig dat die "Stockton & Darlington-spoorweg, 'n werk wat ewig eer aan die outeurs sal weerspieël, vir die nuwe en treffende manier waarop dit prakties al die voordele van die uitvinding demonstreer." (17)

In 1826 word Stephenson aangestel as ingenieur en verskaffer van lokomotiewe vir die Bolton & Leigh -spoorweg. Hy was ook die hoofingenieur van die voorgestelde spoorlyn Liverpool en Manchester. Stephenson het te kampe gehad met 'n groot aantal ernstige ingenieursprobleme. Dit sluit in die kruising van die onstabiele veenvleis van Chat Moss, 'n viaduk met nege boë oor die Sankey-vallei en 'n rotse van twee kilometer by Olive Mount. (18)

Die direkteure van die Liverpool & Manchester -onderneming was onseker of hulle lokomotiewe of stilstaande enjins op hul lyn sou gebruik. Om hulle te help om 'n besluit te neem, is besluit om 'n kompetisie te hou waar die wenlokomotief £ 500 toegeken sou word. Die idee is dat as die lokomotief goed genoeg is, dit die een sou wees wat op die nuwe spoorlyn gebruik is.

Die kompetisie is gehou te Rainhill gedurende Oktober 1829. Elke kompeterende lokomotief moes 'n vrag van drie keer sy eie gewig met 'n snelheid van minstens 10 km / h haal. Die lokomotiewe moes twintig keer op en af ​​op die baan by Rainhill hardloop, wat die afstand ongeveer gelykstaande was aan 'n terugreis tussen Liverpool en Manchester. Bang dat swaar lokomotiewe die spoor sou breek, slegs masjiene wat minder as ses ton geweeg het, kon aan die kompetisie deelneem. Tien lokomotiewe is oorspronklik ingeskryf vir die Rainhill -proewe, maar slegs vyf het opgedaag en twee hiervan is teruggetrek weens meganiese probleme. Sans Pariel en Nuutheid het goed gedoen, maar dit was die Vuurpyl, vervaardig deur George en sy seun, Robert Stephenson, wat die kompetisie gewen het. (19)

Die spoorweg van Liverpool en Manchester is op 15 September 1830 geopen. Fanny Kemble was 'n genooide gas vir die verrigtinge: 'Die mees intense nuuskierigheid en opgewondenheid het geheers, en al was die weer onseker, het enorme massas dig vol mense langs die pad gestaan ​​en geskreeu en met hoede en sakdoeke waai terwyl ons daar verbyvlieg. Ons het 35 myl per uur gereis (vinniger as 'n voël vlieg). Toe ek my oë toemaak, was hierdie gevoel van vlieg baie aangenaam. Ek was ongelukkig van my ma geskei in die eerste verdeling van plekke, maar deur 'n uitruil van sitplekke wat sy in staat was om te maak, het sy weer by my aangesluit toe ek op my hoogtepunt was van my ekstase, wat aansienlik gedemp was deur te vind dat sy doodsbang was, en niks anders bedoel het as om middele te bedink nie ontsnap uit 'n situasie wat haar blykbaar met onmiddellike vernietiging dreig om haarself en al haar reisgenote te bedreig. " (20)

Die premier, die hertog van Wellington, en 'n groot aantal belangrike mense het die openingseremonie bygewoon wat 'n optog van agt lokomotiewe insluit. Ongelukkig, toe die trein halfpad stilhou om water op te neem, klim een ​​van die ministers van die regering, William Huskisson, uit sy koets en stap na die parallelle spoor waar hy deur 'n lokomotief getref word wat in die teenoorgestelde rigting ry. Hy is later die dag dood. (21)

Thomas Southcliffe Ashton het aangevoer dat 'slegs die nuutgeboude Liverpool en Manchester Railway die potensiaal van stoomvervoer ten volle verwesenlik het'. (22) Dit het gou duidelik geword dat groot winste gemaak kan word deur spoorweë te bou en spoorweë word vinnig die basiese infrastruktuur vir die land se vervoer. Aangesien dit op eie risiko deur individuele ondernemings gebou en bestuur is, was die resultaat 'n redelik lukrake netwerk, wat baie duplisering van roetes insluit. (23)

George Stephenson het voortgegaan om te werk aan die verbetering van die kwaliteit van die lokomotiewe wat op die spoorlyne wat hy gebou het, gebruik word. Dit sluit in die toevoeging van 'n stoomstraal wat deur Goldsworthy Gurney ontwikkel is en die spoed van die Vuurpyl tot 29 km / h.

