Geskiedenis Podcasts

Landmeter Str - Geskiedenis

Landmeter Str - Geskiedenis

Landmeter
(Str: dp. 1,143; 1, 186 '; b. 34'; dr. 12 '; s. 13,3 k .; cpl.
85; a. 23 mg, 2 mg.)

Surveyor, 'n stoomboot, is in 1917 gebou deur die Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, Wisc., Vir die Amerikaanse Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Landmeter is op 24 September 1917 na die vloot oorgeplaas en op 22 Oktober 1917 in opdrag. Op 9 November is sy beveel om by eskader twee, Patro, aan te meld; Force, gebaseer op Gibraltar. Sy het van 5 Februarie tot en met die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in die buiteland gedien. Na die wapenstilstand keer sy terug na die Verenigde State; en haar bewapening is in Januarie 1919 verwyder. Landmeter is uit die vlootlys gehaal en op 31 Maart 1919 na die Departement van Handel teruggekeer om die operasies vir die Coast and Geodetic Survey te hervat.


OOR NALS

Die Nevada Association of Land Surveyors (NALS) is op 2 November 1973 opgeneem en geoktrooieer. die hoogste moontlike standaarde van professionele etiek en praktyk te bevorder en te handhaaf om professionele eenvormigheid te bevorder en openbare bewustheid en vertroue in professionele landmeters en hul werk te bevorder.
Vandag is die NALS -lidmaatskap 200 sterk en bestaan ​​dit uit professionele landmeters, interns vir landmeters, geassosieerde lede, ooreenstemmende lede, volgehoue ​​lede en studentelede. Daar is 3 aktiewe hoofstukke in die staat Nevada: The Great Basin Chapter in Elko, die Lahontan Chapter in die Reno/Sparks/Carson City -gebied en die Southern Nevada Chapter in die Las Vegas/Henderson -gebied.


Inhoud

Die omgewing van Vincennes is duisende jare lank bewoon deur verskillende kulture van inheemse mense. [8] Gedurende die laat bosveldtydperk het sommige van hierdie mense die plaaslike heuwels as begraafplase gebruik, en 'n paar van die meer prominente voorbeelde is die suikerbroodheuwel en die piramideheuwel. [9]: 668 In historiese tye was prominente plaaslike Indiese groepe wat hierdie mense verdryf het die Shawnee-, Wabash- en die Miami -stam.

Die eerste Europese setlaars was Frans, toe Vincennes gestig is as deel van die Franse kolonie Nieu -Frankryk. Later sou dit na die kolonie Louisiana oorgeplaas word. 'N Paar jaar later verloor Frankryk die Franse en Indiese Oorlog (deel van die Sewejarige Oorlog) en gee gevolglik grondgebied oos van die Mississippirivier, insluitend Vincennes, af aan die oorwinnende Britte.

Toe die gebied eers onder Britse beheer was, was dit tot ná die Revolusionêre Oorlog verbonde aan die provinsie Quebec. Dit word toe deel van die Illinois Country of the Colony en Dominion of Virginia. Daarna het dit deel geword van Knox County in die Noordwestelike gebied, en dit is later opgeneem in die Indiana -gebied. Vincennes was die hoofstad van die Indiana -gebied van 1800 tot 1813, toe die regering na Corydon verskuif is.

New France Edit

Die eerste handelspos aan die Wabashrivier is gestig deur Sieur Juchereau, luitenant -generaal van Montréal. Met vier en dertig Canadiens het hy op 28 Oktober 1702 die pos van die onderneming gestig om handel te dryf vir Buffalo-huide met Amerikaanse Indiane. Die presiese ligging van Juchereau se handelspos is nie bekend nie, maar omdat die Buffalo Trace die Wabash by Vincennes oorsteek, glo baie mense dat dit hier was. Die pos was 'n sukses in die eerste twee jaar; die handelaars het meer as 13 000 buffelvelle versamel. [10] Toe Juchereau sterf, is die pos verlaat. Die Frans-Kanadese setlaars het die vyandelike gebied verlaat vir Mobile (in die huidige Alabama), destyds die hoofstad van Louisiana.

Die oudste Europese stad in Indiana, Vincennes, is amptelik in 1732 gestig as 'n tweede Franse pelshandelpos in hierdie gebied. Die Compagnie des Indes het 'n Franse offisier, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, opdrag gegee om 'n pos langs die Wabashrivier te bou om plaaslike nasies te ontmoedig om met die Engelse handel te dryf. [11] Vincennes stig die nuwe handelspos naby die ontmoetingspunte van die Wabash- en White -riviere, en die Buffalo Trace oor die land. [12] Vincennes, wat saam met sy pa onder die Miami -stam gewoon het, het die Piankeshaw oorreed om 'n dorpie by sy handelspos te vestig. Hy het ook Canadese setlaars aangemoedig om daarheen te verhuis, en het sy eie gesin begin om die bevolking van die dorp te vergroot. [13] Omdat die Wabash -pos so afgeleë was, het Vincennes dit egter moeilik gehad om handelsvoorrade uit Louisiana te kry vir die inheemse nasies, wat ook deur Engelse handelaars opgeneem is. Die grens tussen die Franse kolonies Louisiana en Kanada, hoewel dit in die eerste jare van die nedersetting onakkuraat was, is in 1745 bepaal om tussen Fort Ouiatenon (onder die huidige Lafayette, Indiana) en Vincennes te loop. [14]

In 1736, tydens die Franse oorlog met die Chickasaw-nasie, is Vincennes gevange geneem en verbrand op die brandstapel naby die huidige stad Fulton, Mississippi. [15] Sy nedersetting op die Wabash is ter ere van hom herdoop tot Poste Vincennes.

Terwyl die Franse koloniste noordwaarts gestoot het van Louisiana en suid van Kanada, het die Amerikaanse koloniste in die ooste egter steeds weswaarts gestoot. Boonop het Britse handelaars baie Indiërs wat met die Canadiens handel gedryf het, weggelok. Hierdie kompetisie het in die land van Ohio tot 1754 toegeneem en die uitbreek van die Franse en Indiese oorlog (die Noord -Amerikaanse teater van die sewejarige oorlog tussen Brittanje en Frankryk.) [ aanhaling nodig ]

British America Edit

Op 10 Februarie 1763, toe New France aan die Britte afgestaan ​​is aan die einde van die Franse en Indiese Oorlog, val Vincennes onder die gesag van Groot -Brittanje. Die Britse offisier John Ramsey het in 1766 na Vincennes gekom. Hy het 'n sensus van die nedersetting geneem, die fort gebou en die naam Fort Sackville herdoop. Die bevolking het vinnig gegroei in die daaropvolgende jare, wat gelei het tot 'n unieke kultuur van onderling afhanklike inheemse Amerikaners, Canadese setlaars en Britse handelaars. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Vincennes was ver van sentrums van Britse mag. In 1770 en 1772 het Thomas Gage, die opperbevelhebber van die Noord -Amerikaanse magte van Brittanje, waarskuwings ontvang dat die inwoners van Vincennes teen die Kroon oproer en inheemse stamme langs die handelsroetes aangehits het om Britse handelaars aan te val. Die koloniale sekretaris, die graaf van Hillsborough, het beveel dat die inwoners in reaksie daarop verwyder moet word. Gage verdwyn terwyl die inwoners op die aanklagte teen hulle reageer en beweer dat hulle 'vreedsame setlaars' is wat die grond bewerk wat Sy mees Christelike Majesteit [wat die Koning van Frankryk bedoel] ons verleen '. Die kwessie is opgelos deur Hillsborough se opvolger, Lord Dartmouth, wat aan Gage volgehou het dat die inwoners nie wettelose wandelaars is nie, maar Britse onderdane wie se regte deur die Kroon beskerm word. Gage het geen optrede teen die inwoners van Vincennes onderneem nie. [16] In 1778 het inwoners van Poste Vincennes die boodskap ontvang van die Franse alliansie met die Amerikaanse Tweede Kontinentale Kongres van vader Pierre Gibault en dr. Jean Laffont. Hulle het gemobiliseer ter ondersteuning van die Amerikaanse revolusionêre, net soos die plaaslike Piankeshaw, onder leiding van Chief Young Tobacco. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Revolusionêre Oorlog Redigeer