In 1838 koop Stephenson Tapton House, 'n Georgiese herehuis naby Chesterfield. Stephenson het 'n vennootskap aangegaan met George Hudson en James Sanders en saam het hulle steenkoolmyne, ysterwerke en kalksteengroewe in die gebied geopen. Stephenson het ook 'n klein boerdery gehad waar hy met veeteelt, nuwe soorte mis en dierekos geëksperimenteer het. Hy het ook 'n metode ontwikkel om hoenders in die helfte van die gewone tyd vet te maak. Hy het dit gedoen deur dit in 'n donker boks toe te sit na 'n swaar voer. (24)

Stephenson se tweede vrou, Elizabeth Hindley, is oorlede in 1845. George Stephenson trou vir die derde keer net voordat hy op 12 Augustus 1848 in Tapton House, Chesterfield, sterf.

Ek is bly om te verneem dat die parlementswetsontwerp vir die Darlington -spoorweg goedgekeur is. Ek is baie dankbaar vir die gunstige gevoelens wat u teenoor my uitspreek, en sal bly wees as ek u planne kan help uitvoer.

Die nuutheid van die toneel en die fynheid van die dag het 'n groot menigte toeskouers gelok, die velde aan elke kant van die spoor is letterlik bedek met dames en here te perd en voetgangers van alle soorte. Die treinwaens is daarna aan 'n lokomotief, wat deur George Stephenson gebou is, in die volgende volgorde geheg: (1) Lokomotief, met die ingenieur (mnr. George Stephenson) en assistente. (2) Tender, met kole en water; daarna ses waens, belaai met kole en meel; dan 'n elegante onderdakwa met die komitee en ander eienaars van die spoorweg; dan 21 waens, ingerig vir passasiers; en laastens ses waens belaai met steenkool, wat altesaam 'n trein van 38 waens maak. Teen die tyd dat die kavalkade by Stockton aankom, waar dit met groot vreugde ontvang is, was daar nie minder nie as 600 persone binne en langs die waens.

Ek neem aan dat u gedink het dat u die laaste nommer van die Filosofiese tydskrif u mening dat my pogings tot die veiligheidsbuise en -openinge geleen is uit wat ek van sir Humprey Davy se navorsing gehoor het. Die beginsels waarop 'n veiligheidslamp gebou kon word, het ek aan verskeie persone gesê lank voordat sir Humphrey Davy hierdie deel van die land binnekom. Die plan van so 'n lamp is deur verskeie mense gesien en die lamp self was in die hande van die vervaardigers gedurende die tyd wat hy hier was.

Hierna sal skaars geglo word dat 'n uitvinding wat so uiters wetenskaplik was, en wat nooit uit die skatkis van die wetenskap kon verkry word nie, namens 'n motorwerker van Killingworth, onder die naam Stephenson - 'n persoon, geëis moes word nie eers 'n kennis van die elemente van chemie nie.

Om die waarheid te sê, hoewel dit £ 500 in my sak sou steek om my eie patentrails te spesifiseer, kan ek dit nie doen na die ervaring wat ek gehad het nie.

Die woede vir spoorweë is so groot dat baie in dele gelê sal word waar hulle nie sal betaal nie.

Hierdie spoorlyn is die mees absurde plan wat ooit in die kop van 'n man gekom het om swanger te raak. Mnr. Stephenson het nooit 'n plan gehad nie - ek glo nie dat hy 'n plan kan maak nie. Hy is óf onkundig óf iets anders wat ek nie sal noem nie. Syne is 'n verstand wat voortdurend wissel tussen teenoorgestelde probleme; hy weet nie of hy brûe moet maak oor paaie of riviere, of van die een of ander grootte nie; of om walle, of steggies, of skuins vliegtuie te maak, of op watter manier die ding in werking tree. As u 'n vraag aan hom stel op 'n moeilike punt, neem hy twee of drie hipoteses en kom hy nooit tot 'n besliste gevolgtrekking nie. Is mnr. Stephenson die persoon op wie hierdie komitee die geloof wil aanvaar om hierdie wetsontwerp met betrekking tot eiendom tot £ 400,000/£ 500,000 te aanvaar as hy so onbekend is oor sy beroep dat hy voorstel om 'n brug te bou wat nie voldoende is om die oorstroom die water van die rivier of om toe te laat dat enige van die vaartuie daardeur moet vloei, wat noodsaaklik daardeur moet vloei.

Toe my pa by die kantoor kom, weet hy soms nie goed wat hy met homself moet doen nie. Hy het Bidder dus uitgenooi om 'n stryd te voer, om ou kennis. En die twee het so gereeld saamgeveg en soveel val gehad (soms het ek gedink hulle sou die huis tussen hulle laat val), dat hulle die helfte van die stoele in my buitekantoor gebreek het.

George Stephenson het as 'n jong man vir my gesê dat spoorweë byna alle ander vervoermetodes in hierdie land sal vervang - wanneer poswaens per trein ry en spoorweë die groot snelweg vir die koning en al sy onderdane sal word. Ek weet daar is groot en byna onoorkomelike probleme; maar wat ek gesê het, sal so seker wees as jy leef.

Verlaat die huis saam met John Dixon om die internering van George Stephenson op Chesterfield by te woon. Ek is bang dat hy as ongelowige gesterf het. As ek nadink oor my eerste kennismaking met hom en die gevolglike gevolge, lyk my gedagtes in twyfel oor die voordelige resultate - dat die mensdom baat gevind het by die verminderde gebruik van perde en deur die verminderde wreedheid teenoor hulle, soveel gemak, veiligheid, spoed en verminderde reisuitgawes word verkry, maar met betrekking tot die resultate en gevolge van alles wat my geliefde familie met spoorweë gelei het, is dit onduidelik om voordelig te wees.

Kinderarbeidsimulasie (onderwyseraantekeninge)

Padvervoer en die industriële rewolusie (antwoordkommentaar)

Richard Arkwright and the Factory System (antwoordkommentaar)

Robert Owen en New Lanark (antwoordkommentaar)

James Watt en Steam Power (antwoordkommentaar)

Die binnelandse stelsel (antwoordkommentaar)

The Luddites: 1775-1825 (Antwoordkommentaar)

The Plight of the Handloom Weavers (Antwoordkommentaar)

(1) Maurice W. Kirby, George Stephenson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) George M. Trevelyan, Engelse sosiale geskiedenis (1942) bladsy 492

(3) Maurice W. Kirby, George Stephenson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(4) Samuel glimlag, Die lewe van George Stephenson (1875) bladsy 124

(5) Roger Osborne, Yster, stoom en geld: die maak van die industriële revolusie (2013) bladsy 275

(6) Gavin Weightman, Die Industriële Revolusionêre (2007) bladsye 121-122

(7) Samuel glimlag, Die lewe van George Stephenson (1875) bladsy 166

(8) Maurice W. Kirby, George Stephenson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(9) Roger Osborne, Yster, stoom en geld: die maak van die industriële revolusie (2013) bladsye 275-276

(10) Maurice W. Kirby, George Stephenson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(11) Samuel glimlag, Die lewe van George Stephenson (1875) bladsy 124

(12) Thomas Southcliffe Ashton, Die Industriële Revolusie 1760-1830 (1948) bladsy 71

(13) George Stephenson, brief aan Edward Pease (28 April 1821)

(14) Maurice W. Kirby, George Stephenson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(15) Gavin Weightman, Die Industriële Revolusionêre (2007) bladsy 127

(16) Adverteerder in Durham County (1 Oktober 1825)

(17) Die Sunday Observer (25 April 1830)

(18) Roger Osborne, Yster, stoom en geld: die maak van die industriële revolusie (2013) bladsye 275-276

(19) Samuel glimlag, Die lewe van George Stephenson (1875) bladsy 318

(20) Frances Ann Kemble, Rekord van 'n kinderjare (1878) bladsy 299

(21) Die Sunday Observer (19 September 1830)

(22) Thomas Southcliffe Ashton, Die Industriële Revolusie 1760-1830 (1948) bladsy 71

(23) Roger Osborne, Yster, stoom en geld: die maak van die industriële revolusie (2013) bladsy 289

(24) Maurice W. Kirby, George Stephenson: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)


George Stephenson se biografie

George Stephenson is op 9 Junie 1781 in Wylam, naby Newcastle-on-Tyne, gebore. Sy pa Robert het as brandweerman in die Wylam Colliery gewerk, en die huisie van die gesin was reg langs die Wylam Wagonway. Hierdie houtbaan het waens vanaf die kolwery na die Tyne -rivier geneem vir vervoer.

George was van kleins af gefassineer deur masjiene. Hy het aandklasse in lees en skryf geneem, selfs nadat hy as 'n kolwery by sy pa aangesluit het. In 1802 word Stephenson 'n motor, en kort daarna trou hy met Frances Henderson. Saam het hulle 'n kind, Robert, gehad, maar Frances het gebuk gegaan en is in 1806 oorlede. Stephenson trou later nog twee keer.

Stephenson verhuis as motorwerker na Killingworth Colliery, maar sy fassinasie met masjiene duur voort en in sy vrye tyd haal hy die motorjins uitmekaar om te sien hoe dit werk. So vinnig het hy verneem dat hy in 1812 aangestel is as 'n enjin vir die kolwery.

Stephenson het 'n nuwe veiligheidslamp ontwikkel wat nie sou ontplof as dit naby die baie vlambare gasse in die myne gebruik word nie.

Hy het die mynbestuurder ook oortuig om met stoombeweging te eksperimenteer. Teen 1814 ontwikkel hy die Blucher, wat 30 ton 'n graad teen vier myl per uur kon haal. Sy ontwerp was die eerste om suksesvol flenswiele op rails te gebruik.