Luitenant -kolonel George R. Clark, kaptein Leonard Helm en ander het 'n plan opgestel om die Franse forte wat die Britte beset het nadat Louisiana afgestaan ​​is, te vang. Nadat Kaskaskia deur Clark gevange geneem is, het luitenant -goewerneur Henry Hamilton Britse soldate en versterkings van Detroit na Fort Vincennes gestuur en gehelp om die fort te herbou. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Italiaanse handelaar en patriot Francis Vigo het Clark gevind en die Britse teenwoordigheid by die fort ingelig. Vigo dien by die Patriots, bestel oorlogsvoorrade van die Spaanse om te help en tree op as 'n geheime agent vir die Patriots. Clark het genoeg manne bymekaargemaak om die Britte te oortref en beplan 'n verrassingsaanval op Fort Vincennes in die hartjie van die winter, 'n aaklige tyd toe daar nie van die leërs verwag sou word nie weens siekte, gebrek aan voedsel en die vloedwater hoog gedurende hierdie tyd. Die Patriotte het die Slag van Vincennes op 23–24 Februarie 1779 gewen. Hamilton beskou Vincennes as ''n toevlugsoord vir debiteure en Vagabonds uit Kanada.' George Rogers Clark het Fort Sackville herower in die Slag van Vincennes sonder om 'n enkele soldaat te verloor. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Onrus ná die rewolusie Redigeer

Alhoewel die Amerikaners in beheer van Vincennes sou bly, het dit jare geneem om vrede te bewerkstellig. In 1786 het kaptein John Hardin 'n berede militant van Kentucky oor die Ohio -rivier gelei en 'n vriendelike Piankeshaw -stad naby Vincennes vernietig. Dit het gelei tot 'n reeks aanvalle en teenaanvalle tussen Wabash-Indiane en Amerikaanse setlaars. Uiteindelik, op 15 Julie 1786, beland die Wabash in sewe-en-veertig oorlogskano's by Vincennes om die Amerikaners terug te ry na Kentucky. [17] Die Indiërs het die Kanadese vooraf gewaarsku vir hul aanval en hulle verseker dat hulle geen skade sal berokken nie, maar die Kanadese het die Amerikaners gewaarsku. Hulle het Fort Patrick Henry vinnig voorsien en die beleg afgewag. Een Amerikaner is dood en vier gewond, en die oorlogsparty vertrek nadat die Amerikaners se plase vernietig is.

In reaksie hierop het die goewerneur van Virginia, Patrick Henry, George Rogers Clark gemagtig om die Kentucky -burgermag op te rig en 'n ekspedisie teen die strydende stamme te onderneem. Generaal Clark het 'n mag van 1 000 milisies bymekaargemaak en op 9 September 1786 uit Clarksville vertrek, langs die Buffalo Trace. [18] Die milisie het tien dae in Vincennes deurgebring voordat hulle langs die Wabash noordwaarts getrek het, maar mans het honderde verlaat. Clark is gou gedwing om na Vincennes terug te keer sonder dat daar enige aksie was. Clark het 150 man agtergelaat om Vincennes te help verdedig, maar hierdie mag het gou 'n wettelose skare geword, en die burgers van Vincennes het 'n versoek aan die kongres gevra om hulp. [19] Oorlogsekretaris Henry Knox het kolonel Josiah Harmar en die Eerste Amerikaanse Regiment gestuur om die orde te herstel. Die Kentucky -burgermag vlug uit Vincennes na die nadering van Amerikaanse gereeldes. [20]

Kolonel Harmar het 100 stamgemeente onder majoor Jean François Hamtramck gelaat en hulle beveel om 'n fort, Fort Knox, te bou. [21] Vincennes bly 'n geïsoleerde stad, moeilik om te voorsien vanweë sy posisie diep binne die Indiese gebied. Veilige vervoer van en na Vincennes het beteken dat u saam met 'n groot, gewapende party moes reis, hetsy oor land of via die Wabashrivier. Op 30 September 1790 het majoor Hamtramck 350 mans van Vincennes tot in die noorde van die Vermillionrivier gelei om 'n paar van die Indiese dorpe wat met Vincennes in oorlog was, te betrek. Die Kickapoo het egter die partytjie gevolg en elke dorp langs die pad ontruim voordat die Amerikaners opgedaag het. [22] Hamtramck het 'n paar verlate dorpe verwoes, maar hy het geen oorlogspartye betrek nie. Gekonfronteer met verlate persone uit die Kentucky -burgermag, keer Hamtramck terug na Vincennes. Die ekspedisie het die vyande van Vincennes geen ernstige leed aangedoen nie, maar dit het sommige van die Wabash -dorpe afgelei, terwyl Josiah Harmar, nou 'n generaal, 'n veel groter ekspedisie deur die Ohio -land gelei het Kekionga.

Die Vincennes Tract Edit

Die vroegste grondeise deur inwoners van Vincennes was gebaseer op 'n verkoop deur die Indiane in 1742 aan die Franse van 'n stuk grond wat 1,6 miljoen hektaar bevat, bekend as die Vincennes -traktaat. Dit was 'n reghoekige blok wat reghoekig op die loop van die Wabashrivier by Vincennes gelê het. Frankryk het die traktaat in 1763 na die Franse en Indiese oorlog aan Brittanje afgestaan. Op 18 Oktober 1775 koop 'n agent vir die Wabash Company twee stukke grond langs die Wabashrivier van die Piankeshaw -stam genaamd die 'Plankashaw Deed'. In hierdie dade is die Vincennes -traktaat uitgesonder, en dit was die eerste erkenning van die traktaat in tydskrifte. Uiteindelik het die Hooggeregshof van die Verenigde State die aktes ongeldig gemaak.

Die eise wat gebaseer is op die Franse soewereiniteit of individuele aktes wat daaruit uitgereik is, is uiteindelik deur die kongres verwerp, want as daar sulke toelaes was, het dit deur die Verdrag van Parys 1783 na die Verenigde State oorgedra.

By veroweringsreg het George Rogers Clark hierdie grond in 1779 vir die Verenigde State verseker en die Land Act van 1796 het sy grense gehuldig.

Die Vincennes -skenkinglande is beliggaam in 'N Wet op die toekenning van grond aan die inwoners en setlaars in die land Vincennes en Illinois, op die gebied noordwes van Ohio, en om dit in hul besittings te bevestig (1791).