In die komende jare het Stephenson nog 16 enjins by Killingworth gebou. Die myneienaars was so beïndruk met sy prestasies dat hulle hom aan die werk gesit het om 'n spoorlyn van 8 myl van Hetton na Sunderland te bou.

Stephenson is by die Stockton- en Darlington -spoorweg gehuur om te help bou aan die lyn wat kolliere in West Durham en Darlington met die River Tees verbind. Saam met sy seun Robert Stephenson stig hy Robert Stephenson & amp Company, die eerste lokomotiefboumaatskappy ter wêreld, met sy hoofkwartier in Newcastle. Die eerste lokomotor wat deur die nuwe onderneming, Locomotion, vervaardig is, is in die herfs van 1825 klaar.

Die Stockton & amp; Darlington-lyn is amptelik op 27 September 1825 geopen. Om aandag te trek van menigte toeskouers, het Stephenson die Locomotion in net minder as twee ure gelei.

Stephenson is gehuur deur ander spoorweë, soos die Bolton & amp; Leigh. Maar sy groot triomf kom in 1829. Die voorgestelde spoorwegdirekteure van Liverpool en Manchester het 'n verhoor gehou om te bepaal watter lokomotief hulle vir hul spoorweg moet gebruik. Die wenner het ook 'n groot bedrag van £ 500 ontvang.

Die wedstryd is by Rainhill gehou, en van tien enjins wat ingeskryf is, het slegs vyf opgedaag en net drie het goed genoeg gefunksioneer om aan die Rainhill -proewe deel te neem. Die wenner was Rocket, vervaardig deur die Stephensons.

Stephenson het van krag tot krag gegaan. Hy was hoofingenieur vir die spoorweë Manchester & amp; Leeds, Birmingham & Derby, Normanton & York en Sheffield & amp; Rotherham. Hy was voortdurend besig om te innoveer en het voortdurend sy enjins en spore verbeter.

Hy was so suksesvol dat hy in 1838 Tapton House, naby Chesterfield, kon koop. Hy belê in steenkoolmyne, ysterwerke en steengroewe, en eksperimenteer ook met veeteelt en veeteelt.

George Stephenson is op 12 Augustus 1848 in Tapton House oorlede.

Om te besoek:
National Railway Museum, York. Vertel die verhaal van spoorweë in Brittanje vanaf die vuurpyl tot vandag.
George Stephenson se geboorteplek, Wylmam, Northumberland


George Stephenson - Geskiedenis

George Stephenson is gebore in Wylam, Northumberland, 15,0 km wes van Newcastle upon Tyne. George Stephenson het Wylam, Northumberland, 9,3 dm (15,0 km) en Newcastle upon Tyne. Hy was die tweede kind van Robert en Mabel, wat nie een kon lees of skryf nie. Ông là đứa con thứ hai của Robert và Mabel, [1] không ai có thể đọc hoặc viết. Robert was die brandweerman van die Wylam Colliery -pompmotor en het 'n baie lae loon verdien, sodat daar nie geld vir skoolopleiding was nie. Robert là lính cứu hỏa cho động cơ bơm than Wylam, kiếm được một mức lương rất thấp, do đó không có tiền cho việc học. Op 17 word Stephenson 'n motorwerker by Water Row Pit, Newburn. Op 17 Maart is Stephenson die motorbestuurder van Pit Row in Newburn. George het die waarde van opvoeding besef en betaal om in die nagskool te studeer om te lees, skryf en rekenkunde - hy was ongeletterd tot op 18 -jarige ouderdom. đọc, viết và số học, ông bị mù chữ cho đến khi 18 tuổi. In 1801 begin hy werk by die Black Callerton -kolwery as 'n 'remman', en beheer die kronkelrat van die put. Na 1801, was ons 'n baie meer as Callerton as đen như là một "người sưa thắng, kiểm soát các thiết bị quanh co của hố. In 1802 trou hy met Frances (Fanny) Henderson, en verhuis na Willington Quay. 1802, waar hy in Frances (Fanny) Henderson en Willington Quay, phía đông của Newcastle werk, werk hy as 'n remman terwyl hulle in een kamer van 'n kothuis woon. George het skoene gemaak en horlosies reggemaak om sy inkomste aan te vul.

In 1803 word hul seun Robert gebore, en in 1804 verhuis hulle na West Moor, naby Killingworth, terwyl George as 'n remman by die Killingworth -put werk. Op 1803, met die kenmerk van Robert en die sinh ra, uit 1804, in West Moor, in Killingworth deur George, kan ons ook nie meer na Killingworth kyk nie. Sy vrou het geboorte geskenk aan 'n dogter, wat na 'n paar weke oorlede is, en in 1806 sterf Fanny aan verbruik (tuberkulose). Vợ của ông đã sinh ra một đứa con gái, người đã chết sau một vài tuần, và năm 1806 Fanny chết vì tiêu thụ (bệnh lao). George besluit toe om werk in Skotland te kry, en hy verlaat Robert met 'n plaaslike vrou terwyl hy in Montrose gaan werk. George sau đó quyết định tìm việc làm ở Skotland, en Robert Robert ới một phụ nữ địa phương trong khi ông đi làm việc ở Montrose. Na 'n paar maande het hy teruggekeer, waarskynlik omdat sy pa in 'n mynongeluk verblind is. Sau một vài tháng, ông trở về, có lẽ bởi vì cha của ông bị mù trong một tai nạn khai thác mỏ. George het teruggetrek na sy huisie by West Moor en sy ongetroude suster Eleanor het ingetrek om na Robert om te sien. George di chuyển trở lại vào tiểu của mình ở West Moor và chị gái chưa lập gia đình Eleanor di chuyển trong để xem xét sau khi Robert. In 1811 werk die pompmotor by High Pit, Killingworth nie reg nie en Stephenson het aangebied om dit reg te stel. Vanaf 1811 kan ons ook in Pit cao, Killingworth kom, maar ons kan nie meer van Stephenson hoor nie. Hy het dit met so 'n sukses gedoen dat hy spoedig bevorder is tot enjinmaker vir die naburige kolwerye in Killingworth, wat verantwoordelik was vir die instandhouding en herstel van al die motorjins. Ông đã làm như vậy với những thành công đó rằng ông đã sớm thăng enginewright collieries láng giềng tại Killingworth, chuu trách nhiệm duy trì và sửa chữa tất cả các công. Hy het gou 'n kenner geword in stoom-aangedrewe masjinerie. Ông đã sớm trở thành một chuyên gia về máy móc hơi nước điều khiển.

Cornishman Richard Trevithick het die eerste realistiese ontwerp van die stoomlokomotief in 1804 toegeskryf. Later besoek hy Tyneside en bou daar 'n enjin vir 'n myn-eienaar. Sau đó, ông đến thăm Tyneside và xây dựng một động cơ cho một chủ sở hữu mỏ. Verskeie plaaslike mans is hierdeur geïnspireer en het hul eie enjins ontwerp. Một số người đàn ông địa phương đã lấy cảm hứng từ này, và được thiết kế động cơ của riêng mình.

Stephenson het sy eerste lokomotief in 1814 ontwerp, 'n reis -enjin wat ontwerp is om steenkool op die Killingworth -wa te vervoer, en genoem Blücher na die Pruisiese generaal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. Stephenson đã thiết kế đầu máy đầu tiên của mình vào năm 1814, một động cơ đi du lịch được thiết kế để vận chuyển than trên wagonway Killingworth , en vir Blücher sau khi Leberecht Phổ chung Gebhard von Blücher. Dit is gebou in die kolwery -werkswinkel agter Stephenson se huis, Dial Cottage, op Great Lime Road. Nó được xây dựng trong hội thảo than phía sau Cottage nhà, quay số Stephenson, trên đường Lime Đại. Hierdie lokomotief kon 30 ton steenkool teen 'n heuwel van 6,4 km/h opdraai, en was die eerste suksesvolle lokomotief met 'n flenswiel: sy trekkrag was slegs afhanklik van die kontak tussen die flenswiele en die spoor. Máu máy này có thể chuyên chở 30 tấn than lên một ngọn đồi tại 4 mph (6,4 km / h), và là thành công đầu tiên bích-bánh xe bám dính đầu máy kéoủủ nó nó nó giữa các bánh xe có gờ và đường sắt. In totaal word gesê dat Stephenson 16 lokomotiewe in Killingworth vervaardig het, hoewel dit nooit moontlik was om 'n oortuigende lys van al 16 te lewer nie. 16. Van diegene wat geïdentifiseer is, is die meeste gebou vir gebruik in Killingworth self of vir die Hetton -kolwer -spoorweg. Trong số những người đã được xác định hầu hết đã được xây dựng để sử dụng tại Killingworth bản thân hoặc cho Hetton than đường sắt. 'N Seswiel-lokomotief is in 1817 vir die Kilmarnock- en Troon-spoorweg gebou, maar dit is spoedig uit diens geneem weens skade aan die gietysterrails. A further locomotive was supplied to Scott's Pit railroad at Llansamlet , near Swansea in 1819 but it too was soon withdrawn, apparently because it was under-boilered and also because of damage to the track. Một đầu máy sáu-có bánh xe được xây dựng cho các Kilmarnock và Troon đường sắt năm 1817 nhưng nó đã nhanh chóng thu hồi từ dịch vụ vì thiệt hại cho các đường ray sắt đúc ] Một đầu máy tiếp tục được cung cấp đường sắt Pit của Scott tại Llansamlet, gần Swansea vào năm 1819 nhưng nó cũng đã sớm thu hồi, rõ ràng bởi vì nó là dưới boilered và cũng bởi vì các thiệt hại để theo dõi.