Groei van die stad Redigeer

Teen 1798 het die bevolking 2 500 bereik. Vincennes word nie meer as 'n handelspos beskou nie, maar as 'n bloeiende stad. [23]

Elihu Stout publiseer die eerste koerant in die Indiana -gebied in 1804 in Vincennes. Die Indiana Gazette debuteer op 31 Julie 1804. Brand het die drukpers in 1806 verwoes, maar Stout het die koerant laat herleef Westerse son in 1807. [24] [25]

Vincennes was die eerste hoofstad van die Indiana -gebied totdat dit op 1 Mei 1813 na Corydon verskuif is.

In 1826 het ''n groep van Shawnee -Indiane in mans, vroue en kinders tot 500 deur hierdie plek [Vincennes] gegaan. Vanaf hul bespreking by Wapaghkonetta, na die Mississippi. Die gevierde Indiese profeet en 'n seun van die groot Tecumseh, was in die geselskap. " [26]

Hierdie vlag vir die stad Vincennes, Indiana, hoewel nie -amptelik, word oral in die stad gebruik. Dit bevat die handtekening V, vier fleurs-de-lis, wat die Franse erfenis van die stad simboliseer, die bestaan ​​daarvan in vier eeue: 18de, 19de, 20ste en 21ste, sedert die stigting van die stad in 1732. Soortgelyk aan die vlag van Indianapolis, Die vlag van Vincennes lyk meer vierkantig en het 'n diamantsentrum eerder as 'n sirkel. Dit verteenwoordig die uitleg van Vincennes. Wit strepe wat uit die diamant straal, verteenwoordig Vincennes se rol in die vestiging van die grens, soos op die kruispad van verskeie groot baanbrekersroetes.

Vincennes is aan die oewer van die Wabash -rivier aan die westelike rand van Knox County geleë, dit is ook die westelike rand van die staat Indiana, en Illinois is oorkant die rivier in die weste. Die stad lê ongeveer 160 myl suidwes van Indianapolis. Die Amerikaanse roete 41 gaan van noord na suid deur die stad, en die Amerikaanse roete 50 loop net noord van die stad van oos na wes.

Volgens die sensus van 2010 het Vincennes 'n totale oppervlakte van 19,37 km2, waarvan 19,19 km2 (of 99,09%) grond en 0,18 km2 (of 0,91) %) is water. [27]

Klimaatsverandering

Vincennes het 'n vogtige kontinentale klimaat met warm somers en koue winters met soms reënval gedurende die grootste deel van die jaar. Daar is gemiddeld 53,1 dae met 'n hoogtepunt van 32 ° C (90 ° F) of hoër en 'n gemiddelde van 101,5 dae met 'n laagtepunt van 0 ° C (32 ° F) of laer. [28] Gemiddelde Januarie -temperature is 'n hoogtepunt van 2,3 ° C (36,3 ° F) en 'n minimum van -7,6 ° C (18,3 ° F). Die gemiddelde temperatuur in Julie is 30,9 ° C (87,7 ° F) en 'n minimum van 18,2 ° C (64,8 ° F). Die rekord hoë temperatuur was 104 ° F (40 ° C) op 26 Junie 1988. Die rekord lae temperatuur was −26 ° F (−32 ° C) op 19 Januarie 1994.

Gemiddelde jaarlikse neerslag is 44,43 duim (112,9 cm). Meetbare neerslag vind gemiddeld 105,6 dae per jaar plaas. Die natste jaar was 1990 met 60,08 duim (152,6 cm) en die droogste jaar was 1988 met 36,02 duim (91,5 cm). Die meeste neerslag in een maand was 28,4 cm (11,18 duim) in November 1985. Die meeste neerslag in 24 uur was 12,9 cm (5,07 duim).

Gemiddelde jaarlikse sneeuval is 15 cm. Meetbare sneeuval kom slegs op 2,6 dae voor. Die sneeuigste seisoen was 1989–90 toe 42,4 cm geval het. Die meeste sneeu in een maand was 22 cm in Desember 1990. Die meeste sneeu in 24 uur was 20 cm op 24 Maart 1990. [29]


Landmeter Str - Geskiedenis

Straatname Die maak en benoeming van die strate van San Francisco.

deur Samuel L. Lupton.
Voor die jaar 1835 het die paar skepe wat in die baai van San Francisco gekom het, gewoonlik teenoor die Presidio by Black Point, by North Point of by Sausalito, geanker. Laasgenoemde was ongerieflik en die anker van die ander was onveilig. As gevolg hiervan het vaartuie die skuiling begin soek en 'n beter ankerplek gevind by die wat bekend staan ​​as Yerba Buena Cove, en die skeepvaartmeesters het 'n versoekskrif aan goewerneur Figueroa gestuur om 'n ingangshaven daar te vestig. Hierdie versoekskrif is gunstig oorweeg en as gevolg hiervan is die stad Yerba Buena, waarvan San Francisco die opvolger is, in die laaste deel van Oktober 1835 aan die hoof van die inham gelê deur Francisco de Haro, 'n Alcalde woonagtig by die Mission Dolores.

Hy het dit gedoen deur 'n eenvoudige straat met die naam La Calle de la Fundacion, of Foundationstraat, op die grond te merk. Dit begin vanaf 'n punt naby die huidige hoek van Kearny- en Pine -strate en loop in noordoostelike rigting na North Beach, met Telegraph Hill aan die een kant en sandheuwels aan die ander kant.

Die plek is toe as 'n ingangshaven verklaar, en kaptein William A. Richardson, wat in 1823 in Kalifornië aangekom het en 'n genaturaliseerde burger van Mexiko geword het, is kaptein van die hawe. Hy was die agent van 'n paar skoeners wat besig was met 'n slegte handel op en af ​​langs die seekus. Hy het 'n rowwe skets gemaak van die ligging, en nadat hy sy gesin van Sausalito, waar hy al lank gewoon het, oorgebring het, het hy sy woning op die syheuwel, naby waar Dupontstraat nou is, tussen Clay- en Washingtonstraat gevestig. Sy huis, 'n kombinasie van huis en tent, was die eerste in die toekomstige stad, en hy en sy gesin was die eerste inwoners.

'N Jaar later, in 1836, was die dorpie in die omgewing van dertig of veertig huise in die sandheuwels rondom die huidige plein.

In 1839 het goewerneur Alvarado 'n ondersoek gedoen na die plek, en Jose Castro, die prefek van die distrik, het Jean J. Vioget, wat in November daardie jaar die dorp Yerba Buena opgemeet en ontplooi het, ingesluit tussen die huidige Broadway-, Montgomery-, Powell- en Kaliforniëstrate.

Hy het egter nie een van die strate 'n naam gegee nie, en Richardson het dit ook nie op sy rowwe skets gedoen nie.

Op die 9de dag van Julie, 1846, het bevelvoerder John B. Montgomery, van die Amerikaanse oorlogsloep Portsmouth, met sewentig seemanne en mariniers onder bevel van luitenant Watson, die dorp in besit geneem en die Amerikaanse vlag gehys.

Hy het 'n vlootoffisier aangestel, luitenant Washington A. Bartlett, Alcalde van die plek, die eerste onder Amerikaanse gesag. In September is Bartlett verkies tot die pos wat hy tot Februarie 1847 beklee het. Dit was nie die Washington Bartlett wat baie jare daarna tot goewerneur van die staat verkies is nie.

Toe luitenant Bartlett sy loopbaan as Alcalde beëindig, hervat hy sy pos as offisier van die vloot en vaar weg, nooit daarna om 'n verband met die geskiedenis van die stad of staat te hê nie.

Bartlett het as Alcalde 'n siviele ingenieur met die naam Jasper OFarrell, wat in 1845 saam met generaal John A. Sutter in die militêre diens was, in diens geneem om die ou Vioget -opname van 1839 te vergroot. O Farrell neem die huidige hoek van Kearny en Washingtonstrate as sy beginpunt en die opname vergroot tot by North Beach, en wes tot by Taylorstraat. Hy het Marketstraat as die toekomstige hoofweg aangelê, in ooreenstemming met Mission Street, die pad na die Mission Dolores, wat weens die heersende sandheuwels en soutmoeras die enigste pad was wat destyds uit die stad gelei het. Die opname suid van Marketstraat loop in die tweede en derde straat tot by South Beach en in Marketstraat tot in die vyfde straat, en laat die moerasse of moeras suid en wes van Mission- en vierde strate weg.

O Farrell noem al die strate wat in sy opname omhels is, en lê op sy kaart en tel die vyftig vara -lotte tussen Taylor- en Poststrate en die baai.

In die daaropvolgende jaar, 1847, onder leiding van Alcalde Edwin Bryant, het O Farrell ook die strand- en waterparty wat tussen Montgomery- en Eaststraat, Telegraph Hill en Rincon Hill lê, afgelê en gekarteer.

Intussen het Alcalde Bartlett egter per proklamasie van 19 Januarie 1847 die naam van die dorp Yerba Buena (wat 'n goeie kruie beteken) verander na dié van San Francisco, en met die naam was dit uiteindelik op 15 April, 1850, gehuur as 'n stad deur die staatswetgewer, met die grense daarvan Webster- en Sestiende straat en die baai.

'N Ayuntamiento, of stadsraad, met bevoegdheid om munisipale wette op te stel en die nodige stadsamptenare aan te stel, is in opdrag van goewerneur Mason in Augustus 1847 gestig.

In Desember 1849 is Sansome straat oopgemaak na Bush straat, Bush na Market, en Eerste aan Folsom, $ 5000 vir die doel wat deur privaat inskrywing ingesamel word.

Teen die tyd dat die Amerikaanse magte Yerba Buena in 1846 in besit geneem het, was daar ongeveer 300 inwoners versprei oor die sandheuwels. Klein nedersettings het 'n lang tyd daarvoor bestaan ​​by die Mission Dolores en in die Presidio, maar dit vorm geen deel van die dorp Yerba Buena nie. Hulle het eers in 1856 deel geword van San Francisco, toe die wet van die wetgewer wat die stad en die land konsolideer, in werking getree het.

In Februarie 1849 is die bevolking van San Francisco geraam op 2000. Dit het daarna vinnig toegeneem.

Vroeg in 1850 word William M. Eddy deur die Ayuntamiento, of stadsraad, as stadsmeetkundige verkies en die opdrag om die opname van San Francisco te voltooi, voltooi. Hy het die opname van die stad tussen Larkin- en negende strate en die baai voltooi en die lotte van vyftig vara en 100-vara wat nie deur O Farrell beplan is nie, in kaart gebring. Op hierdie tydstip het baie mense, vanweë die heersende hoë heuwels en die valleie, gedink dat die strate noord van Marketstraat op terrasse rondom die heuwels gelê moes gewees het in plaas van reghoekig soos dit tans bestaan, en glo dat dit onmoontlik wees om grade soos nou te bepaal.

Daar is nog nooit moeite gedoen om die strate wat op die kaarte neergelê is, op enige manier te verbeter tot in die winter van 1849-50 nie, toe hulle toestand so erg was dat selfs perde nie veilig dele van die mees gebruikte van hulle kon verbysteek nie. .

Daar is dus 'n beweging gemaak om hulle te verbeter in die lente van 1850, en 'n paar daarvan is vir een of twee vierkante ingedeel en ingeplank. Toe die private onderneming die verbetering aangebring het, is 'n tolhek opgerig en tol ingesamel, soos in Kearnystraat naby Post, en in Missionstraat, en daarna in Folsomstraat.

Toe die land deur die gety oorloop en tussen Montgomery- en Oosstraat lê, word die laagwatermerk opgemerk en in strate en persele afgelê, is die strate van tyd tot tyd verleng, dikwels op hope wat in die baai gedryf is en toe oorplank, en kaaie is op dieselfde manier van hulle verleng. Baie huise is daar op dieselfde fondament gebou. Hierdie persele en strate was nie almal volgemaak nie, en die klip is jare later daarna met klippe vervang. Eers toe die seewand uiteindelik gebou is, word die eb en vloed van die gety van hulle afgesluit. Die enigste keisteen wat destyds verkrygbaar was, moes uit die Sacramento -rivier gehaal word.

Ongeveer 1859 verwyder David Hewes met sy sogenaamde 'stampaddy' en sandwaens op 'n tydelike beweegbare spoorlyn die sandheuwels op en onmiddellik noord van Marketstraat en vul die moerasse of moeras suid van Marketstraat op, wat 'n baie duidelike verandering aanbring in daardie deel van die stad.

Die volgende is vermoedelik 'n korrekte stelling ten opsigte van die persone na wie die strate van die stad vernoem is:

KEARNY STREET'Oorspronklik bekend as' La Calle de la Fundacion ', of die fondamentstraat, is vernoem na generaal Stephen W. Kearny, 'n boorling van New Jersey, en 'n veteraan uit die oorlog van 1812. Hy was kolonel van die Eerste Verenigde State Dragoons, en tydens die Mexikaanse oorlog is beveel om met sy troepe en Doniphan se Missouri -regiment oor die vlaktes van Missouri te marsjeer en New Mexico te verower en in besit te neem, en dan na Kalifornië te gaan en dit te verower of in besit te neem. Nadat hy New Mexico in besit geneem het, bereik hy Kalifornië op 2 Desember 1846 onder direkte bevele van die minister van Oorlog William L. Marcy. Daarna het hy die gevegte van San Pasquale, San Bernardino, San Gabriel en die Mesa, naby Los Angeles, gevoer. Hy was die skoonseun van Clark of Lewis en Clark, wat die kontinent eers na die Stille Oseaan oorgesteek het in die beroemde Oregon-verkenning. Toe hy Kalifornië bereik, was Commodore Stockton, wat op 15 Augustus 1846 in Monterey aangekom het en Commodore Sloat toe in bevel opgevolg het, in San Diego, en beweer dat hy in die opperbevel was van al die militêre en vlootmagte van die Verenigde State in Kalifornië. Hy het saam met kolonel John C. Fremont opgetree en was bedoel om hom militêre goewerneur te maak. Kearny het egter die aanspraak van Stockton verwerp en is deur die owerhede in Washington opgehou. Stockton het toe sy bevel oorgegee aan Commodore Shubrick en ooswaarts oor die vlaktes gegaan. Kearny word toe die eerste militêre goewerneur van Kalifornië onder Amerikaanse gesag. Kort daarna keer hy terug na die ooste deur New Mexico en neem kolonel John C. Fremont saam, wat hy weens insubordinasie in hegtenis geneem het.