The new engines were too heavy to be run on wooden rails, and iron rails were in their infancy, with cast iron exhibiting excessive brittleness. Các động cơ mới là quá nặng để được chạy trên đường ray bằng gỗ, và đường ray sắt trong giai đoạn trứng của họ, với gang trưng bày dòn quá mức . Together with William Losh , Stephenson improved the design of cast iron rails to reduce breakage. Cùng với William Losh , Stephenson đã cải thiện thiết kế của đường ray gang để giảm vỡ. According to Rolt, he also managed to solve the problem caused by the weight of the engine upon these primitive rails. Theo Rolt, ông cũng quản lý để giải quyết các vấn đề gây ra bởi trọng lượng của động cơ trên những đường ray nguyên thủy. He experimented with a 'steam spring' (to 'cushion' the weight using steam pressure), but soon followed the new practice of 'distributing' weight by utilising a number of wheels. Ông đã thử nghiệm với một mùa xuân hơi '(' đệm 'trọng lượng bằng cách sử dụng áp suất hơi), nhưng ngay sau đó thực hành mới của' phân phối trọng lượng bằng cách sử dụng một số bánh xe. For the Stockton and Darlington Railway , however, Stephenson would use only wrought iron rails, notwithstanding the financial loss he would suffer from not using his own, patented design (see below). [ 6 ] Đối với đường sắt Stockton và Darlington , tuy nhiên, Stephenson sẽ chỉ sử dụng đường ray sắt rèn, mặc dù sự mất mát tài chính, ông sẽ bị không sử dụng, sở hữu thiết kế được cấp bằng sáng chế của mình (xem dưới đây ). [ 6]

Stephenson was hired to build an 8-mile (13-km) railway from Hetton colliery to Sunderland in 1820. Stephenson đã được thuê để xây dựng 8 dặm (13 km) đường sắt từ Hetton than Sunderland vào năm 1820. The finished result used a combination of gravity on downward inclines and locomotives for level and upward stretches. Các kết quả hoàn thành sử dụng một sự kết hợp của lực hấp dẫn có chiều hướng đi xuống và đầu máy xe lửa với trình độ và kéo dài trở lên. It was the first railway using no animal power. Đó là tuyến đường sắt đầu tiên sử dụng không có quyền động vật.

YouTube Video


George Robert Stephenson

He died at his house in Cheltenham on 26 October 1905.

He married Jane Brown in 1846 and had six kids. After Jane died in 1884 he quickly remarried to Sarah Harrison who died in 1893.

He is maybe most well-known for his shut relationship with the Institution of Civil Engineers. He turned a member in 1853 and was elected to the council in 1859. The enlargement of the Institution’s premises in 1868 was made potential by his donation of land to the rear of his places of work at 24 Great George Street. [2] He served as president of the Institution between December 1875 and December 1877. [2]

In the 1860s, Stephenson travelled to New Zealand to oversee the survey and preparations for the development of a railway from Christchurch, via Mount Pleasant to Lyttelton Harbour. The Lyttelton rail tunnel remains to be in use immediately because the nation’s oldest operational rail tunnel. Stephenson loved a protracted affiliation with the nation, for which he designed a number of different works within the mid-nineteenth century.

Stephenson was born to Robert Stephenson Senior (brother of the famed George Stephenson) in Newcastle upon Tyne. In a household of civil engineers, his father was engineer of Pendleton Colliery and Nantlle Railway, whereas his uncle George Stephenson and cousin Robert Stephenson had been prolific railway engineers. He was educated at King William’s College, Isle of Man. It was with Robert that he collaborated most, working collectively on the South Eastern Railway. Upon Robert’s dying in 1859 he took over his locomotive works and a number of other collieries. [1]

George Robert Stephenson (20 October 1819 – 26 October 1905) was a British civil engineer.


2 thoughts on &ldquo Stephenson, George &rdquo

my father capt Oakley kellers 3rd command with buckeye steamship co. caught in a storm on lake superior probably 1940 . she had a sharp bow and a wave smashed into her knocking the pilot house back several inches and tearing the companionway off with pieces found on the aft end. her whole forwd end was submerged and she shuddered and rose. his first command the steamer triston was sent to the atlantic for war duty and sunk by a german submarine in the keys. a totol of five commands with buckeye steamship co.

I sailed on her as a deckhand in 1946. I would like to get a picture of her.


The life of George Stephenson

This is excellent. Easy to read information suitable for Year 2. I will be using it for reading and ordering facts in chronological order. Thank you for sharing as it saved me so much time.