Sommige mense veronderstel dat hierdie straat vernoem is na Phil Kearney, 'n majoor tydens die Mexikaanse oorlog en 'n rukkie by Sonoma gestasioneer was. Hy was 'n generaal in die burgeroorlog. Hierdie feit lei dikwels tot die verkeerde spelling van die naam. Goewerneur en generaal Kearny spel sy naam met een e, terwyl Phil Kearney sy naam met twee. Die regte spelling is Kearny. Hierdie straat is eens twintig voet van Marketstraat na Broadway verbreed.

MONTGOMERY STRAAT is vernoem na bevelvoerder John B. Montgomery van die Amerikaanse sloep van oorlog Portsmouth, en wie se mariniers en matrose het Yerba Buena op 9 Julie 1846 in besit geneem en die vlag gehys op die plein, wat daarna bekend gestaan ​​het as Portsmouth Square.

WASHINGTON, JACKSON, TAYLOR, FILLMORE, PIERCE en BUCHANAN STREETS en TOEGANGSPAD is vernoem na presidente van die Verenigde State.

HARRISON STRAATSommige mense veronderstel dat hierdie straat vernoem is na generaal William Henry Harrison, president van die Verenigde State, maar dit is heel waarskynliker dat dit vernoem is na Henry A. Harrison, wat lid was van die Ayuntamiento, of Town Council, in 1849 -50, en lid van die pionier -handelsonderneming van DeWitt & Harrison.

JEFFERSON STRAATHierdie straat, wat van Black Point na die Presidio en naby die baai loop, is die enigste wat vernoem is na die outeur van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring en die derde president van die Verenigde State.

MISSiestraatWas oorspronklik die enigste pad na die Mission Dolores en na Santa Clara en San Jose. Dit het deels deur 'n moeras gegaan, wat as onbegaanbaar vir voertuie beskou word. Charles L. Wilson en sy medewerkers het die reg gekry om 'n tolpad na die sending te bou. Hulle het Kearnystraat gelykgemaak of ingedeel na Market, 'n pad langs Derde straat na Market gemaak, 'n pad langs Derde straat na Mission, dan uit Missionstraat na Sestiende. Waar nodig vul hulle die moeras of moeras op en plank die straat. Die tolhek was in Kearny- en Poststraat, maar is kort daarna na Missionstraat verwyder. Die straat is uiteindelik gemadamiseer. Om teenkanting te voorkom, verbeter hulle ook Folsomstraat en plaas 'n tolhek daarop. Hierdie tolhekke het jare lank gebly totdat dwarsstrate, wat van tyd tot tyd oopgemaak is, mense in staat gestel het om die tolhekke te vermy, alhoewel hulle van tyd tot tyd beweeg is om te verhoed dat dit gebeur.

MARKSTRAATWord veronderstel dat dit die sogenaamde Market Street in Philadelphia of Baltimore is, of albei, hoewel laasgenoemde omtrent die tyd verander is na Baltimore street. Hierdie straat het sy huidige rigting ingeslaan omdat dit parallel aan Missionstraat gelê is. Sandheuwels van vyftig voet of meer hoog het daar gestaan ​​vanaf Kearnystraat wes tot ongeveer 1859 of 1860.

VAN NESS AVENUE'Na James Van Ness, 'n boorling van New York. Hy was burgemeester en blokfluit (polisieregter) op die tydstip waarop die konsolidasiewet in werking getree het in 1856. Hy het as burgemeester die Van Ness-verordening goedgekeur, sogenaamd, waardeur die stad die grond in die pueblo aan die werklike setlaars oorgegee het wes van Larkinstraat.

GEARY STRAAT'Nadat John W. Geary, 'n boorling van Pennsylvania, 'n gegradueerde van Jefferson College was. Van beroep was hy 'n siviele ingenieur. Hy was bevelvoerder van 'n regiment by Chapultepec, waar hy gewond is, en was in bevel van die citadel van Mexiko nadat dit gevang is. Hy het na die Mexikaanse oorlog na San Francisco gekom. In 1849 was hy posmeester, toe Alcalde, en in 1850 word hy gekies as die eerste burgemeester van die stad. Hy was daarna goewerneur van die gebied Kansas, 'n brigadier -generaal in die burgeroorlog en twee keer verkies tot goewerneur van die staat Pennsylvania tussen 1867 en 1873. Hy was bevelvoerder oor 'n afdeling in Chancellorsville, Gettysburg en Lookout Mountain en in Sherman se veldtog deur Georgië. in 1864. Hy en HH Haight, daarna goewerneur van hierdie staat, was saam met laasgenoemde se vader, Fletcher M. Haight, daarna distriksregter van die Verenigde State in die suidelike distrik van Kalifornië, in vennootskap met die regspraktyk vir 'n kort tydjie tyd in die vroeë vyftigerjare onder die naam Haight & amp Geary. Terwyl Haight goewerneur van Kalifornië was, was Geary goewerneur van Pennsylvania.

HOOGTE STRAATNa Henry H. Haight, 'n boorling van New York, advokaat van beroep en goewerneur van Kalifornië van 1868 tot 1872.

VALLEJONa Mariano G. Vallejo, 'n vooraanstaande Kaliforniër, gebore in Sonoma Julie 1808. Hy was een van die stigters van Benicia. Hy was eens 'n staatsenator. Die stad Vallejo is na hom vernoem. Hy was een van die afgevaardigdes van die konvensie wat die eerste grondwet van hierdie staat opgestel het.

KLEI STRAATIs vernoem na Henry Clay, die vooraanstaande staatsman van Whig en senator van die Verenigde State van Kentucky.

WEBSTERSTRAATIs vernoem na Daniel Webster, die groot Whig -staatsman en senator van Massachusetts.

LEIDESDORFF STRAATNa William A. Leidesdorff, 'n bekende sakeman uit die vroeë dae, 'n pionier van 1840. Hy was stadskassier en lid van die stadsraad in 1847. Hy sterf in 1848 en verlaat 'n groot erf.

HYDE STRAAT'Na George Hyde, een van die Alcaldes onder die Amerikaanse regering. Hy het baie vroeë lotte aan setlaars gemaak. Hy keer na jare terug na Philadelphia, sy geboortestad, maar besoek af en toe hierdie stad. Hy was Alcalde in 1847-48.

LEAVENWORTHNadat dr T. M. Leavenworth tot Alcalde verkies is op 29 Augustus 1849. Vrede met Mexiko is ongeveer agtien dae tevore verklaar, 11 Augustus 1848 [sic]. Op die oomblik was daar drie liggame wat elkeen beweer dat dit die enigste wettige Ayuntamiento, of stadsraad is. In die wedstryd het Leavenworth vriende en baie vyande gemaak. Hy het baie lotte aan die vroeë setlaars toegestaan. Hy verhuis na en woon baie jare in Sonoma County.

HOWARDNadat W.D.M. Howard, 'n baie prominente, welgestelde en invloedryke sakeman van vroeë tye. Hy was 'n lid van die Ayuntamiento, of stadsraad, verkies op 27 Desember 1848. Hy is baie jare gelede oorlede. George Howard, a prominent real estate man and one time member of the Legislature from San Mateo County, was a brother. The Howard Presbyterian Church was named after W.D.M. Howard, he having advanced most if not all the funds for building the first church edifice for that congregation. His firm, Mellus & Howard, September 1848, erected the first brick building in San Francisco. It was located at the corner of Montgomery and Clay streets.

FOLSOM STREET After Joseph L. Folsom, in the quartermaster s department of the United States army in 1848-49. He built a fine residence on the northwest corner of Second and Folsom streets. He died in the early fifties, leaving a large estate, of which General H.W. Halleck, A.C. Peachy and P.W. Van Winkle were executors. The town of Folsom was named after him.

FREMONT STREET After Colonel John C. Fremont, an officer of the United States Topographical Engineers and pathfinder across the plains to California in 1844-45-46. He co-operated with the Bear Flag party at Sonoma June 14, 1846. He was the first United States Senator from California a son-in-law of Thomas H. Benton, the statesman and Senator from Missouri. He was the first candidate of the Republican party for President of the United States. He claimed California at that time as his residence. He is the only candidate California has ever had for the Presidency nominated by either of the leading political parties. He was a general in the army during the Civil War.

BARTLETT STREET After Washington Bartlett, president of the San Francisco Homestead Union, and who was several times elected County Clerk, was also Mayor of the city and afterward Governor of the State. He died while holding the later office. He was a native of Georgia.

BRODERICK STREET After David C. Broderick, a native of Washington, D.C. Once State Senator, and afterward United States Senator. While holding the latter office a duel between him and David S. Terry, at that time Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State, took place, and resulted in the death of Broderick. At some time for a short period he controlled the politics of the State, securing his own election to the United States Senate, and dictating the election of his colleague.

BRANNAN STREET Was named after Samuel Brannan, a native of Maine, who came to San Francisco in 1846. By trade he was a printer, and on January 9, 1847, he issued the first number of the California Star, the first newspaper ever published in San Francisco. He was a very active, enterprising and influential citizen, a large, real estate owner, and at one time considered to be a very wealthy man. One of several of the first fine buildings erected in the city was one erected by him and recently torn down to make place for Alvinza Hayward s new building at the corner of California and Montgomery streets.

BRENHAM PLACE After Charles J. Brenham of the pioneer firm of Sanders & Brenham. He was elected Mayor of the city November 2, 1852.

DUPONT STREET After Commodore Samuel F. DuPont of the United States navy.

STOCKTON STREET After Commodore Richard F. Stockton of the United States navy. The United States flag was raised at Monterey July 7, 1846. Stockton arrived at Monterey August 15, 1846, and assumed command, as successor of Commodore Sloat, of all the United States forces on shore as well as at sea. On the 22d of August, 1846, he issued a proclamation as military commander and Governor, declaring California to be a part of the United States, and ordering an election for Alcaldes and municipal officers where such existed, to take place September 15, 1846. As naval officer he was succeeded by Commodore Shubrick and on land by General Stephen W. Kearny. He was a native of New Jersey.

POWELL STREET Said to be named after Doctor Powell of the United States sloop of war Warren, Captain Hull.

JONES STREET Doctor Elbert P. Jones was editor of the California Star, the pioneer newspaper of San Francisco, issued January 7, 1847 [sic]. He was a member of the Town Council in 1847. It is believed this street was named after him.

LARKIN STREET This street was named after Thomas O. Larkin, who came to California in 1836 and was the United States Consul at Monterey when the United States took possession. He was a member of the Ayuntamiento, or Town Council, of this city, being elected thereto December 27, 1848. He was also a member of the convention that framed the first constitution of the State in September, 1849. He was one of the founders of the town of Benicia. He lived many years with his family on Stockton street, near Pacific, in one of a row of three houses built there.

O FARRELL STREET After Jasper O Farrell, a civil engineer, who made the first survey of the city under United States authority, and mapped the streets and laid out the plan of the fifty and most of the hundred vara lots.

MERCHANT STREET After an early time business man of that name.

SUTTER STREET After General John A. Sutter, a pioneer settler of 1839 in the Sacramento Valley, where he built a fort. He gave relief and welcomed the immigrants across the plains with open handed hospitality. He rescued the Donner party in 1847. It was while engaged in digging a millrace for him that James W. Marshall discovered the first gold in 1848. Sutter County was also named after him. He was a member of the State convention that framed the first State constitution in 1849. He died in the town of Liditz, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, having lost his wealth.

VER MEHR PLACE After the Rev. Dr. Ver Mehr, a pioneer Episcopal minister.

POST STREET After Gabriel B. Post, a very prominent and influential merchant in the fifties and later. He was elected a member of the Ayuntamiento, or Town Council, August 1, 1849. In his time he was one of the leaders in public movements.

BRYANT STREET After Edwin Bryant, a pioneer of 1846. He came across the plains from Independence, Missouri, and joined Fremont s volunteers. He was the successor of Washington A. Bartlett as Alcalde, by appointment, February 22, 1847.

TOWNSEND STREET After Dr. John Townsend, who was elected a member and president of the Ayuntamiento, or Town Council, December 27, 1848.

CAPP STREET After C.S. Capp, the real estate agent, one time Deputy County Clerk. He was secretary of the San Francisco Homestead Union, the first homestead association formed in this city. The street runs through the lands of the association. He is a native of Philadelphia and a pioneer of 1849.

SHOTWELL STREET After J.M. Shotwell, once cashier of Alsop & Co. s Bank and secretary of the Merchant s Exchange. He was treasurer of the San Francisco Homestead Union.

SHRADER STREET After A.J. Shrader, a Supervisor from 1865 to 1873.

STANYAN After Charles H. Stanyan, a Supervisor from 1866 to 1869.

MASON STREET After General Richard B. Mason, one time colonel of the First United States Dragoons. He commanded the United States troops in California during a portion of the Mexican War. May 3, 1847, he became the fourth Military Governor of California, while General H.W. Halleck, then a captain, became Secretary of State under him.

EDDY STREET After William M. Eddy who was elected City Surveyor by the Ayuntamiento, or Town Council, in 1850. He completed the survey of the city between Larkin and Ninth streets and the bay.

ELLIS STREET After A.J. Ellis, a prominent business man for many years. He was a member of the Ayuntamiento, or Town Council, of 1849-50, and a member of the convention that framed the State constitution in September, 1849, and once a member of the State Legislature.

BLUXOME STREET After Isaac G. Bluxome, a well known and popular business man of early times.

BAKER STREET After E.D. Baker, who was a colonel in the Mexican War. He was from Illinois, from which State he had been Congressman. He practiced law in this city for many years and was afterward elected United States Senator from Oregon. An eloquent man, he delivered the Broderick funeral oration. He was killed at Balls Bluff during the Civil War, while holding a commission as major general in the army, although at the time he was a United States Senator, the Senate having adjourned for the session. He is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery.