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Great resource for use with Year 2. I printed it and also used it as a non-fiction booklet for the children to use in order to find facts.<br /> Thank you!

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George Stephenson Wiki, Biography, Net Worth, Age, Family, Facts and More

You will find all the basic Information about George Stephenson. Rol af om die volledige besonderhede te kry. We walk you through all about George. Checkout George Wiki Ouderdom, biografie, loopbaan, lengte, gewig, familie. Word op datum met ons oor u gunsteling celebs.Opdater ons ons data van tyd tot tyd.

BIOGRAFIE

Famous for constructing the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which was the first public, steam-operated, urban rail system in history, this British engineer is also remembered for his development of the world’s standard 4’8.5″ railway track gauge. George Stephenson is a well known Engineer. George was born on June 9, 1781 in England..George is one of the famous and trending celeb who is popular for being a Engineer. As of 2018 George Stephenson is years old. George Stephenson is a member of famous Ingenieur lys.

Wikifamouspeople has ranked George Stephenson as of the popular celebs list. George Stephenson is also listed along with people born on June 9, 1781. One of the precious celeb listed in Engineer list.

Nothing much is known about George Education Background & Childhood. Ons sal u binnekort opdateer.

Details
Naam George Stephenson
Ouderdom (vanaf 2018)
Beroep Ingenieur
Geboortedatum June 9, 1781
Birth Place Engeland
Nasionaliteit Engeland

George Stephenson Net Worth

George primary income source is Engineer. Tans het ons nie genoeg inligting oor sy familie, verhoudings, kinderjare, ens nie. Ons sal binnekort bywerk.

Geskatte netto waarde in 2019: $ 100K-$ 1 miljoen (ongeveer)

George Age, Height & Weight

George body measurements, Height and Weight are not Known yet but we will update soon.

Gesin en verhoudings

Not Much is known about George family and Relationships. Alle inligting oor sy privaat lewe word verberg. Ons sal u binnekort opdateer.

Feite

  • George Stephenson age is . vanaf 2018
  • George birthday is on June 9, 1781.
  • Zodiac sign: Gemini.

-------- Dankie --------

Beïnvloedingsgeleentheid

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Ons verbind handelsmerke met sosiale media -talent om kwaliteit geborgde inhoud te skep


For More Information

Boeke

Nock, O. S. Father of Railways: The Story of George Stephenson. Edinburgh, Scotland: T. Nelson, 1958.

Rolt, L. T. C. The Railway Revolution: George and Robert Stephenson. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1962.

Smiles, Samuel. The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer. Ann Arbor, MI: Plutarch Press, 1971.

Tydskrifte

Lynn, Jack. "Secrets of Seven Self-made Millionaires." Washingtonian, February 1981, p. 100.

Web Sites

"George Stephenson, a Biography of the English Inventor and Railroad Pioneer." Britain Express.http://www.britainexpress.com/History/bio/stephenson.htm (accessed on February 17, 2003).

"Some Historical Background to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway." Resco Railways Ltd.http://www.resco.co.uk/iron.html (accessed on February 17, 2003).

Williams, Frederick S. "Our Iron Roads." Resco Railways Ltd.http://www.resco.co.uk/stevensons.html (accessed on February 17, 2003).

Haal hierdie artikel aan
Kies 'n styl hieronder en kopieer die teks vir u bibliografie.


Key Facts & Information

HUMBLE BEGINNINGS

  • George Stephenson was born on June 9, 1781, at Wylam, Northumberland, England. He was the second child of Robert Stephenson and Mabel Stephenson, who were both illiterate. His father earned a meager wage as a fireman in a local coal mine with no money left for schooling.
  • He grew up in a small cottage next to Wylam Wagonway.
  • When he was 8, he tried to help his parents by doing farm work like cow herding and driving horses to carry the coal carriages.
  • He also worked as an assistant to his father in the mine when he was 14.
  • George knew the value of education. When he became an engineman at Water Row Pit in Newbury at 17 years old, he paid to study at night. After a year, he knew how to read, write, and do arithmetic.
  • He got married at age 19 to Frances Henderson after pursuing two ladies who declined him because of his low status as a miner.
  • They had two children, a son, Robert, and a daughter named Frances. They moved to Dial Cottage at West Moor so he could work as a brakesman in the Killingworth Pit. His daughter died three weeks after she was born. His wife followed a year later due to tuberculosis
  • He temporarily left his son to a local woman and worked in Montrose, Switzerland. He returned after a mining accident made his father blind. His unmarried sister moved in with him and his son to look after Robert while he was working in Killingworth’s mine.
  • He supported Robert’s education, even if it meant taking other jobs after his work in the mine. Robert shared his fascination with engines, and it created a special bond between them.
  • In 1811, he successfully repaired and improved a pumping engine at High Pit, Killingworth. It impressed the owners who promoted him as the colliery’s engine wright. His main job was to maintain and repair colliery engines, making him a local expert on engines.

STEPHENSON’S INVENTIONS

  • Stephenson was aware of the dangers miners faced when they used naked flames while working in the mines. He invented safety lamps for them in 1813 that would burn in a gaseous atmosphere and not cause an explosion.
  • In 1814, he built “Blucher,” his first locomotive. It could haul eight wagons with 30 tons of coal at 4 mph. He later improved it to give a greater pulling power, becoming the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotive.
  • There were also other locomotive creations in his time, but his “Blucher” was unique as the steam engine directly applied the power to the locomotive flanged wheels.
  • For the next five years, Stephenson built sixteen engines mostly for the Killingworth mines, a few for the Duke of Portland’s wagonway.
  • His employer was so impressed with his work that in 1819 he asked him to build an 8-mile long railroad from Hetton town to the River Wear.
  • Stephenson proposed to combine locomotives and stationary engines. It became the first entirely machine-powered railway.
  • Working on this project made Stephenson realize that he could build railways. In 1821, Stephenson arranged a meeting with Stockton and Darlington, the company that was authorized by the British Parliament to build a railway and connect the coal mines in West Durham and Darlington. He told them that his “Blucher” locomotive could replace fifty horses.
  • Stephenson got the project. With his son Robert, they created Robert Stephenson and Company, which produced the railway and locomotives they would use for the project.
  • Stephenson operated his new engine, Locomotion, that could travel along the nine-mile railroad in less than two hours on September 27, 1825.

SUCCESSFUL VENTURES

  • Railways started to replaced canals as the primary way of transporting heavy loads. It meant that the company George and Robert built would be hired to construct other railways, including the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which linked England’s most important manufacturing centers.
  • In 1828, the railway directors conducted a contest to look for locomotives that could be used on the line. They offered a contract for building the locomotive and a substantial cash prize.
  • The locomotives entered in the contest were required to run up and down the track at Rainhill at 10 miles an hour while hauling a load thrice the locomotive’s weight. The distance is equivalent to a round trip between Liverpool and Manchester.
  • Robert and George’s entry, Rocket, got the prize and confirmed their reputation as the country’s leading locomotive manufacturer.
  • In 1830, Stephenson was credited for building the skew bridge in Rainhill over the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. It was the first to cross any railway at an angle and is still in use at Rainhill Station.

RECOGNITIONS AND LEGACIES

  • The Stephensons helped Britain become a leader in railways’ development, which also served as the stimulus for the Industrial Revolution.
  • George Stephenson used the same gauge to become the standard gauge used worldwide, naming it as Stephenson Gauge.
  • A BBC television show listed Stephenson in the 100 Greatest Britons placing him at no. 65 after a UK-wide vote.
  • A Series E five-pound note issued by the Bank of England between 1990 – 2003 featured George Stephenson.
  • A museum was named after George and Robert calling it The Stephenson Railway Museum in North Shields.

LATER LIFE

  • Stephenson’s success allowed him to buy the Tapton House, a mansion vastly different from the modest cottage he was born and grew up in.
  • A wealthier George Stephenson married Betty Hindmarsh at Newburn. They had no children and Hindmarsh died on August 3, 1845.
  • In 1848, George got married for the third time to his housekeeper Ellen Gregory, a farmer’s daughter from Bakewell, Derbyshire. However, after seven months of being married, he died on August 12, 1848, due to pleurisy. He was buried next to his second wife at Holy Trinity Church, Chesterfield.

George Stephenson Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the George Stephenson across 24 in-depth pages. Hierdie is ready-to-use George Stephenson worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about George Stephenson who was known as the Father of the Railway. A self-taught English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who pioneered rail transport, one of the most significant technological inventions in the 19th century. They served as the stimulus in Britain’s industrial revolution.

Complete List Of Included Worksheets

  • George Stephenson Facts
  • Stephenson’s Life
  • The Engineer’s Creations
  • Recognizing Stephenson
  • Timeline Of His Inventions
  • Life in Details
  • The Stephenson Interview
  • Stephenson: Fact or Bluff
  • Biography of a Hero
  • Analysis of the Past
  • Improving Transportation

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Use With Any Curriculum

These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards.


Verdere leeswerk

George Stephenson, about whom literary battles raged over his alleged and disputed inventions for decades after his death, has occasioned several biographies. Samuel Smiles, The Life of George Stephenson (1857 new ed. 1864), is a classic. A definitive biography of his son is J. C. Jeaffreson, The Life of Robert Stephenson (1864 2d ed. 1866). L. T. C. Rolt, The Railway Revoultion: George and Robert Stephenson (1962), shows great insight, and Michael Robbins, George and Robert Stephenson (1966), is a short, well-written account.


Kyk die video: George Stephenson (Januarie 2022).