McALLISTER STREET After the McAllister family, of which Hall McAllister, the distinguished lawyer, was a member. His father, M. Hall McAllister, was the first United States Circuit Judge of this city, and his brother, Cutler McAllister, the first clerk of the Untied States Circuit Court and afterward a partner of Hall in practicing law. Another brother was F. Marion McAllister, an Episcopal minister, who had a church about forty years ago south of Market street, near Third. Another brother, Julian McAllister, was a major in the United States army, ordnance department, and during the Civil War was stationed at Benicia Barracks. Ward McAllister, another brother, left San Francisco and became well known to the four hundred of New York City.

HAYES STREET After Thomas Hayes, who was County Clerk from 1853 to 1856, when the fees went to the Clerk and the office was supposed to be worth $25,000 or more per annum. Under the Van Ness ordinance he became the owner of a large tract of land known as Hayes Valley, through which this street ran.

NOE STREET After Jose de Jesus Noe, an Alcalde at the Mission in 1842.

WEBB STREET After S.P. Webb, Mayor of the city in 1854.

GUERRERO STREET After Francisco Guerrero, who was born at the Mission Dolores and was Alcalde there in 1840-42.

DE HARO STREET After Francisco de Haro, once an Alcalde.

CASTRO STREET After Jose Castro, once a prefect of this district.

VALENCIA STREET After a native family living in that neighborhood.

WALLER STREET After R.H. Waller, a lawyer of early times, elected City Recorder (Police Judge) in 1851, and also in 1854. His nephew, George Waller, who was connected with him in business, was for a time a notary.

TURK STREET After Frank Turk, a native of New York, lawyer, second Alcalde, Secretary of Ayuntamiento, Clerk of Councils and later a notary public. A well-known citizen of early times.

TREAT AVENUE After George Treat, an early settler on the Treat tract in that neighborhood.

STEVENSON STREET After Colonel D. Stevenson. His was the first regiment that landed in San Francisco during the Mexican War. It was recruited in New York City. Many of its members became well-known citizens, some still living here. Stevenson practiced law here for many years, was one time Shipping Commissioner and later notary public. He was over 80 years of age when he died. He landed in San Francisco March 6, 1847.

BUSH STREET Possibly after Dr. Bush, a well-known physician of early times.

STEUART STREET After Colonel William Spruce Steuart, a member of the Ayuntamiento for a short time in 1849.

STEINER STREET Supposed to be after a business man of that name.

SANCHEZ STREET After Francisco Sanchez, an Alcalde in 1843.

SCOTT After General Winfield Scott, commander in chief of the United States army during the Mexican War and the last candidate of the Whig party for President of the United States.

SANSOME STREET After a merchant who seems to have been more of a business man of Boston or New York than San Francisco.

BATTERY STREET The Federal Government once made a reservation at North Point and established a battery there, which fact gave the name to this street. The reservation was subsequently abandoned.

SPEAR STREET After Nathan Spear, who moved from Monterey to San Francisco as a merchant about 1841.

BEALE STREET After Edward F. Beale, a lieutenant in the navy. He lived many years in the southern part of the State. Was one time United States Surveyor General for California. Was afterward United States Minister to Austria, or some other European court.

DRUMM STREET After Lieutenant Drumm of the army. Supposed to be the same person who was adjutant of this department during the Civil War, and subsequently adjutant general of the United States army, residing at Washington.

DAVIS STREET W.H. Davis, a pioneer of 1831 and a member of the Ayuntamiento in 1849-50, and who still lives in this city, says this street was named after him.

PAGE STREET After Robert C. Page, a clerk to the Board of Assistant Alderman of Common Councils from 1851 to 1854. He was afterward in the real estate business.

PERALTA AVENUE After a native family.

FRANKLIN STREET Supposed by some to be named after Benjamin Franklin, but probably after Selim Franklin, a pioneer merchant, or Dr. E.C. Franklin, a pioneer.

GOUGH STREET After Charles H. Gough, a pioneer and member of the Board of Aldermen of Common Councils in 1855. Horace Hawes, C.H. Gough and Michael Hayes were authorized to lay out the streets in the Western Addition. There were two brothers of the Goughs, Charley and Harry, who were twins. It was not easy to tell one from the other. They were contractors. Another brother, Thomas Gough, was a lawyer and once District Attorney of San Mateo County. At one time he was a partner of Tully R. Wise, under the firm name of Wise & Gough, in the practice of the law. Another brother, Dorsey, was also a lawyer and was a Deputy County Clerk under Thomas Reynolds. They were natives of Maryland. Thomas and Dorsey were graduates of Dickinson College.

GREEN STREET After Talbot H. Green, who was elected a member of the Ayuntamiento, or Town Council, August 1849.

LAGUNA STREET After a lake which once existed near its northern end, about half a mile south of Black Point, and which was known as Washerwomen s Lagoon, where in early times most of the washing of the people of the city was done by women of various nationalities and Chinamen.

LYON STREET Was named after General Lyon, who, early in the Civil War, fell in Missouri while bravely leading his troops.

CORBETT AVENUE Formerly Corbett road, was named after a pioneer family in that neighborhood. John C. Corbett, a son was Deputy County Clerk under Thomas Hayes in 1855-56, and still lives in that locality. Bron: San Francisco Call. 8 September 1901. 5 and 7 (Magazine Section). Return to San Francisco Genealogy
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The modern sturdy, but portable, tripod stand with three leg pairs hinged to a triangular metal head was invented and first manufactured for sale by Sir Francis Ronalds in the late 1820s in Croydon. He sold 140 of the stands in the decade 1830-40 and his design was soon imitated by others. [1]

Older surveying tripods had slightly different features compared to modern ones. For example, on some older tripods, the instrument had its own footplate and did not need to move laterally relative to the tripod head. For this reason, the head of the tripod was not a flat footplate but was simply a large diameter fitting. Threads on the outside of the head engaged threads on the instrument's footplate. No other mounting screw was used.

Fixed length legs were also seen on older instruments. Instrument height was adjusted by changing the angle of the legs. Widely spaced tripod feet resulted in a lower instrument while closely spaced legs raised the instrument. This was considerably less convenient than having variable length legs.

Materials for older tripods were predominantly wood and brass, with some steel for high wear items like the feet or foot points.

The tripod is placed in the location where it is needed. The surveyor will press down on the legs' platforms to securely anchor the legs in soil or to force the feet to a low position on uneven, pock-marked pavement. Leg lengths are adjusted to bring the tripod head to a convenient height and make it roughly level.

Once the tripod is positioned and secure, the instrument is placed on the head. The mounting screw is pushed up under the instrument to engage the instrument's base and screwed tight when the instrument is in the correct position. The flat surface of the tripod head is called the foot plate and is used to support the adjustable feet of the instrument.

Positioning the tripod and instrument precisely over an indicated mark on the ground or benchmark requires intricate techniques.

Many modern tripods are constructed of aluminum, though wood is still used for legs. The feet are either aluminum tipped with a steel point or steel. The mounting screw is often brass or brass and plastic. The mounting screw is hollow and has two lateral holes to attach a plumb bob to center the instrument e.g. over a corner or other mark on the ground. After the instrument is centered within a few cm over the mark, the plumb bob is removed and a viewer (using a prism) in the instrument is used to exactly center it.

The top is typically threaded with a 5/8" x 11 tpi screw thread. The mounting screw is held to the underside of the tripod head by a movable arm. This permits the screw to be moved anywhere within the head's opening. The legs are attached to the head with adjustable screws that are usually kept tight enough to allow the legs to be moved with a bit of resistance. The legs are two part, with the lower part capable of telescoping to adjust the length of the leg to suit the terrain. Aluminum or steel slip joints with a tightening screw are at the bottom of the upper leg to hold the bottom part in place and fix the length. A shoulder strap is often affixed to the tripod to allow for ease of carrying the equipment over areas to be surveyed.


Land Surveyors Almanac

Land Surveyor's Almanac is an ongoing community project to crowdsource surveying definitions and terms with examples for the next generation land surveyor to learn from. If you are a Land Surveyor, add a term to the Almanac with its definition and examples. Help improve the collective knowledge of the community by improving upon terms added by other surveyors by commenting with your examples and applications in your local surveying environment.

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Land Surveyors United is the world's FIRST Global Social Network for geospatial professionals. We have dedicated, geolocated support groups for practically every country, continent and state on earth, for you to utilize for building your personal network. We are all essentially concerned with the same issues, no matter where we are located on earth. However, surveying practices and methods vary depending on the geographic location where we work. If you have noticed similarities and differences between the conditions, laws and practices between two or more areas of the world,discuss it in this forum. Build your reputation online by posting relevant discussions in your local group below.

Join and Introduce Yourself in Your Local Geosocial Forum:

Not based in the US? Here are other groups for surveyors around the world to join and contribute knowledge and experiences as a land surveyor:


Nursing Homes

Nursing home surveys are conducted in accordance with survey protocols and Federal requirements to determine whether a citation of non-compliance appropriate. Consolidated Medicare and Medicaid requirements for participation (requirements) for Long Term Care (LTC) facilities (42 CFR part 483, subpart B) were first published in the Federal Register on February 2, 1989 (54 FR 5316). The requirements for participation were recently revised to reflect the substantial advances that have been made over the past several years in the theory and practice of service delivery and safety. The revisions were published in a final rule that became effective on November 28, 2016.

The survey protocols and interpretive guidelines serve to clarify and/or explain the intent of the regulations. All surveyors are required to use them in assessing compliance with Federal requirements. Deficiencies are based on violations of the regulations, which are to be based on observations of the nursing home’s performance or practices.

The sections below provide additional information about the background and overview of the final rule, frequently asked questions, and other related resources.


Surveyor Str - History

Other tools used by a surveyor to measure distance can be a steel tape of lengths of up to 500' and the modern electronic distance measuring devices that can measure distances in excess of several miles with the use of reflector prisms.

In fact, the first men to land on the moon left behind a grouping of reflector prisms that allowed surveyors and scientists to measure the distance from the earth to the moon to an accuracy of just a couple of feet.

The Compass
A surveyor uses a compass to determine the direction of a line. the compass needle points to the MAGNETIC NORTH POLE and by turning the compass in the direction of the line being surveyed, the direction of the line can be observed. Although there are many varieties of compasses, they all fall into two main categories: either a "plain" compass or a "vernier" compass.

A plain compass has no adjustment and always reads magnetic north.

A vernier compass has an adjustable scale that allows for the "setting off" of the magnetic declination and the compass can then directly read true north.

The surveyor uses a level to determine elevations. Levels fall into three broad categories: a "dumpy" level, a "Wye" (or 'Y') level, and "automatic" level. As with all tools of the surveyor, there are various degrees of accuracy within each category of level.

A "dumpy" level has a telescope with cross hairs permanently mounted in a pair of arms.

A "Wye level has a telescope with cross hairs that is removable from the arms.

An "automatic" level is basically a dumpy level, but it has a built in compensator that automatically adjusts for minor errors in the set up of the instrument.

In conjunction with a level, the surveyor will use a "level rod" to read an elevation up or down from the level of the telescope. From these observations, a surveyor can determine differences in elevation of different points or transfer an elevation from one location to a distant location.

The Solar Compass
The solar compass is a compass with a very special purpose of easily determining "Latitude" and "True North". The solar compass was invented in 1835 by William Austin Burt of Michigan after he had discovered the iron deposits located in the state and concluded that a regular compass would give such erroneous readings as to be almost useless. By making observations on the sun or other stars, the latitude of the location can first be determined and then "True North" can be determined. The solar compass also has the ability to measure horizontal angles much like a transit.

The solar compass was such an important invention that within a matter of a few years it was required by law to be used on the surveys of the public lands.


Your Due Diligence with a Property Survey

Sounds simple enough, right? Your property survey tells you about the property you're potentially going to purchase, and any stipulations that come with it. It's still important to complete your due diligence when it comes to a property survey. First, get multiple quotes from surveyor companies, and pick the one that works best for you. Then, make sure you go with the surveyor to attend the property survey. You will learn more about the land you might buy, and be the first to know about any potential problems. Finally, follow up with any questions once you've seen the property survey.


Communication Systems in the Maritime Industry

Marine communication has long history and continues developing to this day. For the last years this field have been changed and innovated greatly.

At the first stages of its evolution semaphores and flags were used, later mariners began using radio for transmitting distress signals and also Morse code was in practice.

Only in the second half of twentieth century IMO brought in an automated system of ship-to-ship or ship-to-shore communication and the constant presence of marine officer wasn&rsquot necessary any more.

Such communication was held by means of on board systems through the shore stations and satellites. Thus ship-to-ship communication was carried by VHF radio, and then DSC appeared. It could provide digitally remote control commands to receive and transmit distress signals, urgent calls and current messages. Today DSC controllers can be combined with VHF radio.

Satellite communication systems are used to transmit and receive signals in cases when the ship is out of the coverage area of shore stations. The work of such systems depends on geo-stationary satellites. These marine services became available thanks to the commercial company INMARSAT and government agency COSPAS-SARSAT. The INMARSAT provides two way communication, the system of Corpas-Sarsat allows to receive emergence signals when there are no facilities of two way marine communications (denoting EPIRB).

Under international requirementsthe GMDSSdefines four sea areas: A1, A2, A3 and A4. Such division allows tracking areas where GMDSS services are available and defining what radio equipment ships must carry (as type of radio safety equipment depends upon the GMDSS areas in which ships travel).

A1 &ndash 20-30 nautical miles from coast station &ndash at least one VHF coast station covers this area. The continuous digital selective calling (Ch.70/156.525 MHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available.

A2 &ndash the area within a coverage of at least one coast MF radio station providing continuous monitoring at a frequency of 2187.5 kHz (DSC) and radio communications in telephony mode at a frequency of 2182 kHz (100-150 nautical miles), except for the area A1.

A3 &ndash the area within the zone of coverage of geostationary satellites INMARSAT (approximately 70ºN and 70ºS) with the exception of areas A1 and A2.

A4 &ndash this area is beyond all other ones. It includes the Polar Regions, North and South of about 76 degrees of latitude.

HF marine communication services cover all the oceans. According to IMO each ocean regionshould have two coast stations. As SOLAS requirements describe, all ships should be equipped with the satellite terminal for SSAS (Ship Security Alerts System) and for long range identification and tracking. In emergency situation the rescue operation are carried out with the help of these marine navigation tools.

Undoubtedly we can say for sure that today navigating and simply going to sea have become much safer thanks to communicational systems recommended by the IMO and required by GMDSS.


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